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discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/283278961

and analog black holes

ARTICLE in PHYSICAL REVIEW D OCTOBER 2015

Impact Factor: 4.64 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.92.081503

READS

51

5 AUTHORS, INCLUDING:

Yves Aurgan

Vincent Pagneux

Universit du Maine

SEE PROFILE

SEE PROFILE

Retrieved on: 18 November 2015

RAPID COMMUNICATIONS

Slow sound in a duct, effective transonic flows, and analog black holes

Yves Aurgan,1,* Pierre Fromholz,2, Florent Michel,3, Vincent Pagneux,1, and Renaud Parentani3,

1

72085 Le Mans Cedex 9, France

2

Dpartement de Physique, ENS, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris, France

3

Laboratoire de Physique Thorique, CNRS, Universit Paris-Sud, Universit Paris-Saclay,

91405 Orsay, France

(Received 16 March 2015; published 21 October 2015)

We propose a new system suitable for studying analog gravity effects, consisting of a gas flowing in a

duct with a compliant wall. Effective transonic flows are obtained from uniform, low-Mach-number flows

through the reduction of the one-dimensional speed of sound induced by the wall compliance. We show

that the modified equation for linear perturbations can be written in a Hamiltonian form. We perform a

one-dimensional reduction consistent with the canonical formulation, and deduce the analog metric along

with the first dispersive term. In a weak dispersive regime, the spectrum emitted from a sonic horizon is

numerically shown to be Planckian, and with a temperature fixed by the analog surface gravity.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.92.081503

I. INTRODUCTION

Engineering flows that are transonic and regular offers

the possibility to test well-known predictions concerning

astrophysical black holes [1]. Of particular interest is

Hawkings discovery that black holes should spontaneously emit a steady thermal flux [2]. Although this effect

was originally phrased in the context of quantum relativistic fields, it rests on the anomalous mode mixing

occurring near the black-hole horizon [3]. This mixing,

which is stationary and conserves the wave energy, is called

anomalous because it leads to a mode amplification and

involves negative energy waves. Because of the precise

analogy between the equation governing sound propagation and that used by Hawking, these key elements are

recovered in a stationary transonic flow. Indeed, in the

acoustic approximation, for long wavelengths, the mode

mixing possesses the main properties of the one responsible

for the Hawking effect [4,5].

To complete the comparison, one should take into

account the dispersive properties of sound waves, which

have no counterpart in general relativity. (Note, however,

that dispersive terms appear in certain theories of modified

gravity where Lorentz invariance is broken [68].)

Analytical and numerical studies have established that

the correspondence is quantitatively preserved provided

the two relevant scales are well separated [4,5,912],

namely, when the dispersive length is sufficiently smaller

than the typical length scale associated with the inhomogeneity of the flow (which then plays the role of the

inverse surface gravity of the black hole). Therefore, there

is no conceptual obstacle preventing the testing of the

*

yves.auregan@univlemans.fr

pierre.fromholz@ens.fr

florent.michel@th.upsud.fr

vincent.pagneux@univlemans.fr

renaud.parentani@th.upsud.fr

1550-7998=2015=92(8)=081503(5)

a sonic horizon. In practice, the difficulty is finding

appropriate setups. Many have been proposed, involving

for instance ultracold atomic clouds [13], surface waves in

flumes [14], and light in nonlinear media [15]. Recently,

the first experiments have been carried out [1619].

In this paper, we propose a new framework which is a

variant of the original one [1,4]. Its main interest resides in

obtaining a large reduction of the low-frequency onedimensional sound speed in a duct so that a stationary

flow with a uniform low Mach number M possesses a

horizon. In realistic settings, M could be close to 0.3.

The reduction of the effective sound speed is achieved

by means of a compliant wall composed of thin tubes

which modify the upper boundary condition, see Fig. 1.

At y 0, the wall is rigid. At y 1, the compliant wall is made

of a succession of tiny tubes of height bx. As explained in the

text, the effective sound speed is a decreasing function of b. In the

present profile bx and for a given uniform flow with Mach

number M < 1, an effective supersonic region can be created in

the right region.

081503-1

RAPID COMMUNICATIONS

follows from a well-defined action principle. From this,

we derive the acoustic black-hole metric in the longwavelength regime, and a conserved norm which establishes the anomalous character of the mode mixing. At the

end of this paper we briefly present the practical advantages

of this proposal.

II. THE MODEL

We consider the propagation of sound waves in a

two-dimensional horizontal channel of uniform height H.

x denotes the Cartesian horizontal coordinate, y the vertical

one, and t the time. We assume the flow of air is uniform,

with a horizontal velocity U 0. Denoting by c0 the sound

speed, 0 the air density, v the velocity perturbation, and p

the pressure perturbation, the time evolution is given by

c1

0 Dt p 0 v ;

0 Dt v p ; 1

define dimensionless quantities as x x =H, y y =H,

t t c0 =H, v v =c0 , p p =0 c20 , and M U0 =c0 .

The potential gives the velocity by v , and the

pressure by p Dt . It obeys

D2t 2x 2y 0:

y t; x; y 0 0, see Fig. 1. At the upper wall y 1,

the continuity of the displacement and pressure gives rise to

a nonlocal expression in time, see [2022] for details.

However, for near-critical flows and small frequencies, it

can be written as

y Dt bxDt 0 at y 1;

For a homogeneous stationary flow, we can look for

solutions of the form k coshk yeikxk t . Equation (2)

and the two boundary conditions respectively give

2k k2 2k

frame. At low wave number, the dispersion relation reads

2k c2S bk2 k4 =2b Ok6 ;

where

c2S b

1

;

1b

2b

31 b3

:

b2

Eq. (3): the low-frequency group velocity with respect to the

sees that the dispersive length 1=b given by the quartic term

vanishes in the limit b 0.

To obtain flows crossing the effective sound speed,

we make b vary with x, see Fig. 1. We call b1 > b2 its

asymptotic values, and db its typical variation length. We

choose the following form for bx:

b b2 b2 b1

x

bx 1

:

7

tanh

db

2

2

We then adjust the flow speed M to obtain

1

1

cS b1 p < jMj < p cS b2 :

1 b1

1 b2

(complex) stationary waves,

Z

dt it

~ x; y

e t; x; y:

9

2

III. WAVE EQUATION

Since the height H of the duct is much smaller than

typical longitudinal wavelengths, we expect that stationary

waves obey an effective one-dimensional equation in x, as

is the case in elongated atomic Bose condensates [23] and

in flumes [14,24]. To obtain such a reduction is nontrivial,

as the x dependence of bx prevents us from factorizing

out a y-dependent factor. To proceed, and to make contact

with the works mentioned above, it is useful to exploit the

fact that Eq. (2) and Eq. (3) can be derived from the

following action:

Z

Z

Z 1

1

S

dt dx

dyL

2

0

L Dt 2 2 y 1bxDt 2 :

10

incorporated by the above boundary term. Introducing

the conjugate momentum t; x; y L= t one

obtains the Hamiltonian H by the usual Legendre transformation. In addition, as in [4,24], the conserved inner

product j is not positive definite, and has the KleinGordon form

Z Z 1

1 ; 2 i

dx

dy 1 2 1 2 ; 11

1 ; 2 their associated momenta. The inner product is

conserved by virtue of Hamiltons equations. As for sound

waves in other media, it identically vanishes for all real

solutions. However it provides key information when

studying stationary modes, namely, the sign of their norm

; . Indeed, as we shall see, for a fixed > 0, there

081503-2

RAPID COMMUNICATIONS

flow is stationary, for any complex solution , the wave

energy is conserved and related to Eq. (11) by

H2Re ; i t :

12

Moreover, when the flow is also asymptotically homogeneous, for every asymptotic plane wave k

coshk yeikxk t , the sign of H is that of k k . This

relation will allow us to identify the negative energy waves

without ambiguity.

We can now proceed following the hydrodynamic treatment of [24]. As a first step, it is useful to derive a (1 1)dimensional equation from which an effective space-time

metric can be read out. When the (adimensional) wavelength in the x direction is much larger than 1, we can

assume that 2y is independent of y. As y 0 at y 0,

we write the field as

x; y; t x; t y2 x; t:

13

Plugging this into the action Eq. (10) and varying it with

respect to and , we get two coupled equations.

2O

4 0, where O

n

Combining them, we obtain O

is an nth-order operator in t and x . The quadratic term is

2 F x , where

O

F x

c2S bx M2

;

14

we obtain the dAlembert equation in a two-dimensional

space-time with metric g F . This metric has a Killing

horizon where c2S x M2 vanishes [25]. This correspondence with gravity relates the anomalous scattering

described below to the Hawking effect.

Contrary to what happens for sound waves in atomic

Bose-Einstein condensate, or water waves in the incom 4 also contains third and fourth derivatives

pressible limit, O

in time. This prevents us from applying the standard treatment on the sole field . However, the set of two coupled

equations on ; is Hamiltonian and can be used to study

the scattering. Alternatively, one can work with the original

model in 2 1 dimensions based on Eq. (10). We performed

numerical simulations with both models and found similar

results.

IV. ANOMALOUS MODE MIXING

Since stationary waves with different frequencies do

not mix, the scattering only concerns the discrete set of

modes with the same . To characterize it, we identify its

dimensionality and the norms of the various asymptotic

modes for x .

Figure 2 shows the dispersion relation and the roots at

fixed in a subsonic flow for M > 0. For this sign of M,

homogeneous subsonic flow. The blue solid curves show the

roots with positive comoving frequency , and the red dashed

ones show those with < 0. The dotted black line represents

0.4, and the dot-dashed one shows the value max of at

which the two roots with k < 0 merge. The parameters are b 1,

Mp

0.4, and the effective sound velocity cS is equal to

1= 2 0.71.

subsonic along the direction of the stream. It thus corresponds to a white-hole flow, like those studied in

[17,24,26].1 For definiteness, we discuss only the case

> 0. The same results are directly applicable to < 0

after complex conjugation. In the subsonic region, on the

right of the horizon, there exists a critical frequency max

(close to 0.42 in Fig. 2) at which two roots merge. For

< max , the dispersion relation has four real roots.2

in

Following [24], we call their wave vectors kout

, k ,

co;out

out

k , and k . The corresponding asymptotic modes

co;out

in

are, respectively, out

, and out

, ,

. They are

characterized by three important properties:

(1) In or out character: in

is incoming (it moves

towards the horizon) while the three other modes

are outgoing (they move away from the horizon).

(2) Energy sign: out

carries a negative energy and a

negative norm, see Eq. (12). (We are considering the

complex conjugated so that out

is a positive norm

mode). The three other modes have positive energy

and norm.

(3) Co- or counterpropagating nature: co;out

is copro

pagating (its group velocity in the frame of the fluid

is positive) while the three others are counterpropagating. This separation is useful because only the

latter are significantly mixed in a transonic flow

[9,10]. In effect, co;out

acts essentially as a spectator.

forthcoming analysis applies by reversing the sign of velocities

and the in or out character of the modes, see [9].

2

In the supersonic region, only two real wave vectors remain:

co;in

k and kin

. They both describe incoming modes.

081503-3

RAPID COMMUNICATIONS

out

incoming (outgoing) modes in

( ) which contain only

one incoming (respectively outgoing) asymptotic plane

wave. For < max, there are three modes, so the scattering matrix has a size 3 3, and is an element of the Lie

group U2; 1 since has a negative norm [9]. In this

paper we focus on the incident mode in

for a white-hole

flow. It is a good candidate to probe the analog Hawking

effect, and was studied in hydrodynamic flows

[16,17,26,27]. For x , it is a sum of four asymptotic

modes

co;out

in

out

out

in

:

A

15

modes of unit norm, the norm of in

evaluated at late time

(in the sense of a broad wave packet),

2

2

2

2

N out

j j j j jA j ;

16

2

[In stationary flows, N out

1 also expresses the conservation of the wave energy, see Eq. (12), and that of the

energy flux of Mhring [28].] The minus sign in front of

j j2 is the signature of an anomalous scattering. It stems

from the negative norm carried by out

, see the above

point (2). The coefficient thus mixes modes of opposite

norms and energies. In quantum settings, j j2 would give

the mean number of spontaneously produced particles from

amplifying vacuum fluctuations, that is, the Hawking

radiation [2]. The gravitational analogy [1,4] indicates that

j j2 should follow a Planck law when dispersion effects

(and grey body factors [29,30]) are negligible. Moreover, it

predicts that the effective temperature T should be given by

T H =2, where is the surface gravity obtained from

the analog metric of Eq. (14). (We choose the units so that

kB = 1. T H and are thus both frequencies.) Using

Eq. (6), one gets

x cS jcS M

M3

:

bj

2 x cS M

is near critical: M=cS b1 1.054 and M=cS b2 0.943.

Using these parameters, one has max 0.0053, and

0.019 of the same order as the dispersive frequency scale

b c2S evaluated at the horizon. This means that we worked

just outside the weak dispersive regime [11]. Yet, for

frequencies up to max , j j2 follows rather well the

2

=T H

Hawking prediction jH

1, that is, a

j 1=e

Planck law with T H given by =2, see Eq. (17). At

2

low frequency, the relative difference j j2 =jH

j 1 is

of order 20% (when we used db 3, the difference reduced

to about 0.3%, as expected since we were then in a weakly

dispersive regime). Moreover, we see that the coefficient

A involving the copropagating mode can be safely

neglected as jA j2 remains smaller that 0.1%. In order to

estimate the numerical errors, we also show the quantity

2

N out

1. As explained below Eq. (16), this quantity

would identically vanish in the absence of numerical errors.

In brief, the properties we obtain are in close agreement

with those found in other media [9,12,23,31].

17

V. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS

We numerically solved the set of coupled equations on

the 1 1-dimensional fields and , using the method

of [26] adapted to the present case. The results concerning

the incoming mode of Eq. (15) propagating in a transonic

flow described by Eq. (7) are shown in Fig. 3.3 We stopped

the integration for slightly below the critical frequency

max , where and A both vanish. We tuned the various

3

jA j2 (orange, dashed) of Eq. (15) as functions of the frequency.

The black dot-dashed curve shows TH j j2 for a Planck law at

the Hawking temperature T H =2. The parameters are

M 1=3, b1 9, b2 7, and db 1. The green dotted line

2

out 2

represents N out

1 where N is given in Eq. (16). Its

nonvanishing value quantifies the numerical errors.

horizon, we observed at late times the formation of an undulation,

see [22].

The incident waves will be sent by a loudspeaker in a

rectangular channel, and the scattered waves will be

observed using two arrays of microphones, see Fig. 1.

The frequency range will be chosen to fulfill the lowfrequency hypothesis used in Eq. (3). A stationary flow

with a mean Mach number M 0.3 will be provided in the

channel. The compliant wall will be realized with a

honeycomb structure. Its height Hbx will vary in such

a way that the flow is transcritical, i.e., that M=cS crosses

unity at some x, something which has not yet been reached

in water tank experiments [16,17] aimed at detecting the

analog Hawking radiation. Another important advantage is

the possibility of sending the three types of incident waves,

081503-4

RAPID COMMUNICATIONS

both black-hole and white-hole flows. We suspect that

working in these conditions can produce turbulence effects

and whistling. To reduce these effects, the compliant wall

will be covered by a wire gauze with a very low flow

resistance. Special attention should also be devoted to

dissipation. In spite of these experimental difficulties, the

system seems to be a good candidate to probe the various

aspects of the analog Hawking radiation.

the first dispersion terms while retaining the Hamiltonian

structure. The Hawking spectrum was numerically recovered for sufficiently slowly varying profiles of the compliant wall. We thus hope to be able to verify that the norm

of the anomalous coefficient j j2 grows as =2 for

low frequency.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

in a tube with a compliant wall can produce a sonic horizon

by reducing the local effective one-dimensional speed

of sound. Despite the unusual boundary condition at the

compliant wall, the problem was phrased in a Hamiltonian

formalism. For near-critical flows, a (1 1)-dimensional

We thank Scott Robertson for his remarks on a preliminary version of this paper. P. F. is grateful to the LPT for its

hospitality during an internship sponsored by the cole

Normale Suprieure. We acknowledge partial support from

the French National Research Agency under the Program

Investing in the Future Grant No. ANR-11-IDEX-0003-02

associated with the project QEAGE (Quantum Effects in

Analogue Gravity Experiments).

[2] S. W. Hawking, Commun. Math. Phys. 43, 199 (1975).

[3] R. Brout, S. Massar, R. Parentani, and P. Spindel, Phys. Rep.

260, 329 (1995).

[4] W. Unruh, Phys. Rev. D 51, 2827 (1995).

[5] R. Brout, S. Massar, R. Parentani, and P. Spindel, Phys. Rev.

D 52, 4559 (1995).

[6] P. Horava, Phys. Rev. D 79, 084008 (2009).

[7] T. Jacobson, Phys. Rev. D 81, 101502 (2010).

[8] A. Coutant and R. Parentani, Phys. Rev. D 90, 121501

(2014).

[9] J. Macher and R. Parentani, Phys. Rev. D 79, 124008

(2009).

[10] A. Coutant, R. Parentani, and S. Finazzi, Phys. Rev. D 85,

024021 (2012).

[11] S. Finazzi and R. Parentani, Phys. Rev. D 85, 124027

(2012).

[12] S. J. Robertson, J. Phys. B 45, 163001 (2012).

[13] L. Garay, J. Anglin, J. Cirac, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett.

85, 4643 (2000).

[14] R. Schutzhold and W. G. Unruh, Phys. Rev. D 66, 044019

(2002).

[15] T. G. Philbin, C. Kuklewicz, S. Robertson, S. Hill, F. Knig,

and U. Leonhardt, Science 319, 1367 (2008).

[16] G. Rousseaux, C. Mathis, P. Maissa, T. G. Philbin, and

U. Leonhardt, New J. Phys. 10, 053015 (2008).

and G. A. Lawrence, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 021302 (2011).

[18] O. Lahav, A. Itah, A. Blumkin, C. Gordon, S. Rinott, A.

Zayats, and J. Steinhauer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 240401

(2010).

[19] J. Steinhauer, Nat. Phys. 10, 864 (2014).

[20] M. K. Myers, J. Sound Vib. 71, 429 (1980).

[21] Y. Aurgan and V. Pagneux, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 138, 605

(2015).

[22] See Supplemental Material at http://link.aps.org/

supplemental/10.1103/PhysRevD.92.081503 for a discussion of the wave equation and the formation of an undulation.

[23] J. Macher and R. Parentani, Phys. Rev. A 80, 043601 (2009).

[24] A. Coutant and R. Parentani, Phys. Fluids 26, 044106 (2014).

[25] C. Barcelo, S. Liberati, and M. Visser, Living Rev. Relativity 14, 3 (2011).

[26] F. Michel and R. Parentani, Phys. Rev. D 90, 044033

(2014).

[27] L.-P. Euv, F. Michel, R. Parentani, and G. Rousseaux,

Phys. Rev. D 91, 024020 (2015).

[28] W. Mhring, J. Fluid Mech. 431, 223 (2001).

[29] D. N. Page, Phys. Rev. D 13, 198 (1976).

[30] P. R. Anderson, R. Balbinot, A. Fabbri, and R. Parentani,

Phys. Rev. D 90, 104044 (2014).

[31] F. Michel and R. Parentani, Phys. Rev. D 88, 125012 (2013).

VII. CONCLUSIONS

081503-5

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