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phononic cystals

DATASET OCTOBER 2015

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6 AUTHORS, INCLUDING:

Hlne Pichard

Vincent TOURNAT

MINES ParisTech

8 PUBLICATIONS 12 CITATIONS

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Retrieved on: 18 November 2015

Supplementary Material

H. Pichard, A. Duclos, J-P. Groby, V. Tournat, L. Zheng, and V.E. Gusev

LAUM, UMR-CNRS 6613, Universite du Maine, Av. O. Messiaen, 72085 Le Mans, France

(Dated: September 16, 2015)

helene.pichard@univ-lemans.fr

vitali.goussev@univ-lemans.fr

2

I.

Solid materials can be seen as conglomerate of microstructural elements that are adhesively interacting as a result

of micro-structural forces. Two different ways are generally used to describe the mechanical behavior of such solid

materials: discrete models and continuum models. A considerable advantage of discrete models in comparison to

continuum models is that the inhomogeneity effects at the micro-level can be accounted for more accurately. However,

the number of representative micro-structural elements in a macro-structural configuration is normally very large,

which increases the number of equations that has to be solved for a discrete system. For this reason, researchers

have incorporated the inhomogeneous material behavior in continuum formulations with a characteristic material

length. This internal length scale is a macroscopic representation of the micro-structural parameters, such as the size

of the micro-elements, the distribution of the micro-element contact forces and the geometry of the micro-structure.

A well-known enhanced continuum formulation is the Cosserat continuum, also called micro-polar continuum, where

the rotational degrees of freedom (dofs) of the micro-elements are accounted for. The development of the Cosserat

continuum formulation started with the pioneering work of the Cosserat brothers [1]. The idea was then developed by

a numerous of investigators [26] and has gained a large popularity for analyzing wave propagation phenomena [715].

The Cosserat model of the medium whose deformation is described not only by the displacement vector u but

also by a kinematically independent rotation vector has attracted attention of researches for a long time. These

two vectors are function of the spatial coordinates and time. They characterize the displacements and rotations of

infinitely small particles. To account for structural effects, which are not captured through classical continuum model,

the framework of the fields theories requires the development of generalized continuum models. For instance, current

effective medium theories, based on classical elasticity, do not properly describe strong dispersive behavior of wave

propagation observed sometimes [16]. When the rotational dofs cannot be neglected, the continuum description of

deformation is based on the Cosserat theory. In this theory the rotational dofs of structural element are taken into

consideration in addition to displacements, while higher derivatives of the fields are accounted by higher-order gradient models [17, 18]. This theory (with various modifications) found its applications in the modeling of geomaterials,

especially layered [19] and granular matter [20]. In modeling granular materials with elastic Cosserat continuum, the

physical constants describing the microstructure would vary considerably depending on the packing density and grain

type. Even in the simplest isotropic elastic Cosserat medium, the constitutive equations involve six independent elastic

constants contrary to only two in the classical isotropic elasticity. While in some cases the Cosserat physical constants

can be derived from the particularities of the material microstructure [19, 21], the determination of these parameters

generally requires special experimental measurements. Thus, the application of the Cosserat theory is often limited to

a numerical stabilizer for otherwise mesh-dependent numerical models [9]. For example, micro-structural phenomena

such as micro-cracking and void cause discontinuous deformation processes which cannot be described with classical

continuum model. Therefore, various kinds of modifications and generalizations of the standard continuum plasticity have been proposed to avoid a spurious solution for the localization zone and an excessive mesh dependence [8, 22].

The deformation behavior of elastic bodies in this theory has some specific features. The elastic body can acquire

a stress-strain state significantly different from that predicted by the classical (symmetric) theory of elasticity. The

stress and moment stress M tensors are asymmetric. The temperature effect being ignored, the dynamic behavior

of an isotropic elastic medium is characterized by eight constants: two Lame constants and , the material density

, the parameter describing the rotational inertia of the medium I (the inertia moment density) and four elastic

constants , , and , which characterize the microstructure.

Each material point in asymmetric theory of elasticity within the framework of the Cosserat medium is an oriented

infinitesimal solid. The particle kinematic is described by the displacement vector u = {ux , uy , uz } of the center of mass

and by the rotation vector = {x , y , z }. In the case of the Cosserat medium both vectors are continuous functions

of spatial coordinates and time. Thus, the elastic Cosserat continuum is described by the following equations [5, 23]

2 ui

ij

=

,

2

t

xj

2 i

Mij

=

+ Eijk jk ,

2

t

xj

(1)

with Eijk is the Levi-Civita tensor of third rank. In the case of isotropic and centrosymmetric material the stress

tensor ij and moment stress tensor Mij are given by

ij = 2 (ij) + 2 <ij> + kk ij ,

Mij = 2 (ij) + 2 <ij> + kk ij ,

(2)

where ij = ui /xj +ijk k , and ij = i /xj . () and <> denote the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of tensor.

3

The equations of motions for an isotropic material are then given by

I = ( + 2)grad div ( + )rot rot + 2 rot u 4 .

(3)

(4)

Pasternak et al. [24, 25] proposed a method to estimate the Cosserat physical constants , , , , and through

the measurements of the longitudinal, shear and twist wave velocities in a particular material consisting of spherical

particles. The spherical particles are connected by elastic links that can be decomposed into springs of four types:

normal, shear, torsion and bending springs, with stiffnesses n , s , T and B , respectively. In particular, it was

shown that for the Cosserat continuum that in such a material, the physical constants can be linked to the stiffnesses

through the following relations

3 s

1

1

1

n

,

= f ( n s ) ,

= f s ,

= f +

5

2

5

2

(5)

1

3

1

1

T

B

T

B

B

= f +

,

= f

,

= f ,

5

2

5

2

with f = k s /(D), D is the diameter of the particles, k is the coordination number, s is the volume fraction of

the particles. Then is the modulus relating rotations and non-symmetric shear stress, , and are moduli relating

the components of curvature-twist tensor and moment stress.

Shear/rotation

Bending

Torsion

FIG. 1. Models of the different rotational motions between two particles taken into account in [25].

Other cases of the Cosserat medium model are known, including the reduced Cosserat medium [26]. In this reduced

theory, the microstructure only depends on the physical constant making the stress tensor asymmetric. Bending

and torsional rigidities, Fig. 1, are negligible. Then, the constants , and are zero and hence the tensor of

momentum does not exist [26]. The elastic constant describes the resistance to rotation of the point body with

respect to the background. If = 0, the theory reduces to classical elasticity. The stress depends on the rotation

of a particle relative to the continuum mass centers. Because the constants , and are zero, there are no term

with some spatial differential operators acting on in Eq. (4). Therefore, there is no interaction between neighbor

infinitesimal particles caused by difference in their rotations in this theory.

A serie of publications [2630] has been devoted to the study of surface elastic waves propagation in both Cosserat

and reduced Cosserat medium. In keeping with the comparison of the bulk waves in homogenized granular phononic

crystal with those in the Cosserat continuum [31], it is then interesting to compare the results of the propagation

of Rayleigh and SH surface waves obtained in the granular phononic crystals with these studies. In the granular

phononic crystals studied here, only bending and shear/rotational motions are considered ( T = 0). In the reduced

Cosserat theory, only the constant is non zero, i.e., there is no bending and torsional rigidities, Eqs. (5), which

corresponds to pB = 0 in our discrete models.

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

E. Cosserat and F. Cosserat, Theorie des corps deformables (Herman et Fils, Paris, 1909).

R. Mindlin, Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 16, 51 (1964).

R. Toupin, Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 17 (1984).

A. Eringen, Theory of micro-polar elasticity, edited by H. Liebowitz (Academic press, New York, 1968).

A. Eringen, Microcontinuum Field Theories. I.Foundations and Solids (Springer, New York, 1999).

4

[6] A. Askar, Lattice dynamical foundations of continuum theories (World Scientific, Singapore, 1986).

[7] H. M

uhlaus and F. Oka, International Journal of Solids and Structures 33, 2841 (1996).

[8] R. Borst and H.-B. Muhlhaus, Computational strategies for gradient continuum models with a view to localisation of

deformation, Vol. 239-260 (Proc. Int. Conf. on Nonlinear Engng Comp., Pineridge Press, Swansea, 1991).

[9] L. Sluys, R. Borst, and H.-B. Muhlhaus, International Journal of Solids and Structures 30, 1153 (1993).

[10] L. Sluys, Wave propagation localisation and dispersion in softening solids, Ph.D. thesis, Delft University of technology,

The Netherlands (1992).

[11] A. Suiker, R. de Borst, and C. S. Chang, Acta Mechanica 149, 161 (2001).

[12] A. Suiker, R. de Borst, and C. S. Chang, Acta Mechanica 149, 181 (2001).

[13] A. Suiker, R. de Borst, and C. S. Chang, International Journal of Solids and Structures 38, 1563 (2001).

[14] I. Pavlov, A. Potapov, and G. Maugin, International Journal of Solids and Structures 43, 6194 (2005).

[15] A. Potapov, I. Pavlov, and S. Lisina, Journal of sound and vibration 322, 564 (2008).

[16] J. Hudson and L. Knopoff, Pure Appl. Geophys. 131, 551 (1989).

[17] N. Triantafyllidis and S. Bardenhagen, J. Elasticity 33, 259 (1993).

[18] N. Fleck and J. Hutchinson, Adv. Appl. Mech. 33, 295 (1997).

[19] N. Zvolinskii and K. Shkhinek, Mech.Solids 1, 1 (1984).

[20] L. Limat, Phys. Rev. B. 37, 672 (1988).

[21] D. Adhikary and V. Dyskin, Comput. Geotech. 20(1) (1997).

[22] E. Aifantis, J. Engng Mater. Technol. 106, 326 (1984).

[23] W. Nowacki, Theory of Asymmetric Elasticity (Pergamon, Oxford, 1986).

[24] E. Pasternak, H.-B. Muhlhaus, and V. Dyskin, Pure Appl. Geophys. 161, 2309 (2004).

[25] E. Pasternak and V. Dyskin, Acta Mechanica 225, 2409 (2014).

[26] M. Kulesh, E. Grekova, and I. Shardakov, Acoustics of structurally inhomogeneous solid media 55, 218 (2009).

[27] M. Kulesh, V. P. Matveenko, and I. Shardakov, Acoustical Physics 52, 186 (2006).

[28] M. Kulesh, E. Grekova, and I. Shardakov, Advanced Problems in Mechanics , 53 (2006).

[29] M. Kulesh, V. P. Matveenko, and I. Shardakov, Journal of Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics 48, 119 (2007).

[30] M. Kulesh, M. Holschneider, and I. Shardakov, APM Processings , 281 (2007).

[31] A. Merkel, V. Tournat, and V. Gusev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 225502 (2011).

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