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The program covers areas from both literature and linguistics and the
focus is on introducing students to seminal works in the disciplines of
literature and linguistics.
Program Objectives:
To make students
1) Sensitive to literature enabling them to respond to literary works through
analysis and evaluation in the light of socio-political, economic, religious and
historical contexts.
2) Aware of all the core literary concepts and theories, enabling them to
apply the said concepts when and where required.
3) Analyze literary texts stylistically.
4) Able to teach literature and linguistics at all levels
5) Aware of core linguistic concepts enabling apply them to apply them in
their own social and
psychological contexts.
6) Realize and acknowledge the importance of psychological, social and
linguistic aspects of English
language learners learning process, and be able to design their own
teaching/learning techniques
with the help of available resources.
7) Employable in various fields.
Program Requirements
BA with second division, or BA with Third Division plus Advanced Diploma
NUML - with 65 % marks.
Justification for Deviation: NUML English Advanced Diploma is of one year (2
semesters) duration,

focusing on various aspects of Literature and Linguistics, designed to

develop students language and
analytical skills essential for the MA English program.
Program Details
ENG-501: History of English Language and Historical Linguistics
Core Text:
1. Baugh, A.C. A History of the English Language
2. Freeborn, Dennis From Old English to Standard English
3. Hadumod, Bussmann Routledge Dictionary of Language & Linguistics
4. Hassan, Riaz Remaking of English in Pakistan
5. Lehmann, Winfred,P. Historical Linguistics: An Introduction
1) Language
a. Definition of a human language. Explanation of the characteristic features
b. English as a World Language
c. Assets and Liabilities of English
d. Importance of English
e. Definitions: Inflections, noun cases, synthetic and analytical languages etc
2) Genealogical Classification of a language
a. Concept of a language family
b. Description of the Indo-European language family
c. Detailed description of Italic, Celtic, and Germanic Language families
Mid term:

3) Diachronic Study of English

A historical survey of the development of English language since the 5th
Century: Old, Middle, and Modern
English periods with the description of external and internal changes i.e. (the
changes in the events and their
impact on the language)

4) Synchronic Study of the English Language

English at present: Various Englishes i.e. native and non-native.
a. An understanding of British and American Standard English.
b. A detailed description of Pakistani English
End term:
5) Historical Linguistics
a. Introduction
b. The comparative method
c. The method of internal reconstruction
d. Broadening of language material
e. Dialect geography
f. Models of language and linguistics
g. Communities with reference to change
h. Sound change - change in phonological system
i. Semantic changes and changes in lexicon
ENG-502: Phonetics and Phonology
Core Text:
1. Roach, Peter English Phonetics and Phonology

2. Jones, Daniel & Gimson, A.C. A Dictionary of English pronunciation( 14th

3. Jones, Daniel An Outline Of English Phonetics
1. Phonetics
a. Areas of study
b. Phonetic universality and diversity
c. Usefulness of study
2. Concepts of Sounds of Language
3. Problems of English pronunciation
a. Lack of correspondence between spelling and pronunciation
b. Acoustic quality of speech sounds
c. Proper articulation of speech sounds
d. Mother tongue interference
e. Supra segmental features
f. Types of pronunciation
4. Requirements of foreign learners
5. Phonetic symbols
6. Process of articulation
7. Organs of speech-description and function
8. Classification of sounds
9. Articulation of vowels
10. Cardinal vowels
11. Vowel diagram
12. Description of English vowels

a. Pure vowels
b. Diphthongs
c. Triphthongs
Mid term:
13. Articulation of consonants
. Place of articulation
15. Manner of articulation
16. Description of English consonants
a. Plosives
b. Affricates
c. Nasals
d. Laterals
e. Fricatives
f. Frictionless continuant
17. Semi vowels
18. Consonant clusters in English
19. Phonology
a. Relationship with phonetics
b. Areas of study
20. Phoneme
a. Phonemic theory
b. Phonemic test
21. Allophone

a. Complementary distribution
b. Phonetic similarity
End term:
22. Syllable
c. Structure
d. Syllabic division of words
e. Permissible and non
-permissible sound sequences
f. Conventional character of syllabic distribution
23. Word stress
a. Levels of stress
b. Variability
c. Mobility
d. Rules and exceptions
24. Sentence stress
25. Strong and weak forms
a. Formation of weak forms
b. Importance of using weak forms
c. Weak form words
d. Use of strong forms
26. Assimilation
a. Historical assimilation
b. Contextual assimilation
c. Consonant change in assimilation
27. Elision

28. Intonation
a. English tones
b. Functions
29. Phonetic transcription
30. Pakistani speakers of English
a. Problems of pronunciation
b. Strategies for solving problem
c. Sociolinguistic environment
d. Intelligibility as a learning goal
ENG-503: History of English Literature
Core Text:
1. Alexander, Michael A History of English Literature
a) Old English Literature
b) Middle English Literature
c) Tudor Literature
d) Shakespeare and the Drama
e) Stuart Literature
f) Augustan Literature
g) The Romantics
h) The Age and its Sages
End term:

i) Poetry
j) Fiction
k) Late Victorian Literature
l) Ends and Beginnings: The Twentieth Century
m) From Post-War to Post-War
n) New Beginnings
ENG-504:Poetry A
Core Text:
A Quintessence of Classical Poetry-NUML
1. Geoffrey Chaucer
a. Introduction to The Prologue
b. The Prologue to the Canterbury Tales
2. Edmund Spenser
Faerie Queene: Book 1, Canto 1
3. John Milton
a. The Argument: Paradise Lost Book 1
b. Paradise Lost, Book I
4. Alexander Pope
The Rape of the Lock
End term:
5. John Donne
a. Love Poems: Song; The Sunne Rising; Loves Alchemy; A Valediction Of

b. Holy Sonnets: Thou hast made me, and shall thy work decay; I am a little
world made
cunningly; If poisonous minerals, and if that tree; Death be not proud.
ENG-505. Drama A
1. Sophocles King Oedipus (The Theban Plays: Penguin Classics)

2. Marlowe, Christopher Dr. Faustus
3. Shakespeare, William Twelfth Night
End term:
4. Shakespeare, William King Lear
ENG-511: General Linguistics
Core Text:
1. Crystal, David What is Linguistics?
2. Yule, George The Study of Language
3. DSaussure, Ferdinand A Course in General Linguistics
1. Introduction to Linguistics
a. What is linguistics?
b. Who is a linguist?
c. Scope of linguistics
d. Difference between traditional grammar and linguistics

2. Introduction to language
a. Origin of language
b. Properties of language
c. Development of writing systems
d. Difference between human and animal language
3. Sound patterns of language
a. Introduction to Phonetics
b. Introduction to basic concepts of Phonology
c. Practice of phonetic transcription at word level
4. Lexis
Word formation processes.
5. Morphology
a. Morpheme and its classification
b. Allomorph and its classification
Mid term:
6. Grammar and Syntax
a. Types of grammar
b. Traditional grammar
c. Descriptive grammar and methods of structural analysis
(Test frames, IC analysis, labeled bracketing, tree diagrams)
d. Generative grammar
7. Semantics, Pragmatics and Discourse Analysis
End term:
8. Psycholinguistics
a. First language acquisition

b. Second language learning

9. Sociolinguistics
a. Language varieties
b. Language, society and culture
ENG-512: Poetry B
Core Text:
A Quintessence of Romantic Poetry -NUML
1. William Wordsworth
a. A solitary reaper
b. Tintern Abbey
2. Samuel Taylor Coleridge
a. The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
b. Kubla Khan
3. Percy Bysshe Shelley
a. Ode to the West Wind
b. To a Skylark
4. John Keats
a. Ode on a Grecian Urn
b. Ode to a Nightingale
c. Ode on melancholy
5. Mathew Arnold
Dover Beach

Last word
Old age
End term:
6. William Butler Yeats
a. Second Coming
b. Sailing to Byzantium
c. Byzantium
ENG-513: Drama B
1. Ibsen, Henrik A Dolls House
2. Shaw, George Bernard Arms and the Man
3. OCasey, Sean Juno and The Paycock
4. Pinter, Harold The Caretaker
End term:
5. Beckett, Samuel Waiting For Godot
ENG-514: Novel A
1. Fielding, Henry Joseph Andrews
2. Austen, Jane Pride and Prejudice

3. Bronte, Emile Wuthering Heights
4. Eliot, George The Mill on the Floss

End term:
4. Eliot, George The Mill on the Floss
5. Hardy, Thomas Return of the Native
ENG-515: Prose A
Core Text:
An Anthology of English Essays-NUML
Bacon, Francis
Of Truth
Of Marriage and Single Life
Of Studies
Of Friendship
Of Disicourse
Lamb, Charles
Dream-Children: A Reverie
Poor Relations
In Praise of Chimney-Sweepers
.Ruskin, John Work
End term:
Emerson, Ralph Waldo Self-Reliance
John Stuart Mill Liberty of Thought and Discussion
ENG-521: Novel B

1. Conrad, Joseph Heart of Darkness
2. Forster, E. M. A Passage to India
2. Forster, E. M. A Passage to India
3. Joyce, James A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
End term:
3. Joyce, James A Portrait of the Artist As A Young Man
4. Woolf, Virginia To the Light House
ENG-522: Prose B
Core Text:
1. An Anthology of English Short Stories NUML
2. Selections From Hazlitt, Huxley and Russell - NUML
The Short Story - An Introduction by Brander Mathews
1. OHenry
a. Gift of the Magi
b. The Last Leaf
2. Wilde, Oscar
a. The Devoted Friend
b. The Happy Prince
3. Poe, Edgar Allan
a. The Tell Tale Heart
b. The Fall of the House of Usher

4. Mansfield, Katherine
a. The Fly
b. The Dolls House
5. Twain, Mark
a. A Dogs Tale
b. A Helpless Situation
6. Wells, H.G.
a. A Moonlight Fable
b. The Diamond Maker
End term:
7. Huxley, Thomas Henry
a. From A Liberal Education
b. From Science and Culture
8. Russel, Bertrand
a. Politics
b. Ethics
c. Education
d. Psychology
ENG-523: Criticism
Core Text:
1. Aristotle Poetics (Aristotles The Art of Poetry edited by Fyfe)
2. A Quintessence of Literary Criticsm-NUML
1.Introduction to Literary Criticism

2. Aristotle Poetics
3. Johnson, Samuel
a. Selection from Milton
b. Selection from Cowley
4. Wordsworth, William Preface to Lyrical Ballads
5. Coleridge, Samuel Taylor Biographia Literaria: Chapters 16 & 17
End term:
6. Arnold, Mathew
a. The Study of Poetry
b. The Function of Criticism at the Present Time
7. Eliot, Thomas Stearns Tradition and the Individual Talent
ENG-524: Grammar, Syntax and Semantics
Core Text:
1. Palmer, Frank Grammar
2. Palmer, Frank Sementics
1. Grammar and its Significance
2. Concepts of Traditional Grammar
a. Words
b. Parts of speech
c. Sentence
d. Clause
e. Phrase

f. Grammatical Categories
g. Concord and Government
h. Inflection and Syntax
3. Comparison of Traditional Grammar with Modern Linguistic Grammar
(Linguistic allegations
against traditional concepts)
a. The Notion of Correctness and Incorrectness
b. Speech and Writing
c. Form and Meaning
4. Morphology
Mid term:
1. Theory of Syntax
a. Theme
b. How is it an improvement on the traditional grammar?
c. Its basic structure and emphasis
2. Methods of Sentence Structure Analysis.
i. IC analysis
a. The Theory
b. Methods of Display
c. Indications of Constituency
d. Limitations
ii. Phrase Structure Grammar
a. The Theory

b. Features of PS Grammar
c. Methods of Display
d. Indications of Constituency
iii. Lexicon
3. Transformational Grammar
a. The founder and the theory
b. Deep and surface structure
c. Different types of transformation
i. Questions
ii. Negatives
iii. Passivisation
iv. Complex and compound sentences
v. Conditionals
End term:
1. Introduction
a. What is Semantics?
b. Historical Semantics
c. Semantics in other disciplines
2. The Scope of Semantics
a. Naming
b. Concepts
c. Sense and reference
d. The word
e. The sentence

3. Lexical Semantics: Fields and Collocation

a. Paradigmatic and Syntagmatic
b. Semantic field
c. Color systems
d. Collocation
e. Idioms
4. Lexical Semantics: Sense relations
a. Hyponymy
b. Synonymy
c. Antonymy
d. Relational opposites
e. Polysemy and Homonymy
f. Components
g. The Problem of Universals
5. Semantics and Grammar
a. Formal grammar
b. Grammatical categories
c. Grammar and lexicon
d. Grammatical relations
e. Components and the sentence
f. Predicates and arguments
g. Case grammar
h. Sentence types and modality
ENG-525: Teaching of English as a Foreign/Second Language-A

Core Text:
1. Harmer, Jeremy The Practice of English Language teaching
2. Nunan, David Practice in English Teaching
3. Freeman, D. Larsen Teaching and principles In English Language Teaching
4. Ur, Penny A Course in Language Teaching

1. The nature and principles of foreign language teaching.
2. Approaches, methods and techniques of foreign language teaching
3. Communicative language teaching
4. Eclectic Approach
Mid term:
5. Teaching the four skills: Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing
6. Integrated Skills
7. Textbook adaptation and Materials development
8. Using audio-visual aids
9. Using songs, stories, dialogues and games in ESL/EFL class
End term:
10. Teaching of vocabulary and spelling
11. Teaching of grammar
12. Teacher development
13. Practical techniques in reflective language teaching: action research
ENG-531: Stylistics

Core Text:
Stylistics and the Teaching of Literature H.G Widdowson Ch.1-4
An introduction to Stylistics
Aims & Perspectives
Literature as Text
Literature as Discourse
Core Text: Style Dennis Freeborn Ch. 6
Figurative Language Literature
Core Text: Stylistics: A Practical Coursebook Laura Wright. C. 2
The Noun Phrase
The Verb Phrase
Core Text:
Stylistics and the Teaching of Literature H.G Widdowson Ch. 4-6
The Nature of Literary Communication
Literature as Subject & Discipline
Stylistic Analysis & Literary Appreciation
Core Text: Stylistics: A Practical Coursebook Laura Wright Ch. 3-5
The clause
Text structure
Core Text
1. Wright, Laura Stylistics: A Practical Course

2. Widdowson, H.G Stylistics and the Teaching of Literature

3. Freeborn, Dennis Style
ENG-532: Sociolinguistics and Psycholinguistics
Core Text:
1. Trudgill, Peter Sociolinguistics
2. Hudson, R.A. Sociolinguistics
1. The scope and utility of sociolinguistics
2. Speech communities and language diversity
3. The sociolinguistic development of a child
4. Essential sociolinguistic concepts
a) Language
b) Standard Language
c) Dialect
d) Idiolect
e) Register
f) Diglossia
g) Lingua franca
h) Esperanto
i) Code Switching
j) Borrowing
k) Pidgins
l) Creoles
5. Language and Thought

6. Influence of Culture on Language and vice versa

7. The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
8. Influence of Media on Language
9. Language and Social Class
10. Language and Ethnic Group
11. Language and Gender
12. English Language Teaching and Learning in Pakistan and its Cultural
Core Text:
1. Aitchison, Jean The Articulate Mammal(An Introduction to
2. McDonough, H.Steve Psychology in Foreign Language Teaching
3. Hassan, Riaz Aspects of Psycholinguistics
End term:
1. Scope of Psycholinguistics as a discipline and its application in language
learning and
2. General theories of language acquisition
3. Behaviorism and Mentalism: A comparison and contrast
4. First language acquisition A preordained language program
5. Content Cuthbert or Process Peggy
6. Second language learning
7. Individual variations in language learning performance
8. Aphasia and other disorders of speech

9. Language and thinking. How does language affect thinking?

10. Practical importance of psycholinguistics and the future of
ENG-533: Teaching of English as a Foreign/Second Language-B
Core Text:
1. Tony Wright Role of Teachers and Learners
2. Norrish, John Language Learners and their Errors
3. Edge, Julian Mistakes and Correction
4. Hughes, Arthur Testing for Language Teachers

1. Principles, procedures and practice of student-centered approach
2. Teacher-learner relationships and their impact on the classroom
3. Text Book Adaptation and Materials Development
4. Lesson Planning: Preparation, Presentation, Practice, Production
5. Error Analysis: What, Why, When and How?
End term:
6. Mistakes and Correction
7. Testing and Evaluation
8. Classroom Management
9. Microteaching
ENG-534: Essay Writing
Core Text:
1. Langan, John College Writing Skills with Readings
2. Langan, John Patterns for College Writing

Narrative incidents in daily life; dreams; journeys
Descriptive persons; places; objects
Argumentative/analytical issues related to language, linguistics, literature ,
current social /ethical
issues and their resolution
ENG-535: American And Canadian Literature
Research Mechanics / Dissertation
American And Canadian Literature
Core Text:
1. An Antholgoy of American and Canadian Literatures-NUML
2. Eugene, ONeil A Long Days Journey into Night
3. H. McLennan Two Solitudes
1. A Brief History of American Literature
2. Walt Whitman
a. Give me the splendid silent sun
b. There was a child went forth
3. Robert Lee Frost
a. Birches
b. The Death of a Hired Man

4. Thomas Stearns Eliot

a. The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock
b. The Hollow Men
5. Ezra Loomis Pound
Hugh Selwyn Mauberley

6. Eugene ONeil Long Days Journey Into Night

End term:
7. A Brief History of Canadian Literature
8. Stephen Leacock
Men Who Have Shaved Me
9. Margaret Atwood
a. This is a Photograph of Me
b. Morning in a Burned House
10. Emily Pauline Johnson
a. Penseroso
b. The Song my Paddle Sings
11. Charles Sangster
a. The Soldiers of the Plough
b. Sonnet
12. H. McLennan Two Solitudes

Research Mechanics / Dissertation

1) The technique of research writing. Organization & collection of material for
the research course.

2) Documentation of the text

3) Format of bibliographies
4) Bibliography and reference-cited format
5) Dissertation
Assessment Criteria
Students are assessed out of 150 marks:
Prelims: After a month, all students except for the ones in the fourth
semester are assessed through written
tests or assignments out of 25 marks.
Mid-Term Examination: Mid-term exams are held in the middle of the
semester. The students of first,
second and third semesters are given two hours for each subject, carrying 50
marks, whereas the students of
fourth semester take a three hour exam for each subject, carrying 75 marks.
End-Term Examination: All students are tested at the end of the semester.
The tests are of three hours
duration and carry 75 marks each.
Admission Criteria
The candidates applying for MA English program are expected to have a
Bachelors degree preferably with
English Literature as a main subject, along with good English language
communication skills.
Admission Schedule
Admission to MA English are offered twice every year, in January and