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3.

6 SUBJECT TITLE : INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL SYSTEMS (1562)

• Year : Third Year

• Teaching and Examination Scheme:

TEACHING SCHEME EXAM SCHEME & MAXIMUM MARKS

THEORY PRACTICAL PAPER


TH
TH PR OR TW SW
HRS/WEEK HRS/WEEK HRS.

3 2 3 100 - 50 - 50

• RATIONALE :

This subject is classified under technology group & intended to teach the student facts,
concepts, principles, & procedures of problems in the field of instrumentation & control
systems in different processes/plants & industries. The students can use this knowledge in
acquiring design skill, trouble-shooting skill which will be useful for solving the real industrial
instrumentation & control system problems. He can use this knowledge as maintenance
engineer, a supervisor & helps in caring out the investigation trouble shooting like work in
R&D.
CONTEXT IN THE FORMOF LINK DIAGRAM SHOWING
INTERRELATIONSHIP OF SUBJECT AREA

HUMAN SCIENCES TECHNOLOGY


CORE TECHNOLOGY
Communication skills SUBJECTS
SUBJECTS
Generic Skills Microprocessor &
Information Technology Microcontroller
Industrial organization & Workshop Practice Communication
Supervisory Electrical Engineering Systems I
Management Electronic Industrial
Measurements & Electronics
Instruments Communication
ENGINEERING SCIENCES Applied Electronics Systems II
Engineering Drawings Digital Techniques & Instrumentation &
Engineering Mechanics Applications Control Systems
Basic Electronics Linear Integrated Digital Communication
Electronics materials & Circuits Systems
components Power Electronics

BASIC SCIENCE JOB PROFILE CURRICULUM


Applied Mathematics Self Developer OBJECTIVES
Applied Physics Membership of Attitude for personal
Applied Chemistry Family/Community Development
Social skill for social
/Nation
Development
Life long learning Continued learning skill
Technician in for life long learning
industry as Technical skill for
Maintenance industrial activity
Engineer, earning to live
investigator or domain
Designer Supervisory skill,
R & D Technician Investigation &
Entrepreneur Design skill
Testing skill
Decision making
skill
Planning &
scheduling skill
GRAPHICAL STRUCTURE OF THE SUBJECT

Problem Develop skill for measurement & control of various


industrial / physical parameters.

Procedures Operation & installation of Operation & installation in control


instrumentation system for various system using various control
parameters, measurement & control components/ industrial controllers.

Principle of instrumentation system Principle of control system &


Principles
in engineering their stability analysis.

Time Process
Concepts Frequency controller
Domain Domain types &
Response controller
Response actions
Transducer Signal Recorders Data
conditioning processors

Stability

Control system
components,
Servomechanisms,
Transfer functions.

Instrumentation system used in


engineering measurements like
pressure, flow, temperature, Control systems used for controlling
displacement, velocity etc. various processes in industry.

Instrumentation & Control System.


Facts
DETAILED CONTENTS : 3.6

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1 Introduction to instrumentation systems 4 4
Block diagram of instrumentation system.
Static & dynamic characteristics.
Accuracy & precision
Sensitivity & resolution
Linearity & nonlinearity.
Repeatability & reproducibility
Hysteresis, Drift.
Speed of response, lag, fidelity, dynamic error.

2 Transducers 12 10
Classification of transducers.
Primary & secondary
Electrical, mechanical,
Analog, digital
Active & passive
Working principle of transducers.
Resistive transducers : Thermistors, Potentiometric, Strain gauge,
Load cell.
Capacitive transducers : Linear & angular.
Piezoelectric transducer
Photoelectric transducers : Rotary encoder.
Practicals
Measurement of strain/ force measurement using strain gauge/load
cell.
Characteristic / temperature measurement using thermistor.
Characteristic of potentiometer & loading effect on O/P of
potentiometer.
3 Signal Conditioning 8 8
Introduction to signal conditioning.
Block diagram of AC&DC signal conditioning.
Signal conditioning circuits :
Integrator, Differentiator, V to I converter, I to V converter,
Instrumentation amplifier, V to F converter, Chopper stabilized
amplifier.
Working principle & function of above types.
Use of signal conditioning circuit for instrumentation system for
industrial applications.
Practicals
Instrumentation amplifier with linear gain control.
V to F converter using IC 741
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4 8 8
Recorders
Necessity of recorder in instrumentation.
Classification of recorders.
Block diagram and working principles of the following recorders.
Graphic recorder :
Strip chart recorder : Galvanometer type, null type.
X – Y recorder.
Magnetic tape recorder
Digital recording techniques : RZ and NRZ techniques
Comparison of analog & digital recording techniques.
Practicals
Study of graphic recorders.

5 Data Processors 6 6
Necessity of data processing in instrumentation.
Signal conditioning in DAS.
Ratiometric conversion
Logarithmic compression
Block diagram & explanation of DAS
Singal channel.
Multichannel
Concept of Modular DAS
Block diagram, explanation and characteristic of DATA LOGGER.
Comparison of DAS and DATA LOGGER
Practicals
Visit to industry to observe function of DAS & DATA LOGGERs.

6 Operation of Instrumentation System 12 10


Diagram, explanation and working of instrumentation system for :
Pressure measurement :
Manometer
Capacitive transducer
Bourdon tube and LVDT
Temperature measurement : Expansion thermometers.
Flow :
Variable head (differential pressure) : Orifice and Venturi
Variable area : Rotameter,
Ultrasonic flowmeter,
Electromagnetic.
Hot wire anemometer
Velocity : angular (tacho)
Thickness : Inductive & capacitive.
Displacement : Linear (LVDT), Angular (RVDT)
PH measurement
Practicals
Measurement of flow by orifice
Measurement of flow by venturi tube
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Measurement of flow by rotameter

7 Introduction to control system 10 8


Concept of open loop & closed loop control system with examples.
Comparison of open loop and closed loop control system.
Typical application of control system in temperature controller.
Feed forward system
Concept of transfer function with example based on RC, RL, RLC etc.
Advantages and disadvantages of transfer function.
Block diagram representation :
Rules for block diagram reduction.
Problems on block diagram reduction
Signal flow graph representation and problems related to it.
Comparison of block diagram representation and signal flow graph
representation.
Practicals
Liquid level controller using IC 555

8 Servomechanism [Actuators] 10 12
Principle of operation of different control system components such as
Potentiometer (linear & angular) & their transfer function,
potentiometer error detector.
Synchro transmitter & synchro receiver, synchro error detector.
A.C. & D.C. servomotor & their transfer functions.
AC & DC tachometer & its transfer function
Amplidyne & its transfer function
Stepper motor.
Block diagram of AC & DC
Servomechanisms and their transfer functions.
Practicals
1. Potentiometer as error detector.
2. Characteristics of synchro transmitter.
3. Synchro error detector
4. Speed-torque characteristic of A.C. servomotor.
5. A.C. position control system.
6. D.C. position control system.
7. Drive circuit & operation of stepper motor.

9 Time Response & Frequency Response Analysis & Stability 16 17


Introduction to time response analysis
Definition : Time response, transient response, steady state error.
Standard test inputs : step, ramp, parabolic and impulse.
Effect of standard inputs on steady state error.
Type of system : Type 0, 1 & 2
Analysis of type 0, 1 & 2 systems for standard test inputs
Analysis of first and second order control systems.
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Time response specification definitions and formula (No derivation)
Problems on steady state response. i.e. determination of type of
system, error coefficients and steady state error.
Introduction to frequency response analysis.
Andvantages and disadvantages of frequency response analysis.
Frequency response specifications.
Introduction to stability of systems.
Definitions : Stable systems, unstable systems, critically or
marginally stable systems, conditionally stable system.
Stability criterion :
Hurwitz criterion
Routh’s criterion (Routh’s Hurwitz criterion)
Problems related to above criterion
Bode plot,
Polar plot,
Problem related to above plots
Practicals
1.Bode plots for 1st order R-C circuit.
2.Response of R-L-C (2nd order) & R-C (1st order) system for i/p.
Determination of time response specifications.

10 Process Controllers 14 13
Introduction to controllers.
Control actions :
ON – OFF control action
Proportional (P) control action
Derivative (D) control action
Integral (I) control action
Composite control actions : PI, PD, PID.
Pneumatic controller :
Working principle of flapper nozzle relay
Control actions of pneumatic controller
ON – OFF control action
Proportional (P) control action
Derivative (D) control action
Integral (I) control action
Composite control actions : PI, PD, PID.
Electronic controller
Control actions of electronic controller
ON – OFF control action
Proportional (P) control action
Derivative (D) control action
Integral (I) control action
Composite control actions : PI, PD, PID.
Comparison of pneumatic and electronic controller.
Basic principle of hydraulic controller (no control action)
Practicals
1. Any control process using ON-OFF
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controller.
2. Any control process using composite
controller
IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES :

One visit to any process plant should be arranged.


Number of experiments to be performed
Instrumentation : 10
Control Systems : 10

REFERNCES:

Sr. Year of
Author Title Edition Publisher & Address
Publication
Industrial
Tata McGraw-Hill. ,
1 S.K.Singh Instrumentation & 1st 1987
New Delhi.
Control
Transducers & Prentice Hall of India,
2 D.V.S. Murthy 1st 1995
Instrumentation New Delhi
Rangari & Mani Instrumentation Prentice Hall of India,
3 4th 1995
Sharma Devices & Systems New Delhi
Electrical &
Electronics Dhanpat Rai & Co. (Pvt)
4 A.K. Sawhney 11th 1999
Measurement & Ltd., New Delhi
Instrumentation
Electronic Tata McGraw-Hill. ,
5 H.K. Kalsi 1st 1995
Instrumentation New Delhi.
Nagrath & Feed Back Control Prentice Hall of India,
6 4th 1996
Gopal System New Delhi
Automatic Control Prentice Hall of India,
7 Kuo 6th 1991
System New Delhi
Modern Control Prentice Hall of India,
8 Ogata 1st 1987
Engineering New Delhi
New Age International
Modern Control
9 M. Gopal 1st 1999 Ltd.,
System Theory
New Delhi
R. Gaikwad
Analog & Digital Prentice Hall of India,
10 Leonard 1st 1993
Control Systems New Delhi
Sokolott
Process Control
Prentice Hall of India,
11 C.D. Johnson Instrumentation 4th 1993
New Delhi
Technology
S. C. Goyal & Principle of control Technical publication,
12 6th 2000
U. A. Bakshi systems Pune