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# Electrical & Electronics Engineering

UNIT-I
ILLUMINATION
1. What is the basic nature of light?
Light is a form of electromagnetic energy radiated from a body which is capable of being
perceived by the human eye. The sensation of light results from a flow of energy into the eye
and the light will appear to vary if the rate of this flow of energy varies. Light radiations form
only a very small part of the complete range of electromagnetic radiations. Light can be of
different colours, which depend on the wavelength of the radiation causing it.
2. What are the essentials of good lighting system?
Adequate illumination of suitable colour on the working surfaces.
Good maintenance
Avoidance of glare.
3. Define Luminous Flux.
(Nov 2011) (Nov 2014) (Apr 2014)
The total quantity of light energy emitted per second from a luminous body is called
luminous flux. It is represented by the symbol F and measured in lumens. The concept of
luminous flux assists us to specify the output and efficiency of a given light source.
4. Define Lumen.
(Nov 2011)
It is the unit of luminous flux and is defined as the amount of luminous flux given out in a space
represented by one unit solid angle by a source having an int4nsity of one candle power in all
directions.
Lumens = candle power solid angle
5. Define Luminous Intensity.
(Apr 2012) (Apr 2014)
Luminous intensity in a given direction is the luminous flux emitted by the source per unit
solid angle.
It is denoted by the symbol I and is measured in candela or lumen/steradian.
F

## 6. Define plane angle.

(Apr 2012)
A plane angle is subtended at a point and is enclosed by two straight lines lying in the same
plane. Its magnitude is given by,
Arc

7. Define Solid Angle.
(Apr 2013)
Solid angle is the angle generated by the surface passing through the point in space and
the periphery of the area. It is denoted by , expressed in steradians and is given by the ratio
of the area of the surface to the square of the distance between the area and the point, i.e., =
Area

## E is directly proportional to the intensity (I) of the source.

EI
Inverse square law: The illumination of a surface is inversely proportional to the
square of the distance from the source.
E

I
r2

## Lamberts Cosine law: According to this law, E is directly proportional to the

cosine of the angle made by the normal to the illuminated surface with the
direction of the incident flux.
I cos
E
r2

## 9. Define mean horizontal candle power.

(Apr 2012) (Nov 2013)
The mean horizontal candle power of a source of a light is the mean or average of the candle
power in all directions on horizontal plane which passes through the source.
10. Define mean spherical candle power.
(Apr 2012) (Nov 2013)
The mean spherical candle power of a source of light is the mean or average of the candle power
in all directions in all the planes.
11. Define mean hemispherical candle power.
The mean hemispherical candle power of a source of light is the mean or average of the candle
power in all directions within the hemisphere either above the horizontal plane or below the
horizontal plane.
12. Define candle power.
(Nov 2012)
Candle power is the light rendering capacity of a source in a given direction and is defined as
the number of lumens given out by the source in a unit solid angle in a given direction.
C.P

Lumens

## 13. What are polar curves?

(Nov 2012)
The luminous flux emitted by a source can be determined from the intensity distribution
curve. The luminous intensity or candle power of a practical lamp is not uniform in all
directions due to its unsymmetrical shape. The distribution of light is given by polar curves.
14. What are the artificial sources of lights?
By temperature incandescence
e.g. Incandescent tungsten filament lamps
By establishing an arc between two carbon electrodes

## Electrical & Electronics Engineering

e.g. Carbon arc lamps, flame arc lamps, Magnetic arc lamps
Discharge lamps.
e.g. Mercury vapour lamps, sodium vapour lamps, neon-gas lamp and
fluorescent lamp.
15. What are the uses of Rousseau's construction?
The mean spherical candle power of a symmetrical source of light can be found out from the
polar curve by means of Rousseau diagram.
16. What are called temperature radiators?
Incandescent tungsten filament lamps are known as temperature radiators because their
output depends on the temperature of their filaments.
17. Name the various photometer heads.
(Apr 2014)
iii. Flickers photometers
18. Why carbon is used as filament material in incandescent lamps?
Carbon is used as filament material in Incandescent lamps because it has the following
properties:
It prevents the blackening of the bulb, the working temperature is 1800oC.
The commercial efficiency of filament lamp is about 4.5 lumens per watt app.
19. What are the materials used for Incandescent lamps?
The materials used for making filaments of Incandescent lamps are
Carbon
Tantalum
Tungsten
20. Why Tungsten is used as filament material in Incandescent lamps?
The efficiency, when worked at 2000oC in an evacuated bulb is 18 lumens per watt. This
metal is most widely used for this purpose.
21. What are the material properties in Incandescent lamps?
The ideal material for the filaments of the Incandescent lamps in one which has the
following properties:
High melting point
Low vapour pressure
High resistivity
Low temperature coefficient
Ductility
Sufficient mechanical strength to withstand vibrations during use.
22. What are the other forms of arc lamps?
The various forms of arc lamps are:
Carbon arc lamp
Flame arc lamp
Magnetic arc lamp.

## Electrical & Electronics Engineering

With the passage of time the light output of an incandescent lamp decreases due to the
following two reasons:
Evaporation of the filament tends to cause the bulb to blacken
Evaporation makes the filament slowly decrease in diameter, which means that
the resistance of the filament increases. Therefore, an old filament draws less
current and operates at a lower temperature, which reduces its light output.
Consequently the efficiency of the lamp (lumens output/watt input) also
decreases with the passage of time.
24. What are the advantages of Incandescent lamps?
Direct operation on standard distribution voltage
Operating power factor unity
Good radiation characteristics in the luminous range
No effect of surrounding air temperature
Availability in various shapes and shades.
25. What is meant by energy efficient lamp?
(Apr 2013)
Lamp efficiency is defined as the ratio of luiminous flux to the power input. It is expressed in
lumens/watt.
26. What is the principle of Discharge lamps?
In all Discharge lamps, an electric current is passed through a gas or vapour which
tenders it luminous. In this process of producing light by gaseous conduction, the most
commonly used elements are neon, mercury and sodium vapours.
27. What are the types of Discharge lamps?
Type-1: Those lamps in which colour of light is the same as produced by the
discharge through the gas or vapour.
E.g. Sodium vapour, mercury vapour and neon gas lamps
Type-2: those lamps which use the phenomenon of fluorescence, these are known
as fluorescence lamps. In these lamps, the discharge through the vapour produces
ultra-violet waves which cause fluorescence in certain materials called as
phosphor. The inside of the fluorescent lamp is coated with a phosphor which
absorbs invisible ultra-violet rays and radiate visible rays.
E.g. Fluorescent mercury-vapour tube.
28. List out the demerits of Discharge lamps.
High initial cost
Poor power factor
Starting, being somewhat difficult requires starters/transformers in different
cases.
Time is needed to attain full brilliancy
Since these lamps have negative resistance characteristic ballasts are necessary to
stabilize the arc.
The flicker causes stroboscopic effect
They are suitable only for a particular position.

## 29. Explain mercury Iodide lamps.

These lamps are similar in construction to high pressure mercury vapour lamps but in
addition to mercury, a number of iodides are added which fill the gaps in the light spectrum, and
thus, improve the colour characteristic of light. A separate ignition device, in addition to the
choke is required for such a lamp. Their efficiency is comparatively high (75-90 lumens/watt).
30. Write down the applications of Mercury Iodide lamps.
Mercury Iodide lamps are suitable for application in the fields of
Flood lighting
Industrial lighting
Public lighting.
31. List out the efficiency of Discharge lamps.
Sodium vapour lamp: Its efficiency is about 40-50 lumens/watt
Mercury vapour lamp: Its efficiency is 30-40 lumens/watt
Mercury Iodide lamp: Its efficiency is comparatively higher(75-90 lumens/watt)
Neon lamp: Its efficiency of neon lamp lies between 15-40 lumens/watt
Fluorescent lamp: The efficiency of fluorescent lamp is about 40 lumens/watt
about three times the efficiency of an equivalent tungsten filament lamp
32. What are the advantages of Startless fluorescent lamp?
Almost instantaneous starting
No flickering and no false starts
Lamp life is lengthened
Starting and operation can occur at low voltage of 160-180 V
Lower maintenance cost (due to the elimination of any starter-switch).
33. Explain the Stroboscopic effect
(Apr 2014)
Stroboscopic (or flickering) effect produced by fluorescent lamps is due to the periodic
fluctuations in the light output of a lamp caused by the cyclic variations of the current on A.C.
circuits. This phenomenon creates multiple-image appearance of moving objects and makes the
movement appear jerky.
34. In what cases stroboscopic effect is troublesome?
This effect is very troublesome in the following cases:
When an operator has to move objects very quickly particularly those having
polished finish. These objects would appear to move with jerky motion which
over along period would produce visual fatigue
In the case of rotating machines whose frequency of rotation happens to be a
multiple of flicker frequency, the machines appear to decrease in speed of
rotation or be stationary.
35. How the Stroboscopic effect can be minimized?
By using three lamps on the separate phases of a 3-phase supply.
By using a twin lamp circuit on a single-phase supply ,one of the chokes having
a capacitor in series with it and the lamp
By operating the lamp from a high frequency supply (obviously, stroboscopic
effect will entirely disappear on D.C. supply).

## Electrical & Electronics Engineering

36. What are the demerits of Fluorescent lamps due to stroboscopic effect?
Low efficiency due to power loss in ballast series-resistance
Increased cost of the ballast resistance and reversing switch
Less life of the tube (about 80 percent of that with A.C. operation).
37. State the properties of Useful fluorescent lamp life.
The normal life of a fluorescent lamp is 7500 hours
The active life may vary from 5000 to 10000 hours depending upon the
operating conditions
Light output is reduced by 15-20 percent after 4000 hours operation and it is,
therefore, advisable to replace the fluorescent lamp after 4000-5000 hours
burning on economical grounds.
38. Write down the merits of Fluorescent lamps.
(Nov 2013)
High luminous efficiency
Long life
Low running cost
Low glare level
Less heat output
39. What are the demerits of Fluorescent lamps?
Stroboscopic effect
Small wattage requiring large number of fittings
Magnetic hum associated with choke causing disturbance.
40. Define the term Specular reflection
When light falls on polished metallic surfaces or silvered surfaces, then most of it is
reflected back according to the laws of reflection i.e., the angle of incidence is equal to the angle
of reflection. Only a small portion of the incident light is absorbed and there is always the image
of the source. Such reflection is known as specular reflection.
41. Define depreciation factor and reflection factor.
(Nov 2013)
Depreciation factor
Depreciation factor is defined as , illumination under normal working condition to
illumination when everything is clean. So this occurs when the source is not clean.(eg. lamps
covered with dust, dirt or smoke).
Reflection factor
It is defined as the ratio of the ratio of reflected light to the incident light. It is always less
than unity.
Reflected light
Reflection factor = ---------------------Incident light
42. What is Diffuse Reflection?
If the light is incident on coarse surfaces like paper, frosted glass, painted ceiling etc.
then it is scattered in all directions, hence no image of the source is formed. Such reflection of
light is called diffuse reflection.
43. What are the requirements of Good lighting?
(Nov 2011) (Nov 2014)

## Electrical & Electronics Engineering

Good lighting is one which provides visual comfort. Visual comfort enhances the
efficiency of a workman. Usually good lighting is often confused with high illumination levels.
The factors which are to considered are minimum glare and brightness contrast. Light sources
should be properly shielded by luminaries and mounted above the normal line of sight.
Reflected glare is to be avoided, by mounting luminaries with respect to equipment, so that the
reflected glare is directed away from the observer. Use of diffusing absorbing fixers reduce
glare.
44. Give the types of lighting schemes. (Apr 2012)
Different lighting schemes may be classified as follows:
Direct lighting
Semi-direct lighting
Semi-indirect lighting
Indirect lighting
General diffusing lighting
45. List out the characteristics of a good lighting scheme.
It should provide light distribution all over the working plane as uniform as
possible
It should avoid glare and hard shadows as far as possible
It should provide light of suitable colour.
46. What are the factors to be considered for designing the lighting scheme? (Apr 2015)
Intensity of illumination
Selection of luminaries
Size of the room
Mounting height and spacing of fittings
Conditions of use.
47. What is Flood lighting?
(Nov 2012)
The flooding of large surfaces with light from powerful projectors is called Flood Lighting. It
may be employed for the following purposes,
i. To enhance the beauty of ancient monuments by night
iii. To illuminate railway yards, sports stadium, car parks, construction sites and quarries.
48. Define Utilization factor.
The lumen output of the sources is not fully utilized at the work place. Part of it is lost in
the fittings. Some part is directed to the walls and ceiling where part will be absorbed and part
reflected. This is taken into account by a factor known as utilization factor or coefficient of
utilization.
49. Write the different methods of lighting calculations.
(Nov 2013)
Watt per square meter method
Lumen (or) light flux method
Point-to-point (or) Inverse square law method.

## Electrical & Electronics Engineering

UNIT-II
ELECTRIC HEATING AND WELDING
1. Explain Resistance heating?
This method of heating is based upon I2R effect and has wide applications such as heat treatment
of metals (e.g. Annealing, normalizing, hardening, tempering etc), drying and braking of potteries,
domestic cooking etc. In oven where wire resistances are employed for heating, temperature to the
time of 1000oC can be obtained.
2. What are the methods of heating?
The two methods of heating are
Direct resistance heating
Indirect resistance heating.
3. Explain direct resistance heating.
In this method the material or charge to be heated is treated as a resistance and current is passed
through it. The charge may be in the form of powder, small solid pieces or liquid. The electrodes are
inserted in the charge and connected to either A.C or D.C supply. In case of D.C or single-phase A.C
supply two electrodes will be required, while in case of 3-phase supply three electrodes will be used.
4. Where the direct resistance method is employed?
This heating method is employed in
Salt bath furnaces
Resistance welding
Electrode boiler for heating water.
5. Give the properties of good heating element.
(Apr 2012) (Apr 2014) (Nov 2014)
High specific resistance
High melting temperature
Low temperature coefficient of resistance
High oxidizing temperature
High ductility and flexibility
High mechanical strength of its own.
6. What are the factors affecting heating element?
Every heating element with passage of time breaks open and becomes unserviceable. Some of
the factors responsible for this failure are
Formation of hot spots which shine brighter during operation

## Electrical & Electronics Engineering

Oxidation
Corrosion
Mechanical failure.
7. What are the materials employed for low and medium temperature services?
Alloy of nickel and chromium.. Ni=80%,Cr=20% (or)
Alloy of nickel, chromium and iron.Ni=65%,Cr=15%,Fe=20%
Ni-Cr alloy is suitable for temperature at which oxidation takes place and work in severe conditions.
Ni-Cr-Fe alloy is recommended for use upto 850oC
8. What is the basis of resistor material?
Silicon carbide is the basis of resistor material for operating in air temperatures upto about
o
1500 C. The material is formed into rods of diameters and lengths for combination into circuits of the
required electrical rating.
9. What is a Resistance furnace?
Resistance furnaces or ovens are suitably-insulated closed chambers with a provision for
ventilation. These are used for heat treatment of metals, pottery work, commercial and domestic
heating.
10. Define Heating chamber
An enclosure fro charge which is heated by radiation or convection or both is called a
heating chamber. The design of the chamber, apart from mechanical consideration, is related primarily
to temperature and the major mode of heat transfer to be used.
11. Why the heating chambers are used?
The chambers are used to:
Control the distribution of heat within the chamber
Control the cooling rate of charge, if required
Confine the atmosphere around the charge
Store as much of the heat supplied as may be practicable and economical.
12. List out the types of heating chambers.
The heating chambers may be of
Batch type
Continuous type
13. Give the ways by which the temperature can be controlled.
There are three ways by which the temperature can be controlled:
Voltage
Time
Resistance
14. Mention the heat produced in heating elements to overcome the losses.
The heat produced in the heating elements, besides raising the charge to the required value,
is also to overcome the losses mentioned below:
Heat used in raising the temperature of oven or furnace
Heat used in raising the temperature of the containers or carriers

## Heat conducted through walls

Escapement of heat due to opening of door
15. Give the principle of Electric arc furnaces
An arc can also be obtained by using low voltage across two electrodes initially in contact
with each other. The low voltage required for this purpose can be obtained by using a step-down
transformer. Initially, the low voltage is applied, when the two electrodes are in contact with each
other. Further, when the two electrodes are gradually separated from each other, an arc is
established between the two.
16. Give the shapes of the Electric arc furnaces.
The arc furnaces are usually of following two shapes:
Cylindrical shape
Conical shape.
17. Mention the advantages of the conical shape electric arc furnace.
The conical shape entails the following advantages:

## Large surface area per unit bath volume

Consumes less power
Reduced melting time

## 18. What are the types of electrodes used in arc furnaces?

The following three types of electrodes are used in arc furnaces:
Carbon Electrode
Graphite Electrode
Self-baking Electrode.
19. List down the types of arc furnaces.
Arc furnaces are of following three types:
Direct arc furnace
Indirect arc furnace
Submerged arc furnace.
20. What are the advantages of indirect arc furnace?
Lower overall production cost per tonne of molten metal
Sound castings in thin and intricate designs can be produced
Metal losses due to oxidation and volatilization are quite low

## Electrical & Electronics Engineering

Flexible in operation.
21. Explain the process of Induction heating

(Apr 2014)

The process of Induction heating makes use of the currents induced by the electro-magnetic
action in the charge to be heated. Induction heating, in fact, is based on the principle of transformer
working. The primary winding is supplied from an A.C source is magnetically coupled to the charge
which acts as a short-circuited secondary of a single turns.
22. Mention the types of Induction furnaces.
Basically, the two types of Induction furnaces are:
Core type or low frequency induction furnace
(i)
Direct core type
(ii)
Vertical core type
(iii)
Indirect core type
Coreless type or high frequency induction furnace.
23. What are the drawbacks in direct core type furnace?
This type of furnace has the following drawbacks:
Leakage reactance is high and consequently the power factor is low on account
of poor magnetic coupling
Low frequencies have to employ as normal frequency causes turbulence of the
charge. This requires a motor-generator set or a frequency converter.
It suffers from pinching effect.
24. Enumerate the advantages of vertical core type induction furnace.
Consistent performance and simple control
Accurate temperature control, uniform castings, reduced metal losses and
reduction of rejects.
High efficient heat, low operating costs and improved production
High power factor (0.8-0.85) comparatively.
Local working conditions in a cool atmosphere with no dirt, noise or fuel
Absence of crucibles.
Absence of combustion gases resulting in elimination of the most common
source of metal contamination.
25. What are the applications of Coreless type Induction furnace?
These furnaces find applications in the following fields:

## Steel production(Energy consumption is 600 to 1000 kWh per tonne of steel)

Melting non-ferrous metals like brass, bronze, copper and aluminum etc., along
with various alloys of these elements.
Vacuum melting
Melting in controlled atmosphere
Melting for precision casting
Electronic industry
Industrial activities like soldering, brazing, hardening and annealing and
sterilizing instruments etc.

(Apr 2015)

## Some of the advantages of coreless induction furnace are as follows:

Fast in operation
Low erection cost
Can be operated intermittently
Operation is free from smoke, dirt ,dust and noises
Charging and pouring is simple
Less melting time
Precise control of power
Possibility of employing vacuum heating necessary for precious metal melting
27. Mention the advantages of eddy current heating.
Some of the advantages are as follows:
Temperature control is very easy
The heat can be made to penetrate into metal surface to any desired depth
This heating method is quick, clean and convenient
Very less wastage of heat
The equipment can be operated even by unskilled labour

## Electrical & Electronics Engineering

The surface area over which heat is produced can be accurately controlled
The amount of heat produced can be accurately controlled by suitable timing
devices.
28. Give the demerits of eddy current heating
The generation of heat is costly
Efficiency of equipment is quite low
Initial cost of the equipment is high.
29. What are the applications of eddy current heating?
Surface hardening
Annealing
Soldering.

## 30. Define the term Annealing.

In conventional method of annealing the process takes long time resulting in scaling of the
metal which is undesirable. But in eddy current heating, time taken is much less so that no scale
formation takes place. By this method a temperature of the order 750oC can be attained in one
minute upto a depth of 25 mm.
31. Enumerate other applications of eddy current heating.
Drying of paints
Welding
Melting of previous metals
Sterilization of surgical instruments
32. Mention the Electrodes of carbon arc welding
Electrodes are made of either carbon or graphite, are usually 300 mm long and 2.5 mm to
12 mm in diameter. Graphite electrodes are harder, more brittle and last longer than carbon
electrodes. They can withstand higher current densities but their arc column is harder to control.
33. Define Dielectric heating

(Nov 2011)

Dielectric heating is also known as High frequency capacitive heating. It is employed for
heating insulators like wood, plastics and ceramics etc. which cannot be heated easily and

## Electrical & Electronics Engineering

uniformly by other methods. The supply frequency required of dielectric heating is between 10-50
MHz and applied voltage is 20 KV. The overall efficiency of dielectric heating is about 50 percent.
34. What are the advantages of dielectric heating?

(Nov 2013)

Heating is uniform since heat is generated within the dielectric medium itself
With the increase in frequency the heating becomes faster
Only method for heating bad conductor of heat
Heating is fastest
Heating can be stopped immediately as and when desired.
35. Mention the applications of dielectric heating.

(Nov 2012)

## Drying and gluing of wood

Drying of rayon cakes in textile manufacture
Dehydration of foods
Gluing of laminated glass
Rubber vulcanizing

## 36. Give the applications of carbon arc welding.

Carbon arc welding in suitable for galvanized sheets using copper-silicon-manganese
alloy filler metal
It is adaptable for automation particularly where amount of weld deposit is large and
materials to be fabricated are of simple geometrical shapes such as water tanks
Useful for welding thin high-nickel alloys
Can be employed for welding stainless steel of thinner gauges with excellent results
37. Mention the advantages of carbon arc welding.
The temperature of the molten pool can be easily controlled by simply varying the
arc length
Can be easily adapted to inert gas shielding of the weld
Can be used as an excellent heat source for brazing, braze welding and soldering etc
38. What are the advantages of electric heating? (Nov 2012) (Apr 2012) (Nov 2013)

## (Apr 2013) (Apr 2014)

There are enormous advantages of electric heating over hte other systems and they are
i. Economical
ii. High efficiency of utilization
iii. Cleanliness
iv. Absence of flue gases
v. Ease of control.
39. Why the electric heating is considered to be superior when compared to the other
methods of heating.
(Nov 2012)
There are enormous advantages of electric heating over hte other systems and they are
i)Economical
ii)High efficiency of utilization
iii)Cleanliness
iv)Absence of flue gases
v)Ease of control.
40. What is meant by welding?

## (Nov 2011) (Nov 2012)

Welding is a materials joining process in which two or more parts are joined together.
41. What are the requirements of good welding?

(Apr 2013)

## Type of tungsten electrode

Diameter of electrode

## 42. Enumerate the various welding process.

(i) Oxyfuel gas welding
(ii) Arc welding
(iii) Resistance welding
(iv) Solid state welding
(v) Unique welding

(Nov 2014)

## 43. What type of electric supply is suitable for arc welding?

(Apr 2014)

Arc welding is a type of welding that uses a welding power supply to create an electric
arc between an electrode and the base material to melt the metals at the welding point. They can
use either direct (DC) or alternating (AC) current, and consumable or non-consumable
electrodes.
44. What are the applications of spot welding?
(Nov 2013)
Spot welding is usually employed for joining or fabricating sheet metal structure.
45. What is resistance welding?

(Apr 2012)

## Resistance welding is a thermo-electric process in which heat is generated at the

interface of the parts to be joined by passing an electrical current through the parts for a
precisely controlled time and under a controlled pressure
46. What are the two methods of resistance welding?
i. Spot welding
ii. Projection welding
iii. Seam welding
iv. Butt welding

## (Apr 2012) (Nov 2013)

UNIT III
ELECTRIC DRIVES AND CONTROL
1. What is an electrical drive?
(Nov 2012) (Apr 2012)
A form of machine equipment designed to convert electrical energy into mechanical
energy and to provide electrical control of this process is known as electrical drive.
2. List out the major parts of an electrical drive.
An electrical drive has the following major parts.
Motor
Power modulator
Control unit
Source
3. State advantages of an electrical drive
(Nov 2011) (Nov 2013)
High efficiency
Available in wide range of torque, speed and power.
Speed control is easy and smooth
4. State the disadvantages of an electrical drive

(Apr 2014)

## Drive comes to stop as soon as there is failure of electric supply

It cannot be used at far off places which are not served by electric
supply.
5. Name the motors that are used for an electrical drive
(Nov 2012)
Single phase and Three phase induction motor
D.C shunt, series and compound motor
Three phase and single phase series motor
Synchronous motor

6. What are the important factors on choice of electric drives? (Nov 2014) (Apr 2014)
(Apr 2015)
Transient operation requirements
Requirement related to the source
Capital and running cost , maintenance needs , life
Reliability
Environment and location
Space and weight restrictions
7. What is group drive?
(Nov 2012) (Nov 2014)
A drive in which a single electric motor drives a line shaft by means of which an entire
group of working machines may be operated is called group drive. It is also called as line
shaft drive. The line shaft is fitted with multi stepped pulleys and belts that connect these
pulleys and the shafts of the driven machines serve to vary their speed.
8. What is individual drive?
(Nov 2012) (Nov 2014)
In individual drive, each machine is driven by its own separate motor with the help of
gears, pulley, etc.
Examples: Single spindle drilling machines and various types of electrical hand tools.
9. Explain briefly about multi motor drive (Nov 2012)
In multi motor drives, separate motors are provided for actuating different parts of the
driven mechanism.
Example: In travelling cranes, three motors are used: one for hoisting, another for long
travel motion and third for cross travel motion.
10. Give the merits and demerits of individual drive
(Nov 2013) (Apr 2013) (Apr
2014)
Merits
Flexibility in installation
Maintenance of line shafts , bearings, pulleys and belts are eliminated
Demerits
High cost
11. Give the merits and demerits of group drive

## Electrical & Electronics Engineering

Merits
Saving in initial cost
The efficiency and power factor of a large group drive will be higher
Demerits
Noise level at the working site is quite high
The speed control of individual machine is very cumbersome.
12. What are the factors governed in choice of drive?
Choice of drive is governed by the following factors
Speed of driving and driven machines
Convenience
Space available
Clutching arrangement required
Cost
13. What are the characteristics and field of application of D.C shunt motor
Characteristics
Medium starting torque
Nearly constant speed
Field of application
Elevators
Conveyers
Grinders
The loads which are due to the forces of gravity, tension or compression in a spring or
any elastic body are called active loads. The active or potential torques may be positive or
negative depending upon whether they aid or resist the motion of the drive.
Passive torque is due to friction, cutting and deformation of inelastic bodies. They
always oppose the motion of drive and change their sign when the direction of rotation of
drive is changed.
16. What are the characteristics and field of application of D.C series motor.
(Apr 2013)
Characteristics
High starting torque
Variable speed
Field of application
Electric locomotives
Lift and cranes
17. What are the characteristics and field of application of three phase synchronous
motor.
(Nov 2011)
Characteristics

## Speed remains constant under varying loads

Field of application
Motor generator sets
Paper and cement industries
18. What are the advantages of power factor improvement?
Reduction in investment in the system facilities per kW of load supplied
Increase in voltage level at load
Reduction in circuit current
19. What are the characteristics and field of application of slip ring induction motor.
(Nov 2012)
Characteristics
High starting torque
Speed can be changed upto 50 % of its normal speed
Field of application
Compressors
Pumps
20. What are the causes of low power factor?

## All A.C motors and transformers operate at lagging power factor

Due to typical characteristics of the arc, arc lamps operate at low power factor

When there is increase in supply voltage, which usually occurs during low
periods the magnetizing current of inductive reactance increases and power
factor of the plant as a whole decreases.
21. What are the disadvantages of low power factor?

Copper losses are proportional to the square of the current hence inversely
proportional to the square of the power factor i.e., more copper losses at low
power factor and hence poor efficiency

## Rating of alternators and transformers are proportional to their output current

hence inversely proportional to power factor, therefore large generators and
transformers are required to deliver same load but at a low factor
22. What are the methods of power factor improvement?
(Apr 2012)
Use of static capacitors
Use of synchronous condensers
Use of phase compensated motor
23. What are the precautions for capacitor installations

The capacitor during off periods should be switched off the line as otherwise
voltage across transformers will be excessive. Over excitation of transformers
will result in distortion of waveform giving rise to objectionable harmonic
currents

## Electrical & Electronics Engineering

Switching currents of capacitors are several times the full rated current
therefore wiring leads should be of twice the size chosen for normal current
carrying capacity
A finer control can be obtained by varying field excitation

Higher maintenance and operating costs comparatively.
Low efficiency due to losses in rotating parts and heat losses
25. How an electric is selected for a particular application?
For a particular application, the type of electric drive and control gear are determined
by following considerations
Starting torque
Duty
Limitations on starting current
Speed control range and its nature
Need for automatic control
Conditions of environment
26. What are the components of load torque?
(i)
Frictional torque (Tf)
Friction will be present at the motor shaft and also in various moving parts
(ii)
Windage torque (Tw)
When a motor runs, wind generates torque opposing the motion which is
termed as windage torque.
(iii)
Torque required to do some useful mechanical work (Tl)
27. Draw the block diagram of an electric drive?
Source
Power
modulato
r
Motor

Input command

Control
unit

Sensing
unit

## 28. What are the types of load torque?

Load torques are classified into two types:
29. Classify load torques depending on the speed?
Depending upon the speed the loads torque is classified into:

30. Give the expression for back emf, supply voltage and torque developed by the motor?
Back emf Eb = Ke m
Supply voltage V = Eb + Ia Ra
Torque T = Ke Ia
31. Classify load torques depending on the variation of time?
It is classified into
32. Give two methods of speed control in D.C. motors?
(Nov 2013)
Variable resistance in field circuit and armature circuit
By tapping the field
33. Give two methods of speed control in A.C. motors?
Voltage drop in series impedance
Voltage variation and pole changing
34. What are the losses reduced for energy conservation?
Electrical transmission losses
Electrical motor losses
Conversion losses
Mechanical transmission losses
35. List out and explain the mechanical features of an electric motor.

(Apr2015)

## i. Focuses on the mechanical design of modern electric motors

ii. Provides in-depth knowledge of state-of-the-art design methods and developments
iii. Details the design and manufacture of major motor components and subsystems

## Electrical & Electronics Engineering

iv. Reviews various cooling techniques, including forced air, liquid, and phase-change
v. Addresses motor vibration and acoustic noise issues
vi. Discusses the analysis and calculation of motor power losses
vii. Emphasizes construction, optimization, and applications
36. What are the motors used in paper mill, textile mill, lifts and cranes. (Nov 2012)
(Nov 2013)
i. Dc series motor
ii. Slip ring induction motor
37. When can you use a direct drive?
(Apr 2014)
This type of drive is employed where there is a possibility of arranging the driving
member in line with the driven member where speed of driven member is same as that of
driving member.
38. Define power factor.

(Apr 2012)

The power factor of an AC electrical power system is defined as the ratio of the real
power flowing to the load to the apparent power in the circuit.

UNIT IV
ELECTRIC TRACTION
1. What is electric traction?
(Nov 2012) (Apr 2014)
The locomotion in which the driving or tractive force is obtained from electric motors
is called electric traction.
2. Name the application of electric traction

Electric trains

Tram cars

Trolley buses

Diesel-electric vehicles
3. How electric traction is classified?
(Nov 2011)

## Non-electric traction systems

These systems do not use electrical energy at any stage.
Example: Steam engine drive used in railways

## Electric traction systems

These systems involve the use of electric energy at some stage or the other.
Example: Railway electric locomotive fed from overhead A.C supply
4. State the requirements of an ideal traction system.

(Apr 2012)

## It should be possible to overload the equipment for short periods

5. Name different systems of traction
(Nov 2013)

## Battery electric drive

Electric drive
6. Give the important features of a good braking system.
(Apr 2014)

## The braking force must be capable of being controlled

Kinetic energy of the rotating parts of the motor and its driven machines
must be suitably dissipated and suitable means must be provided
7. Explain electric braking
(Apr 2012)
In electric braking or electrodynamics braking system, the kinetic energy of the moving
part of the system is converted into electrical energy which in turn is dissipated as heat in a
resistance or in certain cases may be returned to the supply.
8. State the advantages of electric braking

## Electric braking is quite fast

Electric braking is free from fires and is more smooth than mechanical
braking

It is quite cheap as far as maintenance part is concerned due to the fact that
no replacement of brake shoes or lining is needed
9. What are the disadvantages of electric braking

## Electric braking cannot be applied to all types of electric motors

Electric braking can stop the motor but it cannot hold it stationary
10. What is plugging?
Plugging involves reconnection of motor to supply in such a way that motor develops a
torque in opposite direction to the movement of the rotor. The system decelerates till zero
speed and then it will accelerate in opposite direction. It is called as reverse current braking.
11. What is dynamic braking?
(Nov 2011)
In dynamic or rheostatic braking, the supply to the motor is disconnected during the
braking period. The field continues to get energized in the same direction. Thus the motor
starts working as a generator and all the kinetic energy of the moving parts is converted into
electrical energy which is further dissipated in external resistance connected across the motor
during braking period.
12. What is regenerative braking?

## Electrical & Electronics Engineering

In case of regenerative braking, the machine is made to work in a way that it generates
energy and feeds it back to the supply system. This is achieved when Eb is greater than V.
Thus the direction of current in the armature gets reversed; the direction of field remaining
same, the torque produced is in the opposite direction.
13. Give the features of trolleybus

As the total weight is limited that of the electrical equipment must be cut
down to the minimum possible value.

The adhesion between a rubber tyred wheel and the roadway is sufficiently
high to enable only a single driving axle and therefore a single motor be used.
14. Name the protective devices used in tramways and trolley buses

Circuit breakers

## Lightning arrester or surge diverter

15. Give the general features of motors in traction service

## Motors should have suitable speed torque characteristics

The motors must have high torque during starting and acceleration in order
to accelerate heavy mass

## Motor should be amenable to easy and simple methods of rheostatic and

regenerative braking mechanisms
16. What are the functions of tractive effort exerted by the traction unit?

## To overcome curve resistance

17. Define tractive effort.
(Apr 2012) (Apr 2013) (Nov 2014)
The effective force necessary to propel the train at the wheels of the vehicle is called the
tractive effort. It is tangential to the driving wheels and measured in newton. It is a vector
quantity.
18. Give expression for tractive effort
The total tractive required running a train on track
= Tractive effort during acceleration + Traction effort to overcome the effect due
to gravity + Tractive effort used in overcoming frictional resistance

Ft = FaFg Fr
19. Merits and Demerits of shunt transition
Merits
It operates satisfactorily over a wide range of loads, making it suitable for
locomotive applications
Demerits

## Electrical & Electronics Engineering

During shunt transition, one motor is actually short circuited and then disconnected
from supply and afterwards reconnected in parallel. This result in loss of tractive effort
during this period till motor is reconnected in parallel.
Simplicity in design
Easy speed control
Simplified maintenance
Low thermal efficiency
It has strictly limited overload capacity
Extensive and costly auxiliary equipment
Low initial investment
Very simple braking system
A gear box is essential for speed control
22. What is mean by tramways?
(Apr 2015)
It is perhaps the cheapest type of transport available in very dense traffic. It receives
power through a bow collector about 600 V D.C.
23. What are the Undesirable effects of Harmonics in source current?
Malfunction of electronic equipment
Skin effect
Saturation of transformers
24. What are the Undesirable effects of Harmonics in traction application?
Mal operation of signals
Interference with telephone lines which run by the side of the track
25. What are the steps to solve problems of low power factor and harmonics?
Converters are used which have good p.f
Static VAR compensators are used to maintain p.f
26. What is the purpose of traction control?
To provide smooth acceleration
To control speed
To avoid damage to couplings
27. What is series-parallel control?
It is so named since this method assumes that at least two motors are being used which
are connected in series at start for low speed and in parallel for speed running.
28. Give Advantages of regenerative braking?

## Reduced energy consumption

Less wear and tear of brake blacks, wheels and tracks
29. What are the electrical characteristics of traction motors?(Apr 2012) (Apr 2015)
High starting torque
Simple speed control
Better commutation
Capability to operate in parallel
30. What are the Mechanical characteristics of traction motors? (Apr 2012) (Apr 2015)
Traction motor must be robust
It should be capable to withstand continuous vibration
Minimum weight
Must be totally enclosed
31. What are the types of motors find its application in traction?
D.C. series motor
A.C. series motor
Repulsion motors
Three phase induction motors.
32. Name the various methods of electric braking.
(Nov 2012)
i. Dynamic braking
ii. Plugging
iii. Regenerative braking
33. How would you analyze the speed time curve for electric train? (Nov 2012)
(Nov 2014)
The speed time curve can be analyzed with respect to
i)Acceleration
ii) Speed-constant or free running
iii)Period of coasting
iv) Braking period
34. What is crest speed?
(Nov 2012)
It is the maximum speed attained by a train during a run.
35. Define average speed.
(Nov 2013)
It is the mean speed maintained by a train during a run and is given by
Average speed
=
Distance between stops in km
------------------------------------- Actual
time of run in hr
36. What are the factors affecting specific energy consumption.
(Apr 2013)
Specific energy consumption is defined as the energy consumed (Wh) per tonne mass of the
train per km length of the run.

Espc

Totalenergyconsumed
Trianmass (tonne) runlength(km)

## Electrical & Electronics Engineering

The traction motor control is required for starting without drawing excessive current from
the supply for the following purposes,
i. To provide smooth acceleration without sudden shock
ii. To avoid damage to couplings and inconvenience to the passengers
iii. To control speed depending upon the type of service
38. What are the advantages of electric traction?
(Apr 2014)
i)Initial cost and running cost of the system are low.
ii)It has efficiency.
iii)The wearing of the track is minimum.
iv)There is no expensive wear and tear.
39. What are the factors affecting coefficient of adhesion.
Coefficient of adhesion = Tractive effort to slip the wheel

(Apr 2012)

UNIT-V
ELECTROLYTIC PROCESSES
1. Explain electrolysis process.
(Apr 2014)
The fact that electrical energy can produce chemical changes and the process based on
it is called electrolytic process. It is widely used for the extraction of pure metals from their
ores, manufacturing of various chemicals and electro deposition of metals.
(Nov 2012) (Nov 2013) (Apr 2014)
Faradays first law states that the chemical deposition due to flow of current through
an electrolyte is directly proportional to the quantity of electricity (coulombs) passed
through it.
Mass of chemical deposition, m quantity of electricity, Q
or m It
[since Q= It]
(Nov 2012) (Nov 2013) (Apr 2014)
This law states that when the same quantity of electricity is passed through several
electrolytes, the mass of the substances deposited are proportional to their respective
chemical equivalents or equivalent weights.
4. Define electro chemical equivalent.
Electro chemical equivalent, Z, of a substance is defined as the amount of the
substance deposited on passing a steady electric current of 1 a for one second through its
solution. It is usually expressed in terms of milligrams per coulomb.
5. Define current efficiency

## Electrical & Electronics Engineering

The current efficiency is defined as the ratio of the actual quantity of substance
liberated or deposited to the theoretical quantity as calculated from Faradays law. Its value
usually lies between 90 and 98 %.
6. Define energy efficiency.
(Nov 2012)
The ratio of theoretical energy required to the actual energy required for depositing a
given quantity of metal is known as energy efficiency.
7. What is electro plating
Electroplating is an art of depositing a superior or more noble metal on an inferior
or a base metal by means of an aqueous solution of a suitable electrolyte.
8. What is polarization and how can it be made negligible? (Nov 2012) (Apr 2014)
Use of current density, in electro deposition process, beyond a certain limit causes
electrolysis of water and hydrogen liberation on the cathode. This hydrogen evolved on the
cathode blankets the base metal which reduces the rate of metal deposition. This
phenomenon is called polarization.
Polarization can be reduced by agitating the electrolyte and can be made negligible
by reverse current process.
9. Mention the applications of Electrolysis. (Nov 2011) (Apr 2012) (Apr 2014) (Apr 2015)
Electro deposition
Manufacture of chemicals
Anodizing
Electro polishing
Electro cleaning or pickling
Electro deposition of rubber
Electro facing
Electro typing
10. Give the purpose of electroplating
(Nov 2014)
To protect the metals against corrosion
To give reflecting properties reflectors
To give a shiny appearance to articles
To replace worn out material
11. What are the operations involved in electroplating
The operations involved in electro plating are
Cleaning operation
Deposition of metal
12. What is electro deposition?
(Nov 2013)
The process of depositing a coating of one metal over another metal or non metal
electrically is called electro deposition. It is used for protective decorative and functional
purposes.
13. Give the advantages of reverse current plating?

## Electrical & Electronics Engineering

During reverse current period the unsound and inferior metal is depleted at the flat
level surfaces are produced.
Metal surface is brightened causing elimination of buffing or polishing operation.
14. Define battery
Battery is an electro chemical device, which delivers electrical energy by chemical
reaction. When numbers of cells are arranged together is termed as battery.
15. Define primary cells with examples.
A primary battery stores electrical energy in a chemical form which is introduced at
the manufacturing stage. When it is discharged and this chemically stored energy is
depleted, the battery is no longer serviceable. Applications for primary batteries are
generally in the low-cost domestic environment, in portable equipment such as torches,
16. Define fuel cell
A fuel cell is an energy conversion device that is closely related to a battery. Both are
electrochemical devices for the conversion of chemical to electrical energy.
17. Define secondary cells with examples.
A secondary or rechargeable battery absorbs electrical energy, stores this in a
chemical form and then releases it when required. Once the battery has been discharged and the
chemical energy depleted, it can be recharged with a further intake of electrical energy. Many
cycles of charging and discharging can be repeated in a secondary battery. Applications cover a
wide range. In the domestic environment secondary batteries are used in portable hand tools,
laptop computers and portable telephones.
18. Define semi-fuel cell
A semi-fuel cell is an intermediate between these, being a battery where the chemical
energy can be replenished externally, but not continuously. The energy storage capacity of a
fuel cell is a function of the fuel cell and its fuel. A reversible fuel cell operates essentially
as a secondary battery.
19. Mention the methods used for charging the batteries.
Constant current method
Constant voltage method
20. Define battery capacity.
The capacity of the battery is the product of the specified discharge current in ampere and the
no. of hours the battery discharges. It is expressed in ampere hours
21. What are the factors to be considered while designing the capacity of the battery
The size and number plates
Quantity of electrolyte in the battery
Specific gravity of electrolyte
Rate of discharge

## Electrical & Electronics Engineering

Temperature
21. Define ampere hour efficiency
It is the ratio of ampere hour output to the ampere hour input.
22. Define watt hour efficiency
It is the ratio of watt hour output to the watt hour input.
23. Define energy auditing and its significance.
(Nov 2012) (Apr 2015)
Energy Audit means studying the energy consumption pattern in the utilities or
equipments by obtaining necessary data analyze the same to identify the areas where
wastages or loses occur and suggest methods to avoid wastages or loss and also other
consumption measures to ensure efficient use of energy.
i) Preliminary Audit
ii) Detailed Audit
24. Why low voltage heavy current supply is required for electroplating. (Apr 2013)
High efficient, fast and reliable control
25. What are the chemical reaction taking place in Ni-Cadmium battery. (Apr 2013)
i) Ni(OH)4 for the positive plate
of solace oil for stabilizing the electrode capacity.
iii) The electrolyte is 21% solution of KOH to which is added a small quantity of LiOH
for increasing the capacity of the cell.
26. Mention at least two energy conservation techniques for domestic applications.
(Nov 2014)
i. Lamps
ii. Electronic ballast
27. What is sealed maintenance free battery?
(Nov 2013)
i. Maintenance-free or sealed battery needs NO refilling of electrolyte.
ii. Minimal spillage and sulfur formation.
iii. Terminal posts are visible even on a maintenance free battery; just need to hook up the
terminal posts to a charger.
28. What do you mean by reserve capacity rating?
(Nov 2013)
Ampere-hour Capacity- It is a function of the total plate area. i.e Size of the individual plate
multiplied by the number of plates.
29. What is Brine solution?
(Apr 2012)
Brine is a solution of salt and water. It is mainly used as a preservative for
vegetables, fish, fruit, and meat through a process known as brining. The high salt content in
Brine prevents the growth of bacteria and thus helps to preserve the food for a long time
without creating any difference in taste.
30. Define current efficiency in electrolytic process. (Nov 2011)
Current efficiency is defined as the ratio of the actual quantity of substance liberated or
deposited to the theoretical quantity.
Actual quantity of substance liberated
Current efficiency = ------------------------------------------------Theoretical quantity