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CIV 324 – Winter 2012

Assignment 1

Name:

Prof. Kwon

Due Jan 20 (Friday) by 6:00 am, GB drop boxe in the 4 th floor computer lab.

1. [Soil phase relationship] The following data are given for a soil: porosity = 0.45, specific gravity of the soil solids = 2.68, and moisture content = 10%. Determine the mass of water to be added to 10 m 3 of soil for full saturation.

[solution]

n

G

w

=

V

a

+

V

w

s

VV

+

+

V

aws

=

W

s

V γ

s

w

=

W

w

W

s

=

= 2.68

0.1

=

0.45

(1)

 

(2)

(3)

For 10 m 3 of soil in current state, the volume of void (

V

v

= 0.45×=10

4.5m

3

= VV+

V

vaw

(4)

) is

and, the volume of solid is

water.

V

s

=−10 4.5 = 5.5m

3 . To fully saturated, the void should be filled with

From (2) and (3)

W

w

/ 0.1

V

γ w

/ 0.1

= w

V

s

γ

w

V

s

γ

w

= 2.68

(5)

Hence, the volume of water in the initial state is

V

w

= 0.1× 2.68×=V

s

1.474 m

3 (6)

From (4) and (6), additional water that should be added is

4.5 1.474 = 3.026 m

3

CIV 324 – Winter 2012

Prof. Kwon

2. [Soil phase relationship] A large soil sample obtained from a borrow pit has a wet mass of 26.5 kg. The in-place volume occupied by the sample is 0.013 m 3 . A small portion of the sample is used to determine the water content; the wet mass is 135 g, and after drying in oven, the mass is 117g.

(a)

Determine the soil’s water content.

(b)

Determine the soil’s wet and dry density for conditions at the borrow pit.

[solution]

(a)

(b)

w

=

ρ wet

135

117

117

100

⋅=

15.4%

3

= 26.5kg / 0.013m = 2038.5kg / m

3

Mass of water in 26.5 kg of wet soil

M

w

=−(135 117) /135×=26.5 3.533kg

Mass of solid

M

s

=−26.5 3.533 = 22.97 kg

ρ= 22.97 / 0.013 = 1767 kg / m

dry

3

CIV 324 – Winter 2012

Prof. Kwon

3. [Soil phase relationship] Borrow soil is used to fill a 75,000 m 3 depression. The borrow soil has the following characteristics: unit weight ϒ=15.107 kN/m 3 , water content w = 8%, and specific gravity of the solids G s = 2.66. The final in-place dry unit weight should be 17.56 kN/m 3 , and the final water content should be 13%.

(a)

How many cubic meters of borrow soil are needed?

(b)

Assuming no evaporation loss, what water mass is needed to achieve 13% water content?

(c)

What will be the density of the in-place fill after a long rain?

[Solution]

Draw the mass and volume phases of the borrow soil on a phase diagram. Assuming unit volume (1 m 3 ),

Total weight W T = W w + W s = 15.107 kN

From water content of 8%, W w /W s = 0.08, W s = 13.988 kN, W w = 1.119 kN

Volume of solid = W s /ϒ s =(13.988)/(2.66*9.81) = 0.536 m 3

Volume of water = W w /ϒ w =(1.119)/(9.81) = 0.114 m 3

Volume of air = 1 – 0.536 – 0.114 = 0.35 m 3

At the final stage,

Dry unit weight

γ=

d

V

s

γ

s

V (2.66

s

×

9.81)

=

VV

+

+

V

aws

1

Hence, volume of void

V

s

= 0.673 m 3

= 17.56

Water content of 13%, W w /W s = 0.13, W s = 17.56 kN, W w = 2.283 kN

Volume of water V w = W w /ϒ w = 0.233 m 3

Volume of air V a = 1 – 0.233 – 0.673 = 0.094

(a) Total volume of 75,000 m 3 will be filled with the compacted soil (at final stage above). Total required solid is 75000 * 0.673 = 50,475 m 3 and corresponding weight is 50475*(2.66)*(9.81) = 1.317 * 10 6 kN. The weight of solid should be transported. To have this weight of soil in the initial stage, required volume of borrow soil is

CIV 324 – Winter 2012

Prof. Kwon

(b)

The weight of water in 94200 m 3 of borrow soil is 94200 * 0.114 * 9.81 = 1.054 * 10 5 kN.

The weight of soil in the final stage is 75000*0.233*9.81 = 1.714*10 5 kN.

The difference between the two is the additional water: 0.66 *10 5 kN

Required mass of water = 0.66*10 5 /9.81 = 6728 ton = 6.728*10 6 kg

(c)

After long rain, the soil will be fully saturated. Hence, the volume of water will be 0.233 +0.094 =

0.327 m 3 per unit volume of soil and volume of air will be zero.

The saturated unit weight is,

γ=

sat

V

γ+ γ

ww

ss

V

(V

w

+

V G )

s

s

γ

w

=

VV

w

+

s

1

=

(0.327

+

0.673

×

2.66)(9.81)

=

20.77 kN / m

3