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Dissertation Titled

Evaluation of Fire Resistant Hydraulic Fluid to Replace Conventional Mineral Oil in Nuclear Industry

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of

M. Tech. (Mechanical Engineering with Specialization in Machine Design)

By

Zeeshan Ahmad

(132090007)

2014-2015

Under the guidance of

Dr. V.M.Phalle

(132090007) 2014-2015 Under the guidance of Dr. V.M.Phalle Department of Mechanical Engineering Veermata Jijabai

Department of Mechanical Engineering Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute

(Autonomous Institute Affiliated to University of Mumbai) Mumbai 400019

Certificate

This is to certify that Zeeshan Ahmad Rizwan Ahmad (ID. No. 132090007) has completed

the dissertation titled ―Evaluation of Fire Resistant Hydraulic Fluid to Replace

Conventional Mineral Oil in Nuclear Industry‖ to our satisfaction, as a partial fulfilment of

award of degree of M. Tech. Mechanical Engineering (Specialization in Machine Design)

under University of Mumbai.

Dr. V.M.Phalle Supervisor Department of Mechanical Engg. V.J.T.I., Mumbai

Dr. Sanjay M.G. Head Department of Mechanical Engg. V.J.T.I., Mumbai

Mr N. L. Soni External Supervisor Head, Fluid Power & Tribology Section Refuelling Technology Division

Dr. O. G. Kakde Director, V.J.T.I., Mumbai

Certificate of Approval

The dissertation on “Evaluation of Fire Resistant Hydraulic Fluid to Replace

Conventional Mineral Oil in Nuclear Industry” submitted by Mr. Zeeshan Ahmad

Rizwan Ahmad (ID. No. 132090007) is found to be satisfactory and is approved for the

Degree of Master of Technology in Mechanical Engineering with specialization in Machine

Design under University of Mumbai.

Dr. V.M.Phalle Supervisor Department of Mechanical Engg. V.J.T.I., Mumbai

Date:

Place: Mumbai

(External Examiner)

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Acknowledgment

First and foremost I would like to thank Dr. V.M.Phalle, Associate Professor & TPO, Mechanical Engg. Dept., VJTI Mumbai, for his guidance, support and encouragement throughout this work. I thank Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai for giving me this internship opportunity to carry out a research of this magnitude. My sincere thanks to Mr N. L. Soni, Outstanding Scientist, Head-Fluid Power and Tribology Section, Refuelling Technology Division, Mr. P. K. Mishra, Scientific officer (E), Mr. P. K. Limaye, Scientific officer (H), Mr. Shiju Verghese Scientific officer (E), Mr. S. Pandharikar, Scientific officer (F), and the entire Team, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai for being supportive and giving me the freedom to experiment my ideas. Their guidance and continuous encouragement throughout this period was invaluable for my success. I am grateful to them for their advice and endless support in all parts of this dissertation. Last but not least, I would like to thank my family and friends for motivating and having faith in me.

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Declaration of the Student

I declare that this written submission represents my ideas in my own words and where

others' ideas or words have been included, I have adequately cited and referenced the original

sources.

I also declare that I have adhered to all principles of academic honesty and integrity and

have not misrepresented or fabricated or falsified any idea / data / fact / source in my

submission.

I understand that any violation of the above will be cause for disciplinary action by the

Institute and can also evoke penal action from the sources which have thus not been properly

cited or from whom proper permission has not been taken when needed.

Zeeshan Ahmad M.Tech (Machine design) Roll No.: 132090007 Date:

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Abstract

Hydraulic systems are extensively used in DAE like fuel handling control of various reactors, reprocessing plants, nuclear waste management systems; nuclear fuel extrusion presses and uranium mining etc. in many applications surrounding temperatures are high. Conventional hydraulic oil manufactured from petroleum based fluid has poor fire resistant characteristics and in high temperature applications this type of oil may be a big fire hazard. Also, in some applications like AHWR fuelling machine snout, where ambient temperature is quite high, lack of adequate cooling system may result in increase in operating temperature of working hydraulic fluid leading to the loss of viscosity and hence lubrication apart from thermal degradation of the hydraulic fluid. Petroleum based hydraulic fluids have poor viscosity index and have limit in being used only up to 65 o C. To reduce the fire hazards, non- flammable hydraulic fluids are best suited. Apart from the above difficulties gamma radiation is the most severe operating condition in nuclear industry. So degradation of hydraulic fluid because of gamma radiation will be dangerous and hazardous for the entire environment near the nuclear reactor. In view of this it is essential to explore and evaluate synthetic hydraulic fluid generally called as Fire Resistant Hydraulic Fluid (FRHF) for the utilization in fuelling machine of AHWR as well as other hydraulic applications of DAE. There for this thesis work mainly based on the evaluation and comparison of the properties of Fire resistant hydraulic fluid and Petroleum based mineral oil.

Keywords: Evaluation of fire resistant hydraulic fluid, Radiation resistant lubricant, friction, Wear, Viscosity measurement

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Introduction

 

1

Objective

2

Summery

2

2. Literature Review

 

4

2.1. Classification of Hydraulic Fluids [1]

4

2.1.1. Classification by Physical Properties

5

2.1.2. Classification by Chemical Properties

5

2.1.3. Classification

by

Operating Characteristics

5

2.1.4. Classification into Petroleum or Nonpetroleum Hydraulic Fluids

6

2.1.5. Classification

by Fire-Resistance

7

2.2. Classification of Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids, Their Properties and Uses [2]

7

2.2.1. Introduction

 

7

Fire

2.2.2. Hazards

8

2.2.3. Resistance and Fire-Resistant Fluids

Fire

9

2.2.4. Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluid Types for Industrial Applications

9

2.3. Properties of Hydraulic Fluids and Their Effect on System Performance [6]

10

2.3.1. Density (ρ)

 

11

2.3.2. Viscosity

12

Viscosity

2.3.3. Index [1]

13

2.4. Requirements for Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids [7]

14

2.5. Tribological Properties of Hydraulic Fluids

15

2.5.1. Lubrication Properties

 

15

2.5.2. Wear or Surface Damage

18

2.5.3. Prevention of Wear

 

19

2.5.4. Test Methods for Lubricating Properties

20

2.6. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Properties of Hydraulic Fluid

24

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3.

Tribological Evaluation of Hydraulic Fluids

27

3.1. Apparatus and Materials

 

27

3.2. Experimental Procedure

28

 

3.2.1.

Standard

Testing Method

28

1.

Test

Procedure

29

2.

Test

Parameters

30

3.3.

Measurement and Calculation of Wear [23] [24]

30

3.3.1. Wear Measurement of Ball Specimen

31

3.3.2. Wear of Flat Specimen

32

3.3.3. Results and Discussion

32

4. Gamma Irradiation of Hydraulic Fluids

39

4.1.

Measurement of Properties of Synthetic Fire Resistant Hydraulic Oil (Oil-A)

39

4.1.1. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Kinematic Viscosity

39

4.1.2. Effect Of Gamma Radiation On Viscosity Index

40

4.1.3. Appearance of Oil

after Gamma Irradiation

40

4.2.

Measurement of Properties of Petroleum Based Hydraulic Fluid (Oil-B)

40

4.2.1. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Kinematic Viscosity

40

4.2.2. Effect Of Gamma Radiation On Viscosity Index

41

4.2.3. Appearance of Oil

after Gamma Irradiation

41

5. Conclusion and Future Scope

42

5.1. Conclusion

42

5.2. Future Scope

43

6. References

45

Appendix I

47

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1 Coefficient of friction Vs. Stribeck parameter

17

Figure 2.2 Five bench-type friction and wear testers ………………………………………………….…

24

Figure 3.1 Measurement of plate and ball wear scar marks

30

Figure 3.2 Lubrication regimes

37

Figure 3.3 Reciprocating wear & friction machine PLINT TE 70

47

Figure 3.4 Typical photographs indicating ball wear

47

Figure 3.5 3D profile of wear scar on SS-52100 steel flat sample

47

Figure 3.6 Stribeck curve of Oil-A and Oil-B

48

Figure 3.7 Effect of temperature on coefficient of friction 15 N / 10 Hz

48

Figure 3.8 Effect of temperature on coefficient of friction 25 N / 10 Hz

49

Figure 3.9 Effect of temperature on coefficient of friction 15 N / 20 Hz

49

Figure 3.10 Load vs. wear rate of ball 27 o C /10 Hz

50

Figure 3.11 Load vs. wear rate of ball 65 o C /10 Hz

50

Figure 3.12 Load vs. wear rate of plate 27 o C /10 Hz

51

Figure 3.13 Load vs. wear rate of plate 65 o C /10 Hz

51

Figure 4.1 Percentage change in kinematic viscosity of Oil-A

52

Figure 4.2 Viscosity index vs. gamma radiation dose

52

Figure 4.3 Change of appearance with gamma radiation dose

52

Figure 4.4 Percentage change in kinematic viscosity of Oil-B

53

Figure 4.5 Viscosity index vs. gamma radiation dose

53

Figure 4.6 Change of appearance with gamma radiation dose

53

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1 Possible ignition sources

8

Table 2.2 ISO Classification of fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and their composition

9

Table 2.3 Units of dynamic viscosity

12

Table 2.4 Units of kinematic viscosity

13

Table 2.5 Radiation resistance of hydraulic fluids

25

Table 3.1 Test conditions for Oil-A and Oil-B

28

Table 3.2 ASTM std. parameters Vs. parameters used for this test

30

Table 3.3 Experiment data for hydraulic Oil-A and Oil-B

33

Table 3.4 Experiment results of OIL-A and Oil-B

34

Table 4.1 Percentage change in kinematic viscosity of radiated oil sample from fresh oil

39

Table 4.2 Viscosity index of Oil-A

40

Table 4.3 Percentage change in kinematic viscosity of radiated oil sample from fresh oil

41

Table 4.4 Viscosity index of Oil-B

41

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NOMENCLATURE

Oil-A

Polyol Ester based synthetic Fire Resistant Hydraulic Fluid (FRHF) of

Oil-B

viscosity grade 68 Petroleum based mineral hydraulic fluid of viscosity grade 68

ρ

Density

m

Mass

v

Volume

η

Dynamic Viscosity

υ

Kinematic Viscosity

V.I

Viscosity Index

η*V/P

Stribeck Parameter

V

Sliding Velocity

P

Load/ Pressure

Vb

Volume Loss of Ball Specimen

D

Wear Scar Diameter of Ball

R

Radius of Ball

k

Wear Rate

L

Sliding Distance

Vf

Volume Loss of Plate Specimen

l

Length of Wear Scar on Plate

w

Width of Wear Scar on Plate

d

Depth of Wear Scar on Plate

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Organization Profile

Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay has already made its impressions in the world of science as one of the unique nuclear research institution where high quality research and development is taking place in the areas of nuclear reactor design and installation, fuel fabrication, chemical processing of depleted fuel and also acquired sufficient expertise in the development of radioisotope application techniques in medicine, agriculture and industries. Basic and advanced research investigations were in full progress in nuclear physics, spectroscopy, solid state physics, chemical and life sciences, reactor engineering, instrumentation, radiation safety and nuclear medicine etc. In a nutshell, BARC provides a broad spectrum of scientific and technological activities extending from basic laboratory bench scale research to scale up plant level operations and its functional domain covers all walks of science and technology stretching from classical school of thoughts to the emerging novel fields of interest. The core mandate of this institution is to provide Research and Development support required to sustain one of the major peaceful applications of nuclear energy viz. power generation. This includes conceptualization of the programs, finalization of the design of the reactor and the peripheral components, preparation of computer generated working models and their evaluation studies under simulated reactor running conditions, identification, and selection and testing of materials and components for their risk analysis under extreme conditions of reactor operating environments, development and testing of new reactor fuel materials etc. Besides, BARC also extends its expertise to chemical processing of spent fuels, safe disposal of nuclear waste besides developing new isotope application techniques in industries, medicine, agriculture etc. Advanced frontline research in physical, chemical and biological sciences are intensely being pursued in BARC in order to give the nation a cutting edge in the fields of science and technology at the international levels. Thus, BARC is a multifaceted institution wherein the in house research findings were further translated into the development stage and finally through successful demonstration phase is taken for deployment in the respective fields. Advanced equipment and instruments, well set laboratories, vibrant ambience and availability of expertise from all fields of science and engineering are the unique features of BARC committed in taking the nation to the new horizons of knowledge and development.

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1. Introduction

The two main functions of hydraulic fluids are (a) to transmit power efficiently and (b) to lubricate components. Petroleum based oils are excellent in meeting these requirements but has the disadvantage of being combustible. Hydraulic systems are extensively used in DAE like fuel handling control of various reactors, reprocessing plants, nuclear waste management systems; nuclear fuel extrusion presses and uranium mining etc. Depending on the requirements, various hydraulic fluids like petroleum based hydraulic fluids, invert emulsions like oil in water and water in oil, water etc. are used in the hydraulic systems of DAE. Apart from this, AHWR fuelling machine being a vertical assembly due to vertical reactor coolant channels, any leakage of mineral based hydraulic oil (having flash point of 210 O C and fire point approximately 230 O C) from the snout actuators in an environment of 285 O C (area below the deck plate) will be a potential fire hazard. Even water based fire resistant hydraulic fluids are also not suitable because of high vapour pressure and the additive oils are not fire resistant. For these reasons fire resistant hydraulic fluids (FRHF) are now being employed in such industries as nuclear, mining, die-casting and steel making where fire hazards exist, Other factor now being considered in DAE application is degradation of oil because of gamma irradiation. Petroleum based i.e. mineral based hydraulic fluid is predominantly used in several nuclear facilities in system working in radioactive environment (which is not found in general industries) consisting of Gamma and neutron irradiation. The effect of gamma and neutron irradiation on these hydraulic fluids has never been evaluated in India. When a system is used in radioactive environment, it may undergo several changes like change in viscosity, chemical composition, acidity level etc. A research has been carried out to study and compare the effect of Gamma radiation on the properties of polyol ester based fire resistant hydraulic fluid (FRHF) of synthetic type and petroleum based mineral oil. For this purpose both hydraulic fluids has been gamma irradiated at radiation level of 50 MRad inside a Gamma Chamber located at ISOMED, south side of BARC. But for the future study and scope of this thesis more oils need to be gamma irradiated at different radiation levels and other properties like TAN NO., oxidation stability etc. need to be evaluated. This thesis work discusses the effects of (50 MRad) gamma radiation on viscosity and tribological characteristics of the fluids at various conditions.

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Objective

Study of different types of hydraulic fluids and their properties and selection of fire resistant hydraulic fluid based on previous data available and system requirements.

Study of tribological behaviour of different hydraulic fluid and selection of standard method of evaluating tribological properties based on our requirements.

Preparation and submission of report on tribological behaviour of hydraulic fluids.

Conclusion based on experimental data of both the hydraulic fluids.

Planning and preparation of sample for gamma radiation of hydraulic fluids inside a gamma chamber located at ISOMED, south side of BARC.

Measurement of viscosity, viscosity index of radiated oil samples at different temperatures and conclusion based on experimental data.

Summery

This section gives the summary of the work done in this project. It briefly covers the literature reviewed, the measurement of properties of radiated oil samples and the tribological evaluation of radiated oil samples.

Literature Reviewed

Essential sources of data as listed in the reference section were reviewed, which include substantial information on concentrated efforts towards

Study of different types of hydraulic fluids

Selection of fire resistant hydraulic fluid

Study of properties of hydraulic fluids and their effect on system performance

Study of different tribological test methods as per ASTM and ISO standards

Study of effect of gamma radiation on properties of hydraulic fluids

The Tribological Evaluation of Hydraulic Fluids

This point covers the experimental work carried out to evaluate the wear characteristics of fresh as well as gamma irradiated polyol ester based FRHF of synthetic type and Petroleum based mineral oil of viscosity grade 68 at different test conditions. The tests were carried out on Reciprocating Sliding Wear & Friction Machine (Plint TE-70). Bearing steel plate SS- 52100 and bearing steel balls SS-52100 of 1/2 inch diameter were used as fixed specimen and moving specimen respectively. Optical microscopic examinations were carried out to measure

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wear scar on Ball specimen and 3 D profiles of flat sample wear scars were done, which were used to calculate the Wear rate.

The Measurement of Properties of Gamma Radiated Oil Samples

Hydraulic fluid is the medium of power transmission in hydraulic equipment. Properties of hydraulic fluid greatly affect the performance of equipment/ system, so knowledge of properties of hydraulic fluid is very important. Out of several properties, viscosity is an important property. Viscosity of fluid affects leakage, efficiency and energy consumption in the system. To study the effect of Gamma radiation on viscosity of hydraulic fluid, polyol ester based fire resistant hydraulic fluid (FRHF) of synthetic type and petroleum based hydraulic fluid has been gamma irradiated at 50 MRad radiation level. The dynamic viscosity, kinematic viscosity, has been evaluated for these irradiated fluid samples using Anton Paar rotational Stabinger viscometer SVM 3000 available in Chemistry Division (ChD). Apart from this, the effect of Gamma radiation on viscosity index (VI) and appearance of fluids has also been evaluated.

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2. Literature Review

The hydraulic fluid is an essential and important component of any hydraulic power or control system. No other component of the circuit must perform as many functions or meet as many requirements as the hydraulic fluid. The hydraulic fluid must not only provide a medium for efficient power transmission, but it must also lubricate, cool, protect from corrosion, not leak excessively, and perform numerous other functions depending on the system design. However, even if a hydraulic fluid can adequately perform these system functions, it may still be less than satisfactory in terms of usage and compatibility factors. In many hydraulic systems, it is necessary that the hydraulic fluid be nontoxic and fire-resistant. It must be compatible with the structural materials of the system. The hydraulic fluid should exhibit stable physical properties during a suitable period of use. It should be easy to handle when in use and in storage, and it is desirable, of course, that it be readily available and inexpensive. The selection of a hydraulic fluid is further complicated by the vast number of liquids currently available. These range from water and mineral oils to special purpose synthetic liquids. It is thus necessary for the system designer to have at least an elementary understanding of the terminology prevalent in the specification of hydraulic fluids.

2.1. Classification of Hydraulic Fluids [1]

A wide range of liquids is available for use in hydraulic systems, and it is desirable to employ a classification system to assist those using hydraulic fluids to determine if a liquid under consideration may function satisfactorily for a particular application. However, the task of selecting the most meaningful classification system is complicated by several factors. The areas of application of hydraulic systems and the type of equipment used have become so diverse that a classification useful in one area of application has little or no meaning in another. In addition, the increasing number and types of hydraulic fluids available add to the complexity of the task. In simple, low performance hydraulic systems, where operating parameters are not severe, almost any liquid-water, water-based liquids, natural petroleum products, or the more sophisticated synthetic liquids-may be used with varying degrees of satisfaction. In other areas, where the operating parameters are very severe, only a limited number of liquids may be considered and selection must be made with considerable care. In addition, there are liquids which are used primarily for purposes other than as hydraulic fluids, but which have properties permitting them to be employed for the latter purpose in many applications. Because of the wide and vastly different areas of application, it is not

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surprising that hydraulic fluids have been classified by many different systems based on their different characteristics such as physical properties, chemical types, operating capabilities, utility, or specific applications. Although none of these groupings fully describe the properties of a hydraulic fluid, they are still employed and assist in selecting fluids for use in specific areas.

2.1.1. Classification by Physical Properties

A classification based on viscosity ranges was one of the earliest methods used since petroleum products were the only hydraulic fluids widely used and viscosity was the most important property of this class of hydraulic fluids. The viscosity method is accepted and used as a means of classifying petroleum base hydraulic fluids by the fluid manufacturers, the automotive industry, hydraulic component manufacturers, and hydraulic system designers and builders. Hydraulic fluids grouped in this manner are generally specified as suitable for use in a given application within a specified viscosity range. However, in the case of nonpetroleum base synthetic fluids, a classification based on viscosity range alone is not sufficient because of the importance of other properties.

2.1.2. Classification by Chemical Properties

Chemical classification of hydraulic fluids is extensively used by technical personnel, such as chemists and petroleum engineers. Chemical classification assists them in predicting general characteristics of a new hydraulic fluid or in developing a new hydraulic fluid for a specific application. In chemical compounds such as hydraulic fluids, the physical properties are dependent upon the compound structure and, accordingly, the physical properties of two chemically similar fluids may not be the same. Within a given class of hydraulic fluids where the chemical properties are similar, the physical properties of these fluids may vary greatly.

2.1.3. Classification by Operating Characteristics

When classifying hydraulic fluids according to operating characteristics, the most common operational parameters used are the temperature limits and the fire-resistant characteristics of the hydraulic fluid. The aerospace industry and the Air Force are the principal users of the classification system based on operational temperatures and have established the following system types:

Although this classification system has proved valuable and useful to some users, it does not identify other properties of the liquids and one type may include several chemical classes. Type I liquids include some petroleum hydrocarbons, phosphate esters, silicate esters,

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emulsions, water-base liquids, polyalkylene glycols, and halogenated hydrocarbons. Type II liquids include petroleum hydrocarbons and silicate esters.

Type I

:- 65° to 160°F

Type II

:- 65° to 275°F

Type III

:- 65° to 400°F

Type IV

:- 65° to 550°F

Type V

:- 0° to 700°F

Type VI

:- +40° to 1,000°F (Proposed)

Type III liquids include the deep dewaxed highly refined hydrocarbons, synthetic hydrocarbons, silicate esters, and silicones. Type IV liquid requirements have not been fully met by any class of fluids. However, the deep dewaxed highly refined mineral oils covered under MIL-H 27601A (-40° to + 550°F) closely approach the Type IV requirements. Type V and VI fluids have not been completely defined or tested. Some potential candidate fluids for Type V are polyphenyl ethers, perfluoroalkylesters, and specially refined hydrocarbons. Liquid metals have some potential for satisfying Type VI requirements. In general, there are commercial hydraulic fluids readily available which operate satisfactorily over the temperature ranges of Types I, II, and III hydraulic systems. However, for the higher temperature ranges of Types IV, V, and VI, only a limited number of fluids are available and those are usable only for relatively short durations. Extensive research programs are being conducted to develop fluids (and components) which will be usable in Types IV, V, and VI hydraulic systems. Classification of hydraulic fluids and systems based on operational temperature ranges is not satisfactory in many cases, such as in industrial systems, since there is no need for a -65°F operational temperature requirement. However, it is important that every hydraulic fluid have a definite operational temperature range established. Knowledge of these temperature limits is necessary in selecting a hydraulic fluid for a specific application.

2.1.4. Classification into Petroleum or Nonpetroleum Hydraulic Fluids

One of the most widely used classifications of hydraulic fluids is based on a separation into two general classes-petroleum and nonpetroleum. However, the petroleum class hydraulic fluids may contain additives, even synthetic additives, without changing their classifications. The nonpetroleum and/or synthetic class of hydraulic fluids includes a considerably wider range of liquids since it contains those derived from nonpetroleum base

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liquids (water, castor oil) as well as the synthetic base liquids produced by major chemical reactions, although the base material for some of these liquids may be a petroleum product.

2.1.5. Classification by Fire-Resistance

Hydraulic fluids can be classed as flammable or fire-resistant. However, this classification is somewhat arbitrary since the degree of flammability depends on both the specific fluid and the definition of "flammability". Generally, fire-resistant hydraulic fluids are of three types-synthetic fluids, water-based fluids, and emulsions. Fire-resistant synthetic fluids are fire-resistant because of their chemical nature and include phosphate esters, chlorinated hydrocarbons, halogen-containing compounds, organophosphorus derivatives, and mixtures of similar materials. The water-base fluids are solutions of various natural or synthetic materials in water, and depend upon their water content for fire-resistance. Glycols, polyglycols, and mixtures containing additives are the most common hydraulic fluids of this type. Emulsion-type hydraulic fluids also depend upon water content for fire-resistance and are water-in-oil mixtures made from petroleum hydrocarbons, but may contain various additives to provide other desirable properties.

2.2. Classification

of

Fire-Resistant

Properties and Uses [2]

Hydraulic

Fluids,

Their

2.2.1. Introduction

The development of fire-resistant hydraulic fluids commenced towards the end of the Second World War, as a result of a search by the US military for less flammable fluids [3] , particularly for aircraft hydraulic applications. The investigations identified water-glycol fluids and phosphate esters as the most promising candidates for further research [4] , and this stimulated independent interest in their potential for general industrial usage. Since that time, the industrial market for fire-resistant hydraulic fluids has expanded significantly and undergone many changes. Some fluids, for example polychlorinated biphenyls, have come and gone. Others, like the high water content fluids (particularly micro-emulsions and chemical solutions) have been steadily developed and taken an increasing share of the market for aqueous-based fluids. In the field of non-aqueous fluids, certain carboxylate or polyo1 esters have competed very successfully with phosphates. The changes continue into the 1990s, the latest resulting from the development of new spray ignition tests which will probably influence a move away from polyol esters. These developments have taken place against a backdrop of increasing severity in equipment operating conditions and, at the same

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time, a greater emphasis on workplace safety, including the handling and use of chemicals.

The transportation and disposal of waste material is also the subject of a growing volume of

legislation, and is therefore of considerable concern to the customer. In view of the continuing

technical developments and the complexity of environmental legislation, it is appropriate to

review and compare the performance of the different fire-resistant fluids that are currently in

wide commercial use.

2.2.2. Fire Hazards

Many modern industrial processes involve high temperatures that represent a fire

hazard. Some common primary sources of ignition are listed in Table 1. As dangerous

processes become increasingly automated, hydraulic systems become more widely used and

manning levels are reduced. As a result, fire becomes an ever greater risk. When a source of

ignition comes into contact with a flammable fluid, e.g. as a result of a leak or spray, then the

risk of fire is considerable. In some cases, small fires can become major incidents through

secondary fire hazards, which can include fluid soaked into lagging, packaging, or other waste

material. The most frequently used hydraulic fluid is mineral oil but, in the vicinity of high

temperatures, it poses a major fire hazard. The use of mineral hydraulic oil in applications

involving temperatures greater than 250 o C, or in the vicinity of such high temperature

processes, is highly dangerous. Many severe fires have been caused by escaping oil, usually in

the form of a mist or jet, arising from the failure of a high-pressure hose or pipe. The ignition

source need not be adjacent to the leak; the atomised mist or spray can travel considerable

distances, e.g. up to 12 metres (40 feet) from a leak in a system operating at a pressure of 70

bar, and systems operating at 350 bar are now quite common. The most serious consequences

occur when the escaping oil is ignited by a remote heat source and the fire propagates back to

the leak, resulting in a flamethrower effect, with potentially lethal consequences for personnel

in the vicinity.

Table 2.1 Possible ignition sources

Hot surfaces

Localised ignition sources

Hot/molten metal

Naked flames

Steam pipes

Electric arcs

Flue pipes

Frictional heating

Furnaces

Sparks from:

Heated dies

welding equipment

Exhaust manifolds

cutting equipment

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2.2.3.

Fire Resistance and Fire-Resistant Fluids

Almost all organic compounds will ignite and burn if heated to sufficiently high

temperatures in the presence of air or oxygen. Combustion is the reaction of the compound

with oxygen with the release of heat. The ability of a material to withstand high temperatures

without burning is known, rather vaguely, as its fire resistance, and those liquids which ignite

at temperatures higher than does mineral oil are known as ‗less flammable‘ or ‗fire-resistant‘

fluids. The terms, ‗fire resistance‘ and ‗flammability‘ involve several different aspects of fire

behaviour. These include:

(1) Ignitability or the ease of ignition. This will depend not only on the chemical composition

of the fluid and its physical properties, e.g. volatility, but also on the heat emitted by the

source of ignition.

(2) The ability for the flame to be propagated. This is mainly dependent on the heat released

by ignition and whether this is sufficient to volatilise and ignite more fluid (taking into

account the heat lost by conduction convection).

(3) Smoke and gas production: smoke may impede the escape of people caught in a fire, while

toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide, normally represent the most lethal hazard.

2.2.4. Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluid Types for Industrial Applications

There are number of different types of fire-resistant hydraulic fluids commercially

available. The current ISO classification (ISO Standard 6743 Part 4) [5] is given in Table 2,

together with a brief description of the different fluids.

Table 2.2 ISO Classification of fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and their composition

ISO

Fluid type

Composition

category

HFAE

Oil-in-water

(i) Opaque or translucent emulsions containing about 5% oil phase and 95% water with small amounts of emulsifiers, coupling agents, corrosion inhibitors, extreme pressure and antiwear additives, antifoamants, and possibly biocides, to enhance the performance. (ii) Translucent micro-emulsions containing 2% oil with a similar range of additives. Some micro emulsions also contain a polymeric thickener to increase viscosity

emulsions

HFAS

Chemical

solutions

Mixtures of additives dissolved in water combined with polymeric thickeners to increase fluid viscosity. Normally the water content is > 85%.

in water

HFB

Water-in-oil

Emulsions of about 40% water dispersed in mineral oil

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emulsions

(invert

together with a small amount of the additive types used in HFA fluids. In addition, antioxidants may be incorporated to reduce oil degradation.

emulsions)

 

HFC

Water

polymer

The water content of these fluids varies from -35-50% with the balance being a glycol, e.g. Ethylene or propylene glycol, and a polyglycol ether with small amounts of additives. A typical product might be based on 40% water, 40% glycol and 20% polyglycol ether.

solutions

(water-

glycol fluids)

 

HFDR

Synthetic phosphate

Fluids are normally based on triaryl phosphates although low levels of trialkyl phosphates or alkylaryl phosphates may be present to improve low temperature performance. Optionally, small amounts of high temperature stabilisers, rust inhibitors and an antifoamant may be present.

ester

fluids

containing no water

HFDS

Synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbons containing no water

This category has been used for chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. Mainly for ecotoxicological reasons, fluids in this category have almost disappeared from general industrial use, and will not be discussed further in this document.

HFDT

Synthetic fluids consisting of mixtures of HFD-R and HFD-S fluids

The same remarks apply as were made for HFDS fluids. Both these categories are expected to disappear from the ISO Classification

HFDU

Synthetic

fluids

of

Polyol esters, also known as oleate esters, are organic esters of ‗polyols‘, e.g. Trimethylolpropane or neopentyl glycol. These fluids contain a stabiliser package and, frequently, a polymeric thickener to improve fire-resistance. The ester content is usually >98%. Very small amounts of other fluids, e.g. Chlorofluorocarbons and perfluoroalkyl ethers, are found in specialist or military applications and are outside the scope of this comparison.

other compositions

and

containing

no

water

2.3. Properties of Hydraulic Fluids and Their Effect on System Performance [6]

While selecting a hydraulic fluid one has to be aware of hydraulic fluid properties and

its effect on hydraulic system. Generally the hydraulic fluids have many properties and some

of the important properties are explained in detail below.

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2.3.1. Density (ρ)

The density is defined as the mass of a unit volume of material at any given temperature and pressure.

(

)

(

)

(

)

In the metric system these units are g/cm 3 or kg/m 3 . It is frequently more convenient to express the density as specific gravity, which is defined by

Water has a specific gravity of one, so if a fluid is heavier than water, the specific gravity value will be more than one. Anything lighter than water will have a value that is less than one and the fluid will float above the water.

Effect of Density on System Performance

Density is of great importance when calculating flow of hydraulic fluids through components such as valves, pumps, and motors. The density enters into the flow energy equations and changes in density will affect the results obtained from the equations. High- density liquids may generally be eliminated from consideration because of weight limitations imposed on the hydraulic system, especially in airborne systems. Many other problems associated with density deviations are given, particularly in hydraulic systems. These includes

Increased pumping power loss As systems are designed to pump a fluid of a specific density, increase in density leads to increase in fluid inertia and hence require more power to operate and hence, the efficiency of the pump begins to change as well.

Increased stress on pumping elements As density increase leads to the erosive potential of the fluid. In high turbulence or high-velocity regions of a system, the fluid can begin to erode piping, valves or any other surface in its path. Thus, understanding the importance of density and how it relates to equipment is essential for the reliability and health of your machines

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2.3.2. Viscosity

The most important property of the hydraulic fluid to be considered is viscosity of the fluid. The main selection of fluid for the system depends on the viscosity of fluid. Viscosity is the measure of resistance of fluid flow that is inverse measure of fluidity. For example honey is very thick that means it is more viscous than water. Viscosity directly affects the system (Especially pump and motor) wear, leakage, and most important efficiency thus, overall performance. It has been well established that viscosity of hydraulic fluid decreases with increase in the temperature. In general, effect of gamma radiation is not determined for hydraulic fluids.

Effect of Viscosity on Hydraulic Fluid and System

Various components within a hydraulic system have competing requirements as to high or low viscosity. High viscosity provides thick lubricating films and reduces internal leakage. Low viscosity results in less internal friction, smaller pressure losses in pipes and valves, and an increase in control action and component response. Thus, a compromise in viscosity requirements must be made. The viscosity of the hydraulic fluid affects the response of system components, and because its sensitivity to temperature usually imposes limitations on the upper or lower operating temperature of any hydraulic system. Thus, viscosity must always be considered in design calculations.

Types of Viscosity a) Dynamic Viscosity or Absolute Viscosity (η)

Viscosity measured under force induced flow expresses dynamic viscosity. It is a force per unit area (shear stress) required to move one surface over another separated by unit distance at a rate of unit distance per second is called dynamic viscosity.

Table 2.3 Units of dynamic viscosity

Unit System

Unit

Relation

SI

Pascal second (Pa s)

Pa.s = N/m 2 .s

CGS

Poise (P)

Poise (P) = 0.1 Pascal second (Pa s)

ASTM

Centipoise (cP)

Centipoise (cP) = 10 -2 poise (P) = 10 -3 Ns/m 2

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b) Kinematic Viscosity ( )

Generally kinematic viscosity is used for measurements. Viscosity measured under gravity induced is called kinematic viscosity. It is the ratio of dynamic viscosity (η) and density (ρ).

Table 2.4 Units of kinematic viscosity

Unit System

Unit

Relation

SI

 

CGS

stokes (St)

stokes (St) = cm 2 /s = 10 -4 m 2 /s

ASTM

centistokes (cSt)

centistokes (cSt) = mm 2 /s = 10 -6 m 2 /s

2.3.3. Viscosity Index [1]

The Viscosity Index (V.I) of a liquid is a number indicating the effect of a change in temperature on viscosity. A low V.I signifies a relatively large change of viscosity with temperature. A high V.I signifies a relatively small change of viscosity with temperature. The convenience afforded by the use of a single number to express the viscosity-temperature characteristics of a liquid has resulted in the widespread adoption of the viscosity index system in the petroleum industry. The V.I is an empirical scale using two series of petroleum fractions as standards. One fraction which seemed to have minimum viscosity-temperature sensitivity was arbitrarily assigned a V.I of 100. The other fraction with maximum viscosity temperature sensitivity was assigned a V.I of zero. At the time the index scale was developed, all other petroleum fractions were expected to fall within the zero to 100 limits. Subsequently, however, solvent refining, the use of additives, and synthetics have produced materials that are outside the V.I scale in both directions. The V.I of a liquid with a given viscosity at 210T is calculated by relating its viscosity at 100°F to the viscosity at 100T for each of the standard fractions having a viscosity at 210°F equal to that of the unknown at 210°F. The V.I is calculated by the following equation.

(

)

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Where,

L = Viscosity at 100°F of a petroleum fraction

of 0 V.I having the same viscosity at

210°F as the fluid whose V.I is to be

calculated.

H = Viscosity at 100°F of a petroleum fraction

of 100 V.I having the same viscosity at

210°F as the fluid whose V.I is to be

calculated.

U = Viscosity at 100T of the fluid whose V.I is

to be calculated.

2.4. Requirements for Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids [7]

To perform satisfactorily in hydraulic systems the functional fluid shall be fire-resistant

and possess the following properties

The functional fluid shall be fluid enough at all working temperatures to flow readily

through the system and to accommodate rapid changes in velocity and pressure.

At the same time the fluid shall be viscous enough at all working temperatures to prevent

unwanted leakage across working clearances wherever a pressure differential exists across

them.

The fluid shall be of sufficient viscosity and adequate film strength to lubricate working

parts effectively under both hydrodynamic and boundary conditions over the working

temperature range.

The fluid shall be compatible with construction materials used in the system and shall be

non-corrosive.

The fluid shall have thermal stability and be suitable for use at the highest expected

operating temperature.

The fluid shall have chemical stability to give adequate working life.

The fluid shall release entrained air readily and not provide stable foam.

The fluid shall separate readily from contaminants encountered in normal use without

chemical reaction.

The surface tension of the fluid shall below enough to give ―wettability‖ but not low

enough to make sealing difficult.

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The fluid should preferably be shearing stable, i.e. its viscosity should not permanently change unduly with applied shear in a system. Fire-resistant (FR) fluids have been designed for safety reasons to replace conventional mineral oils in all applications where hydraulic systems are operating in close proximity to naked flames, molten material or other high-temperature sources, or specifically in hazardous environments where fire and/or explosion risks have to be reduced to a minimum. It is also necessary that such fluids shall resist spontaneous combustion if allowed to come into contact with hot surfaces or absorbent materials into which the fluid may have become impregnated. Fluids used as fire-resistant hydraulic media obtain their fire resistance by one of two following means.

Either from the presence of water, or

From their chemical composition. Water readily available and truly non-flammable fluid, was used in the earliest systems but water has a very low viscosity and is a poor lubricant. Apart from the obvious temperature limitation, the use of water also gave rise to problems of corrosion and erosion. For these reasons, plain water cannot be used in systems the components of which need to be lubricated by the hydraulic fluid. Even water based fire resistant hydraulic fluids are also not suitable because of high vapour pressure and the additive oils are not fire resistant. There for keeping all above difficulties in mind anhydrous FRHF of synthetic type (HFDU) i.e. polyol ester based has been selected for the utilization in fuelling machine of AHWR as well as other hydraulic applications of DAE.

2.5. Tribological Properties of Hydraulic Fluids

2.5.1. Lubrication Properties

Varying degrees of lubrication and wear preventing ability are needed for different systems. The pump design, the system operating temperatures and pressures, component design, and environmental conditions should all be considered when selecting a hydraulic fluid. Two fundamental and distinct modes of lubrication are generally recognized- hydrodynamic and boundary lubrication. When hydrodynamic conditions exist, a liquid film entirely separates the moving parts. In the boundary condition, contact exists between the mating surfaces. The difference between hydrodynamic and boundary lubrication is clear; however, there is no sharp line of demarcation, but rather a gradual transition between the two.

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a) Hydrodynamic Lubrication

Hydrodynamic lubrication is "A system of lubrication in which the shape and relative motion of the sliding surfaces cause the formation of a liquid film having sufficient pressure to separate the surfaces" [8] . Under ideal hydrodynamic conditions of lubrication, there is essentially no wear since the moving parts do not touch each other. Under these conditions, the parameters of importance are liquid, viscosity, surface speed, and pressure. Most of the theory of hydrodynamic lubrication is based on the early work of Tower and Reynolds. Full hydrodynamic lubrication offers the significant advantage of low wear rates and low friction. Hydraulic systems should be designed to take full advantage of hydrodynamic lubrication. The coefficient of friction in hydrodynamic lubrication is of the order of 0.001 to 0.010 [9] .

A hydraulic fluid should be a good lubricant so that friction and wear in a hydraulic

system are reduced to a minimum. The components of a hydraulic system contain many surfaces which are in close contact and which move in such relation to each other that the hydraulic fluid must separate and lubricate. The hydraulic fluid must also be a good wear preventing lubricant. Wear in hydraulic pumps, cylinders, motor controls, valves, and other components can result in increased leakage, loss of pressure, less accurate control, or failure. Protection against wear is often a principal reason for selection of a particular hydraulic fluid since most components of hydraulic systems operate at some time under conditions that can

lead to extreme wear, especially during starting and stopping of the system.

b) Transition From Hydrodynamic To Boundary Lubrication

A given liquid film between moving parts decreases in thickness as the pressure increases, and/or the liquid viscosity decreases. As the film becomes thinner, a point is reached where the laws of hydrodynamics no longer fully apply since the effects of surface or boundary forces are no longer negligible. As the film becomes still thinner, a state is ultimately reached where metal to metal contact occurs. These transitions influence the coefficient of friction as shown in Figure 2.1. Here, the coefficient of friction is plotted as a function of the dimensionless parameter ηV/P where η, N, and P are the fluid viscosity, relative surface speed, and pressure, respectively.

In the hydrodynamic region, the coefficient of friction is a linear function of ηV/P (see

Fig. 2.1). As ηV/P decreases, the film thickness is reduced and the curve begins to deviate

from linearity. As ηV/P is decreased further, a point is reached where both boundary and hydrodynamic effects prevail in combination.

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Figure 2.1 Coefficient of friction Vs. Stribeck parameter
Figure 2.1 Coefficient of friction Vs. Stribeck parameter

A further decrease in ηV/P will ultimately rupture the film and the curve will show a sharp break upwards. The minimum point is then regarded as the start of the transition from hydrodynamic to boundary lubrication. There is no sharp line of demarcation, but an intermediate zone where hydrodynamic and boundary effects are both present. This zone is sometimes called the semi-fluid, mixed-film, or quasi-hydrodynamic lubrication zone [9] . The condition of full hydrodynamic lubrication is the most desirable; however, all of the factors that make it possible are not always present. Sometimes speeds are so slow or pressures so great that even a very b viscous liquid will not prevent metal-to-metal contact. Other cases of stop-and-start operation, reversals of direction, or sharp pressure increases may cause the collapse of any liquid film that had been established. These conditions are not conducive to hydrodynamic lubrication and occur in almost all systems at one time or another.

c) Boundary Lubrication Boundary lubrication is "A condition of lubrication in which the friction and wear between two surfaces in relative motion is determined by the properties of the surfaces, and by the properties of the lubricant other than viscosity" [8] . When boundary lubrication exists, the coefficient of friction is independent of both liquid viscosity and sliding velocity. There are different degrees of severity under which boundary lubrication will prevail. Some are only moderate and others are extreme. Blok [9] classifies degrees of boundary lubrication on the basis of the mechanical conditions. He lists the following degrees:

(1) Low pressure and low temperature, or mild boundary lubrication as found in low speed sleeve bearings, leaf springs, and hinge joints.

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(2) High temperature boundary lubrication as found in cylinders of some steam and internal combustion engines and in certain high speed sleeve bearings. (3) High pressure boundary lubrication as generally found in cases involving rolling contact at high pressures but with little frictional or external heat. (4) High pressure and high temperature, or extreme boundary lubrication, as found in highly loaded hypoid or other gears having high loads and a high degree of sliding friction. The temperature and pressure at the region of contact are the factors that determine the severity of the boundary lubrication. All types of boundary lubrication are characterized by the rupture of the liquid film and some degree of metal-to-metal contact. The conditions of boundary lubrication should be avoided where possible because of the resulting increase in power consumption, and the high friction and wear that occur.

2.5.2. Wear or Surface Damage

According to DIN 50 320, or similarly in other terminology standards, wear is the progressive removal of material from a surface in sliding or rolling contact against a counter surface. As described in many textbooks, e.g., Zum Gahr (1987) and Hutchings (1992), different types of wear may be separated by referring to the basic material removal mechanisms, the wear mechanisms that cause the wear on a microscopic level. There are many attempts to classify wear by wear mechanisms, but a commonly accepted first order classification distinguishes between adhesive wear, abrasive wear, wear caused by surface fatigue, and wear due to tribochemical reactions. Over a longer sliding distance, either one mechanism alone, or a combination of several of these wear mechanisms, causes a continuous removal of material from the mating surfaces, and thereby also adds to the friction force that opposes the sliding. Such continuous, steady-state wear and friction conditions may be quantified in terms of wear rates, i.e., removed material mass or volume per sliding distance or time, or its inverse, the wear resistance, and in terms of friction forces or friction coefficients.

However, not all types of tribological failures are due to wear in the sense of a continuous material removal from tribosurfaces, and the tribological properties of the materials in a component are not always best described by their wear resistances or friction properties. Instead a broader study of the various types of surface damages that occur may be more meaningful.

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2.5.3.

Prevention of Wear

The complete elimination of wear is practically impossible. Minimum wear occurs under conditions of hydrodynamic lubrication and maximum wear occurs under conditions of boundary lubrication. However, there are several approaches by which the wear rate under boundary lubrication conditions can be reduced to a satisfactory or controllable level. The main factors which determine the rate of wear can be classified into two basic types mechanical and lubrication. Proper consideration of these two factors can produce a wear rate which is acceptable.

a) Mechanical Factors

The mechanical factors that affect the wear rate are the choice of materials, the surface finish, and the operating conditions. Wear can often be reduced by a proper choice of materials for the moving parts. In general, softer materials wear more rapidly than harder materials. There is, however, no direct relationship between hardness and resistance to wear. Materials also differ in their ability to resist the various types of wear. For example, materials selected for their ability to resist abrasion might be more sensitive to corrosion. It is thus necessary to select materials which would resist the most serious type of wear anticipated. The combination of metals used can greatly influence the wear. Some metals are very susceptible to wear when rubbed against them, while others are very susceptible to wear when rubbed against different types of metals. In practice, the composition chosen for a given part is influenced by many factors other than wear. Structural strength, weight, cost, and availability may force a compromise between minimum wear and optimum performance. Surface finish of the mating parts becomes particularly important during break-in or initial wear periods. If one of the two mating surfaces has an initial rough finish, considerable wear may take place. While it is generally desirable to have as smooth a surface as possible, there are instances where surfaces of controlled roughness are desired so that a "wearing-in" or mating of parts may occur during the initial run-in or breaking period. Operating conditions of pressure, temperature, and rubbing speed also affect wear. Increased pressure generally reduces film thickness and increases the extent of metal-to-metal contact and wear. High temperature may cause wear due to a decrease in viscosity. Excessive high speeds may result in overheating at local points. Moderate temperatures and pressures are, therefore, preferred from a standpoint of wear. However, optimum conditions for wear may not be the optimum conditions to achieve high efficiency or maximum power from a hydraulic system component.

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b) Lubrication Factors

Decreases in viscosity of a system operating under hydrodynamic lubrication will decrease the thickness of the liquid film. If the decrease is sufficient to allow boundary conditions to be reached, metal-to-metal contact occurs and wear increases. Viscosity, therefore, would be expected to have an inverse effect on rate of wear-the greater the viscosity the less would be the expected wear. Since wear is essentially a phenomenon resulting from friction, it is expected that additives capable of reducing friction under boundary conditions would simultaneously reduce wear. However, there can be instances where there is little or no correlation between friction and wear under boundary lubrication conditions [9] . Some additives effective in reducing friction have little effect upon wear, while others reduce wear and have little effect upon friction. Lack of correlation is probably due to the fact that wear takes place momentarily in isolated spots whereas friction is normally measured as an average for a larger area and a longer time interval [9] . Hydraulic components made from iron alloys other than stainless steel are subject to corrosion unless proper precautions are taken. Most mineral-oil liquids do not have good antirust properties. Although they do offer protection, they must be fortified with appropriate additives if any marked degree of rust prevention has to be achieved [9] .

2.5.4. Test Methods for Lubricating Properties

Numerous test methods have been proposed and several have been adopted for evaluating the lubricating and wear reducing properties of fluids. The majority of these tests have been developed for materials other than hydraulic fluids such as lubricants, greases, and, in some cases, solid lubricants. However, the basic test procedures are adaptable to the evaluation of hydraulic fluids, and several Military Specifications for hydraulic fluids call for these tests or some modification of them. The test methods fall into three general categories bench-type tests using non-simulating test elements, simulated hydraulic systems, and the more elaborate load-carrying and scuffing tests. Standard test procedures, either ASTM or Federal, have been written for some of the test methods. None of the test methods described in the paragraphs which follow give any indications of the expected "life" of a lubricant or liquid. The engineer or designer is expected to establish proper lubrication procedures and lubricant change intervals. The problems become even more complicated in hydraulic systems because the liquid is both a lubricant and a power transfer fluid. With hydraulic systems operating with sophisticated hydraulic fluids and/or extreme operating conditions, falling back

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on "accepted practice" can be expensive, either in terms of wasted hydraulic fluids or damaged equipment.

Bench-Type Friction and Wear Testers

Several bench tests have been developed to measure the lubricating ability of liquids. Each test employs a different type of apparatus that utilizes a unique combination of test elements. The testers are similar in that two well-defined surfaces separated by a liquid film

are in motion with respect to each other. The coefficient of friction is usually determined by measuring the restraining force on one of the test elements. Wear is determined by the loss in weight of the parts or by the dimensions of the wear scar. Boundary lubrication characteristics are determined by increasing the load on the surfaces until seizure occurs. Because of their differences, the various bench testers do not necessarily rate a given series of liquids in the same order, and results from a single test procedure can be misleading. Also, the results obtained do not always correlate well with actual operation. In many instances, the results of several different bench tests may be taken as a whole in determining the lubricating ability of

a given hydraulic fluid. Experience has shown that application of most of these test

procedures will separate those hydraulic fluids which are extremely poor lubricants from

those which are potentially good lubricants. Five of the more commonly used bench-type testers and their test methods are described in the paragraphs which follow.

a) Timken Tester

Test Method: Federal Test Method 6505 [10] In the Timken test, a steel block is pressed against a rotating, cylindrical steel ring (see Figure 2.2(A)). The test is run for 10 min at a rubbing speed of 400 Ft./sec. The liquid is allowed to flow over the test pieces. In starting a test, the motor is brought up to speed and a load is placed on the steel rub shoe block by means of a weight and lever system. The test can be conducted as a wear test by running at a set load until failure or as an EP- or load-carrying test by increasing the load until failure.

Federal Test Method 6505 [10] calls for the test to be conducted as a load-carrying test. Failure

is indicated by scoring on the test block or test ring. The results are reported as the load

(determined from the scar dimensions and. the load) applied just prior to scoring or pickup of metal.

b) Almen Tester

In the Almen test, a cylindrical rod is rotated in a split bushing which is pressed against it (see Figure 2.2(B)). Frictional force is measured by a restraining force on the split bushing.

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Two versions of the Almen test are conducted-the Almen EP test and the Almen wear test. In the Almen EP test, the machine is run without and applied load for 30 sec as a break-in period. Weights are added every 10 sec in multiples of 2 lb. until failure occurs as indicated by seizure or sudden increase in torque. Test results are expressed as the torque and load which causes seizure. In the Almen wear test, the machine is run without an applied load for 30 sec as a break-in period. Four 2-lb weights are added at 10-sec intervals. Operation is continued for 20 min. Total weight loss of the journal and the bushings in mg are determined, and are reported as the wear.

c) Falex Tester

Test Methods: Federal Test Method 3807 [11] Federal Test Method 3812 [12] In the Falex test a cylindrical rod is rotated between two hard V-shaped bearing blocks which are pressed against the rod (see Figure 2.2(C)). Friction torque is continuously monitored. Both the journal and the V blocks are submerged in the liquid under test. The two Federal Test Methods referenced above utilize the Falex Tester in the evaluation of solid film lubricants. However, the basic procedures of the two tests are adaptable to the evaluation of liquids. The test can be run in two ways-as a wear test and a load carrying test. For wear testing, the machine is run at a specified load for a specified time. The amount of wear is determined as the amount of adjustment that must be made in the loading system to maintain the desired load. For the EP test, the load is increased continuously until seizure occurs. The test begins with a break-in period for 3 min at 300 lb. load. The load is then increased to 500 lb. and held for 1 min and then increased in 250-lb increments with a 1-min run until failure occurs. Results are expressed in pounds load at seizure.

d) Four-ball Tester

Test Methods: ASTM D-2596-67T [13] Federal Test Method 6514 [14] ASTM D-2266- 64T [15] In the four-ball machine (often called the "Shell" Four-ball Tester) a 1/2-in.-diameter steel ball is rotated in contact with three stationary similar balls which are clamped in a fixed position (see Figure 2.2(D)). The rubbing surfaces are submerged in the liquid to be tested. The test can be operated as a wear test or an EP test. For a wear test, the machine is operated at a specified temperature, load, and speed, with balls of given material. Federal Test Method 6514 [14] and ASTM D-2226-64T [15] are used for determining the wear characteristics of lubricating greases with the four-ball tester. The general procedures are adaptable to hydraulic fluids as well as greases. They call for test conditions of 1,200 rpm, a load of 40 kg, a test

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temperature of 167°F (75°C), and a test time of 60 min. At the end of the test, the scar diameter on the lower three balls is measured under a microscope. The average diameter in millimetres is reported and is a measure of wear under the specified conditions. For the EP test (ASTM D-2596-67T [13] ) there is no provision for temperature control, and the test is started at room temperature. A test run of 10-sec duration at a given load is usually made. Scar diameters are measured and the Hertzian contact stresses are calculated. The load is increased in increments, and the process is repeated until welding occurs. This load is called the weld point or weld load. Many variations on the four-ball wear and EP tests are used. Many liquid specifications call for a four-ball test as specified or with certain changes made in the test time, load, speed, or temperature.

e) SAE Tester

Test Method: Federal Test Method 6501 [16] In the SAE machine (see Figure 2.2(E)), two cylinders aligned axially and in contact with each other are driven at different speeds. One of the cylinders may be driven in either direction. The pieces revolve under a flooded lubrication condition from the test liquid held in a cup. The load pressing the cylinders together can be increased until failure occurs. This machine differs from the four-ball tester in that a combination of rolling and sliding friction is involved. The ratio of sliding to rolling can be changed by varying the relative speed of the two cylinders. Federal Test Method 6501 [16] is a test procedure for determining the load-carrying capacity of gear lubricants using the SAE tester. The same test procedures, however, are adaptable to any liquid lubricant or to hydraulic fluids. The machine is started and operated at a light load for a 30-sec break-in period. The automatic loading device then increases the load steadily until scoring occurs. The results are expressed in terms of the average load needed to cause scoring based on three repeat tests.

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Figure 2.2 Five bench-type friction and wear testers
Figure 2.2 Five bench-type friction and wear testers

2.6. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Properties of Hydraulic Fluid

It has only been since the early 1950's that the radiation resistance of hydraulic fluids has become important. In the design of modern weapon systems, aircraft, and mechanical devices, hydraulic systems are frequently expected to be exposed to nuclear radiation. Of all system components, the hydraulic fluid is the most susceptible to damage by radiation. Since conventionally used hydraulic fluids and lubricants are especially susceptible, the effects of radiation on their performance should be considered in the design of almost all systems. However, there is no general requirement for radiation resistance in most hydraulic fluid specifications. Considerable basic work has been done on the radiation of simple organic structures. With the more complicated molecular structures characteristic of lubricants, both petroleum and synthetic, it has not been feasible to make studies of the precise reactions that occur. The empirical observations are: [17] (a) viscosity may at first be decreased, but eventually increases, (b) acidity increases, (c) volatility increases, (d) foaming tendencies increase, (e) coking

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tendencies generally increase but occasionally decrease, (f) flash points decrease, (g) Autogeneous ignition temperatures decreases, and (h) oxidation stability decreases. In addition to the listed changes in physical and chemical properties, gas is always liberated [8] for petroleum liquids the gases are frequently hydrogen and methane. The remaining products of decomposition are frequently gels that tend to clog hydraulic systems. The formation of the gases and gels presents a difficult design problem, and provisions must be made in the system for their presence. Although some changes in lubricants have been found after radiation doses of 10 7 (8.77 MRad) roentgens, the major effects are observed between 10 8 (87.7 MRad) and

10 9 (877 MRad) roentgens [17] [18] . Beyond 10 9 roentgens most liquid lubricants have been

damaged to the extent that they are completely unserviceable. In general, petroleum lubricants are more resistant to radiation damage than other lubricants. An exception is the polyphenyl ether family which is very resistant to damage. Currently, the silicone liquids exhibit the poorest radiation resistance of all the high temperature liquids [19] . Inclusion of atoms other than carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the molecule generally reduces radiation resistance. Table 2.5 presents data on the relative radiation resistance of various hydraulic fluids.

Table 2.5 Radiation resistance of hydraulic fluids [20]

Fluid Type

Relative Radiation Resistance

Mineral Oils: MIL-H-5606

Poor

MIL-L-25598

Low

Super-refined Mineral Oils:

Poor

Naphthenic and Paraffmic

Synthetic Hydrocarbons (Average)

Poor

Diesters: MIL-L-7808C

Poor

Triesters: MIL-L-9236B

Poor

Silicate Esters

Poor

Disiloxane-diesters: MLO-8515

Poor

Disiloxane: MLO-8200

Poor

Polysiloxanes

Poor

Chlorinated Silicones

Poor

Silicone Ester Blends: MLO-5998

Poor

Phosphate Esters

Poor

Polyphenyl Ethers

Excellent

[21][22] Gamma irradiation leads to knocking down of bonding electrons from the molecules and formation of radicals which leads to polymerization. The extent of effect of gamma radiation on different types of hydraulic fluids is different. Research carried out by California Research Corporation dated back in 1950s on hydraulic fluid have demonstrated that during Gamma irradiation the viscosity of hydraulic fluid initially falls and then

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increases. Development of nuclear radiation resistant hydraulic fluid had been conducted by California Research Corporation on silicate based hydraulic fluid particularly ML-0-8200 fluid, after exposure to gamma radiation, they had concluded that the maximum permissible gamma dose for ML-0-8200 fluid appears to be about 10 8 roentgens (88 MRad) or slightly higher. At this level they feel that there is negligible change in viscosity. In addition to lab testing of silicate fluid, pump testing of the 8200 fluid had been also conducted before and after expose to 7.85x10 8 roentgens (688 MRad). In brief it was concluded that irradiation to this level triples the viscosity but the fluid could still be used as hydraulic systems employing New York air brake pumps with some reduction in wear to be expected. It was felt that operation of pumps at temperature much below 0 o F would be impaired. They have also concluded that MIL -0-5606 mineral oil has very poor gamma radiation resistance even at low doses. Since the petroleum refining technology is well developed all over the world, there are countless hydraulic fluid manufacturers dealing in either local or international market. But these companies mainly focus on markets leading to product suitable for their condition and industries. It has also been shown that the effect of radiation is different for base fluid received from different crude reservoirs. So, data on radiation resistance of all the fluids cannot be expected. Hence, it is necessary to determine the Gamma radiation resistance of the hydraulic oil which is being used presently or proposed to be used in future in hydraulic systems of nuclear installations.

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3. Tribological Evaluation of Hydraulic Fluids

Friction and wear are caused by complicated and multiplex sets of microscopic interactions between surfaces that are in mechanical contact and slide against each other. These interactions are the result of the materials, the geometrical and topographical characteristics of the surfaces, and the overall conditions under which the surfaces are made to slide against each other, e.g., loading, temperature, atmosphere, type of contact, etc. All mechanical, physical, chemical, and geometrical aspects of the surface contact and of the surrounding atmosphere affect the surface interactions and thereby also the tribological characteristics of the system. Therefore, friction and wear are not simply materials parameters available in handbooks; they are unique characteristics of the tribological system in which they are measured.

Reason to Perform a Tribotest?

Ranking of materials for existing equipment

Selection of material for new application

General, application independent, characterization of wear and friction properties of material

Study of wear mechanism appearing in selected tribological application It follows from the systems aspect of wear and friction, i.e., the insight that tribological properties depend on the whole tribosystem and not merely on the materials, that any tribological testing should be preceded by a thorough evaluation of the characteristics of the system to be evaluated and the purposes of the test; A tribotest should always be designed to meet a defined need. One such need to perform a tribotest may be to rank a set of materials in terms of their friction and wear properties in a certain, well defined system, either with the purpose of selecting a material for an existing piece of machinery, which the tribotest then should imitate, or to select a tribological material for a construction under development, for which field tests or component tests are impossible

3.1. Apparatus and Materials

This experiment has been carried out at Refueling Technology Division (RTD), BARC Mumbai, under a lubricated medium using reciprocating sliding wear and friction machine. Bearing steel plate SS-52100 and bearing steel balls SS-52100 of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) diameter were used as fixed specimen and moving specimen respectively at the load of 15 N and 25N with varying the frequency values at 10, 20 and 10 Hz. The sliding speed and total

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distance is kept constant therefore duration of test at each frequency were 20000s, 10000s, and 20000s respectively. The coefficients of friction, both, static and dynamic were measured during the test. The wear for both moving and fixed specimen was measured after each test. Also after each test the wear scar on specimen was scanned with a Taylor and Hobson make profilometer and the wear volume was calculated from the 3-D profile of the wear track. The ball scars were also examined using an optical microscope. The other test conditions are given in table1.

Table 3.1 Test conditions for Oil-A and Oil-B

Oil Name

Temperature

Load(N)

Frequency

Sliding

Stroke

Time (Sec)

(°C)

(Hz)

Distance

Length

   

(M)

(MM)

Oil-A

 

15

10

400

 

1 20000

FRHF

65

15

20

400

 

1 10000

POE

25

10

400

 

1 20000

Oil-B

 

15

10

400

 

1 20000

Mineral

65

15

20

400

 

1 10000

25

10

400

 

1 20000

Oil-A

 

15

10

400

 

1 20000

FRHF

90

15

20

400

 

1 10000

POE

25

10

400

 

1 20000

3.2. Experimental Procedure

3.2.1. Standard Testing Method

The tests were carried using ASTM Designation G 133 05. The test method used according to ASTM standards is as follows.

1. This test method involves two specimens a flat specimen and a spherically ended specimen (here in called the ―ball ―specimen), which slides against the flat specimen. These specimen moves relative to one another in a linear, back & forth sliding motion, under a prescribed set of conditions see fig1.

2. In this test method, the load is applied vertically downward through the ball specimen against the horizontally mounted flat specimen. The normal load, stroke length, frequency and type of oscillation, test temperature, lubricant, test duration and atmospheric environment (including relative humidity range) are selected from one of two procedures.

3. Since this test method involves reciprocating sliding where changes in the sliding velocity and direction of motion occur during the test, constant velocity conditions are not maintained. The ball carrier is driven by an electro-magnetic oscillator. The frequency range is 5 to 100 Hz and stroke range is 0.05 to 1 mm. The type of the motion produced

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by the drive system is sinusoidal. When the load exceeds the power of oscillator, the oscillator compensates by reducing amplitude and maintaining the frequency. So sometimes actual sliding distance varies from the theoretical sliding distance.

4. Dimensional changes for both ball and flat specimens are used to calculate wear volumes and wear rates.

5. Friction forces are measured during the test and may be used to assess changes in the contact conditions or the kinetic friction coefficient as a function of time.

1. Test Procedure

The following test procedure was followed as per ASTM standard G133 - 05 1) Specimens on which experiments were carried out (e.g. plate & ball) were cleaned

2)

3)

thoroughly using acetone and ultrasonic cleaning machine. The samples were dried by using hot air. The sample bath was cleaned using acetone & was dried with hot air. The specimens were cleaned after they were secured in place in the test fixture by wiping with acetone and then with lint free tissue paper. It is possible that during mounting, some contamination was inadvertently placed on them, and this final cleaning will alleviate the problem. The ball tip was inspected with a hand lens after it was mounted to ensure that there were no defects in the contact area.

The ball tip was inspected with a hand lens after it was mounted to ensure that

4) The ball specimen was gently lowered upon the flat specimen & it was also ensured that the reciprocating drive shaft motion was horizontal & parallel to the surface of flat specimen. The test load was applied. It was confirmed that the desired oscillating speed had been set before starting the test. 5) The tests done for Oil-A and Oil-B are not in full compliance with the provisions of Test Method G 133, Procedure B, because the normal force in these tests were 15N and 25 N, instead of 200 N as prescribed by the standard and the stroke length was 1mm instead of 10 mm, therefore test duration was 20000 s and 10000 s for frequency of 10 Hz and 20 Hz respectively instead of 33min 20s as per standard for same sliding distance of 400 m. oscillating frequency was 10 Hz and 20 Hz instead of 10 Hz. The temperature was kept constant at 65 0 C & relative humidity was 60 % instead of 150 0 C ± 2 0 C and 40 to 60 %. All other provisions of Test Method G133 have been followed.

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2.

Test Parameters

Table 3.2 ASTM std. parameters Vs. parameters used for this test

Sr.

Parameter

As per ASTM Standard ( Procedure

Parameters Used For This Test

No.

B)

1

Applied Normal Force-

200

N

15 N, 25 N

2

Ball Tip Radius

 

4.76 mm

½ in (12.7 mm)

3

Stroke Length

 

10

mm

1 mm

4

Test Duration

 

sliding Distance 400 m

sliding Distance 400

 

m

5

Frequency

of

10

Hz

10,20,10 Hz

oscillation

 

6

Type of

motion

Not Specified. It can be Sinusoidal velocity profile, triangular velocity profile

Sinusoidal velocity

produced

by

the

profile

oscillating drive system

7

Ambient

relative

40

to 60 %

60%

humidity

 

8

Ambient Temperatures

150

± 2°C

65°C,90°C

9

Medium

Lubrication

Lubrication

3.3. Measurement and Calculation of Wear [23] [24]

After the tests the wear scar dimensions of ball were measured under optical microscope and dimensions of wear scar were noted, which were used to calculate wear volume and wear rate of ball.

Figure 3.1 Measurement of plate and ball wear scar marks
Figure 3.1 Measurement of plate and ball wear scar marks

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3.3.1. Wear Measurement of Ball Specimen

Owing to the nature of this type of test, the wear on ball specimen may not be circular or flat always therefore refer the following which applies.

1. If the ball appears flat but not circular, the average of the maximum and minimum

dimensions of the scar is taken as effective ball scar diameter (D).

2. Pin scar measurement may be made by removing the ball specimen holder and placing the wear scar portion under the microscope. A calibrated ocular or a photo-micrograph of known magnification may be used to measure scar dimensions. As per ASTM G99-05(2010) Volume loss of Ball in mm 3 is calculated using following

formula

Where,

(

)

(

)

 

(

)

V b = Wear volume for ball scar of diameter D in mm 3

D

= Ball scar diameter in mm

R

= Ball radius in mm

This is an approximate geometric relation that is correct to 1 % for (wear scar diameter/ball radius) <0.3, and is correct to 5 % for (wear scar diameter/ball radius) <0.7. The exact equation is as given below

Where,

D

= Wear scar diameter

R

= Radius of Ball

(

)

(

)

Wear rate of ball is calculated using following formula.

Where,

(

)

k = Wear rate of ball in mm 3 /Newton. Meter V b = Wear volume for ball scar of diameter D in mm 3

P

= Load in N

L

= Sliding Distance in mm

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3.3.2.

Wear of Flat Specimen

Wear of Flat specimen is calculated using following formula )

(

(

)

Where,

w = width of wear scar in mm d = depth of wear scar in mm l = length of wear scar in mm

3.3.3. Results and Discussion

The Tribological experiment to compare and qualify the FRHF over mineral oil is basically based on bench type friction and wear testing machine. The friction and wear machine available at Fluid Power and Tribology Section, BARC is based on ASTM G 133 05. The experiment procedure and standards for this type of test has been explained in previous sections of this thesis. The data generated and recorded and the results are presented in tubular form. Based on data generated the friction characteristics and wear characteristics of hydraulic fluid has been discussed.

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1. Calculation Table

Table 3.3 Experiment data for hydraulic Oil-A and Oil-B

 

Experiment data of OIL-A (Fresh)

 
       

Sliding

Coefficient of friction

 

Ball wear (All Dimensions are in mm)

Wear

Plate wear (All Dimensions are in mm)

Oil Name

Temperature

Load(N)

Frequency

Distance

   

Std

Horiz. Div.

     

Rate of

       

(°C)

(Hz)

Static

Dynamic

Deviation

Ver. Div.

Scar Dia

Wear Vol

Ball

Length

Width

Wear Vol

Wear Rate

mm

 

mm³/N.m

   

15

10

406843

0.098

0.079

± 0.005

10.08

10.13

0.5052

0.000503

8.25E-08

2.03137

0.5455

0.04247493

0.002816001

27

15

20

796292

0.1

0.095

± 0.002

11.11

11.22

0.5582

0.000750

6.28E-08

2.18296

0.561

0.046199469

0.003084189

25

10

396894

0.092

0.073

± 0.004

12.23

12.84

0.6264

0.001190

1.20E-07

2.09879

0.642

0.06923943

0.004788899

 

15

10

404564

0.095

0.089

± 0.001

9.54

10.91

0.5103

0.000524

8.63E-08

2.1328

0.5065

0.034000613

0.002214819

FRHF

65

15

20

821301

0.092

0.095

± 0.003

10.68

11.04

0.5430

0.000672

5.45E-08

2.35244

0.552

0.044011446

0.002926361

25

10

392425

0.095

0.086

± 0.001

11.39

11.70

0.5772

0.000858

8.74E-08

2.03012

0.585

0.052386092

0.003534531

 

15

10

402394

0.102

0.081

± 0.002

7.65

8.63

0.4062

0.000210

3.49E-08

1.88652

0.4315

0.021022812

0.00132268

90

15

20

809571

0.108

0.096

± 0.002

9.27

9.91

0.4792

0.000407

3.35E-08

2.12278

0.4955

0.031833133

0.00206324

25

10

394075

0.097

0.073

± 0.006

12.57

13.10

0.6416

0.001309

1.33E-07

2.11286

0.655

0.07353131

0.005114159

 

Experiment data of OIL-B (Fresh)

 
       

Sliding

Coefficient of friction

 

Ball wear (All Dimensions are in mm)

Wear

Plate wear (All Dimensions are in mm)

Oil Name

Temperature

Load(N)

Frequency(Hz)

Distance

   

Std

       

Rate of

       

(°C)

Static

Dynamic

Deviation

Horiz. Dim.

Ver. Dim.

Scar Dia

Wear Vol

Ball

Length

Width

Wear Vol

Wear Rate

 

mm

mm³/N.m

   

15

10

402805

0.092

0.081

± 0.001

7.67

8.71

0.4087

0.000216

3.57E-08

1.93517

0.4355

0.021612892

0.001362368

27

15

20

815936

0.1

0.092

± 0.001

7.85

8.73

0.4140

0.000227

1.85E-08

2.21603

0.4365

0.021762117

0.001372419

ENKLO

25

10

394257

0.082

0.077

± 0.001

9.22

9.52

0.4683

0.000372

3.77E-08

1.89689

0.476

0.028220796

0.001812786

 

15

10

406606

0.099

0.088

± 0.001

7.77

6.58

0.3576

0.000126

2.07E-08

2.11317

0.329

0.009318287

0.000557977

65

15

20

815043

0.115

0.1

± 0.002

7.37

8.53

0.3964

0.000191

1.56E-08

2.00826

0.4265

0.020300443

0.001274222

25

10

396345

0.105

0.086

± 0.001

7.49

8.89

0.4080

0.000214

2.16E-08

1.97427

0.4445

0.022980724

0.001454721

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2.

Result Table

Table 3.4 Experiment results of OIL-A and Oil-B

 

Experiment results of OIL-A (Fresh)

 
       

Ball

           

Oil Name

Temperature

Load

Speed

Radius

Ball Scar

h

Vol Loss of Ball mm³

Wear Rate of Ball mm³/N.m

Vol Loss of Plate mm³

Wear Rate of Plate mm³/N.m

(°C)

N

Hz

Dia. Mm

mm

       
   

15

10

6.35

0.5052

0.006138002

0.000503

8.25E-08

0.04247493

0.002816001

27

15

20

6.35

0.5582

0.004180506

0.000750

6.28E-08

0.04619947

0.003084189

25

10

6.35

0.6264

0.007733228

0.001190

1.20E-07

0.06923943

0.004788899

 

15

10

6.35

0.5103

0.005150618

0.000524

8.63E-08

0.03400061

0.002214819

FRHF

65

15

20

6.35

0.5430

0.005807625

0.000672

5.45E-08

0.04401145

0.002926361

25

10

6.35

0.5772

0.006562792

0.000858

8.74E-08

0.05238609

0.003534531

 

15

10

6.35

0.4062

0.003261244

0.000210

3.49E-08

0.02102281

0.00132268

90

15

20

6.35

0.4792

0.004526375

0.000407

3.35E-08

0.03183313

0.00206324

25

10

6.35

0.6416

0.011027409

0.001309

1.33E-07

0.07353131

0.005114159

 

Experiment results of OIL-B (Fresh)

 

Oil Name

Temperature

Load

Speed

Ball

Ball Scar

h

Vol Loss

Wear Rate

Vol Loss of Plate mm³

Wear Rate of Plate mm³/N.m

(°C)

N

Hz

Radius

Dia. Mm

mm³

mm³/N.m

   

15

10

6.35

0.4087

0.003301686

0.000216

3.57E-08

0.02161289

0.001362368

27

15

20

6.35

0.4140

0.003384054

0.000227

1.85E-08

0.02176212

0.001372419

ENKLO

25

10

6.35

0.4683

0.004319509

0.000372

3.77E-08

0.0282208

0.001812786

 

15

10

6.35

0.3576

0.002535555

0.000126

2.07E-08

0.00931829

0.000557977

65

15

20

6.35

0.3964

0.003111278

0.000191

1.56E-08

0.02030044

0.001274222

25

10

6.35

0.4080

0.00330209

0.000214

2.16E-08

0.02298072

0.001454721

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3.

Discussion

The Tribological experiments were performed on sliding friction and wear machine under lubrication. Bearing steel plate SS-52100 and bearing steel balls SS-52100 of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) diameter were used as fixed specimen and moving specimen respectively. The other experimental conditions are mentioned in above table. The major candidate for calculation and discussion in this experiment is friction and wear. The calculation were made and presented in table. The data were recorded and the graphs were plotted based on the data available.

Friction Characteristics

1. Stribeck Curve

Two types of hydraulic oils were investigated in this experiment. Figures 3.5 to 3.8 show the friction characteristics of the two oils. Figure.3.5 summarizes the effect of load, temperature, and lubricant on the friction behaviour. The data is presented in a Stribeck type format. The Stribeck curve is a plot of the friction as it relates to viscosity, speed and load. On the vertical axis is the friction coefficient and the horizontal axis shows a parameter that combines the other variables: ηV/P. In this formula, η is the fluid viscosity corresponds to temperature, V is the relative speed of the surfaces, and P is the load on the interface per unit width. Basically, as you move to the right on the horizontal axis, the effects of increased speed or increased viscosity or reduced load are seen. The zero point on the horizontal axis corresponds to static friction. The stribeck curve shown in figure 3.5 is divided in to three regimes.

1. Boundary lubrication (Regime 1) two surfaces mostly are in contact with each other even though a fluid is present

2. Mixed lubrication (Regime 2) two surfaces are partly separated, partly in contact

3. Hydrodynamic lubrication (Regime 3) two surfaces are separated by a fluid film

Boundary Lubrication (Regime 1) Boundary lubrication occurs when the lubricating film is about same thickness as the surface roughness such that the high points (asperities) on the solid surfaces contact. This is generally an undesirable operating regime for a hydrostatic or hydrodynamic bearing, since it leads to increased friction, energy loss, wear and material damage. In actual stribeck curve the coefficient of friction in this regime is constant and of very high magnitude because of starting friction of machine. But in figure 3.5 the coefficient of friction is increasing in this

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regime because of increase in sliding speed and decrease in load the viscosity is kept constant in this regime. Both the hydraulic fluids are performing almost equally in this regime and over the entire curve. The peak in this regime for OIL-B is because of lower viscosity and viscosity index as compared to OIL-A, the other conditions are same. Mixed Lubrication (Regime 2) As the speed and viscosity increase, or the load decreases, the surfaces will begin to separate, and a fluid film begins to form. The film is still very thin, but acts to support more and more of the load. Mixed lubrication is the result, and is easily seen on the Stribeck curve shown in figure 3.5 as a sharp drop in friction coefficient. The friction in this regime is more in case of OIL-B compared to OIL-A because of lower viscosity. The drop in friction is a result of decreasing surface contact and more fluid lubrication. The surfaces will continue to separate as the speed or viscosity increase until there is a full fluid film and no surface contact. The friction coefficient will reach its minimum and there is a transition to hydrodynamic lubrication. At this point, the load on the interface is entirely supported by the fluid film. There is low friction and no wear in hydrodynamic lubrication since there is a full fluid film and no solid-solid contact. Hydrodynamic Lubrication (Regime 3) One might notice that the Stribeck curve in figure 3.5 shows the friction increasing in the hydrodynamic regime for both the oils, the increase in coefficient of friction for OIL-A is more in this regime as compared to OIL-B. This is due to fluid drag (friction produced by the fluid) - higher speed and high Viscosity may result in thicker fluid film, but it also increases the fluid drag on the moving surfaces. For example, think about how much harder it is to run in a pool of water than it is to walk. Likewise, a higher viscosity will increase the fluid film thickness, but it will also increase the drag. Again, think about the difference between walking in air and walking in a pool of water. To understand hydrodynamic lubrication, we first should look at the figure 3.2. We know that a surface will have tiny asperities or peaks that will contact if two plates are placed together. If one of the plates were to slide over the other, then friction would increase, the asperities would break and the surfaces would wear. In hydrodynamic lubrication, a fluid film separates the surfaces, prevents wear and reduces friction. The hydrodynamic film is formed when the geometry, surface motion and fluid viscosity combine to increase the fluid pressure enough to support the load. The increased pressure forces the surfaces apart and prevents surface contact. Therefore, in hydrodynamic lubrication, one surface floats over the other

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surface. The hydrodynamic lubrication is the desirable condition for operating machines as it leads to less wear of parts.

for operating machines as it leads to less wear of parts. (a) (b) (c) Figure 3.2
for operating machines as it leads to less wear of parts. (a) (b) (c) Figure 3.2
for operating machines as it leads to less wear of parts. (a) (b) (c) Figure 3.2

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 3.2 Lubrication regimes

2. Effect Of Temperature On Coefficient Of Friction

The effect of temperature on coefficient of friction for both hydraulic oils has been shown in bar graph from figures 3.6 to 3.8 along with load and speed. The oil-A is tested at three temperature values viz., 27 o C, 65 o C, 90 o C while oil-B is tested at only two temperature values, because the limiting operating temperature of oil-B is only 65 o C. As we see all the three graphs have similar trend. When the temperature is increasing the coefficient of friction also increases for both hydraulic fluids because of lower viscosity value. Figures 3.6 to 3.8 corresponds to three different load and speed conditions they are 15N/10Hz, 25N/10Hz and 15N/20Hz respectively. The trend for coefficient of friction in all three graphs is similar. The coefficient of friction for both hydraulic oil is reducing when we increase the load and keeping speed constant at all temperature as explained in stribeck curve. But keeping load constant and increasing speed, the coefficient of friction increases, this is due to fluid drag (friction produced by the fluid) - higher speed and high Viscosity may result in thicker fluid film, but it also increases the fluid drag on the moving surfaces and results in higher friction between the layers of fluid. Both hydraulic fluids are performing in similar manner when we are talking about friction characteristics at any conditions, but the desirable condition of operation for both hydraulic oil is hydrodynamic lubrication. The temperature in this regime is room temperature with 3 combinations of speed and load. The other test temperature might result in boundary or mixed lubrication zone that may not be desirable as it may result in more wear.

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Wear Characteristics

The friction and wear experiment on hydraulic Oil-A and Oil-B has been performed on reciprocating and sliding friction and wear machine. The standard procedure for this machine has been discussed in section 3.2.1. The calculations for wear volume and wear rate of both steel ball and steel plate have been made based on ASTM standard and research papers. The data generated and the calculations during this experiment have been presented in tabulated form in table 7 and 8. Based on calculations the have been plotted in figures 3.9 to 3.12. Figure 3.3 and 3.4 shows the effective wear scar on steel ball and 3d profile of wear scar on steel plate respectively. The trend found for wear rate for both hydraulic oils at any condition is almost of similar order. Figure 3.9 to 3.12 shows the change in the volumetric wear rates with the applied load measured at different temperatures. The wear rates were mild at all conditions. The wear rate at load of 15N as well as 25N should be less at room temperature 27C as compared to 65C because of high viscosity of oil but it is not, the wear rate is more at room temperature because of oxide layer formation at higher temperature of oil which prevents wear of ball as well as plate. The effect of load on wear rate is clear in both cases of oils as well as temperatures; the wear rate is increasing with increase in load. Both hydraulic oils have similar trend for wear also in case of Oil-A the wear rate is more at all conditions as compared to Oil-B. But the difference in wear rate of both hydraulic fluids is of order 10 -7 it means it is almost negligible. We can easily conclude that the wear characteristic of both hydraulic fluids is same in all aspects. Though the tribological evaluation is important aspect for an oil to be qualified for use in hydraulic system, but there are other aspects need to be considered if the oil is to be used in nuclear industry. Among such aspects radiation resistant is a very important criterion for an oil to be qualified to use in nuclear industry. For initial study of radiation resistant both hydraulic oils have been gamma irradiated at 50MRad radiation level with dose rate of 0.2 MRad/hr.

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4. Gamma Irradiation of Hydraulic Fluids

Since based on Tribological result only it is not possible to evaluate a hydraulic fluid for nuclear industry application, other factors are also need to be studied among all other factors gamma irradiation is the most severe and hazardous factor for nuclear industry. It has been cited in literature review that gamma irradiation leads to knocking down of bonding electrons from the molecules and formation of radicals which leads to polymerization. It has been also cited in literature that viscosity is most affected property of hydraulic fluid because of gamma irradiation there for there is real need to study the effect of gamma irradiation on viscosity as well as other properties of hydraulic fluid. For initial studies two samples (each of 200 ml) of FRHF synthetic hydraulic fluid and petroleum based mineral hydraulic fluid contained in glass bottles (67 mm dia) have been irradiated in Gamma Chamber of ISOMED with a dose rate of 2.0 kGy/hr. (0.2 MRad/hr.). The dose level was 50 MRad. Glass bottles were capped with glass stoppers. The irradiation was carried out at room temperature.

4.1. Measurement of Properties of Synthetic Fire Resistant Hydraulic Oil (Oil-A)

The test sample viscosity was adopted as the primary parameter of radiation changes, since the viscosity is a sensitive index characterizing the chemical structure of oils. Also, changes in colour, density and Total Acid Number (TAN) are other criteria for study. In this report TAN and density are not studied. Stabinger viscometer SVM 3000 is capable of determining and displaying dynamic & kinematic viscosities and density of the fluid at a set temperature simultaneously. These properties have been measured for fresh as well as 50 MRad oil samples for temperature range of 15 °C (288 K) to 100 °C (373 K).

4.1.1. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Kinematic Viscosity

Table 4.1 Gives the percentage variation of kinematic viscosity for fresh as well as radiated oil sample with respect to temperature in temperature range of 15-100 °C (288°K to

373°K)

Table 4.1 Percentage change in kinematic viscosity of radiated oil sample from fresh oil

Sr.No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

Temp.

°C

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

72

80

92

100

°K

288

293

298

303

308

313

318

323

328

333

338

345

353

365

373

% change in viscosity

61.22

59.99

58.17

56.70

55.30

54.03

52.20

50.93

49.61

48.40

49.24

45.39

43.55

41.19

39.82

* Data propriety in nature [25]

Evaluation of Fire Resistant Hydraulic Fluid to Replace Conventional Mineral Oil in Nuclear Industry Zeeshan Ahmad

39

The behaviour of the kinematic viscosity for 50 MRad radiation level as compared with

fresh oil is plotted in figure 4.1. It can be observed that the highest viscosity at any

temperature correspond to 50 MRad of oil. It can also be observed that the kinematic viscosity

of the oil for at a given temperature for 50 MRad radiation level has drastically increased. It is

found after the evaluation of figure 4.1 that at the low temperature ranges (below room

temperature) the percentage change in kinematic viscosity is higher as compared to that in

higher temperature range. It is found that the change in kinematic viscosity is approx. 40-60

% as compared to fresh fluid and since only ±10% variation is allowed in ISO standard, 40-60

% change over a 50 MRad dose is significantly high. Hence, it can be concluded that the

kinematic viscosity of this oil is not resistive to radiation levels of 50 MRad or more than that.

4.1.2. Effect Of Gamma Radiation On Viscosity Index

Table 4.2 gives the viscosity index (VI) of Oil-A for fresh oil as well as 50 MRad of

radiation dose oil.

Table 4.2 Viscosity index of Oil-A

Viscosity Index of Oil-A

Radiation dose

Fresh Oil

50 MRad

Viscosity Index

143.3

145.8

It is found that the viscosity index has slightly changed for radiation level. It means that the viscosity index of Oil-A oil is not affected by radiation dose up to a level of 50 MRad.

4.1.3. Appearance of Oil after Gamma Irradiation

Figure 4.3 gives the effect of radiation on the appearance of the Oil-A. It is clear that

there is no significant change in colour of the oil. The oil has to be further analysed for

presence of oxidation compounds using TAN and oxidation stability testing methods.

4.2.Measurement of Properties of Petroleum Based Hydraulic Fluid (Oil-B)

Similar to FRHF synthetic type of oil, petroleum based oil has also been gamma

irradiated for 50 MRad of radiation and properties has been measured for fresh as well as 50

MRad radiation oil using SVM 3000 Anton Paar Stabinger viscometer.

4.2.1. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Kinematic Viscosity

Table 4.3 Gives the percentage variation of kinematic viscosity for fresh as well as

radiated oil sample with respect to temperature in temperature range of 15-100 °C (288°K to

373°K). The behaviour of the kinematic viscosity for 50 MRad radiation level as compared

Evaluation of Fire Resistant Hydraulic Fluid to Replace Conventional Mineral Oil in Nuclear Industry Zeeshan Ahmad

40

with fresh oil is plotted in figure 4.4. It can be observed that the highest viscosity at any

temperature

Table 4.3 Percentage change in kinematic viscosity of radiated oil sample from fresh oil

Sr.No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

 

°C

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

72

80

92

100

Temp.

°K

288

293

298

303

308

313

318

323

328

333

338

345

353

365

373

% change in viscosity

7.93

7.70

7.22

7.12

6.66

6.42

5.93

5.91

5.57

5.54

5.25

4.68

4.42

4.40

4.22

* Data propriety in nature [25]

correspond to 50 MRad of oil. It can also be observed that the kinematic viscosity of the oil

for at a given temperature for 50 MRad radiation level has slightly increased. It is found after

the evaluation of figure 4.4 that at the low temperature ranges (below room temperature) the

percentage change in kinematic viscosity is higher as compared to that in higher temperature

range. Though it is found that the change in kinematic viscosity is approx. 5-8 % as compared

to fresh fluid and since ±10% variation is allowed in ISO standard, 5-8 % change over a 50

MRad dose is insignificant. Hence, it can be concluded that the kinematic viscosity of this oil

may be resistive to radiation levels up to 50 MRad.

4.2.2. Effect Of Gamma Radiation On Viscosity Index

Table 4.4 gives the viscosity index (VI) of Oil-B for fresh oil as well as 50 MRad of

radiation dose oil.

Table 4.4 Viscosity index of Oil-B

Viscosity Index of Oil-B

Radiation dose

Fresh Oil

50 MRad

Viscosity Index

101.7

101.1

It is found that the viscosity index has not changed for radiation level. It means that the viscosity index of mineral oil is not affected by radiation dose up to a level of 50 MRad.

4.2.3. Appearance of Oil after Gamma Irradiation

Fig. 4.6 gives the effect of radiation on the appearance of the Oil-B. It is clear that the

oil has under gone significant colour change which may be due to polymerisation as well as

oxidation of the oil. The oil has to be further analysed for presence of oxidation compounds

using TAN and oxidation stability testing methods.

Evaluation of Fire Resistant Hydraulic Fluid to Replace Conventional Mineral Oil in Nuclear Industry Zeeshan Ahmad

41

5. Conclusion and Future Scope

5.1. Conclusion

The oil-a is no doubt a fire resistant hydraulic fluid having very high flash and fire point of approximately 260 o C and 310 o C respectively in comparison with oil-b having same at 210 o C and 230 o C respectively, it can be used as hydraulic fluid if there is no issue of compatibility or degradation because of gamma irradiation. But if such problems are arises then without experimental evaluation we cannot use this oil in to hydraulic system. Nuclear industry like DAE is one such industry where these types of problems are very common. Hence before being put this oil into actual system the oil has been evaluated using two deferent methodologies and conclusion has been made based on these two methodologies. Tribological evaluation

a) Tribological Evaluation

The tribological evaluation for qualifying hydraulic Oil-A and Oil-B has been done on sliding friction and wear machine TE-70. Friction and wear were the major candidate for qualifying the oils.

As discussed in previous chapter, the friction characteristics of the two oils are almost same. The stribeck curve shows that both Oil-A and Oil-B have similar operating conditions in hydrodynamic regime.

The wear characteristics shows that the wear rate of ball and plate under Oil-A lubrication is high as compared to Oil-B but the order of wear rate is very low for both oils and is of order 10 -7 , which is condition of mild wear. Hence it can be acceptable