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Osmosis:

Osmosis takes place when two solutions are separated by a semi permeable
membrane. A semi permeable membrane is a membrane which allows some things
to pass through the membrane such as water, but blocks others through its pores.
The bigger molecules cant get through the pores, e.g sugar. It acts as a barrier on
the exterior of a cell, and is also referred to as a partially permeable membrane.
This is down the concentration gradient, from the dilute solution to the
concentrated. The water particles move across the membrane repeatedly until
there is an even concentration of water molecules on both sides. Osmosis occurs
in things like red blood cells, and is basically like diffusion in water.
Red blood cells hold substances such as oxygen, if you were to place a red blood
cell in a dilute solution. Water would move in, the membrane would not be able to
stand high pressure and the cell would burst. If you put it in a concentrated
solution, water would move out and the red blood cell would shrink. This is

important as the plasmid in the blood must be at the right concentration. If a cell
uses up too much water then the concentration can be too high, osmosis will
return the balance. Osmosis is extremely important for maintaining internal
conditions.

We can have plant cells that we put in a concentrated solution. Water will move
out, this will not collapse due to the cell wall but the cell will shrink. When the plant
cell is in a dilute solution then the cell will take in the water molecules and become
turgid.
Active Transport:
Active transport uses energy to move substances up a concentration gradient, or
more commonly across a partially permeable membrane. In active transport a

special transport protein in the cell membrane picks up the useful particle on one
side of the membrane. There are loads of proteins embedded in the cells lipid

bilayer (a film two molecules thick, formed by lipids [fats]). These proteins are very
important in active transport, because they do most of the work. They are

positioned to cross the membrane so one part is on the inside of the cell and one
part is on the outside. Only when they cross the bilayer (a film two molecules

thick, formed by fats) are they able to move molecules and ions in and out of the
cell. This normally uses energy from cellular respiration. With a higher rate of
respiration theres a higher rate of active transport.

Active transport is widely used in cells, for example the mineral ions in soil can be
absorbed by active transport, even though its against a concentration gradient.
Sports Drinks:
When you exercise you release energy by respiration (contacting muscles) and

use up sugar. You also sweat to maintain the temperature of your body. The more
you sweat the more mineral and water ions you lose, which can affect the

concentration of your body fluids as if the body fluids become concentrated, water
will leave your cells and become dehydrated. To exercise optimally you have to
replace these ions, which sport drink companies claim to do.

Sports drinks are mainly water, sugar (glucose) and have more mineral ions than
soft drinks. Evidence suggests that for normal levels of exercise water is at least
as effective as a sports drink.
Exchanging Materials:

Exchange surfaces are more effective with a larger surface area, are thin so that
they have a short diffusion path, efficient blood supply (for animals) and are well
ventilated (for animals).

In the lungs the alveolus has the job of carrying out the exchange of co2 and

oxygen with the air. It has a large surface area due to the air sacs. They also have
a rich blood supply which maintains a concentration gradient in both directions.
The concentration gradient is also quite steep, for efficient diffusion.

In the small intestine there are villi, which are designed to increase the surface
area of the small intestine in order to absorb the most digested food possible.
Ventilating the lungs:

The lungs are found in the thorax and are protected by your
ribcage and is separated from your digestive system
by your diaphragm. In order to ventilate the lungs
lungs.

we need to change the shape & volume of the

The intercostal muscles in between the rib cage contracts which causes the rib

cage to move upwards and outwards. Diaphragm also contracts which causes the
diaphragm to become flatter. This draws the bottom of the lungs downwards,

which causes a higher volume inside the lungs. This means that theres a lower air
pressure inside the lungs. Theres a higher pressure on the inside, which means

the air is drawn into the lungs (diffusion). The opposite happens for the air to move
out. The intercostal muscles relaxes this causes the ribs to go downwards and
inwards. The diaphragm relaxes, that causes a decreased volume in the lungs

which increases the air pressure inside the lungs which causes air to move out.
Artifical Breathing Aids:

Negative pressure ventilators work by placing an airtight machine from the neck
down. Then a vacuum is created around the thorax, which creates a negative
pressure, hence the name Negative Pressure Ventilator. The negative pressure
leads to the expansion of the thorax and a decrease in pressure. The result of this
is that air is drawn into the lungs, as when the vacuum is released the diaphragm
and chest well cause exhalation. This method was developed in the 1920s, to help
with polio and it successfully did over the years. There are two disadvantages
though, one is that the patient is confined to the machine, hence it cannot be a
long-term support system. The second is that the vacuum on full body machines

can affect the abdomen, which leads to blood pooling up in lower parts of the
body, which again doesnt allow it to be a long term treatment. I think that this is a
good idea and treatment for polio sufferers, however not for long-term scenarios or
for over-usage as it can affect the abdomen.
Positive pressure ventilators is when air is forced into the lungs through a tube
(which is inserted into the trachea). The ventilator will pump air into the tubes,
which would cause the lungs to inflate. When the ventilator stops, then the
diaphragm and chest wall cause exhalation. The method does seem quite simple,
and has been used a lot since the 1950s, however it does have its bad side and
good side. For example, its used in operations when doctors need access to the
body. This is important, otherwise some major surgeries wouldnt be conducted.
On the other hand for long term ventilation, the tube would have to be inserted in
the back of the neck, but at least theres an option for long term ventilation. The
only negative I can realistically see for this is that the body may become
dependent on the system, and it wont allow full recovery but it is like a life
support. Therefore, I conclude that positive pressure ventilations are better.
Exchange systems in plants:
CO2 is diffused into the leaf through the underside of the plant through the
stomata, this is required for photosynthesis. The bi-product is oxygen which shows
the exchange system.
Water is also an exchange system, which goes in through the roots (osmosis). In
the water we have mineral ions, potassium, nitrates and magnesium are examples
of mineral ions. The roots become efficient in an exchange system due to their
large surface area (root hair cells).
Leaf is very flat & thin which can shorten the diffusion path, substances can be
released & absorbed quicker. The cells in a leaf are arranged in a specific way to
aid exchange systems.

Guard cells can open and close to allow gases in and out.
Mesophyll cells are loosely packed, a lot of different surfaces that can absorb
gases.
Transpiration & Water Loss:
Water is very important for photosynthesis.
A certain proportion of water (usually from the underside of the leaf) evaporates
from the leaf. This process is called transpiration.
Transpiration can vary on the type of environment, more heat would increase the
rate. Dry weather (low humidity/water particles in the air) this causes a higher
concentration gradient and transpiration rate would be faster. With wind particles
would move away and rate would increase.
These conditions may cause the plant to wilt if theres not enough water supply.
Guard cells will open and close the stomata if these conditions are present or if
theres a low supply of CO2. This reduces the amount of water that is lost via
transpiration.
Cobalt chloride paper: In the presence of moisture it turns pink (this means that
water is evaporated). You would use this in an experiment in order to determine
different water evaporation times in various conditions (speed of paper turning
pink).
The heart and circulation:
1) The main job of the heart is to pump blood (transports everything) around the
body.
Theres a lot of muscle in the walls of the heart, important due to constant
pumping of the heart. Coronary arteries supply the blood that we require for the
heart. This blood contains the sugar and oxygen that give heart the fuel to keep on

pumping. If theres a problem with the coronary arteries then theres a high risk of
heart attack.
Heart diseases cause a blocked coronary artery (cholesterol could block it). A
STENT could help this, you would insert it into the artery which would cause it to
widen. This would allow the blood flow to return to normal.
How the heart pumps blood:
1)

Blood comes from two parts of the

body,

the atria fills up


2)

The atria contracts and forces blood

into

the ventricle
3)

The ventricles will fill up

4)

The ventricles will contract and the blood will flow out

5)

The valves make sure the blood flows in the right direction (like a one-way

door).
Blue side or

Vena Cava side represents deoxygenated blood.


Pulmonary Artery has thick walls, layer of
muscle and layer of elastic tissue. The
oxygenated blood has a lot of pressure due to it

having more
Pulmonary Vein

components. Its also roundish in shape.


has thinner walls and its not as round in shape due to

the squashability because of less muscle & elastic tissue.


Capillaries are narrow blood vessels so that they can penetrate deep into the
tissue in order to get close to the cells. Arteries branch off into capillaries.
Capillaries can only take 1 blood cell at a time.
The Blood:

75% of the blood is plasma, a yellow liquid that has the job of transporting carbon
dioxide from organs to the lungs. The lung scan breathe the Co 2 out. It also
transfers the soluble products of digestion, these are also transported to organs.
Red blood cells are cells that are in the blood, job is to transport oxygen.
Manufactured in bone marrow no by mitosis. Haemoglobin is stored into the rbc,
no nucleus to allow more space for haemoglobin. The special disk like shape
maximises surface area. Haemoglobin carries oxygen, once it is exposed to a high
concentration of oxygen it becomes oxyhaemoglobin. When it goes around to cells
in the body it splits up to oxygen + haemoglobin and oxygen is given to the cells
(for respiration). Where theres a low concentration of oxygen, itll give it to that
tissue.
White blood cells have an important role in defending the body against microorganisms.
Platelets are fragments of cells, they are also suspended in the blood. They allow
the blood to clot when there is a cut, this will block up the wound (scab) and allow
it to heal. They also have no nucleus and arent technically cells.
Urea is produced in the liver and is made from extra amino acids that the body
has. This is transported in the plasma to the kidneys, then theyll filter out the urea
and this will be disposed through the urine.
Artificial Blood & Hearts:
Blood:
In real blood we have many components, plasma, rbcs, wbcs and platelets. The
main purpose of the blood is to transport oxygen which it does with red blood
cells.
During surgeries when theres a high blood loss, we require artificial blood. We
cant use real blood due to lack of donors, risk of infection, shelf life issues (donor
blood can be stored from 42 days max.) and compatibility (blood type). Artificial
blood can also be used immediately.

However, there have been clinical trials that say theres an increased risk of heart
attacks. Some types also have side effects and insoluble.
Hearts:
A transplant is the best solution however they have a lack of donors (lack of
availability). Artificial hearts can extend life span, however there is an extremely
low success rate. There is a risk of infection, risk of clotting (rough surface seems
like injury > will cause platelets to clot), battery needs to be recharged/changed
and discomfort to the patient. This can be used until a donor is found.
Transport in Plants:
The phloem are living cells that are tube shaped. They
allow sugars (that are made from photosynthesis) to travel
up and down.
The xylem are made from dead cells and have the job of
transporting minerals and water. Water is important for
photosynthesis, it also helps to keep a cell turgid and upright.
Root > Xylem > Leaf (Transpiration stream)
Recommended Investigations:
You can put celery into water with red food colouring. A little
while later you can cut it into pieces, you can see red dots.
This is where the xylem is located and the path waters taken up.
The potometer is a method of measuring the rate of which
water evaporates from the leaf (transpiration rate). It is used
to measure the movement of air bubbles. This gives an
indication of how quickly water evaporates from a leaf. You

can also change conditions to determine how factors affect the rate of
transpiration.
Homeostasis:
Homeostasis is the controlling of substance levels or getting rid of waste products.
We need get rid of CO2, also we breathe out excess water vapour (can do this
through urine). CO2 comes through respiration (glucose + oxygen = energy +
carbon dioxide + water). Transported to the lungs via the blood and then is
breathed out. Some of this can also be lost through sweat.
Excess amino acids can be converted
into urea (this happens in the liver). That
urea is then transported into the kidneys
via the blood.
First the blood is filtered, urea, sugar,
glucose, mineral ions etc go through the
kidney tubule. Some proteins are too
large to go through the tubule. All of the glucose is returned back into the bloody
along with the required mineral ions, and required water however none of the urea
is transported back. This is called selective reabsorption.
Kidney Dialysis and Transplants:
Dialysis: Kidneys have a role in removing urea, excess ions and water. If the
kidney doesnt work the urea and excess ions can build up in the body, over a
long period of time it can cause death.
In order to filter the blood for someone
whose kidney doesnt work we need a
dialysis machine. The blood that is
leaving the person goes through some tubes,

to a dialysis machine. In the machine there is a special fluid called dialysis fluid
that helps to filter the blood. There is also a bubble trap, acid drips through any
bubbles with diminish them.
Blood goes in through one way, dialysis fluid goes in through the other way. The
membrane that separates the blood from the fluid is a partially permeable
membrane, proteins and red blood cells cant pass through.
Substances such as urea will diffuse out of the blood, high concentration on the
inside (low on outside) therefore itll diffuse out.
We require the same amount (concentration) of sugar on the inside and outside so
that theres no net movement.
The ideal ion concentration will be kept on the inside and out to allow no net
movement.
Pros:
-Regularly available
-Dont have to take drugs everyday
Cons:
-Have to take regular, long sessions every week
-Less freedom, have to be close to the machine
-Be careful about your diet in between sessions
Kidney Transplant: Involves in adding another kidney in another cavity of the body
(if its not infected). If the kidney is from another person it will have a different
tissue type. This means that the immune system (antibodies) may attack the
tissue. We need to minimise this by finding a reasonable tissue match.
Pros:
-Dont need to control your diet
Cons:
-Finding a donor
-Rejection of the kidneys tissue type

-You need to take immunosuppressant drugs, might make you prone to illness due
to the weakening effect of these drugs
Temperature Control:
Inside the brain there is a thermoregulatory centre, this has temperature receptors
which detect temperature of blood that flows from the body to the thermoregulatory
centre. Its also responsible for controlling temperature in the body.
In the skin you have receptors which send nerve impulses to the thermoregulatory
centre.
When the body gets too hot, the body starts to sweat. This cools down the body
as the water in the sweat will evaporate away and carry away the heat energy
from the surface. However, water is lost from the body and needs to be replaced
and the water level needs to be balanced. Another response is that there will be
less urine produced.
The core body temperature is the inner temperature which any fluctuation in
temperature. When the core temperature goes too high or too low it could be life
threatening.
When the body wants to lose heat, blood vessels (arterioles) which supply the skin
capillaries dilate. More blood flows through the capillaries causing more heat to be
lost by radiation. This is why the skin looks red when a person is feeling hot, more
blood flowing at the surface of the skin.
You have a sweat gland that produces sweat when its too warm. Sweat glands
releases more sweat. The water in the sweat evaporates carrying the heat energy
away. This cools the skin surface and body.
When its cold the blood vessels constrict (go narrower). Therefore less blood
flowing through skin capillaries and the less radiation of heat. Muscles may also
shiver, muscle contraction requires energy. Process of respiration produces some
heat energy. Carries on until the body is at a suitable temperature.
Control of Blood Glucose:

Glucose is needed to provide energy from body, the process that releases energy
from glucose is called respiration.
If the blood sugar levels go to high you might need to get to the toilet, thirst,
hunger, blurred vision, dizziness and nausea. If you have blood sugar that is too
low you have hunger, weakness, inability to concentrate, dizziness, loss of
conscious.
The pancreas produces insulin that controls glucose levels. It secretes insulin into
the blood if you have higher levels of glucose. This allows the glucose to enter the
cells and get out of the blood. It also converts glucose into glycogen. Glycogen is
a long chain of glucose molecules.
When the glucose levels go low, less insulin will be secreted into the blood. Insulin
is a protein and hormone. This can happen with minimal intake of food or excess
exercise. Another hormone called glucagon is released from the pancreas and has
the job of converting glycogen into individual glucose units. Converting happens in
the liver. This will cause a rise in glucose levels.
If the body cant control glucose the levels will go higher and higher, then start to
go down after a long period of time. This can occur in Type 1 diabetes. In type 1
diabetes the pancreas makes no or little insulin. Therefore glucose cant enter the
cells, and cant be converted into glycogen in the liver for storage. This will lead to
high levels of glucose remaining in the blood.
This can be controlled by taking insulin injections, before meal times. This would
help to replace the natural insulin secretion in the body. Diet and exercise helps
too, exercise helps to respire the glucose.
Human population growth:
Acid Rain:
-Burning fossil fuels
-Causes the emission of sulphur dioxide (SO2)

Dissolves in rain water

Causes acid rain


We require more land for
building, quarrying (limestone),
need for dumping waste, and
using land for farming. This
reduces the biodiversity of the environment.

Deforestation:
Deforestation is the cutting down of trees and vegetation in large amounts. When
we cut down trees we reduce the amount of CO2 taken down in the atmosphere
which can have an effect on global warming. As wood is burnt the locked away
Co2 is released and let out.
Biodiversity is the range of species living in the environment. Deforestation
reduces biodiversity.
The reason behind deforestation is to create land for farming or creating crops for
biofuel (ethanol).
Methane comes from rice, when rice is growing then methane is produced. Cows
have a digestive process which produces methane, they have to fart it out. This
also happens with sheep.
Peat bogs are areas that are marshy. They contained party decayed plant
material, you can use it to increase the soil quality or burn it for soil. This releases
CO2.
Global Warming may cause:
-Increase in sea levels (melting of ice caps)

-Change in climate
-Change in species distribution > Disrupts food chains
-Change in migration patterns (birds)
CO2 is sequestered (carbon sinks).
Biogas:
Generating a fuel that can be used in many ways, more environmentally friendly.
You require a biogas generator in order to produce biogas. You can put waste
material in order to grow bacteria, e.g animal waste, waste foods, waste plants,
human waste. This goes in a biogas generator which produces slurry (waste
material being broken down). Its important that you have anaerobic conditions (no
oxygen) and its at a warm temperature in order to produce a certain type of gas.
This produces the biogas (mixture of gases). The tank is made so that no air can
get in and when biogas is created the high pressure causes it to be automatically
removed.
The main component of biogas is methane, theres also water vapour, hydrogen,
hydrogen sulfide. Once the slurry is broken down it can be used as a fertiliser, it
is carbon neutral and environmentally friendly.
We require a temperature around 30 degrees due to the enzymes. In countries
where its a little colder the tanks are underground in order to provide a layer of
insulation.
The volume of CO2 may be higher initially due to aerobic respiration, then
anaerobic respiration takes place. The carbon dioxide level then goes down.
Can be used for cooking, heating and electric production.
Food Production:
Animals or plants are the main sources of vegetation. E.g. Chickens will use the
energy in the grain for growth, movement and heat. Not all biomass is passed on
due to it being lost.

The biomass is lost due to more steps, a vegetarian has a more efficient food
chain. We need to reduce the heat produced, movement in order to make the food
chain more efficient. Factory farming is when we have certain conditions that these
animals are bred in, these restrict movement, keeping them in a small and
confined area, and keep the place warm.
Fish Farming:
The numbers of fish that are edible to humans are reducing drastically.
-Smaller net sizes
-Quotas (limits the number youre able to fish)
-Avoiding fishing during mating season
-Avoiding breeding grounds
-Mesh sizes (small fish can escape the net)
This will maintain the fish stocks in the ocean
Problems are that its hard to check and control if these things are taking place.
Mycoprotein:
Source of food that comes from fungus which is very high in protein and very low
in fat. The fungus is called fusarium and is grown in
aerobic conditions. The air goes into the fermentation
vessel, bubbles through the mixture and that provides
the oxygen. There is a filter to prevent bacteria from
getting in which could contaminate the fusarium.
The air is filtered too. The air also has the job for
distributing the heat and mixing all of the components. Glucose syrup and minerals
help growth.
Aerobic respiration can produce CO2 which escapes from the top.
Aerobic respiration produces a lot of heat, if it goes higher than 35/37 degrees the
growth could slow down. This is why there is a cooling water jacket that keeps the
fermentation vessel cool. Cool water goes in to surround the main part that

fermentation is working, there is a constant stream of cool water that keeps


conditions cool.
In between growing the fusarium we filter the air, sterilise with steam and sterilise
the mycoprotein.
Food Production Evaluation:
Food Miles is
transported food.
Another pro of factory
farming are more
efficient food chains.