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The Education Technology 1 (ET-1) course has truly paved the way for the
learner to become aware, appreciative and equipped to use educational technology
Truly, the foundation for a truly satisfying exposure to educational
technology has been firmly laid down by the ET- 1 course, starting with the through
treatment of the history of educational technology, quality education, and the roles
In ET-1, the learner was also oriented towards averting the dangers of
dehumanization which technology brings into societies, such as through ideological
propaganda, pornography, financial fraud, and other exploitative use of technology.
Sad to say, these dangers continue to affect peoples and cultures while widening
On the application of educational technology to instruction. Educational
technology 1 showed the four phases of application of educational technology in
teaching- and- learning, namely: (a) setting of learning objectives (b) designing
specific learning experiences (c) evaluating the effectiveness of the learning
experiences vis--vis the learning objectives, and (d) revision as needed of the
whole teaching-learning process, or elements of it, for further improving future
Adding to the technology sophistication of the learner, educational
technology 1 fitting refined the distinction between educational technology and
other concepts, such as instructional technology (which is the use of technology and
instruction, different from school management), educational media (or equipment
and materials, apart from the teacher himself), audio visual aids (or learning media
to stir the senses for more effective learning).

In sum, educational technology 1 served:

To orient the learner to the pervasiveness of educational technology in


To lend familiarization on how educational technology can be utilized

as media for the avenues teaching-learning process in this school.

To uplift the learner to human learning through the use of learning


To impart skills in planning, designing, using and evaluating the

technology-enriched teaching-learning process.

To acquaint learners on the basic aspects of community education,

functions of the school media centre, and finally.

To introduce the learner to what is recognized as the third revolution

in education, the computer.






Educational technology 2 is concerned with Integrating Technology

into Teaching and Learning. Specifically this is focused on introducing,
reinforcing, supplementing and extending the knowledge and skills to
learners so that they can become exemplary users of educational technology.
Mainly directed to student teachers, also professional teachers who may wish
to update their knowledge of educational technology, it is our goal that this
course can help our target learners to weave technology in teaching with
software (computer programmed learning materials) becoming a natural
Necessarily, Educational Technology 2 will involve a deeper
understanding of the computer a well as hands-on application of computer
skills. But this is not to say that the goal of the course is to promote
computer skills. Rather, the course is primarily directed at enhancing
In essence, the course aims to infuse technology in the studentteachers training, helping them to adapt and meet rapid and continuing
technological changes particularly in the thriving global information and
To provide education in the use of technology in instruction by providing
knowledge and skills on technology integration-in-instruction to learners

To impart learning experiences in instructional technology-supported

To acquaint students on information technology or IT- related learning
To learn to use and evaluate computer-based educational resources
To engage learners on practical technology integration issues including
managing IT classrooms, use of the internet for learning, cooperative
To inculcate higher level thinking and creativity among students while
providing them knowledge of IT-related learning theories
While the course is primarily intended for the use of student-teachers, it can
also be of great use to professional teachers, school administrators, teacher
educators, and in fact anyone who is interested on how information
technology can be used to improve not only instruction but the school
It may be said, too, that the study of this course on integrating Information
Technology in instruction should not be considered as a formidable task, but
rather as a refreshing and exciting study given the idea that all learning
Friday, June 21, 2013


To provide confidence to educators that they are taking the right steps in
adopting technology in education, it is good to know that during the last few years,
progressive countries in the Asia Pacific region have formulated state policies and
strategies to infuse technology in schools. The reason for this move is not difficult to
understand since there is now a pervasive awareness that a nations socioeconomic success in the 21st century is linked to how well it can compete in a
global information and communication technology (ICT) region. This imperative
among nations has therefore given tremendous responsibilities on educators to
create an educational technology environment in schools.
And since it is understood that state policies will continue to change, it is
helpful to examine prevailing ICT policies and strategies of five progressive
states/city, namely New Zealand, Australia, Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong.
New Zealand 2001 ICT Goals and Strategy
(Web link for more a detailed document)
Government with the education and technology sectors, community groups,
and industry envisions to support to the development of the capability of schools to
use information and communication technologies in teaching-and-learning and in
It foresees schools to be:

Improving learning outcomes for students using ICT to support the


Using ICT to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of educational


Developing partnerships with communities to enhance access to learning

through ICT.
Focus areas

Infrastructure for increasing schools access to ICTs to enhance education

Professional development so that school managers and teachers can increase

their capacity to use ICT

An On-line Resource Center with a centrally managed website for the delivery
of multimedia resources to schools

A computer recycling scheme

A planning and implementation guide for schools

ICT professional development schools/clusters

Australia IT Initiatives
In the Adelaide Declaration on National Goals for schools, information
technology is one of the eight national goals/learning areas students should

achieve. Students should be confident, creative and productive users of new

technologies on society.
The plans for achieving the national goal for IT are left to individuals states
and territories with the Educational Network Australia (EdNA) as the coordinating
and advisory body. Across the states and territories, the common features to
planning, funding and implementation strategies are:

Fast local and wide area networks linking schools across the state and

Substantial number of computers in schools, ensuring adequate access

Continuing teacher training in the use of technology for instruction

Technical support to each school

Sufficient hardware and software

Digital library resources

Technology demonstrations as models for schools

Malaysia Smart School-level Technology Project

Technology plays many roles in a Smart School from facilitating teachingand-learning activities to assisting with school management. Fully equipping a
school includes:

Classrooms with multimedia, presentation facilities, e-mail, and groupware

for collaborative work

Library media center with database for multimedia courseware and network
access to the internet

Computer laboratory for teaching, readily accessible multimedia and

audiovisual equipment

Multimedia development center with tools for creating multimedia materials.

Computer studies as a subject

Studio/theatrette with control room for centralized audiovisual equipment,

teleconferencing studio, audio room, video and laser disc video room

Teachers room with on-line access to courseware catalogues and databases,

information and resource management systems and professional networking tools,
such as e-mail and groupware

Server room equipped to handle applications, management databases and

web servers

Administration offices capable of managing databases of students and

facilities, tracking student and teacher performance and resources, distributing
notices and other information electronically
Singapore Masterplan for IT in Education
The masterplan has four key dimensions:
Curriculum and assessment

A balance between acquisitions of factual knowledge and mastery of
concepts and skills

Students in more active and independent learning

Assessment to measure abilities in applying information, thinking and

Learning resources

Development of a wide range of educational software for instruction

Use of relevant Internet resources for teaching-and-learning

Convenient and timely procurement of software materials

Teacher development

Training on purposeful use of IT for teaching

Equipping each trainee teacher with core skills in teaching with IT

Tie-ups with institutions of higher learning and industry partners

Physical and technological infrastructure

Pupil computer ratio of 2:1

Access to IT in all learning areas in the school

School-wide network, and school linkages through wide area

network(WAN), eventually connected to Singapore ONE (a broadband access service
for high-speedy delivery of multimedia services on island-wide basis
Hong Kong Education Program Highlights
Government aims to raise the quality of school education by promoting the
use of IT in teaching and learning. The IT initiatives are:

On average, 40 computers for each primary school and 82 computers

for each secondary school

About 85,000 IT training places for teachers at four levels

Technical support for all schools


An Information Education Resource Center for all schools and


An IT coordinator for each of 250 schools which should have sound IT

Computer rooms for use by students after normal school hours

An IT Pilot Scheme to provide schools with additional resources

Review of school curriculum to incorporate IT elements

Development of appropriate software in collaboration with

government, the private sector, tertiary institutions and schools

Exploring the feasibility of setting up an education-specific intranet



There is a lingering issue on how educational technology is integrated in

the teaching learning process. This is due to the fact that the mere use of the
computer does not mean technology has already been in integrated in instruction.
For example, computer games may not relate at all to education, much less to
classroom instruction.
There is a need, therefore, to provide learning on how educational
technology can be applied and integrated into the teaching-learning process. For
this purpose, the definition given by Pisapia (1994) is helpful:
Integrating technology with teaching means the use of learning
technologies to introduce, reinforce, supplement and extend skills. The difference
between the classroom of exemplary users of technology and technology uses is the
way their classes are conducted. In the exemplary classrooms, student use of
computers is woven integrally into the patterns of teaching; software is a natural
extension of student tools.
Following this definition, there is NO INTEGRATIVE PROCESS if for
example the teacher makes students play computer games to give them a rest
period during classes. Neither is there integration, if the teacher merely teaches
students computer skills. In the first place, the teachers of general or special are not
computer technicians or computer trainers.
If one is looking for external manifestations of technology integration
into instruction, here are some:

Theres a change n the way classes are traditionally conducted.

The quality of instruction is improved to a higher level such a way that could
not have been achieved without educational technology.

There is planning by the teacher on the process of determining how and

when technology fits into the teaching-learning process.

The teacher sets instructional strategies to address specific instructional


In sum, technology occupies a position (is a simple or complex way) in the

instructional process.

application process

Looking through progressive state policies that support technology-in-education,

and other new developments in pedagogical practice, our educators today have
become more aware and active in adopting state-of-the-art educational technology
practices they can possibly adopt.
The following trends should also be recognized by educators:

Through school and training center computer courses, present-day students

have become computer literate. They send e-mail, prepare computer encoded class
reports, even make PowerPoint presentation sometimes to the surprise of media
tradition-bound teachers.

Following the call for developing critical thinking among students, teachers
have deemphasized rote learning and have spent more time in methods to allow
students to comprehend/internalize lessons.

Shifting focus from low-level traditional learning outcomes, student

assessment/examinations have included measurement of higher level learning
outcomes such as creative and critical thinking skills.

Recent teaching learning models (such as constructivism and social

constructivism) have paved the way for instructional approaches in which students
rely less on teachers as information-givers, and instead more on their efforts to
acquire information, build their own knowledge, and solve problems.

Virtue is in moderation and so, there is truly a need for teachers to balance their
time to the preparation and application of instructional tools. Through wise technical
advice, schools can also acquire the most appropriate computer hardware and
software. At the same time, training should ensure that the use of ET is fitted to
learning objectives. In addition, teachers should acquire computer skills for so that
they can serve as models in integrating educational technology in the teachinglearning process.


Following modern trends in technology-related education, schools should now foster

a student-centered learning environment, wherein students are given leeway to use
computer information sources in their assignments, reports and presentation in
written, visual, or dramatic forms.

All these suggestion show that teachers and schools can no longer avoid the
integration of educational technology in instruction. Especially in the coming years,
when portable and mobile computing will make computing activities easier to
perform, the approaches to classroom pedagogy musts change. And with continuing
changes in high-speed communication, mass storage of data, including the
revolutionary changes among school libraries, educators should be open for more
drastic educational.
Saturday, June 22, 2013
IT Enters A New Learning Environment
It is most helpful to see useful models of school learning that is ideal to
achieving instructional goals through preferred application of educational
technology. These are the models of Meaningful Learning, Discovery learning,
Generative Learning and Constructivism.
In these conceptual models, we shall see how effective teachers best interact with
students in innovative learning activities, while integrating technology to the
teaching learning process.
Figure 2 Conceptual Models of Learning

Meaningful Learning
If the traditional learning environment gives stress focus to rote learning
and simple memorization, meaningful learning gives focus to new experience
departs from that is related to what the learners already knows. New experience
departs from the learning of a sequence of words but attention to meaning. It
assumes that:
Students already have some knowledge that is relevant to new learning.
Students are wiling to perform class work to find connections between what they
already know and what they can learn.
In the learning process, the learner is encouraged to recognize relevant
personal experiences. A reward structure is set so that the learner will have both
interest and confidence, and this incentive system sets a positive environment to
learning. Facts that are subsequently assimilated are subjected to the learners
understanding and application. In the classroom, hands-on activities are introduced
so as to simulate learning in everyday living.
Discovery Learning

Discovery learning is differentiated from reception learning in which ideas

are presented directly to student in a well-organized way, such as through a
detailed set of instructions to complete an experiment task. To make a contrast, in
discovery learning student from tasks to uncover what is to be learned.
New ideas and new decision are generated in the learning process, regardless of the
need to move on and depart from organized setoff activities previously set. In
discovery learning, it is important that the student become personally engaged and
not subjected by the teacher to procedures he/she is not allowed to depart from.
In applying technology, the computer can present a tutorial process by
which the learner is presented key concept and the rules of learning in a direct
manner for receptive learning. But the computer has other uses rather than
delivering tutorials. In a computer simulation process, for example, the learner
himself is made to identify key concept by interacting with a responsive virtual
Generative Learning
In generative learning, we have active learners who attend to learning events and
generate meaning from this experience and draw inferences thereby creating a
personal model or explanation to the new experience in the context of existing
Generative learning is viewed as different from the simple process of storing
information. Motivation and responsibility are seen to be crucial to this domain of
learning. The area of language comprehension offers examples of this type of
generative learning activities, such as in writing paragraph summaries, developing
answers and questions, drawing pictures, creating paragraph titles, organizing
ideas/concepts, and others. In sum, generative learning gives emphasis to what can
be done with pieces of information, not only on access to them.
In constructivism, the learner builds a personal understanding through appropriate
learning activities and a good learning environment. The most accepted principles
constructivism are:
Learning consists in what a person can actively assemble for himself and not
what he can receive passively.
The role of learning is to help the individual live/adapt to his personal world.
These two principles in turn lead to three practical implications:
The learner is directly responsible for learning. He creates personal
understanding and transforms information into knowledge. The teacher plays an
indirect role by modeling effective learning, assisting, facilitating and encouraging
The context of meaningful learning consists in the learner connecting his
school activity with real life.
The purpose of education is the acquisition of practical and personal knowledge,
not abstract or universal truths.
To review, there are common themes to these four learning domains. They
are given below:

are active, purposeful learners.

set personal goals and strategies to achieve these goals.

make their learning experience meaningful and relevant to their lives.

seek to build an understanding of their personal worlds so they can work/live

build on what they already know in order to interpret and respond to new
l changes in the years ahead.

In the traditional information absorption model of teaching, the teacher
organizes and presents information to students-learners. He may use a variety of
teaching resources to support lesson such as chalkboard, videotape, newspaper or
magazine and photos. The presentation is followed by discussion and the giving of
assignment. Among the assignments may be a research on a given topic. This
teaching approach has proven successful for achieving learning outcomes following
the lower end of Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge, comprehension, and application are
But a new challenge has arisen for todays learners and this is not simply to
achieve learning objectives but to encourage the development of students who can
do more than receive, recall, recite and apply the knowledge they have acquired.
Today, students are expected to be not only cognitive, but also flexible, analytically
and creative. In this lesson, there are methods proposed by the use of computerbased as an integral support to higher thinking skills and creativity.
Higher Level Learning Outcomes
To define higher level thinking skills and creativity, we may adopt a
framework that is a helpful synthesis of many models and definitions on the subject
matter. The framework is not exhaustive but a helpful guide for the teachers effort
to understand the learners higher learning skills.
Complex Thinking Skills

Defining the problem, goal/objectivesetting, brainstorming

Information Gathering

Selection, recording of data of



Associating, relating new data with



Identifying idea constructs, patterns


Deducing, inducting, elaborating


Classifying, relating


Visualizing, predicting


Planning, formulating


Summarizing, abstracting


Setting criteria, testing idea, verifying

outcomes, revising

Figure 4 - Thinking Skills Framework

The Upgraded Project Method
In this modern day, the teachers are now guided on their goal to help
students achieve higher level thinking skills and creativity beyond the ordinary.
We know the fact that the ordinary classroom is awfully lack in instructional
toolkits; as a result the teacher might have a difficulty to bring the students to the
higher domains of learning and achieving, so the project method is suggested.
Project Method
Teachers assign the students to work on projects with depth, complexity
duration and relevance to the real word.
Project is utilized because students need to make the most of the decisions
about what to put inside their project, how to organize their information and ideas
and how to communicate their result effectively.
Upgraded Project Method
In here, there is a tighter link between the uses of projects for simply coming
up with products to have the students undergo the process of higher thinking skills
under the framework of the Constructivist Paradigm.
In this new project method, the students are advised to use computer
application and high technology in doing their projects.
Constructivist Paradigm
It emphasize on how the students construct knowledge. The students, not
the teacher are the one who make decisions about what to put into the project, how
to organize information, how to package the outcomes for presentation and the like.
In doing projects, there are two things that are involved: the process and the
Process- refers to the steps, effort and experiences in project completion.
Product- is the result or the end point of the process.
As a future teacher, we must take into consideration the process in every
project because in the process, the students were able to think and apply their
creativity as results they have develop their higher order thinking skills.
Four Types of I-T Based Projects

Resource-based project
Simple creations
Guided hypermedia
Web design project

Lesson 8
Saturday, June 22, 2013
Higher Thinking Skills Through IT-Based Projects
In this lesson, we shall discuss four types of IT-based projects which can effectively
be used in order to engage students in activities of a higher plane of thinking. To be

noted is the fact that these projects differ on the specific process and skills
employed, also in the ultimate activity or platform used to communicate completed
products to others.
It is to be understood that these projects do not address all of the thinking skills
shown previously in the Thinking Skills Framework. But these projects represent
constructivist projects, containing the key elements of a constructivist approach to
instruction, namely:
(a) the teacher creating the learning environment
(b) the teacher giving students the tools and facilities, and
(c) the teacher facilitating learning.
The students themselves who demonstrate higher thinking skills and creativity
through such activities searching for information, organizing and synthesizing ideas,
creating presentations, and the like.
Now let us see four IT-based projects conducive to develop higher thinking skills and
creativity among learners.
I. Resources-based Projects
In these projects, the teacher steps out of the traditional role of being an content
expert and information provider, and instead lets the students find their own facts
and information. Only when necessary for the active learning process does the
teacher step in to supply data or information. The general flow of events in
resource-based projects are:

The teacher determines the topic for the examination of the class.


The teacher presents the problem to the class.


The students find information on the problem/questions.


Students organize their information in response to the problem/questions.

Relating to finding information, the central principle is to make the students go

beyond the textbook and curriculum materials. Students are also encouraged to go
to the library, particularly to the modern extension of the modern library, the
The inquiry-based or discovery approach is given importance in resource-based
projects. This requires that the students, individually or cooperatively with members
of his group, relate gathered information to the real world.
The process is given more importance than the project product. It doesnt matter for
example if each group comes up with a different answer to the problem. What
matters are the varied sources of information, the line of thinking and the ability to
agree in defense of their answers.
The table below can provide the difference between the traditional and resourcesbased learning approach to instruction.

Resource-based learning model

Teacher is expert and information


Teacher is a guide and facilitator

Textbook is key source of


Sources are varied

(print, video, internet, etc.)

Food on facts information is

packaged, in neat parcels

Focus on learning inquiry/


The product is the be-all and endall of learning

Emphasis on process

Assessment is quantitative

Assessment is quantitative and



Students can also be assigned to create their software materials to supplement the
need for relevant and effective materials. Of course, there are available software
materials such Creative Writer (by Microsoft) on writing, KidWork Deluxe (by
Davidson) on drawing and painting, and MediaWeave (by Humanities software) on
In developing software, creativity as an outcome should not be equated with
ingenuity or high intelligence. Creating is more consonant with planning, making,
assembling, designing, or building. Creativity is said to combine three kind of

Analyzing distinguishing similarities and differences, seeing the project as a

problem to be solved.
Synthesizing making spontaneous connections among ideas, their generating
interesting or new ideas.
Promoting selling of new ideas to allow the public to test the ideas themselves.
To develop creativity, the following five key tasks may be recommended:

Define the task. Clarify the goal of the completed project to the student.

Brainstorm. The students themselves will be allowed to generate their own
ideas on the project. Rather than shoot down ideas, the teacher encourages idea
Judge the ideas. The students themselves make an appraisal for or against
any idea. Only when students are completely off track should the teacher intervene.

Act. The students do their work with the teacher a facilitator.

Adopt flexibility. The students should be allowed to shift gears and not follow
an action path rigidly.
The production of self-made multimedia projects can be approached in two different
1. As an instructive tool, such as in the production by students of a powerpoint presentation of a selected topic.
2. As a constructivist tool, such as when students do a multimedia
presentation (with text, graphs, photos, audio narration, interviews, video clips, etc.,
to simulate a television news show.
Students can be made to create and post webpages on a given topic. But creating
webpages, even single page webpages, may be too sophisticated and time
consuming for the average student.
It should be said, however, that posting of webpages in the Internet allows the
students (now the webpage creator) a wider audience. They can also linked with
other related sites in the Internet. But as of now, this creativity project may be to
ambitious as a tool in the teaching-learning process.

Lesson 9:
Computer as Information and communication technology
In educational technology course 1 the role of computer in education was well
discussed. It was pointed out that the advent of the computer is recognized as the
third revolution in education. The first was the invention of the printing press; the
second, the introduction of libraries and the third the invention of the computer,
especially so with the advent of the microcomputer in 1975. Thus emerged
computer technology in education
Through the technology, educators saw the amplification of learning literacy.
Much like reading, the modern student can now interact with computer messages;
even respond to question or to computer commands. Again like writing, the learner
can form messages using computer language or programs.

Soon computer assisted instruction (CAI) was introduced using the principle of
individualized learning through a positive climate that includes realism and appeal
with drill exercise that uses color, music and animation. The novelty of CAI has not
waned to this offered by computer-equipped private schools. But the evolving pace
of innovation in todays Information Age is so dynamic that within the first decade of
the 21st century, computer technology in education has matured to transform into
an educative information and communication technology (ICT) in education.


Audiovisual media

Email (text and video)
sound, graphics




point presentation


News services (print, video clip)

VCD, DVD player
Educational software
Educational websites
Softwares , coursewares
School registration/ records


CDVCD, DVD player



Until the nineties, it was still possible to distinguish between instructional

media and the educational communication media.

Instructional media consist of audio-visual aids that served to enhance

and enrich the teaching-learning process. Examples are the blackboard, photo, film,
and video

On the other hand, educational communication media comprise the

media communication to audiences including learners using the print, film radio,
and television or satellite means of communication. For example, distance learning
were implemented using correspondence, radio, television or the computer satellite
Close to the turn of the 21st century, however, such as distinction merged
owing to the advent of the microprocessor also known as the personal computer
(PC). This is due to the fact that the PC user at home, office and school has before
him a tool for both audio-visual creations and media communication.

To illustrate, lets examine the programs (capabilities) normally installed

in an ordinary modern PC:

v Microsoft Office- program for composing text, graphics, photos into letters,
articles, reports etc.

v Power-point- for preparing lecture presentations

v Excel- for spreadsheet and similar graphic sheets

v Internet access to the internet

v Yahoo or Google- websites; email, chat rooms, Blog sites, news service
(print/video) educational software etc.

v Adobe reader- Graph/photo composition and editing

v MSN- mail/chat messaging

v Cyber link power- DVD player

v Windows media player- Editing film/video

v Game house- video games

The computer is one of the wonders of human ingenuity, even in its original
design in the 1950's to carry out complicated mathematical and logical operations.
With the invention of the microcomputer (now also commonly referred to PCs or
personal computers), the PC has bcome the tool for programmed instruction.
Educators saw much use of the PC. It has become affordable to small
business, industries and homes. They saw its potential for individualization in
learning, especially as individualized learning is a problem since teachers usually
with a class of forty or more learners. They therefore devised strategies to use the
computer to break the barriers to individualized instruction.
Computer-assisted instruction (CAI)
The computer can be a tutor in effect relieving the teacher of many activities
in his personal role as classroom tutor. It should be made clear, however, that the
computer cannot totally replace the teacher since the teacher shall continue to play
the major roles of information deliverer and learning environment controller. Even
with the available computer and CAI software, the teacher must:
Insure that students have the needed knowledge and skills for any computer
Decide the appropriate learning objectives.
Plan the sequential and structured activities to achieve objectives.
Evaluate the students achievement by ways of tests the specific expected

On the other hand, the students in CAI play their own roles as learners as they:
Receive information.
Understand instructions for the computer activity.
Retain/keep in mind the information and rules for the computer activity.
Apply the knowledge and rules during the process of computer learning.
During the computer activity proper in CAI the computer, too, plays its roles as it:

Act as a assort of tutor (the role traditional played by the teacher.

Provides a learning environment.
Delivers learning instruction.
Reinforces learning through drill-and-practice.
Provides feedback.

Today, educators accept the fact that the computer has indeed succeeded in
providing an individualized learning environment so difficult for a teacher handling
whole classes. This is so, since the computer is able to allow individual students to
learn at their own pace, motivate learning through a challenging virtual learning
environment, assist students through information needed during the learning
process, evaluate students responses through immediate feedback during the
learning process, and also give the total score to evaluate the students total


In the previous lesson, we saw how the computer can act as a tutor particularly
along a behaviorist and cognitive approach to learning. But we also saw certain
computer software programs have been developed to foster higher thinking skills
and creativity.
In this lesson, we shall again look at the computer, but this time from another
perspective the computer as the teachers handy tool. I can in fact support
theconstructivist and social constructivist paradigms of constructivist learning.
Constructivist was introduced by Piaget (1991) and Bruner (1990). They
gave stress to knowledge discovery of new meaning/concepts/principles in the
learning process. Various strategies have been suggested to foster knowledge
discovery, among these, is making students engaged in gathering unorganized
information from which they can induce ideas and principles. Students are also
asked to apply discovered knowledge to new situations, a process for making their
knowledge to real life situations.
While knowledge is constructed by the individual learner in
constructivism, knowledge can also be socially constructed. Social constructivism.
This is an effort to show that the construction of knowledge is governed by social,
historical and cultural contexts, in effect; this is to say that the learner who
interprets knowledge has a predetermined point of view according to the social
perspective of the community or society he lives in.
The psychologist Vygotsky stressed that learning is affected by social
influences. He therefore suggested the interaction process in learning. The more
capable adult (teacher or parent) or classmate can aid or complement what the
learner sees in a given class project. In addition Dewey sees language as a medium
for social coordination and adaptation. For Dewey human learning is really human
language that occurs when students socially share, build and agree upon meaning
and knowledge.

Learning framework


Social Constructivism


Knowledge is constructed
by the individual.

Knowledge is constructed
within a social context.

Definition of Learning

Students build their own


Students build knowledge

influenced by the social

Learning Strategies

Gather unorganized
information to create new

Exchange and share form

ideas, stimulates thinking.

General Orientation

Personal discovery of

Students discuss and

discover meanings.



Two alternative job offers

Option 1-8 hrs./day for 6
days/ week.
Option 2- 9 hrs./day for 5
days/ week.

The Computers Capabilities

Given its present-day speed, flexibility and sophistication, the computer can
provide access to information, foster creative social knowledge- building, and
enhance the communication of the achieved project package. Without the
computer, todays learners nay still be assuming the tedious tasks of low-level
information gathering, building and new knowledge packaging. But this is not so,
since the modern computer can help teacher- and students to focus on more high
level cognitive tasks.
Based on the two learning theories, the teacher can employ the computer
as an:

An information Tool

A communication Tool

A constructive Tool

As co- constructive Tool

A situating Tool
Informative Tool. The computer can provide vast amounts of information in various
forms, such as text, graphics, sound, and video. Even multimedia encyclopedias are
today available on the Internet.
The Internet itself provides an enormous database from which user can access
global information resources that includes the latest news, weather forecasts, airline
schedule, sports development, entertainment news and features, as well as
educational information directly useful to learners. The Internet on education can be
sourced for kinds of educational resources on the Internet.
Along the constructivist point of view, it is not enough for learners to download
relevant information using the computer as an information tool. Students can used
gathered information for composition or presentation projects as may be assigned
by the teacher. Given the fact that the Internet can serve as a channel for global
communication, the computer can very well be the key tool for video telecon
ferencing sessions.
Constructive tool. the computer itself can be used for manipulating
information,visualizing one's understanding, and building new knowledge. the
Microsoft word computer program itself is a desktop publishing software that allows
users to organize and present their dies in attractive formats.
Co-constructive tools. Students can use constructive tools to wwork. cooperatively
and construct a shared understanding of new knowledge. one way of coconstruction is the use of the electronic whitebaord where students may post
notices to a shared document/ whitebaord. students may also co-edit the same
document from thier homes.The computer-supported intentional learning
environments (CSILE) is an example of an integrated environment developed by the
Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. within CSILE, students can enter their
ideas in notes and respond to each others ideas. Manifest in the the studentgenerated database are higher level thinking processes-explaining, problem so
living/finding, expertise and development, literacy improvement.
Situating tool
By means of virtual reality (RS) extension system, the computer can create 3D images on display to give the user the feeling that are situated in a virtual
environment. A flight simulation program is an example of a situating tool which
places the user in a simulated flying environment. Mulch-User Domains or Dungeons
(MUDs), MUD object-oriented (MOOs), and Multi-User Shared hallucinations (MUSHs)
are example os situating systems. MUDs and MOOs are mainly text\based virtual
reality environments on the internet. When users log on to a MOO environment,
they may interact with the virtual reality(such as by writing on a notice board)

through simple text-based commands. A school-to-school or clasroom-tocalsrrom

environment is possible whereby the user can choose to walk around the campus
talk with other users who are logged to the same caution users, the
computer as a situating tool is news and still undergoing further research and

Saturday, June 22, 2013

Information Technology in Support of Student-Centered Learning Classroom

The idea of student-centered learning is not a recent idea. In fact, as early as the
20th century, educational educators such as John Dewey argued for highly active
and individualized pedagogical methods which place the student at the center of
the learning process.

In this lesson, we shall see how the teacher can expand his options to make
himself more effective and relevant in the 21st millennium information age. In
addition, suggestions shall be made on how a student-centered classroom (SCL) can
be supported by information technology (IT).

The Traditional Classroom

It may be observed that classroom are usually arranged with neat columns
and rows of student chairs, while the teacher stands in front of the classroom or sits
behind his desks. This situations is necessitated by the need to maintain classroom
discipline, also they allow the teachers to control classroom activities through
lecture presentation and teacher-led discussion.
Noticeably, however, after spending so many minutes in lesson presentation and
class management, students can get restless and fidgety. Often enough, the teacher
has to also mange misbehavior in class as students start to talk among themselves
or simply stare away in lack attention. To prevent this situation, teachers often make
students take time to work individually on worksheets can help the situation.
Another option is now presented and this is adopting the idea of developing
students to be independent learners with the end of making them critical and
creative thinkers.
The SCL classroom
John Dewey described the traditional learning process in which the teacher
pours information to students learners, much like pouring water from a jug into
cups. This is based on the long accepted belief that the teacher must perform his
role of teaching so that learning can occur. This learning approach is generally
known as direct instruction, and it has worked well for obtaining many kind of
learning outcomes.
The problem with the direct instruction approach to learning, however, is
the fact that the worlds societies have began to change. Of course, this change
may not be strongly felt in many countries in which the economy longer depends
primarily on factory workers who do repetitive work without thinking on the job. The

traditional classroom and direct instruction approach to learning conform to this

kind of economies.
In contrast, industrialized societies we find knowledge based economies in
which workers depends on information that can be accessed through information
and communication technologies (ICTs). Desiring to gain effectiveness, efficiency
and economy in administration and instructions, schools in these developed
economies have also adopted the support of ICTs. Their students have now become
active not passive learners, who can interact with other learners, demonstrating
independence and self-awareness in the learning process.
Generally the new school classroom environment is characterized by student
individually or in group:

Performing computer word processing for text or graph presentation

Preparing power-point presentation

Searching for information on the internet

Brainstorming on ideas, problems and project plans

As needed, the teacher facilitating instruction, also giving individual instruction

to serve individual needs.
Observably, there is departure from traditional worksheet, read-and-answer,
and drill-and-practice activities. Students also no longer need to mark the test of
peers since the computer has programs for test evaluation and computerized
scoring of results.
Given this trend in teaching-and-learning, it must be pointed out, however, that
traditional classroom activities-especially in less developed countries-will continue
to have a strong place in the classroom. In spite of this setback experienced in some
countries, the option has now been opened for the modern teacher to shift gears to
students centered learning.

Saturday, June 22, 2013
Cooperative Learning with the Computer

Singapore has set the global pace for student-centered learning with a 2:1 (2 pupils
with one computer) ratio in its masterplan for IT in Education. This shows that even
in other progressive countries, the 1:1: pupil-computer ratio is still an ideal to be
achieved. Reality therefore dictates that schools face the fact that each classroom,
especially in public or government schools, may not be equipped with the
appropriate number of computers.
The creativity of the teacher will have to respond to the situation, and so
cooperative learning will likely be the answer to the implementation of IT supported
learning in our schools. But the situation may not be that bad since there are
motivational and social benefits to cooperative learning and these can compensate
for lack of hardware that educators face.

Defining cooperative learning

Cooperative or collaborative learning is learning by small groups of students

who work together in a common learning task. It is often also called group learning
but to be truly cooperative learning, 5 elements are needed:
1. A common goal
2. Interdependence
3. Interaction
4. Individual accountability
5. Social skills
Therefore not every group work is cooperative learning since students
working on their work sheets physically sat around a table may be working together
without these features of cooperative learning.
From several studies made on cooperative learning, it is manifested that
cooperative learning in its true sense is advantageous since it:
(a) Encourage active learning, while motivating students
(b) Increases academic performance
(c) Promotes literacy and language skills
(d) Improves teacher effectiveness
In addition, there are studies show that cooperative learning enhances
personal and social development among students of all ages, while enhancing selfesteem and improving social relations between racially and culturally different
Cooperative learning and the computer
Researchers have made studies on the learning interaction between the student
and the computer. The studies have great value since it has been a long standing
fear that the computer may foster student learning in isolation that hinders the
development of the students social skills.
Now this mythical fear has been contradicted by the studies which show that
when students work with computers in groups, they cluster and interact with each
other for advice and mutual help. And given the option to work individually or in a
group, the students generally wish to work together in computer-based and noncomputer-based activities. Reflecting on this phenomenon, psychologists think the
computer fosters this positive social behavior due to the fact that it has a display
monitor just like a television set that is looked upon as something communal.
Therefore researchers agree that the computer is a fairly natural learning
vehicle for cooperative (at times called promotive) learning.
Components of cooperative learning
Educators are still wary about the computers role in cooperative learning.
Thus they pose the position that the use of computers do not automatically result in
cooperative learning. There therefore assign the teacher several tasks in order to
ensure collaborative learning. These are:
Assigning students to mixed-ability teams
Establishing positive interdependence
Teaching cooperative social skills

Insuring individual accountability, and

Helping groups process information
These are in addition to assigning a common work goal in which each
member of the group will realize that their group will not succeed unless everyone
contributes to the groups success. It is also important for the teacher limits learning
group clusters (six is the ideal number in a group) so there can be closer
involvement in thinking and learning.

Whenever people think about computers, they are most likely thinking about
the computer machine such as the television-like monitor screen, the keyboard to
type on , the printer which produces copies of text and-graphics material, and the
computer housing called the box which contains the electronic parts and circuits
(the central processing unit) that receives/stores data and directs computer
operations. The computer machine or hardware is naturally an attention- getter.
Its more difficult to realize, however, that the computer hardware can
hardly be useful without the program or system that tells what the computer
machine should do. This is also called the software.
There are two kinds of software:
The system software. This is the operating system that is found or bundled
inside all computer machines.
The application software. This contains the system that commands the
particular task or solves a particular problem.
In turn the applications software maybe:
(a) a custom software that is made for specific tasks often by large corporations,
(b) a commercial software packaged for personal computers that help with a
variety of tasks such as writing papers, calculating numbers, drawing graphs,
playing games, and so much more.
Microsoft Windows
Also referred to as a program, Microsoft Windows or Windows for short is
an operating environment between the user and the computer operating system.
Also called a shell, it is a layer that creates the way the computer should work.
Windows uses a colorful graphics interface (called GUI-pronounced gooee) that
can be seen on the computer screen or monitor whenever the computer is turned
The user can work with on-screen pictures (icons) and suggestions
(menus) to arrive at the desired software. Windows 95 (now improved with Windows
2003 and 2007) is a software designed for Microsoft Windows. Actually, Windows is
in itself a self-contained operating system which provides

User convenience - just click a file name to retrieve data or click from
program to program as easy as changing channels in your TV screen.

A new look - fancy borders, smooth and streamlined text fonts.

Information center - Windows put all communications activities (e-mail,

downloads etc. in a single screen icon); adapts/configures the computer for the

Plug and play - configures the computer with added components, such as for
sound and video.
Instructional Software

Instructional software can be visited on the Internet or can be bought from software
shops or dealers. The teacher through his school should decide on the best
computer-based instructional (CBI) materials for the school resource collection. But
beware since CBIs need much improvement, while web-based educational resources
are either extremely good or what is complete garbage. In evaluating computerbased educational materials, the following can serve as guidelines:

Be extremely cautious in using CBIs and free Internet materials.

Dont be caught up by attractive graphics, sound, animation, pictures, video

clips and music forgetting their instructional worth.

Teachers must evaluate these resources using sound pedagogical principles.

Among design and content elements to evaluate are: the text legibility,
effective use of color schemes, attractive layout and design, and easy navigation
from section-to-section (such as from game to tutorial to drill-and-practice section).

Clarity in the explanations and illustrations of concepts and principles.

Accuracy, coherence, logic of information.

Absence of biased materials (e.g. gender bias or racial bias


From the Educational Technology I course, the student has already become
aware of multimedia or an audiovisual package that includes more than one
instructional media (means of knowing) such as text, graphics, audio animation and
video clip.
Hypermedia is nothing but multimedia, but this time packaged as educational
computer software where information is presented and student activities are in a
virtual learning environment. Most Educational IT application is hypermedia and
these include:

Tutorial Software Packages

Knowledge Webpages
Simulation Instructional Games
Learning Project Management and Others

The presentation of information-learning activities in hypermedia is said to be

sequenced in a non-linear manner, meaning that the learner may follow his path of
activities thus providing an environment of learner autonomy and thinking skills.
This fact makes it therefore important to understand hypermedia in the educational
context in order to ensure their successful integration in the teaching-learning

Characteristics of Hypermedia Applications

There are two important features that are outstanding among other features
that characterize the hypermedia software:
Learner control.
This means the learner makes his own decisions on the path, flow or events of
instruction. The learner has control on such aspects, as sequence, pace, content,
media, feedback, etc. that he/she may encounter in the hypermedia learning
Learner wide range of navigation routes.
For the most part, the learner controls the sequence and pace of his path depending
on his ability and motivation. He has the option to repeat and change speed, if
desired. Of course, at the start, the learner may choose the learning activities he
prefers. Meanwhile, the teacher has the prerogative to determine suitable learning
The learner also has a wide range of navigation routes such as by working on
concepts he is already familiar with. They may even follow a linear or logical path,
even if the previous activity is half-completed. He may explore other sections opting
to return or complete the previous activity.
The internet, also simply called the NET, is the largest and far-flung networks
system of-all-system. Surprisingly, the internet is not really a network but a loosely
organized collection of about 25,000 networks accessed by computers in the planet.
It is astonishing to know that no one owns the internet. It has no central
headquarters, no centrally offered services, and no comprehensive online index to
tell users what information is available in the system.
How is everything coordinated through the Internet? This is done through a
standardized protocol (or set of rules for exchanging data) called Transmission
Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). To gain access to the Internet, the

computer must be equipped with what is called a Server which has special software
(program) that uses the Internet protocol. Originally developed and still subsidized
by the United States government, the Internet connect not only commercial,
industrial, scientific establishments but all other sectors including education and its
libraries, campuses, and computer centers.
The great attraction of the Internet is that once the sign-up fees are paid,
there are no extra charges. Electronic mail, for example, is free regardless of the
amount of use. In contrast, individuals using the Internet on their own personal
computers must pay ongoing monthly fees to whoever is their service provider.
Getting around the Net
The vast sea of information now in the Internet, including news and trivia, is
an overwhelming challenge to those who wish to navigate it. Every day, the Net
user- population and the available information continue to grow, and new ways are
continuously being developed to tour the Internet.
The most attractive way to move around the Internet is called browsing.
Using a program called a browser, the user can use a mouse to point and click on
screen icons to surf the Internet, particularly the World Wide Web (the Web), an
Internets subset of text, images, and sounds are linked together to allow users to
access data or information needed.
The future of the Internet seems limitless. Already its including new demand
for services to business, industries, science, government, and even homes. Many
experts predict that he Internet is destined to become the centerpiece of all online
communications on the planet and in some future time in the solar system using
interplanetary satellite communication stations.
A view of educational uses of the Internet
Today, even elementary school graders in progressive countries like the
United States are corresponding via e-mail with pen pals in all 50 states. They ask
probing questions like, What is your states most serious problems, or How much
does pizza cost in your state? This educational activity prodded y their schools are
paying dividends from increasing the pupils interest in Geography to a greater
understanding of how people live in large cities and other places in the United
States or the world.
Educational software materials have also developed both in sophistication
and appeal. There is now a wider choice from rote arithmetic or grammar lessons to
discovery and innovation projects. But the real responsibility today is connecting
with the world outside homes, classrooms, and Internet cafes. And today schools
are gearing up to take advantage of Internet access, where they can plug into the
Library of Congress, make virtual visits to famous museums in the world, write to
celebrities, and even send questions to heads of states.


Much Like field studies in teacher education, educational technology 2 offers

students the experiential process of adapting to technology integration with in a
student-centered paradigm. This is the practicum phase of the course at the end of
the more theoretical lessons or inserted between lessons.
The practicum phase consist of hands-on computer tutorial which the students
teacher or professional teacher-trainee will need to make him or her capable.

The essential requirements for the ET 2 practicum phase will be:

A computer laboratory/ special computer classroom with adequate sets of
computers for hands-on.
Participation of computer laboratory tutors/
assistants- as the teachers technical assistants- to assist
the learners in the use
of computers and its various programs.
Assigned numbers of hours in confirmity with the course requirements. Tutorials
are preferably done during week-ends in order to provide continous hours of
computer hands-ons trainings.

The practicum phase consists in:

1. Basic microsoft word (6 hrs)
The tutorial familiarities each individual learner to the basic of microsoft word. They
will learn to use menus and toolbars and the software. They will be taught to type,
edit and format text, sentences and paragraphs.
Tutorial coverage:

Microsoft word menus and toolbars

Creating, formatting and editing documents
Assigning page layouts
Inserting tabs and tablets

Upon successful completion the learner shall be able to:

Create. Open and save document files

Insert graphic tables and charts in documents
Manage files and folder
Apply format on the text,sentences and paragraphs
Inter link documents
Create standard documents using templates

2. Microsoft PowerPoint (6hrs)

The tutorial is a familiarization on the basics of microsoft powerpoint. It will train the
learners to prepare, PowerPoint presentations to enhance the teaching of subjects.
PowerPoint fundamentals
Enhancement of PowerPoint presentations with the use of graphics, chats and
Using templates and masters.
Presenting and printing a slide show.
At the end of the tutorial, the learner will be able to:
Create and open PowerPoint presentation
Insert objects, charts and video in the powerpoint presentation.
Use templates to enhance presentations.
3. Internet as tool of inquiry (4hrs)

The tutorial will facilitate the findings of sources of information appropriate to a

learning tasks.
Course coverage:
Accessing the internet
Use of internet tools
Search techniques
At the end of the tutorial. The learner will be able to:

Search and retrieve information from the web.

Acquire skills in locating appropriate information.
Acquire abilities to use internet tools.
Gain knowledge of search techniques.
Learn the ability to execute the search.

In sum, educational technology 2 promises to bring the student teacher and the
professional teacher trainee to the challenge of a new age- integrating technology
in the teaching-learning process. The brisk face of technology advancement and
innovation continues, but ET 2 is a preparation to bring our teachers to more ahead
with their uses of technology in the classroom.
Overall,the Filipino teachers shall be empowered to meet the technology challenges
of the 21st century digital age.