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- Instruction
- Solid Mechanics_S. M. A. Kazimi.pdf
- 02 Structural Analysis 2 (Advanced) (1)
- Reading Material Useful Formulae
- Experiment No. 16final
- Axial Loadinghj
- Observations
- Understanding Stress
- Midterm 1 Sol
- HW_05 2
- Combined Kinematic and Paleostress
- Lecture7 PressureVessel Combined Loading
- Chapter1 Introduction
- Mech Mat
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- 06145116
- Isotensoid Formulation
- contact+overclosure
- ARMA-99-0415_Experimental Study on the Mechanical Behavior of Single Joint Under a Constant T-o Loading Condition and Its Application to Mechanical Modeling
- IJSS Sharma

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Haisler

For a beam in bending, we are often interested in determining the

transverse displacement along the beam as shown below.

y

x

u y ( x)

u y ( x) displacement in y direction

Momentum. Unfortunately, COLM is in terms of stress, .

Consequently, we must have some way to relate stress to

deformation. We will need additional equations as follows:

Constitutive relations - relate stress to strain

Kinematic relations - relate strain to displacement (gradients)

2001, W. E. Haisler

necessary to describe the kinematic behavior of a continuum

body by defining expressions called strains in terms of the

gradients of displacement components. In the example below, we

consider an elastic bar of length L. If the bar is subjected by an

axial force F, it will stretch

an amount as shown in

figure b). The quantity /L

L

is a measure of the change

a) undeformed

in length relative to the

original length and is

F

F

defined to be the axial

strain for the bar.

L+

b) stretched (deformed)

2001, W. E. Haisler

is parallel to the top surface as shown.

The angle measures the amount the

original right angle in figure c) has

changed from a right angle, and the

angle is related to the shear strain.

What causes strain?

o

90

c) undeformed

pressures, etc.)

Temperature change (thermal

expansion)

d) sheared (deformed)

Moisture absorption

** Stress (relationship between stress and strain is the

constitutive relationship)

2001, W. E. Haisler

ideas to develop expressions for strains in terms of displacement

components. We will consider two approaches:

1) mathematically precise approach and

2) a simpler geometrical approach.

2001, W. E. Haisler

of points and by elongations and rotations of line segments

in the solid.

z

u(r+dr)

Q

P

dr

u(r)

Deformed State

Q*

dr*

P*

r*

y

r =position vector of point P (initial)

r* =position vector of point P* (deformed)

u(r) =displacement vector of point P

dr = vector line segment between P and Q

2001, W. E. Haisler

P moves to P*,

Q moves to Q*,

line segment P-Q deforms (stretches/rotates) to P*-Q*:

r

r

r*

rr r

= position vector of point P (in deformed state)

u (r ) = displacement vector of point P (from initial to

deformed state)

r

dr

= vector line segment between P and Q (initial state)

r

dr * = vector line segment between P and Q (deformed

r r r state)

u (r dr ) = displacement vector of point Q (from initial to

deformed state)

2001, W. E. Haisler

displacement vector of point P: ur (rr ) rr* rr

and

r r r r r r

r* or drr* drr ur (rr drr ) ur (rr )

dr u (r dr ) u (r ) dr

The last two terms represent the change (gradient) in

r

r

u

displacement with respect to position r , i.e.,

r r r r r

r

r rr

u (r dr ) u (r ) du dr (u )

ux x uy x uz x

u ux y uy y uz y

z

u

y

z

x

displacement gradient

matrix (3x3). Note: not

symmetric!

2001, W. E. Haisler

and rotationr of line

segments.

Consider

two

material

r

dr

dr

elements 1 & 2 , which undergo deformations that will

r*

r*

bring them into new locations dr1 & dr2 ; respectively.

z

dr

1

dr

2

u(r)

r

Deformed State

dr*

1

dr*2

r*

y

2001, W. E. Haisler

r*

r r r r r r

r

r

r r rr

dr dr u (r dr ) u (r ) dr du dr dr (u )

We will obtain identical expressions for the two line

r*

r*

segments dr1 and dr2 defined in the figure above:

r*

r

r rr

dr dr dr (u )

1

1

1

and

rr

r*

r

r

dr dr dr (u )

2

2

2

2001, W. E. Haisler

10

rr

r* r*

r

r rr

r

r

dr dr [dr dr (u )] [dr dr (u )]

1

2

1

1

2

2

rr

r r

r

r

dr dr dr [dr (u )]

1 r 2r r 1 r 2 r

rr

rr

r

[dr (u )] dr [dr (u )] [dr (u )]

1

2

1

2

rr

rrT

rr

rrT

r r

r

r

=dr dr dr [(u ) (u ) (u ) (u ) ] dr

1r 2

1

2

rrT

r

Recall that (u ) is a 3x3 matrix. The T in (u ) means

rr

that the matrix (u ) is transposed. The underlined term is

r

r

r* r*

r r

r

r

defined as 2E so that dr1 dr2 dr1 dr2 dr1 (2 E ) dr2

and

r

rr

rrT

rr

rrT

E 1 2[(u ) (u ) (u ) (u ) ] Finite Strain Tensor

Note that the expression for the finite strain tensor

2001, W. E. Haisler

11

r

rr

rrT

rr

rrT

E 1 2[(u ) (u ) (u ) (u ) ]

rr

rrT

1 [(u ) (u ) ]

2

rr

rrT

1 [(u ) (u ) ] quadratic in displacement

2

gradients

2001, W. E. Haisler

12

If the higher order terms are neglected from the finite strain

tensor [E] (i.e., keep only linear displacement gradient

terms), we obtain the infinitesimal strain tensor, []:

rr

rrT

r

1 2[(u ) (u ) ]

2001, W. E. Haisler

xx

xy

xz

yx yy yz

zx

zy

zz

u

u

1

y

x

(

x)

x

2 x y

u

1 ux u y

y

(

)

x

y

2 y

u

1

1

y uz

( x z)

(

)

2 z

x

2 z

y

13

1 uz ux

(

)

2 x z

u

1 uz

y

(

)

2 y

z

z

z

2001, W. E. Haisler

14

2001, W. E. Haisler

15

length of a line segment dx which is originally oriented in

the x direction) and undergoes displacements u x and uy:

y

Q*

dx*

P*

P

x

ux(x)

uy(x+dx)

u (x)

y

dx

u (x+dx)

x

Q

(x+dx)

2001, W. E. Haisler

16

dx * dx

xx

= (change in length)/(original length) .

dx

2

2

u

u

dx(1

) dx(

)

x

x

u

u

u

u

dx 1

dx 1 2

x

x

x

x

ux

dx dx

x

2 1/ 2

2 1/ 2

uy

dx

x

2 1/ 2

1/ 2

u y

Note: 1 a 1 (1/ 2)a (for small a). Thus, the last result is

approximately:

2 1/ 2

2001, W. E. Haisler

17

1

x

dx* dx 1 x

x 2 x

1

y

2 x

1

x

dx 1 x

x 2 x

dx * dx

xx

dx

dx

1

y

dx

2 x

2001, W. E. Haisler

18

u x 1 u x

xx

x 2 x

1 u y

2 x

finite strain

small compared to the un-squared terms and we obtain the

linear, or small strain expression:

ux

xx

x

small strain

2001, W. E. Haisler

19

Note that

dux

y

dy

dy*

dx*

du

y

dy

dx

dx

x

1 u y ux

xy = (

2 x y

angle as shown at the left. xy is called a shear strain and

geometrically is 1/2 (average) of the angular rotation of line

2001, W. E. Haisler

20

contrast, the engineering shear strain xy is defined as the sum

y ux

.

x y

viewpoint is an approximation (similar to the square root

approximation made in xx ). From the geometry above,

r

r

r r

dx * dy* cos * dx * dy * . Define xy to be the sum of the

u

y ux

. (engineering shear strain)

x y

y ux

cos * cos( / 2 ) sin

2

xy

xy x y

xy

xy

2001, W. E. Haisler

geometrical interpretation of strain), an assumption of small

rotations has been made in defining the shear strain xy .

21

2001, W. E. Haisler

22

Some examples

u(x)

Consider a bar of lenght L,

fixed at the left end, and

with a force P applied at the

L

right end. The bar stretches

u

x

L

an amount uL at the right

end. If the engineering

strain in the x direction is defined to be (change in length)/

(original length), then xx = uL/L.

We could also find the expresssion for u(x) and apply the

mathematical definition of xx . We have two boundary

conditions on u(x): u(0)=0 and u(L)= uL. Assume

u ( x) C1 C2 x where C1 and C2 are constants. Applying B.C.s

2001, W. E. Haisler

23

ux

is given by xx

= (uL/L).

x

2001, W. E. Haisler

24

field has been determined to be as

Point A

follows (using the finite element

method):

u x ( x, y ) (0.38 x 2 1.31xy 0.045 y 2

2.22 x 8.41 y )104 in

u y ( x, y ) ( 0.25 x 2 1.62 xy 1.65 y 2

+3.44 x 7.03 y )104 in

u z ( x, y ) 0

Determine the strains at point "A" which is located at x=4in,

y=5in.

2001, W. E. Haisler

25

2.22 x 8.41 y )104 in

u y ( x, y ) ( 0.25 x 2 1.62 xy 1.65 y 2

+3.44 x 7.03 y )104 in

xx

yy

xy

xz

u x

x

u y

y

x 4", y 5"

7.37 x104 in / in

x 4", y 5"

2.01x104 in / in

x 4", y 5"

1 u x u y

2 y

x

yz zz 0

x 4", y 5"

2001, W. E. Haisler

26

Comparing the two results, is it OK to assume small strains for

this problem?

2001, W. E. Haisler

27

Suppose we have an 8x8 square area outlined on a larger chunk of

planar material (like a plate). Suppose the plate is loaded in the x-y

plane so that the square is displaced and deformed to a rectangle as

shown below [new x-y coordinates starting at lower left corner and

going CCW are: (8,4), (20,4),

(20,12) and (8,12)]. Picture shows

deformed and undeformed

area. What are your guesses for

undeformed

the strains? There is stretching in

the x direction, so xx 0 . There

is no stretching in the y direction,

so yy 0 . All right angles

deformed

remain right angles, hence there is

no shear strain and xy 0 .

2001, W. E. Haisler

28

know the initial and final positions of the 4 corner points.

Assume that the displacements are given by (a 2-D curve fit):

u x ( x, y ) C1 C2 x C3 y C4 xy

u y ( x, y ) C5 C6 x C7 y C8 xy

Four constants are chosen because we know information at 4

points. Now apply know conditions for the four corner points:

u x (0,0) 8 0 C1 C2 (0) C3 (0) C4 (0)(0)

u x (8,0) 20 8 C1 C2 (8) C3 (0) C4 (8)(0)

u x (8,8) 20 8 C1 C2 (8) C3 (8) C4 (8)(8)

u x (0,8) 8 0 C1 C2 (0) C3 (8) C4 (0)(8)

u y (0,0) 4 0 C5 C6 (0) C7 (0) C8 (0)(0)

u y (8,0) 4 0 C5 C6 (8) C7 (0) C8 (8)(0)

u y (8,8) 12 8 C5 C6 (8) C7 (8) C8 (8)(8)

u y (0,8) 12 8 C5 C6 (0) C7 (8) C8 (0)(8)

2001, W. E. Haisler

29

the final position initial position of that point. Solve for

the constants and substitute back into u x and u y to obtain:

u x ( x, y ) 8 0.5 x 0 y 0 xy 8 0.5 x

u y ( x, y ) 4 0 x 0 y 0 xy 4

Last equation says that displacement of all points in y direction (

u y ) is a constant, which is consistent with the picture of

deformed and undeformed area. Now calculate the strains:

u x

0.5 in / in (a positive value indicates stretching)

x

u y

0

(no stretching in y direction)

y

1 u x u y

2 y

x

xx

yy

xy

2001, W. E. Haisler

30

of planar material (like a plate). Suppose the plate is loaded in

the x-y plane so that the square is displaced and deformed to a

parallelogram as shown below [new x-y coordinates starting at

lower left corner and going CCW are: (8,4), (16,4), (19,12) and

(11,12)]. Picture shows

deformed and undeformed

area. What are your guesses for

the strains? There is no

stretching in the x direction, so

undeformed

deformed

xx 0 . There is no stretching in

the y direction, so yy 0 .

However, original right angles

are no longer right angles, hence

there is some shear strain and

xy 0 .

2001, W. E. Haisler

31

of planar material (like a plate). Suppose the plate is loaded in

the x-y plane so that the square is displaced and deformed to a

quadrilateral as shown below [new x-y coordinates starting at

lower left corner and going

CCW are: (9,4), (16.8,6),

(17.5, 14.5) and (10.8,12.5)].

Picture shows deformed and

undeformed area. What are

your guesses for the strains? It

appears that there is shortening

or stretching in the x and y

direction; hence, xx 0 and

yy 0 . Original right angles

are no longer right angles,

hence there is some shear strain and xy 0 .

2001, W. E. Haisler

32

For 2-D, Cauchy's formula provided the following relation:

r

r rr

t( n) n

(3.31)

r

The component of t( n ) in the

r

normal n of a surface (or in x'

xx

direction is:

r

r

n x ' x ' t( n) n

t (n )

n

xy

yx

yy

r

t( n)

2001, W. E. Haisler

33

both vector and matrix notation: r

r

r

n x'x' n n

[ n] [ ] [ n]

(1x 2) (2 x 2) (2 x1)

r

n , in the direction of the unit normal n (or in the direction of

the x'-axis which makes an angle CCW from the x-axis).

Lets do both the vector and matrix operations to show that

they are the same. First, Cauchy's formula is

2001, W. E. Haisler

34

r

r

rr

rr

rr

rr

r

r rr

t( n) n (cos i sin j ) xx ii yx ji xy ij yy jj

r

r

( xx cos xy sin )i ( yx cos yy sin ) j

r

r

( xx cos xy sin )i ( xy cos yy sin ) j

Note yx xy . Now do the remaining vector operation for

n to obtain:

r

r

n x ' x ' t( n) n

r

( xx cos xy sin )i

r

r

r cos i sin j

( xy cos yy sin ) j

If we do this in matrix notion we obtain:

2001, W. E. Haisler

35

xx xy cos

n [n][ ][ n] cos sin

sin

yy

yx

cos 2 2 sin cos

xx

xy

(5.3)

2

sin

yy

eq. 5.3 in the notes). The stress transformation transforms

stresses from an (x,y) coordinate system to an (x',y') system

where x' is rotated by an angle CCW from the x-axis.

We can similarly show that the strain transformation is

given by:

r r r

n x' x' n n

[n] [ ] [n]

(1x 2) (2 x 2) (2 x1)

2001, W. E. Haisler

36

r

of a unit normal n . n is often called the unit elongation

r in

r

the n direction (just as xx is the unit elongation in the i or

x-coordinate direction).

Notes:

1. Both [ ] and [ ] are second order tensors.

2. All second order tensors follow the same transformation

form in transforming from (x,y,z) to another orthogonal

coordinate system (x',y',z'), i.e.,

r r r

n x'x' n n

and

[n][ ][n]

2001, W. E. Haisler

37

r r r

n x'x' n n

[n][ ][ n]

moments of inertia of a cross-section

A (which is also a second order

tensor):

I xx y dA , I xy xydA, I yy x dA

A

A

A

2

system at some angle , we have:

I x ' x ' ( y ') 2 dA

A

y

x

2001, W. E. Haisler

38

r

to the x-y moments of inertia written as a matrix: ( n is unit

vector in x' direction):

I xx

[I ]

I yx

I xy

I yy

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