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22 vizualizări6 pagini1. Measurment of Fluid Flow

Jan 04, 2016

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1. Measurment of Fluid Flow

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22 vizualizări

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1. Measurment of Fluid Flow

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Fluid flow is the movement of liquid in a pipe or channels, and gases or vapors in

pipes or ducts. Fluid takes the shape of its container. All liquids and gases are fluids.

Measuring flow of fluid is an important process which involves many types of

instruments and scientific principles. Being one of the important process variables it

is required to be monitored and controlled. Drop in a pressure is one of the

commonly used for the process.

Flowrate q is the quantity of fluid passing through a point during specific time

interval. Flow rate is volumetric or mass unit namely volume flowrate q v and mass

flowrate qm respectively. Where,

qm

qv

1 4

2

d 2p 1 and

4

qm

Reynolds Number Re of a fluid is the ratio between inertial forces moving a fluid

and viscous forces resisting that movement. The Reynolds number describes the

nature of the fluid flow. This number has no units and is calculated from velocity or

flow rate, density, viscosity and inside diameter of pipe.

Re 1488

Pipe Reynolds number ReD and throat Reynolds number Red are dimensionless

parameter, they express the ratio between inertia and viscous forces in upstream

pipe and throat of primary device. Expressed as below

Re D

4qm

V1 D

Re D

and Re d

1

1 D

Table below shows most commonly used method of discharge measurement is those

that use quantity meters and those that use rate of flow meters.

Quantity Meters

Weighing Meters

1. weighing Tank

2. Tilting Trap

Volumetric Meters

1. Tank

2. Reciprocating Piston

3. Rotary Piston

4. Nutating Disk

Weighing Meters

Differential Pressure Meters

1. Venturi

2. Nozzle

3. Orifice Plate

4. Pitot Tube

Head Area Meters

1. Weir

2. Flume

Current Meters

Only gives the value of the average flow rate during the time taken to fill the

weighing tank. It is erroneous as it take into account the time taken to fill the tank,

as temperature of the fluid also affects the density. This method requires large fixed

installations which are only practical at laboratory.

Volumetric Meters:

As the name implies it uses volume for the measurement instead of weights, it is of

four types namely Tank, reciprocating piston, rotary piston, nutating disk. This

accuracy of this method is similar to that of weighing meters and gives the value of

average flow rate during the time it takes to fill the gauged capacity. Even though

volumetric method is subjected to the same limitation as weighing meter, it can be

used for larger flow rates. Like some natural reservoir whose volume are determined

by geometrical or topological procedures.

Differential pressure devices

Differential Pressure methods of flow measurement are old and reliable one, which

works on the principle of pressure difference between upstream and downstream

side of the measuring device. ISO 5167 standard and its sub articles provide more

vast information on differential pressure and measuring instruments. These meters

are highly popular, as per the article published by national measurement system at

least 40% of industrial flow meters in use at present are differential pressure devices.

The common types of differential pressure meter are Orifice plates, venturi tubes,

flow nozzles etc. Before we make use of these differential pressure meters for

measurement, we need to make sure the size of pipe as per specified limit and

Reynolds number.

The working of differential pressure meter is based on pressure drop due to fluid

flowing through a restriction in a pipe discovered by Bernoulli. When a fluid passes

through a restriction, static pressure difference occurs. This difference in static

pressure upstream and downstream is measured by manometer tubes. Fluid thro ugh

restriction accelerates to higher velocity V2 conserving the mass flow, resulting drop

in static pressure. This gives pressure difference which is a measure of flow rate

through the device. The relationship between mass flow and pressure difference is

given by Bernoullis equation p qm

2

The rate of flow in the pipe can be measured by one of the following methods

venture meters, flow nozzles, orifice meters and pitot tube. The accuracy of

measurements are highly accurate.

Venture meter

Venture meter can be used in water supply system, in which venture tube is installed

into a pipeline where fluid is running. It doesnt contain moving parts and required

less maintenance causing less head loss. It works in a principle such that the flows of

liquid through a tube with smaller cross section area D 2 is higher than that of flow

through larger cross section D1, due to which there exists static pressure difference

between these two sections. Liquid while passing through D 2 pressure must decrease

while velocity increases whereas at D1 velocity is lower. Thus this reduction in

pressure from larger cross section to smaller cross section is directly related to the

rate of flow, this measurement of this is used to determine the flow rate.

Orifice meters

In this case thin orifice plate is installed into a pipeline containing fluid which is

running, which is used for measuring rate of flow in the same manner as above, the

presence of thin plate case a static pressure difference during the fluid flow. The

upstream pressure connection is located around one pipe diameter from the orifice

plate, whereas downstream pressure connection is made at vena contracta which

gives large pressure difference across orifice.

Flow nozzles

Flow Nozzles are found to be used for flow measurement by industries due to its

reliable performance, comparable accuracy and low cost. It is circular in structure

with curved entry and cylindrical throat. It lacks downstream divergent section that

reduces energy loss, which results into similar discharge coefficient to that of a

venturi meter. Many national and international organizations have recognized flow

nozzle. Different forms of flow nozzle are available so far. ASME wall tap flow nozzle

with low or high which are widely use in United States, While ISA 1932 is into

practice in Europe. The ISA 193 nozzle was developed in 1932 by International

Federation of National Standardizing Associations, which later was adopted by ISO

standardization. Under ISO 51657-3, the available types of standard nozzles are

namely ISA 1932 and long radius nozzle. ISO 5167-1 in congestion with ISO 5167-3 is

basis of our study and design, while other available standards are BS 1043-1-1.2,

ASME MFC-3C and VDIVDE 2040 and 2041. Researches on flow nozzle are still going

on, while the basic working principles are same.

Flow nozzle have a long history, its design and installation are widely known in

industries. Geometric structure makes it easy to install and remove from the pipe for

maintenance or replacement purpose. This makes it favorable to use as the

differential pressure device for the measurement of the flow of fluids, especially for

water, steam, air and gases. Flow nozzle when compare to venturi meter are less

expensive and provide same accuracy. The advantage of it over an orifice plate is it

requires less upstream piping and gets lower pressure loss. The accuracy could be

sustained as there is no sharp edge or erode. Due to their construction flow nozzle

are more resistant to long long-time heat and pressure stress. Because of these

advantages over other available flow measurement devices we choose flow nozzle as

our prime device for flow measurement. Some of its features and benefits are as

noted below. ISO

Features and Benefits of Flow Nozzles

1. Widely used in industries

2. Flow measurement at high velocities

3. Extended product aging

4. Lower erosion effect

5. No moving parts, small and easy to handle.

The table below shows the limitation and restriction of flow nozzles (ISA 1932 and

Long Radius) as per ISO 5167-3 Standard. This defines possibility to use ISA 1932

and Long Radius under different conditions.

Parameters

Flow Nozzles

ISA 1932

Long

Radius

dmin (mm)

15

10

Dmax(mm)

50

50

Dmin(mm)

500

630

Betamin

0.3

0.2

Betamax

0.8

ReD, mini

2 x 10

0.8

4

104

ReD, max

107

2 x 107

Design Profile

There are two case of design profile d 2 / 3D and d 2 / 3D , that can also be called

as 0.67 and 0.67 respectively. As shown in the figure above we assume

D=200mm resulting, for two cases the value of d is taken as 120 and 150mm

respectively.

Flat inlet plane is perpendicular to centerline. The convergent part in both cases is

defined by two arcs which are tangential to flat inlet plane and cylindrical throat. A

recess on the edge of cylindrical throat is considered in order to protect it from

damage.

The radius R1 of arch which is tangential to flat inlet plane, where

d 2 / 3D ; R1 0.2d 0.02d => R1 24mm , center at 24mm from inlet plane and

90mm from axial centerline.

d 2 / 3D ; R1 0.2d 0.06d => R1 30mm , center at 30mm from inlet plane and

112.5mm from axial centerline.

The second arc which is tangent to first arch and throat has a radius of R 2, where

plane and 100mm from axial centerline.

plane and 125mm from axial centerline.

Nozzle throat diameter d and length bn

For d 2 / 3D , consider d=120mm and throat length bn=72.492mm

Whereas for d 2 / 3D , consider d=150mm and throat length bn=45mm

The recess diameter of cn 1.06d and length 0.03d

For d 2 / 3D , cn 127.2mm length =3.6mm

Whereas for d 2 / 3D , cn 159mm length =4.5mm

Total Length of Nozzle, excluding recess

For d 2 / 3D , Nozzle length =0.6041d=72.492mm

Whereas

for d 2 / 3D ,

Nozzle

length

= (0.4041

0.75 0.25

2 0.5225) d

=87.887mm

The thickness of downstream face in case of d 2 / 3D is consider less then

0.1D=20mm

Pressure Tapping:- upstream pressure taping is taken as single tappings. The

centerline of individual upstream tappings meets the centerline at angle near

900. tapping for a clean fluid is taken as 3mm.

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