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A Report on Precast Concrete and its


Allied Products

Vishwas R Bhat
B.E (Civil),PGDIM
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I thank all those who has guided and helped me in the completion of this project.

I express my sincere thanks to Dr. K. V. Subramanian, Director, MINDS for his


constant encouragement through out the PGDIM course and this project.

It is great pleasure to express my sincere regards and thanks to Mr. Richardson Asir,
Chief Advisor Soma Enterprise Ltd and Mr. Narayana Gowda, for their proficient
guidance through out this project.

I sincerely thank Dr. T. Babu, Assistant Professor and Associate Advisor MINDS for
his valuable guidance in formulating this project and report.

My deepest thanks to Mr. Murugan, Sr. Project Manager, Mr. P.S.B.S Chowdary
General Manager (Plant and Machinery), Mr. A. Murugan, Technical Manager
(Batching Plant ) for their extended support.

I sincerely thank Dr. Nagendra Dean And Mr. Venkatakrishna program officer and all
the faculty of MINDS for their constant support throughout the program.

My sincere thanks to Mr. Krishna Rao Tota, HR manager, Soma, Hyderabad and Miss.
Swetha, HR Manager, Soma, Bangalore for giving me an opportunity to work in
Soma Enterprise Ltd.

I am thankful to my friends and family for their support and encouragement


throughout the program.

VISHWAS.R.BHAT
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Product costing plays a vital role in improving the prospectus of successful implementation
of Infrastructure projects. Product costing becomes major concern of the management as soon
as project is launched. Planning and control becomes integral part of the managerial process
immediately after the launch of the project. Costing enables us to project the company’s profit
or loss sharing and the viability of the project as it takes even the time and al the aspects of the
project which clearly lays down a conclusion at the start of a project.

Time and cost overruns are very common in implementing Infrastructure projects. Complex
nature, long development duration, huge funding requirements and long gestation periods make
the Infrastructure management more challenging than a simple construction project. Time and
cost over-runs have direct impact on economic viability of infrastructure projects which in turn
slow down the economic development.

Since from the inception of the development in various sectors of Infrastructure


Developments either public enterprise or government enterprise in i.e. transportation, buildings,
power, industrial, power, irrigation, environmental there is always a demand in the basic
construction materials like cement, sand, aggregate and finished concrete products and pre-cast
products which highly influence the development scenario of the urban or rural infrastructure.
We also can conclude that there is always the need for many players to invest in this
development which is the backbone of the industrial and production sectors overall.

Care to be taken while in formulating the investment criteria and successful implementation
of any project in order to minimize the risk involved in this huge investments and their
profitability in order to keep it self running through the project life. As the part of identifying
the project, its production capacity, the main important part is satisfying the objective which can
be planning, executing, monitoring, marketing or as whole understanding and finding the
solution for such.
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Precast concrete and its allied products

INTRODUCTION:

What is precast concrete?


Precast concrete is an ancient type of construction material made with concrete cast in a
reusable mold or "form" which is then cured in a controlled environment, transported to the
construction site and lifted into place. In contrast, standard concrete is poured into large forms
and cured on site. Precast stone is distinguished from precast concrete by using a fine aggregate
in the mixture so the final product approaches the appearance of naturally occurring rock or
stone.

Ancient Roman builders made use of concrete and soon poured the material into molds to
build their complex network of aqueducts, culverts and tunnels. Modern uses for precast
technology include a variety of architectural applications including free-standing walls used for
landscaping, soundproofing and security walls. Precast architectural panels are also used to clad
all or part of a building facade. Stormwater drainage, water and sewage pipes and tunnels make
use of precast concrete units. The advantages of using precast concrete is the increased quality of
the material, when formed in controlled conditions, and the reduced cost of constructing large
forms used with concrete poured on site.

There are many different types of precast concrete forming systems for architectural
applications, differing in size, function and cost.

Why Precast?

Quality, Value, Permanence

The average person likely is unaware of the presence of the hidden systems that make life
what it is today: civilized. Sanitary and storm sewers, box culverts, catch basins, pump/lift
stations, septic tanks, exterior grease interceptors, water storage tanks, wet wells, electrical and
communication vaults and many other products all play a pivotal role in maintaining a clean,
healthy, productive environment for the inhabitants of the civilized world.
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Without these systems, life would be much different. Much of the credit can be given to
the main components of these systems, which typically consist of precast concrete.

Here are some of the reasons why precast concrete is the ideal material for health, safety
and protection of the environment:

• The many benefits of precast concrete include:


• Strength
• Durability
• Mass
• Buoyancy
• Fire
• resistance
• Chemical resistance
• Quality control
• UV sensitivity
• Environmentally friendly
• Weather resistance
• Reduced weather dependency
• Water tightness
• Ease of installation
• Modularity
• Availability
• Efficiency
• Aesthetics
• Low maintenance

Strength. The strength of precast concrete gradually increases over time. Other materials can
deteriorate, experience creep and stress relaxation, lose strength and/or deflect over time.
The load-carrying capacity of precast concrete is derived from its own structural qualities
and does not rely on the strength or quality of the surrounding backfill materials.

Durability. Studies have shown that precast concrete products can provide a service life in
excess of 100 years. For severe service conditions, additional design options are available
which can extend the life of the precast concrete product. This is extremely important
when calculating life-cycle costs for a project.

Mass. Precast concrete products can act as effective barriers to vehicular traffic due their size
and weight. In the current world climate, precast concrete products such as planters,
bollards and highway barriers increasingly are being used to provide protection for a
wide variety of venues.

Buoyancy. With a specific gravity of 2.40, precast concrete products resist the buoyant forces
associated with below-grade construction. In comparison, fiberglass has a specific gravity
of 1.86 and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) has a specific gravity of 0.97.
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Fire Resistance. Precast concrete is noncombustible. Also, concrete does not lose its
structural capacity nearly as quickly as steel, which is now a significant consideration as
witnessed in the attacks on the World Trade Center and the towers’ subsequent collapse.
Other materials besides concrete and steel are flammable and/or do not perform well in
elevated temperatures. Fiberglass begins losing structural integrity at 200 F. HDPE
begins to melt at 266 F.

Chemical Resistance. Precast concrete is resistant to most substances. However, no material is


completely immune to attack from aggressive chemical agents. Thus it is wise to choose
the material with the longest expected service life. Precast concrete products can be
designed to withstand anticipated corrosive agents.

Quality Control. Because precast concrete products typically are produced in a controlled
environment, they exhibit high quality and uniformity. Variables affecting quality
typically found on a jobsite –temperature, humidity, material quality, craftsmanship – are
nearly eliminated in a plant environment.

UV Sensitivity. Unlike some other materials, precast concrete does not degrade from exposure
to sunlight. This is extremely beneficial for above-ground applications.

Environmentally Friendly. After water, concrete is the most frequently used material on earth.
It is nontoxic, environmentally safe and composed of natural materials. Buried
throughout the world, precast concrete products help convey water without contributing
to poor water quality.

Weather Resistance. Precast concrete is well-suited for exposure to all types of weather
conditions. In regions experiencing regular freeze-thaw cycles, the concrete mix can be
designed to properly withstand damage.

Reduced Weather Dependency. Precast concrete increases efficiency because weather will not
delay production. In addition, weather conditions at the jobsite do not significantly affect
the schedule. This is because it requires less time to install precast compared with other
construction methods, such as cast-in-place concrete. Precast concrete can be easily
installed on demand and immediately backfilled – there is no need to wait for it to cure.

Watertightness. Precast concrete products produced in a quality-controlled environment and


used with high-quality sealants offer a superior solution to watertightness requirements.
Standard watertight sealants are specially formulated to adhere to precast concrete,
making watertight multiple-seam precast concrete structures possible.

Ease of Installation. Although precast concrete is quite heavy, nearly all other competing
materials require machinery for handling and installation as well. Besides, speed of
installation is more dependent on excavation than product handling and placement.
Precast does not require the use of special rigging (such as fabric slings) which must be
used in order to avoid structural damage while handling materials such as fiberglass.
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Additionally, because precast products are designed and manufactured for simple
connection, many components can be installed in a short time.

Modularity. Because of the modular nature of many precast concrete products, structures or
systems of nearly any size can be accommodated.

Availability. With thousands of manufacturers throughout North America, precast concrete


products can be ordered from plants in most cities or regions. Since precast structures are
manufactured in advance and stored at the plant, they are readily available when needed
at the job site. This ensures competitive pricing and a ready supply, which can save days,
weeks or even months on a project over cast-in-place concrete.

Efficiency. Precast concrete products arrive at the jobsite ready to install. There is no need to
order raw materials such as reinforcing steel and concrete, and there is no need to expend
time setting up forms, placing concrete or waiting for the concrete to cure.

Aesthetics. Precast concrete products are both functional and decorative. They can be shaped
and molded into an endless array of sizes and configurations. Precast concrete can also be
produced in virtually any color and a wide variety of finishes (acid-etched, sandblasted,
smooth-as-cast, exposed-aggregate) to achieve the desired appearance for building and
site applications.

Low Maintenance. Precast concrete requires little or no maintenance, which makes it an ideal
choice for nearly any design solution.

Advantages

1. Factory Engineered products under strict quality control

Precast Concrete is made of cement combined with natural materials: coarse aggregate, sand,
cement and water, all of which are produced in an environmentally friendly way.
Precast concrete production takes place under strict controlled conditions in a factory; as a result,
better consistency of product quality can be achieved, together with safer working conditions and
reduced impact on the environment.

2. High performance, quality and durability:

Precast concrete elements are produced under strict quality controlled to the highest standards,
ensuring their durability, strength and appearance.

3. Wide choices of finishes

Whether off-form, smooth or textured, with contrasting exposed aggregates, or slightly etched
and pigmented, precast concrete surfaces finishes offers a rich and varying array of possibilities,
allowing greater freedom and creativity.
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4. Flexibility of forms and shapes:

With Precast Concrete, architects and designers can full reign to their imagination allowing all
sorts of decorative patterns, reveals, cornices, recesses and curvatures in their design.

5. Superior heat and sound insulation

Precast Concrete sandwich panels, with their dense concrete and incorporated middle insulation
layer, offer a far superior heat and sound insulation than traditional construction systems, which
means substantial energy savings and healthier environment.

6. Economy and speed of production:

Precast concrete elements are mass produced with minimum manpower in the shortest possible
time. Their remarkable qualities: Strength, durability and Insulation offer significant cost savings
in construction cost, energy consumption and later maintenance costs.

7. Fast and efficient installation:

The use of standardized Precast Concrete elements contributes to efficient and fast installation,
significantly reduced construction time.
Assembly of large and complex components can be carried out easily and quickly, producing
little or no dust, noise or waste, as well as giving a faster return on investment.
Moreover, good quality control in the factory prevents unnecessary delays, and just-on-time
deliveries reduce the need for storage at the construction site.

In addition to the advantages listed above for Precast, Prestressed Precast Systems offer the
following added features:

1. Light economical construction:

Prestressing and High Strength concrete make it possible to use less material to achieve similar
load-bearing capacity and, hence, make substantial cost savings in both reinforcement and
concrete. Reduced section sizes lead to lower dead loads and can improve transport efficiency.

2. Long spans:

Prestressing of the Precast elements means longer and more efficient spans, allowing large, open
spaces and reducing the number of columns and beams in the structure.

3. High load capacity:

Precast prestressed elements can carry much heavier loads as compared to normal reinforced
concrete structures, which makes them ideal for heavy load bearing structure such as tunnels,
bridges, car parks, reservoirs, ….
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4. Minimum propping and scaffolding:

Precast prestressed elements need very little propping or formwork, leading top cost saving
and greater access all through the work areas.

No matter what type of project you are interested in, precast concrete is demonstrating its
superiority.

Combining quality, economy, speed, and flexibility, it is the building material of choice.

Precast concrete contributes to green building practices in significant ways. The low
water-cement ratios possible with precast concrete -0.36 to 0.38- mean it can be extremely
durable. The thermal mass of concrete allows shifting of heating and cooling loads in a structure
to help reduce mechanical-system requirements. Because precast concrete is factory-made, there
is little waste created in the plant (most plants employ exact-batching technologies) and it
reduces construction waste and debris on site, reducing construction IAQ concerns. The load-
carrying capacities, optimized cross sections, and long spans possible with precast concrete
members help eliminate redundant members, and concrete readily accommodates recycled
content.

The precast concrete elements are durable, The primary ingredients of concrete -sand, gravel,
and cement- are mineral based. When mixed with water, the cement chemically reacts to create a
crystalline matrix with a high compressive strength. This matrix binds the sand and gravel
together, creating concrete. Unlike other construction materials that can rust, rot, or otherwise
degrade when in the presence of moisture, concrete can actually get stronger if there are
unhydrated cement particles available to react with the water.

The precast concrete is different from other types of concret just because, Precast concrete is
different because it is made in a factory by highly experienced personnel who apply stringent
quality-control measures. In the factory environment, precasters are able to achieve consistency in
temperature and moisture and low watercement ratios that are not possible in field-fabricated
concrete. Precast concrete can easily attain strengths of 5000 psi to 7000 psi or more, with
densities that minimize permeability.

One more main advantage of pre cast concrete is it can be reused, Precast concrete members
are unique in that they are individually engineered products that can be disassembled. Designers
can easily plan future additions to buildings, because the precast concrete components can be
rearranged. Once removed, precast concrete members may be reused in other applications.

Precast concrete is also friendly to downcycling, in which building materials are broken
down, because it comes apart with a minimum amount of energy and retains its original qualities.
An example of downcycling would be the use of crushed precast concrete as aggregate in new
concrete or as base materials for roads, sidewalks, or concrete slabs.
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The different elements that can be precasted are:

• Interlocking pavers
• Hollow concrete blocks
• Solid concrete blocks
• Tiles
• Precast pipes
• Cylinders
• Manholes and its covers
• Bridge segments
• Septic tanks
• Barriers
• Bollards
• Box culverts
• Fences
• Staircases
• Beams
• Walls
• Foundations
• Pavements
• Bunker silos
• Retaining walls
• Roof elements

The list goes on and on

There are some small scale companies manufacturing these pre cast concrete
elements for the use for small and large scale ,for eg: interlocking pavers are the present day
precast element used almost every place and everywhere like for parking ,pavements,sheds,and
even some colourful pavers are being used as flooring and cladding materials. These precast
elements are slowly replacing the charm and beauty of marble and granite.all kinds of design and
all kinds of colours can be manufactured with a proper finishing work.

A Market survey was done dividing the whole geographical area of Bangalore
into clusters( Urban and rural - areas ) and random sampling is done.which revealed
different types and different needs and demand of these products. This survey has been
tabulated as below,
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A questionnaire had been prepared for the companies to make the survey easier a sample
copy of the statement of comparison has been shown as below,
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Companies
Details Technic Chandrak Rasu SLN Kiran KNR
paver antha enterprises concret precast constr
s conc e concrete uction
blocks product blocks s
s
Place Madivala Ejipura koramangala Vathur Hobli peenya madivala
&
attibel
e
Address Hosur road, No.58nr to No.28,opp IBP No.99/2, Har #9/10,peeny --
Madivala, vivek petrol lur a
Bangalore nagar,1 bunk,80ft Village,V industrial
– 560068 00ft road, athur area
road,ejip industrial Hobli, Ba Bangalore-
ura layout.kora ngalore - 560015
mangala 560067
Contact 08025534 08025520613 0806669477 08028194298 97311281
num: 202 8 13
Person Mohan Raaju Muthu Promod.N kumar
contac Kumar
ted:
Type of Residentia Commercial Industrial/resid industrial industrial commerci
area l ential al
Type of proprietar proprietary proprietary proprietary proprietary For a
owning y Project
Land 1800/sqft 850/sqft Govt land
value
Rs:
Area of 28000sq 5000sqft 17000sqft 10764sqft
the ft
land
Types of Interlockin Hollow Interlocking Hollow Hollow blocks Drain
the g cylinder pavers, blocks Filled blocks, cover
produc pavers s,conc window grills, filled blocks interlocking slabs
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t rings floor slab


Product Footpath, Dustbins, Designer Construction Footpaths,par SSM&RCC
use reside lining flooring, of high king drain
ntial for open cladding, rise coverin
,comm wells, footpath, buildings gs
ercial parking ,
apartme
nts
Environm Cleared No Cleared by PCB Clearance is Cleared by Not
ental by PCB clearanc reqd PCB cleared
cleara e taken
nce
machiner Auto and Semi Hydraulic Semi auto Semi auto No
y semi- automat machin
auto ic es

Details Technic Chandrak Rasu SLN Kiran KNR


paver antha enterprises concret precast constr
s conc e concrete uction
blocks product blocks s
s
Price 1,0,00,000 rs 2,50,000rs - --
Type of Steel,rubb Steel Steel steel Steel steel
mould er
blks 2000- 750 - 1200
prdcd 2500
by
machin
e/hr
Fuel/ener 15 hp 15hp
gy
spent
Client:1 SJR - Many local ND Local govt
groups companies develope companie
and petrol rs s
14 | P a g e Technic Chandraka Rasu SLN Kiran KNR
pavers ntha enter concret precas constr
conc blocks prise e t uction
bunk s product concre s
majorly s te
Client:2 L&T - Land mark - blocks
LAYOUT propertie
OF THE s
PLANT
Client:3 CCCL - Imperial -
office yes Yes Yes Yesconstruct Yes Yes
batching No No no No ions No No
VAT planton 12.5%on No vat 12.5%on the 4% on 12% on the No vat
stores
the Yes
the Yes Yes
paver Yeshollow Yespaver Yes
prod
material paver
Yes Yes Yes Yesblock Yes Yes
Excise duty
stackin
g
garage Yes No No No No No
security yes No proper Yes Yes Yes Yes
security
vehicle Yes No no yes No No
parking
visitor No No No No No No
yard
quality Yes No No Yes No No
unit
cement Yes no No No No No
silos
conveyor Yes No no No No No
belt
material Yes Yes Yes yes Yes Yes
draggin
g
cement Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
storage
enclosures Yes(compou Yes(fencing) Semi Yes(compou Yes no
nd) enclo nd wall) enclose
sed d
dust No No No Yes (zinc No no
control sheets)
employees Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes yes
safety
health No No No No No no
clinic
/doctor
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Services offered
Technic Chandraka Rasu SLN Kiran KNR
services paver ntha ente concr prec construct
s conc rpris ete ast ions
blocks es prod conc
ucts rete
bloc
ks
Installing yes no yes no yes no

Transportation yes yes yes yes yes


yes
Repairs if any yes no no no No no
Employ Technic Chandraka Rasu SLN conc Kiran KNR
ees: pavers ntha enterpri products precast const
num conc ses concret ructio
bers blocks e ns
and blocks
sala
ry

80rs per piece as wages


engine 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 7000rs/ 1 6000rs 1
er m /m
technic 2 7000rs 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ian /m
supervi 2 5000rs 0 0 1 5000rs 1 5000rs/ 0 0 0
sor /m m
SKL 20 2800rs 2 200rs/ 0 0 0 3 200rs/ 10
day day
SSL 10 2400rs 3 150rs/ 0 0 2 175rs/d 2 175rs/ 20
day ay day
USL 10 2200rs 6 125rs/ 8 90/day 10 125rs/d 8 125rs/ 4
day ay day
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Materials Technic Chandrakan Rasu SLN Kiran KNR


used pavers tha conc enterpri conc preca const
blocks ses produ st ructio
cts concr ns
ete
block
s
Cement Birla super Ultratech,birl 43 and 53 Rajashree Birla Penna
43 grade a super grade,birl e and super suraks
43 grade a Birla 43 ha 53
43 grade grade
grade
Aggregat 6mm 6mm 6mm 6mm & 6mm 20mm
e crushe and
d rock below
fines
Sand River sand River sand River sand River River River
used sand sand sand
Technic Chandrakan Rasu SLN Kiran KNR
pavers tha conc enterpri conc preca const
blocks ses produ st ructio
cts concr ns
ete
block
s
Mix 1:1.5:3
propor
tion
Admixtur Forsoc as -------- --------- -------------- -------------- -------
e accelerati - --
ng
agent(Sik
a india)
Water(qn Borewell, Bore well bore well bore well Water
ty/sou 4.5cum/3 from
rce) 000blocks tanker
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s
6000lp
d
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Technic pavers

Chandrakantha conc blocks


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Rasu enterprises:
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SLN conc products:


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KNR constructions

`
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Starting new precast concrete products in the existing pre-cast yard at


Bangalore, analyzing the means of financing, pricing of the product, selection of place,
Profit, sales to over come the short term and long term liabilities and future expansion of
the existing yard.

a compound wall which can be also called as a security wall is designed and planned to be
casted in a casting yard
The details and drawing is as shown below

this is a precast coloumn and a footing


which is 2.7m high and width of footing is 900mm the other detailing is as shown in the
diagram.
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The sectional view is shown below

The cross section and the joining details is as shown below


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An artistic impression of the compound wall is as shown in the diagram


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Rate analysis for the compound wall:


COST OF THE PROJECT

Compound Pre Cast compund wall


Wall.xlsx Calculations.xls
(click on the icons for accessing the Excel sheets)

The cost comprises of various items involved right from the land acquisition to the production of the
finished concrete product/year which clearly shows us the various items that need to be installed or
erected their cost behavior on the project and the life span. These data provide an insight into the
formulating or arriving at the total cost for setting up and production of finished product of the batching
plant. Tools like the C - programming and Microsoft Excel, Planning software’s such as Primavera, MS -
Project can also be used to schedule the work.

These direct and indirect costs have a no of sub-component cost centers which should be carefully
identified as these cumulated gives us the cost of the project and its funding scheme. Further the each
individual component is looked into deep regarding their suitability, adaptability and requirement,
availability and their respective cost is taken.

UNDERSTANDING COST IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Direct costs include “any costs that can be specifically identified with a particular project or
activity, including salaries, travel, equipment and supplies directly benefitting the project or activity”.
Emphasis is placed on the term “activity,” which is interpreted as being the same as a cost account. Direct
cost can also be defined as “...costs of installed equipment, material, and labor directly involved in the
physical construction of the permanent facility.”

Indirect costs are “...costs incurred by an organization for common or joint objectives, and which
cannot be identified specifically with a particular activity or project.” Or “...all costs which do not
become a final part of the installation, but which are required for its orderly completion. It includes (but
is not limited to): field administration, direct supervision, capital tools, some start-up costs, contractor's
fees, insurance, taxes, etc.”
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CLASSIFICATION OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT COST

TABLE 1.0

Recommended categories for direct/indirect cost elements

CONSTRUCTION COST ACCOUNT CLASSIFICATION

ACCOUNTING I

ADMINISTRATION I

BONDS I

CAMP OPERATIONS I

CONST. CONTRACTOR’S ENG. I

CONSTRUCTION D

CONST. EQUIPMENT I–1

CONST. EQPT. MAINT. I

CONST. FACILITIES I

CONSUMABLES D

CONTAMINATION RESTRICTIONS I

CONTRACT FEE I

CONTRIB. TO WELFARE PLANS I

DRINKING WATER & SANITATION I

FIRE PROTECTION I

FREIGHT D

GENERAL CLEANUP I–1

HOLIDAY & VACATION PAY I


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INSURANCE I

I
LEGAL
I
LIGHT & POWER
I
MAINT. OF GEN. CONST. PLANT
I
MATERIAL HANDLING I
I
MEDICAL & FIRST AID I
I
MOTOR POOL OPERATIONS I
I
OFFICE SUPPLIES & EXPENSES I
I
PAYROLL INSURANCE I
I
PAYROLL TAXES I
I
PERMITS, LICENSES I
I
PERSONNEL I
D
PREMIUM PAY D
I
PROCUREMENT I
D
PRODUCTIVITY D
D
PROTECTIVE CLOTHING D
I
REPORTING TIME I
I / D2
RETROACTIVE PAY I/D2
I
SAFETY I
I
SALES TAX I
I -1
SCAFFOLDING I1
SECURITY I I

SECURITY RESTRICTIONS D D

SIGNUP & TERMINATION PAY I

SITEWORK I/D3 I / D3
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SUPERINTENDENCE I1 I–1

SURVEYS, GEOL. STUDIES & TESTS I I

I
TAXES OTHER THAN PAYROLL
I
TRANSFER AND RELOC.
I
TRANSPORTATION OF WORKERS
I
WAREHOUSING
I
WATER
I
WELDING TESTS
I
SUPERINTENDENCE

NOTE :

I - 1. Indirect only if not associated with a particular work operation.

I - 2. Holding account; only un-al locatable cost should remain in this account

I - 3. Direct if permanent, otherwise indirect.

Once the direct and indirect cost is identified then it is the next step to find out the realistic values of
the plant, machinery, equipment in the market so as to arrive at a realistic value of the project so as to
proceed on the further analysis of social and benefit cost analysis and on the viability of the project in the
financial terms.

Care to be taken in the procurement and selecting the right type of machinery so as to overcome the
excessive tax implications if the material if the machinery is purchased outside the respective state of
setting up the project and also the environmental implications in orders to comply with the government
and the public.
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The rate analysis of the compound wall is done as follows


• The design drawings and data has been collected
• The whole element has been divided into three parts and the respective volume
has been calculated.
• The total surface area has been calculated ,this has been formulated for the
calculation of the shuttering
• The barbending schedule has been worked out for the total amount of steel
required
Then after finding out the total volume of the elements and the total surface area of
the element the total quantity of steel required is calculated from barbending schedule

This analysis is done and the respective rates of the steel ,concrete and mild steel is
calculated to get the exact material cost of the product
A compound wall built using size stone masonry has been calculated and the same volume and
rates have been worked out a comparision has been made between both the precast concrete
compound wall and the size stone masonry compound wall.

A programme has been done using Microsoft excel where in the cost of the whole project
can be got just by adding the data of the dimensions of the site land .where in both the precast
compound wall’s and the size stone masonry’s cost will be updated automatically

After this analysis another analysis has been done for the capital investment
Starting from the land acquisition for the precasting ,fixed assets ,building and civil works to be
done at the site,plant and machinery ,staff for the work organization chart for the work .rates of
the plant and machinery ,depreciation and lifespan.salaries for the staff everything has been
worked out. This adds up to the product cost.
The total running per metre cost has been worked out and the total cost of the product has
been carried out.