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# ANSYS Release 14.

0
Rotordynamics

Steve Varnam
ANSYS UK
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## Dynamics capabilities - review

There is a wide range of Dynamics capabilities available within the
ANSYS Structural Mechanics product portfolio:
ANSYS Dynamics

Nonlinear Transient
Dynamics

## Rigid Body Dynamics

Modal

Flexible Dynamics

Modal Superposition

Linear Transient
Dynamic

Spectrum

Response Spectrum
2

## 2011 ANSYS, Inc.

Harmonic Response

## February 22, 2012

Harmonic Response

Random Vibration

## Recent Analysis Type Migration to WB

Mechanical
Modal and Harmonic many releases ago
Full Transient 11.0
Random Vibration 11.0

## Response Spectrum 12.0

Harmonic mode-sup linked to modal 13.0
Perturbation Method 13.0

## Mode-sup Transient 14.0

Rotordynamics 14.0

## February 22, 2012

Dynamics in WB Mechanical
11.0
Full transient
11.0

13.0

14.0

12.0

## Dynamics capabilities Licence levels

Different licence levels support different capabilities
ANSYS Dynamics
Nonlinear Transient
Dynamics
(ST+)

Modal
(DS+)

## Rigid Body Dynamics

Flexible Dynamics

(Standalone)

(ST+)

Linear Transient
Dynamic (PR+)

Modal Superposition

Spectrum

Response Spectrum
(PR+)
5

## February 22, 2012

Harmonic Response
(ST+)

Harmonic Response
(PR+)

Random Vibration
(ST+)

## Rotordynamics analysis requires a licence level of

Structural or above.

## February 22, 2012

Rotordynamics - Motivation

## ANSYS Mechanical users

need to be able to quickly
create shaft geometries
as well as analyze
dynamic characteristics
of rotating systems
Industrial fan (Venti Oelde)

## February 22, 2012

Background
The general equation of motion in matrix form is:

M u C u K u F t

## Different analysis types solve different forms of this

equation:
Modal analysis: F(t) is set to zero, and [C] is usually ignored.
Harmonic Response analysis: F(t) and u(t) are both assumed to be harmonic
in nature, i.e, X sin(wt), where X is the amplitude and w is the frequency in
Flexible Dynamic analysis: The complete, general form of the equation is
solved.
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## February 22, 2012

Background
For Rotor Dynamics, this equation becomes:

M u G C u B K u F t
G : The gyroscopic matrix, which depends on the rotational velocity (or
velocities) of the analysis model.
B : The rotating damping matrix, also depends upon the rotational
velocities. It modifies the apparant stiffness of the model and can produce
unstable motion.

## February 22, 2012

Background
Typical applications include:
High speed machinery such as turbine engine
rotors, computer disk drives, etc.
Seals - very small rotor-stator clearances
Flexible bearing supports
Rotor Instability
Rotordynamics analysis aims at:
Finding Critical Speeds (Campbell diagrams)
Calculating unbalance response
Calculating response to base excitation
Predicting Rotor Whirl and system stability
Simulating transient start-up and shutdown
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## Structural Elements for Rotordynamics

Element Type
Structural Mass

3D Beam

PIPE288
PIPE289

Structural Shell

3D Structural Solid

2011 ANSYS, Inc.

MASS21

BEAM188
BEAM189

3D Pipe

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Detail

## February 22, 2012

SHELL181
SHELL281
SOLID185
SOLID186
SOLID187

SOLID272
SOLID273

Bearing Modeling
Bearing element choice depends on:
Shape (1D, 2D, 3D)
Cross terms
Nonlinearities

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## February 22, 2012

Modal Analysis
Specify the rotational
velocity and activate
the Coriolis effect

Complex Frequency
Printout

Deformed Shape
Animation
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Orbit Plot

## Modal Analysis Campbell

Frequencies - Whirls - Stability

Critical Speeds

## Set up a Multiple Load

Step Modal Analysis
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## February 22, 2012

Logarithmic Decrement

## Specify the Unbalance

Force on Inner Spool

Unbalance Response
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## February 22, 2012

Orbit Plot

Transient Analysis 1
Start-up and Stop
Simulation

## Specify the Rotational

Velocity/Time History

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## February 22, 2012

Transient Response

Transient Analysis 2
Stability
Verification

Specify a Short
Duration Force

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Transient Orbits

## Documentation - Verification Manual

VM247

Verification Tests
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Rotordynamics
19

20

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## Analyze dynamic characteristics of rotating systems with the effects of

damping, Coriolis and different rotational velocities

## February 22, 2012

Geometry Creation

Geometries can be
system or imported
from a simple text
file definition as used
in preliminary design

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Undamped

Damped

No damping

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Turn on damping

Damping
Controls

## Damped Modal Analysis (cont)

Note the output table is in engineering terms(damped frequency, stability,
etc.), not mathematical ones(real/imaginary eigenvalue)

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## Animation with Decay

Toggle to turn on/off time
decay during animation for
damped modal analysis

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## Control the number of

cycles to visualize the
effects of decay

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Campbell Diagram

## Specify rotational velocity

for the number of points

## Basic setup for Campbell Diagram

- Tabular Rotational velocity
- Damped solve
- Turn on Coriolis Effect
- Turn on Campbell Diagram
- Minimum 2 solve points
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28

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## Fast Critical Speed Map

The new APDL Math feature extends the APDL scripting environment of
Mechanical APDL:

extraction of data from ANSYS files (FULL, EMAT, MODE, and SUB)
powerful matrix/vectors manipulation routines
Speed up dependant upon number of rotational velocity steps required to identify
critical speeds.

## In a Rotordynamics analysis, APDL Math can be used to obtain the

critical speed map directly

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Solve

[ K w 2 M ] 0

with

M M jG0

## *SMAT, K, D, IMPORT, FULL, file.full, STIFF

*SMAT, M, D, IMPORT, FULL, file.full, MASS
*SMAT, G0, D, IMPORT, FULL, file.full, DAMP
*SMAT, zMG0, Z, COPY, M
*AXPY,, alpha, G0, 1,, zMG0
*SMAT, zK, Z, COPY, K
/SOLU
ANTYPE, MODAL
MODOPT, UNSYM, 6
*EIGEN, zK, zMG0,, EiV, EiM
FINI

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## Import/Export of Bearing Characteristics

ANSYS provides an
interface that allows to
import bearing
characteristics from an
external file see
IMPORTBEARING.MAC

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## February 22, 2012

ANSYS Rotordynamics

Industrial Applications

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## Industrial Application #1:

Centrifugal Compressor
Eight Stage Centrifugal Compressor
used for natural gas re-injection at an
offshore drilling site

coefficients
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## Industrial Application #1:

Centrifugal Compressor
ET, 1, COMBI214
R, 1, %KYY%, %KZZ%, %KYZ%, %KZY%, %CYY%, %CZZ%
RMORE, %CYZ%, %CZY%

Macro
ImportBearing.mac

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## Industrial Application #1:

Centrifugal Compressor
Campbell Diagram: Bearings with
Variable Characteristics
(undamped)

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## Industrial Application #1:

Centrifugal Compressor
Unbalance Response Bearings with
Variable Characteristics (damped)

unbalance
3.4 oz.in @ 0 deg

unbalance
3.4 oz.in @ 0 deg

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## 2011 ANSYS, Inc.

unbalance
3.4 oz.in @ 180 deg

Configuration 1

Configuration 2

## Industrial Application #2:

Chiller
Free-Free Testing Apparatus used for initial model
calibration

Chiller

## Courtesy of Trane, a business of

American Standard, Inc.
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## Industrial Application #2:

Chiller
Solid Model of Compressor Shaft
plus Chiller Assembly in ANSYS
Workbench

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## Industrial Application #2:

Chiller
CMS Superelement
Representation
Finite element model of
rotor and impellers

## Housing and entire

chiller assembly
represented by a CMS
superelement
Courtesy of Trane, a business of American Standard, Inc.
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## Industrial Application #2:

Chiller
Chiller Assembly Details

Bearing
locations

Outline of CMS
superelement
Impeller
Courtesy of Trane, a business of American Standard, Inc.
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## Industrial Application #2:

Chiller
Chiller Shaft Assembly Modes

Deformed Shape
Shaft + CMS Supporting Structure
Courtesy of Trane, a business of American Standard, Inc.
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Hard Disk Drive
3 disks HDD
sketch

## ANSYS 4 disk model

Disk thickness = 0.8mm
Total mass = 87.5g
Spin = 755 rd/s
7855 elements

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Hard Disk Drive

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## February 22, 2012

Summary
The previous slides have described the elements of complete
rotordynamics analysis, with ANSYS
Key enabling features:
Library of elements
All analysis types (including prestress)
Dedicated post-processing
Multi-spool dynamics simulation
Direct connection to bearing codes
Account for the flexibility of the
supporting structure and/or the disks
Connect directly to other ANSYS tools via
Workbench (Design Explorer)

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Questions?

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