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Riscurile nanotehnologiei

Its green, its clean, its never seen thats nanotechnology!


Carole Bass

Cuprins
1. Ce este nanotehnologia

Ce este nanotehnologia
Nanotehnologii sunt vorbete ca fora motrice din spatele unei noi revoluii
industriale. Att-privat i a cheltuielilor sectorului public sunt n continu cretere..
Cheltuielile pentru cercetare public a atins niveluri de peste 3 miliarde de euro la
nivel mondial, dar cheltuielile din sectorul privat este chiar mai repede, este de
ateptat s depeasc cheltuielile guvernamentale n 2005. Nanotehnologiilor va f
o for tehnologic major pentru o schimbare n modelarea mediului de afaceri
Allianz n toate sectoarele industriale n viitorul previzibil i sunt susceptibile de a
oferi oportuniti de cretere substaniale. Dimensiunea pieei produselor
Nanotehnologia este deja comparabil cu sectorul biotehnologiei, n timp ce ratele de
cretere ateptate n urmtorii civa ani sunt mult mai mari. n acelai timp,
oamenii de stiinta au exprimat ingrijorarea ca blocurile de construcie de baz ale
nanotehnologii-particule mai mici de o miliardime dintr-un metru, prezint un
potenial clas nou de risc pentru sntate i mediu. Allianz solicit o abordare
precaut pe baza cercetrilor de risc i buna gestionare a riscurilor pentru a reduce
la minimum riscul de nanoparticule aduc o nou dimensiune de vtmare corporal
i pagube materiale sau pierderi care prezint riscuri de rspundere civil i de
produs-amintesc tere. Centrul Allianz pentru Riscuri Tehnologie i Allianz Global, n
cooperare cu Programul Futures International OECD, a revizuit impactul probabil
economic, posibilitile de investiii, i a riscurilor poteniale ale nanotehnologiilor.
Prezentul raport analizeaz oportunitile i riscurile din punctul de vedere al
Grupului Allianz. Opiniile exprimate n acest raport sunt cele ale Grupului Allianz i
nu se angajeze OCDE sau guvernelor statelor membre

Nanotechnologies are being spoken of as the driving force behind a new


industrial revolution. Both private- and public-sector spending are constantly
increasing. Spending on public research has reached levels of well over EUR 3
billion world-wide, but private sector spending is even fasterit is expected
to exceed government spending in 2005. Nanotechnologies will be a major
technological force for change in shaping Allianzs business environment
across all industrial sectors in the foreseeable future and are likely to deliver
substantial growth opportunities. The size of the market for nanotechnology
products is already comparable to the biotechnology sector, while the
expected growth rates over the next few years are far higher. At the same
time, scientists have raised concerns that the basic building blocks of
nanotechnologiesparticles smaller than one billionth of a meterpose a
potential new class of risk to health and the environment. Allianz calls for a
precautionary approach based on risk research and good risk management to
minimize the likelihood of nanoparticles bringing a new dimension to personal
injury and property damage losses or posing third party liability and productrecall risks. The Allianz Center for Technology and Allianz Global Risks, in cooperation with the OECD International Futures Programme, has reviewed the
likely economic impact, investment possibilities, and potential risks of
nanotechnologies. This report analyses the opportunities and risks from the
perspective of the Allianz Group. The opinions expressed in this report are

those of the Allianz Group and do not engage the OECD or its Member
governments

Riscurile nanotehnologiei
[ Ready or not, here it comes. In the next 20 years, nanotechnology will touch the life of nearly every
person on the planet. The potential benefits are mind boggling and brain enhancing. But like many of
the great advancements in earth's history, it is not without risk Here are some of the risks posed to
society by nanotechnology.

Gata sau nu, aici este vorba. n urmtorii 20 de ani, nanotehnologia va atinge viaa aproape
fiecare persoan de pe planet. Beneficiile potentiale sunt uluitor minte i consolidarea
creierului. Dar, ca multe dintre marile progrese din istoria Pamantului, nu este lipsit de riscuri
Aici sunt unele dintre riscurile la adresa societii de nanotehnologiei.
(Real Risk: Nanopollutants
When: Now
Nanopollutants are nanoparticles small enough to enter your lungs or be absorbed by your skin.
Nanopollutants can be natural or man-made. Nanoparticles are used in some of the products found
on shelves today, like anti-aging cosmetics and sunscreen. The highest risk is to the workers in
nano-technology research and manufacturing processes.)

Real Risc: Nanopollutants


Cnd: Acum
Nanopollutants sunt nanoparticule suficient de mici pentru a intra plmni sau poate fi absorbit de
piele. Nanopollutants pot fi naturale sau provocate de om. Nanoparticulele sunt folosite n unele
dintre produsele gsite pe rafturi astzi, cum ar fi anti-imbatranire produse cosmetice i de protec ie
solar. Cel mai mare risc este de a lucrtorilor n nano-tehnologie procesele de cercetare i de
fabricaie.

Potential Risk: Privacy Invasion


When: 5 to 15 years
Virtually undetectable surveillance devices could dramatically increase spying on governments,
corporations and private citizens.

Risc potenial: Invasion confidenialitate


Cnd: 5 pn la 15 ani
Practic dispozitive de supraveghere nedetectabile ar putea creste in mod dramatic spionaj
guvernelor, corporaii i ceteni privai.

Potential Risk: Economic Upheaval


When: 10 to 20 years
Molecular manufacturing is the assembly of products one molecule at a time. It could make the
same products you see today, but far more precisely and at a very low cost. It is unclear whether this
would bring boom or bust to the global economy.

Risc potenial: revolta Economic


Cnd: 10 pn la 20 ani
Fabricaie molecular este ansamblul de produse o molecula la un moment dat. S-ar putea face
aceleai produse pe care le vedei astzi, dar mult mai precis i la un cost foarte sczut. Nu este clar
dac acest lucru ar aduce boom-ul sau bust pentru economia global.

Potential Risk: Nanotech weapons


When: 10 to 20 years
Untraceable weapons made with nanotechnology could be smaller than an insect with the
intelligence of a supercomputer. Possible nano and bio technology arms race.

Risc potenial: arme Nanotech


Cnd: 10 pn la 20 ani
Arme nedetectabil realizate cu nanotehnologiei ar putea fi mai mic dect o insect cu inteligen a
unui supercomputer. Nano posibil i tehnologia bio curs a narmrilor.

Far-Fetched Risk: Gray Goo


When: 30+ years

Free range, self-replicating robots that consume all living matter. However unlikely, experts say this
scenario is theoretically possible, but not for some time.
We have just scratched the surface.
There are many areas of nanotechnology science that hold potential dangers to society. Bioengineering and artificial intelligence for example, have their own set of risks.
As we enter an era of unprecedented understanding, it is important that society takes a proactive
role in the responsible development of nanotechnology.
Allotropes
Diamonds, the hardest known natural mineral, and the flaky graphite used in pencils are both made
of carbon. How is it that they are so different?
Pure carbon occurs as many different allotropes (structures which differ only in the way the atoms
are arranged.) Allotropes generally differ in physical properties such as color and hardness.
Diamond and graphite are two allotropes of the element carbon. Buckyballs and nanotubes are two
more. This diagram shows how the atoms are arranged for each allotrope.
The discovery in 1985 of buckminsterfullerene (buckyball), opened a new era for the chemistry of
carbon and for novel materials. The Japanese Sumi Ijima discovered nanotubes in 1991. The
nanotubes synthesized in the laboratory showed remarkable mechanic properties as well as thermal
conductivity and resistance to flame.

Risc exagerat: Gray Goo


Cnd: 30+ ani
n aer liber, roboti auto-replicarea care consum toat materia vie. Cu toate acestea este pu in
probabil, spun experii acest scenariu este teoretic posibil, dar nu de ceva timp.
Tocmai am zgriat suprafaa.
Exist multe domenii ale tiinei nanotehnologiei care dein pericolele poteniale pentru societate.
Bio-inginerie i inteligen artificial, de exemplu, au propriul set de riscuri.

Aa cum am introduce o er de nelegere fr precedent, este important ca societateas un rol


proactiv in dezvoltarea responsabil a nanotehnologiei.
forme alotropice
Diamante, cel mai greu cunoscute minerale naturale, precum i grafit fulg utilizate n creioane sunt
ambele realizate din carbon. Cum se face c ei sunt att de diferite?

Pur carbon apare ca mai multe forme alotropice diferite (structuri care difer doar n modul n care
atomii sunt aranjate.) Forme alotropice difer, n general, n proprieti fizice, cum ar fi culoarea si
duritatea.
Diamond i grafit sunt dou forme alotropice ale elementul carbon. Buckyballs i nanotuburi sunt
dou mai multe. Aceast diagram arat modul n care sunt aranjate atomii pentru fiecare allotrope.
Descoperirea n 1985 de buckminsterfullerene (buckyball), a deschis o nou er pentru chimia de
carbon i pentru materiale noi. Japonez Sumi Ijima descoperit nanotuburi n 1991. nanotuburi
sintetizate in laborator au aratat proprietati mecanice remarcabile, precum i conductivitate termic
i rezisten la flacr. ] (http://www.futureforall.org/nanotechnology/risks.htm)

Nanotechnology risks - the real issues


(Nanowerk Spotlight) Nano-this and nano-that. (Nanowerk Spotlight) Nano- aceasta i
nano-sta. These days it seems you need the prefix nano for products or applications if you
want to be either very trendy or incredibly scary. n prezent,se pare, ca avem nevoie de prefixul
"nano", pentru produse sau aplicaii, dac dorim s fie foarte la mod sau incredibil de
nfricotor. This nanotrend has assumed mega proportions: Acest "nanotrend" i-a asumat
proporii "mega": Patent offices around the world are swamped with nanotechnology-related
applications; Oficiile de brevete din intreaga lume sunt inundate cu aplicatii legate de
nanotehnologie; investment advisors compile nanotechnology stock indices and predict a
coming boom in nanotechnology stocks with misleading estimates floating around of a
trillion-dollar industry within 10 years; consultani n investiii compila indicii bursieri
nanotehnologiei si anticipa un boom vine stocurilor nanotehnologie cu estimrile neltoare
plutesc n jurul a unei industrii de miliarde de de dolari n termen de 10 de ani; pundits promise
a new world with radically different medical procedures, manufacturing technologies and
solutions to environmental problems; analiti promit o lume nou cu radical diferite proceduri
medicale, tehnologii de fabricaie i soluii la problemele de mediu; nano conferences and trade
shows are thriving all over the world; scientific journals are awash in articles dealing with
nanoscience discoveries and nano technologies breakthroughs. conferine nano si targuri sunt
nfloritoare peste tot n lume; reviste tiinifice sunt pline n articole care se ocup cu
descoperirile nanostiinta si tehnologii nano descoperiri. Nanotechnology has been plagued by a
lot of hype, but cynicism and criticism have not been far behind. Nanotehnologia a fost afectat
de o mulime de hype, dar cinism i critic nu au fost cu mult n urm. Science fiction writers
exploit fears of nanorobots turning into killers; the media can run amok when news about
potential health problems with nanoproducts surface (as happened last year with a product
recall for a bathroom cleaner in Germany). Scriitori de science fiction exploata temerile legate
de nanorobots de cotitur n criminali; mass-media poate rula amok atunci cnd tiri despre
poteniale probleme de sntate cu suprafa nanoproducts (aa cum sa ntmplat anul trecut, cu
o rechemare de produs pentru o mai curat baie n Germania). Some see doomsday scenarios of
molecular self-assembly turning the world into grey goo. Unii vd scenarii apocaliptice de

auto-asamblare moleculara de cotitur n lume n "goo gri." The emerging polarization of


opinions on nanotechnology is reminiscent of controversies about genetically modified plants or
nuclear energy. Polarizarea n curs de dezvoltare de opinii cu privire la nanotehnologiei este o
reminiscen de controverse cu privire la plante modificate genetic sau energie nuclear. Vague
promises of a better life are met by equally vague, generalized fears about a worse future.
Promisiuni vagi de o via mai bun sunt ndeplinite de temeri la fel de vagi, generalizate despre
un viitor mai ru. These debates have some aspects in common: the subject is complex and not
easy to explain; there is no consensus on risks and benefits; scientists and corporations seem able
to proceed unchecked, and it is unclear who is in control. Aceste dezbateri au unele aspecte n
comun: subiectul este complex i nu este uor de explicat; nu exist un consens cu privire la
riscurile si beneficiile; oameni de stiinta si corporatii par putea continua necontrolata, i nu este
clar cine este n control. Often the problem of emerging, deeply transformative technologies is
that they lack a "social constitution" that addresses questions like: Where can I get
information I can trust? On what terms is the technology introduced? What risks apply, with
what certainty and to whom? Who benefits? Who takes responsibility for problems? De multe
ori problema de emergente, tehnologii profund transformatoare este c le lipsete o "constituie
social" care se adreseaz ntrebri de genul: Unde pot obine informaii pot avea ncredere? n
ce condiii se introduce tehnologia? Ce riscuri se aplic, cu ce siguran i cui? Cine beneficiaza?
Cine i asum responsabilitatea pentru probleme? A particular problem with nanotechnology
lies in the huge gap between the public perception of what the hype promises and the scientific
and commercial reality of what the technology actually delivers today and in the near future. O
problem deosebit cu nanotehnologie const n diferena uria dintre percepia public a ceea
ce promite hype i realitatea tiinific i comercial a ceea ce tehnologia ofer de fapt, n prezent
i n viitorul apropiat.
Whats so special about nanotechnology and why is it an issue now?
Chemists have dealt with naturally occurring nanoparticles all along. Think molecules or viruses.
Toxicologists have dealt with nanoparticles that are the result of modern human life such as
carbon particles in combustion engine exhaust. Without being aware of it, tire manufacturers
used nanoparticles, carbon black, to improve the performance of tires as early as the 1920s.
Ce este att de special la nanotehnologie i de ce este o problem acum?
Chimistii au interacionat cu nanoparticulele naturale din totdeauna. Gndindu-ne la molecule
sau virui. Toxicologi, care studiaz nanoparticule, spun c sunt rezultatul vieii umane moderne,
cum ar fi particule de carbon evacuate de motoarele cu combustie. Fr a fi contieni de
actiunea lor, nca din anii1920, productorii de pneuri au utilizat nanoparticule, negru de fum,
pentru a mbunti performana anvelopelor. Medieval artists used gold nanoparticles to achieve
the bright red color in church windows (gold particles in nanometer size are red, not golden).
You might even say that we are surrounded by, and made of, nanostructures atoms and
molecules are nanoscale objects after all. Artiti medievali au folosit nanoparticule de aur pentru
a obine culoarea rou aprins, utilizata la pictarea geamurilor bisericilor (particule de aur de
dimensiuni nanometri au culoarea roie i aurie). Am putea spune chiar c suntem nconjurai de,
i creai din nanostructuri, atomii i moleculele sunt obiecte la scara nanometric, pn la urm.
So what is all the fuss about, and where do the risk issues come from all of a sudden?The
ongoing quest for miniaturization has resulted in tools such as the atomic force microscope
(AFM) and the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Deci, ce este tot acest tam-tam i unde ar
putea aprea riscul unor probleme neasteptate? Cercetarea continu pentru miniaturizare a dus la

obtinerea unor instrumente precum microscopul cu fort atomic (AFM) i microscopul de


scanare cu tunel (STM). Combined with refined processes such as electron beam lithography,
these instruments allow us to deliberately manipulate and manufacture nanostructures.
Engineered nanomaterials, either by way of a top-down approach (a bulk material is reduced in
size to nanoscale pattern) or a bottom-up approach (larger structures are built or grown atom by
atom or molecule by molecule), go beyond just a further step in miniaturization. Combinate cu
procese rafinate, precum litografia cu fascicul de electroni, aceste instrumente permit
manipularea n mod deliberat i fabricarea nanostructurilor. Nanomaterialele fabricate, fie printro abordare de sus n jos (un material n vrac este redus n mrime de model la scara
nanometrica) sau o abordare de jos n sus (structuri mai mari sunt construite sau cultivate atom
cu atom sau molecul de molecul), du-te dincolo de doar un pas n miniaturizare. They have
broken a size barrier below which quantization of energy for the electrons in solids becomes
relevant. The so-called quantum size effect describes the physics of electron properties in
solids with great reductions in particle size. Ei au spart o barier dimensiune sub care
cuantificare a energiei pentru electronilor n solide devine relevant. Aa-numitul "efect
dimensiunea cuantic" descrie fizica proprieti de electroni n solide cu reduceri mari n
dimensiunea particulelor. This effect does not come into play by going from macro to micro
dimensions. However, it becomes dominant when the nanometer size range is reached. Materials
reduced to the nanoscale can suddenly show very different properties compared to what they
show on a macroscale. Acest efect nu intr n joc de a merge de la macro la dimensiuni micro.
Cu toate acestea, ea devine dominant atunci cnd este atins gama de dimensiuni nanometrice.
Materiale reduse la scara nanometrica poate arata brusc foarte diferite proprieti n comparaie
cu ceea ce ele arat pe un macroscar. For instance, opaque substances become transparent
(copper); inert materials become catalysts (platinum); stable materials turn combustible
(aluminum); solids turn into liquids at room temperature (gold); insulators become conductors
(silicon). De exemplu, substanele opace devin transparente (cupru); materiale inerte devin
catalizatori (platin); materiale stabile transforma combustibile (aluminiu); solide transforma in
lichide la temperatura camerei (aur); izolatori devenit conductori (siliciu).A second important
aspect of the nanoscale is that the smaller a nanoparticle gets, the larger its relative surface area
becomes. Its electronic structure changes dramatically, too. Both effects lead to greatly improved
catalytic activity but can also lead to aggressive chemical reactivity. Un al doilea aspect
important al scara nanometrica este c mai mic o nanoparticulelor devine, mai mare suprafaa sa
relativ devine. Structura electronic se schimb n mod dramatic, de asemenea. Ambele efecte
duce la mbuntirea activitii catalitice foarte mult, dar poate duce i la reactivitate chimice
agresive. There are tremendous differences in particle number concentrations and particle surface
areas for particles of different sizes (assuming an airborne concentration of 10 g/m3 of unit
density for particles of each size): Exist diferene uriae n concentraii numrul de particule i
suprafeelor de particule pentru particulele de dimensiuni diferite (presupunnd o concentraie n

aer de 10 pg / m3 de densitate unitate pentru particule de fiecare dimensiune):

The extraordinarily high numbers of nanoparticles per given mass will likely be of toxicological
significance when these particles interact with cells and subcellular components. Likewise, their
increased surface area per unit mass can be toxicologically important. (Source: Source: G.
Oberdrster et al.: "Nanotoxicology: An Emerging Discipline Evolving from
Studies of Ultrafne Particles" Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 113, Number 7,
July 2005. Numerele extraordinar de mare de nanoparticule pe mas dat va fi probabil de o
importan toxicologic, atunci cnd aceste particule interactioneaza cu celulele i componente
subcelulara. De asemenea, suprafaa lor a crescut pe unitatea de mas poate fi punct de vedere
toxicologic importante. (Sursa: Sursa: G. Oberdrster et al .: "nanotoxicology: Un emergente
Disciplina evolueaz de la Studii de Ultrafine Particulele" Environmental Health Perspectives
Volume 113, Number 7, iulie 2005. Reproduced with permission from Environm. Health
Persp.)To understand the effect of particle size on surface area, consider a U.S. silver dollar. The
silver dollar contains 26.96 grams of coin silver, has a diameter of about 40 mm, and has a total
surface area of approximately 27.70 square centimeters. Reprodus cu permisiune de la mediu
ambiant. Sntate Persp.) Pentru a nelege efectul dimensiunii particulelor pe suprafata, ia n
considerare un dolar de argint american. Dolarul de argint contine 26.96 grame de moned de
argint, are un diametru de aproximativ 40 mm, i are o suprafa total de aproximativ 27,70
centimetri ptrai. If the same amount of coin silver were divided into tiny particles say 1
nanometer in diameter the total surface area of those particles would be 11,400 square meters.
When the amount of coin silver contained in a silver dollar is rendered into 1 nm particles, the
surface area of those particles is 4.115 million times greater than the surface area of the silver
dollar! n cazul n care aceeai cantitate de monede din argint au fost mprite n particule
minuscule - spune 1 nanometri in diametru - suprafaa total a acestor particule ar fi 11,400 de
metri patrati. n cazul n care cantitatea de monede de argint coninut ntr-un dolar de argint este
redat n particule 1 nm, suprafaa acestor particule este de 4.115 de milioane de ori mai mare
dect suprafaa de dolar de argint! (Source)The fascination with nanotechnology stems from
these unique quantum and surface phenomena that matter exhibits at the nano-scale, making
possible novel applications and interesting materials. Fascinaia cu nanotehnologie provine de la
aceste cuantice i de suprafa fenomene unice care conteaz exponate la scar nano, ceea ce face
posibile aplicaii noi i materiale interesante.
Nanostructures need to be differentiatedIn order to discuss the risks of
nanotechnology we need to take a closer look at these nanostructures. The mere presence of
nanomaterials is not in itself a threat. It is only certain aspects that can make them risky, in
particular their mobility and their increased reactivity. Nanostructuri trebuie s fie pentru
differentiatedIn a discuta despre riscurile de nanotehnologiei avem nevoie pentru a lua o privire

mai atent la aceste nanostructuri. Simpla prezen a nanomaterialelor nu este n sine o


ameninare. Este doar anumite aspecte care pot s le fac riscante, n special mobilitatea i
reactivitate lor a crescut. Only if certain properties of certain nanoparticles were proven harmful
to living beings or the environment would we be faced with a genuine hazard.In addressing the
health and environmental impact of nanotechnology we need to differentiate two types of
nanostructures: Numai n cazul n anumite proprieti ale unor nanoparticule au fost dovedit
nocive pentru fiinele vii sau pentru mediu ne-ar fi confruntat cu o adevrat hazard.In abordarea
sntii i impactul asupra mediului al nanotehnologiei trebuie s diferenieze dou tipuri de
nanostructuri:
(1) Nanocomposites, nanostructured surfaces and nanocomponents (electronic, optical, sensors
etc.), where nanoscale particles are incorporated into a substance, material or device (fixed
nano-particles); Nanocompozite, suprafete nanostructurate i nanocomponents (electronice,
optice, senzori etc.), n cazul n care particulele la scara nanometrica sunt ncorporate ntr-o
substan, un material sau dispozitiv (nanoparticule "fixe");
(2) free nanoparticles, where at some stage in production or use individual nanoparticles of a
substance are present. ) Nanoparticule "libere", n cazul n care sunt prezente ntr-o etap de
producie sau de a folosi nanoparticule individuale ale unei substane. These free nanoparticles
could be nanoscale species of elements, or simple compounds, but also complex compounds
where for instance a nanoparticle of a particular element is coated with another substance
(coated nanoparticle or core-shell nanoparticle). Aceste nanoparticule gratuite ar putea fi
specii scara nanometrica de elemente, sau compui de simplu, dar, de asemenea, n cazul n care
compuii compleci, de exemplu, un nanoparticulelor de un anumit element este acoperit cu o
alt substan ("acoperite" nanoparticulelor sau "core-shell" nanoparticulelor). There seems to
be consensus that, although one should be aware of materials containing fixed nanoparticles, the
immediate concern is with free nanoparticles. Because nanoparticles are very different from their
everyday counterparts, their adverse effects cannot be derived from the known toxicity of the
macro-sized material. Se pare c exist un consens c, dei ar trebui s fie contieni de
materiale care conin nanoparticule fixe, preocuparea imediat este cu nanoparticule gratuite.
Deoarece nanoparticulele sunt foarte diferite de omologii lor de zi cu zi, efectele adverse ale
acestora nu pot fi derivate din cunoscut toxicitatea materialului macro-urilor. This poses
significant issues for addressing the health and environmental impact of free nanoparticles.To
complicate things further, in talking about nanoparticles it is important that a powder or liquid
containing nanoparticles is almost never monodisperse, but will contain a range of particle sizes.
Acest fapt reprezint probleme semnificative pentru abordarea sntii i impactul asupra
mediului al liber nanoparticles.To complica lucrurile i mai mult, n a vorbi despre nanoparticule
este important ca o pulbere sau lichid care conine nanoparticule este aproape niciodat
monodispers, dar va conine o serie de dimensiuni ale particulelor. This complicates the
experimental analysis as larger nanoparticles might have different properties than smaller ones.
Also, nanoparticles show a tendency to aggregate and such aggregates often behave differently
from individual nanoparticles. Aceasta complic analiza experimental ca nanoparticule mai
mari ar putea avea proprieti diferite dect cele mici. De asemenea, nanoparticule arat o
tendin de agregare i astfel agregate adesea comport diferit fa de nanoparticule individuale.
There are four entry routes for nanoparticles into the body: they can be inhaled, swallowed,
absorbed through skin or be deliberately injected during medical procedures. Once within the

body they are highly mobile and in some instances can even cross the blood-brain barrier. How
these nanoparticles behave inside the organism is one of the big issues that need to be resolved.>
Exist patru ci de intrare pentru nanoparticule n organism: ele pot fi inhalate, nghiite, absorbit
prin piele sau pot fi injectate n mod deliberat n timpul procedurilor medicale. Odat interiorul
corpului ei sunt foarte mobile i n unele cazuri pot traversa chiar bariera hemato-encefalic.
Modul n care aceste nanoparticule se comporte n interiorul organismului este una dintre marile
probleme care trebuie rezolvate.>Basically, the behavior of nanoparticles is a function of their
size, shape and surface reactivity with the surrounding tissue. They could cause overload on
phagocytes, cells that ingest and destroy foreign matter, thereby triggering stress reactions that
lead to inflammation and weaken the bodys defense against other pathogens. Practic,
comportamentul de nanoparticule este o funcie de mrime, form i suprafa reactivitatea cu
esutul nconjurtor. Ei ar putea provoca "suprancrcare" pe fagocite, celule care ingera si
distruge corpuri strine, declannd astfel reaciile de stres care duc la inflamarea i slbi
aprarea organismului mpotriva altor ageni patogeni. Apart from what happens if non- or
slowly degradable nanoparticles accumulate in organs, another concern is their potential
interaction with biological processes inside the body: because of their large surface,
nanoparticles on exposure to tissue and fluids will immediately absorb onto their surface some of
the macromolecules they encounter. Can this, for instance, affect the regulatory mechanisms of
enzymes and other proteins? n afar de ceea ce se ntmpl n cazul n care nanoparticule non
sau lent degradabile se acumuleaz n organe, o alt preocupare este interaciunea lor potenial cu
procesele biologice din interiorul corpului: din cauza suprafeei lor mari, nanoparticule privind
expunerea la tesuturi si fluide vor absorbi imediat pe suprafaa lor o parte din macromolecule
care se confrunt. Poate acest, de exemplu, s afecteze mecanismele de reglementare ale
enzimelor i alte proteine?
Environmental IssuesNot enough data exists to know for sure if nanoparticles could
have undesirable effects on the environment. Two areas are relevant here: Date suficient de
IssuesNot mediului exista pentru a ti sigur dac nanoparticule ar putea avea efecte nedorite
asupra mediului. Dou domenii sunt relevante aici:
(1) In free form nanoparticles can be released in the air or water during production (or
production accidents) or as waste byproduct of production, and ultimately accumulate in the soil,
water or plant life. n form liber nanoparticule pot fi eliberate n aer sau apa in timpul
(accidente sau de producie), de producie sau ca produs secundar deeuri de producie, i, n
final se acumuleaz n viaa solului, apei sau a plantelor.
(2) In fixed form, where they are part of a manufactured substance or product, they will
ultimately have to be recycled or disposed of as waste. We dont know yet if certain
nanoparticles will constitute a completely new class of non-biodegradable pollutant. In case they
do, we also dont know yet how such pollutants could be removed from air or water because
most traditional filters are not suitable for such tasks (their pores are too big to catch
nanoparticles). n form fix, n cazul n care acestea sunt parte a unei substane sau a unui
produs fabricat, acestea vor trebui n cele din urm s fie reciclate sau eliminate ca deeuri. Nu
tim nc dac anumite nanoparticule va constitui o nou clas de poluant non-biodegradabile. n
cazul n care o fac, avem, de asemenea, nu tiu nc cum, cum ar poluanti ar putea fi eliminate

din aer sau apa, deoarece cele mai multe filtre tradiionale nu sunt potrivite pentru astfel de
sarcini (porii lor sunt prea mari pentru a prinde nanoparticule).
Potential for release and exposure to nanoscale substances
Potential pentru eliberarea i expunerea la substane scara
nanometrica

(Source: Joyce S. Tsuji: "Research Strategies for Safety Evaluation of


Nanomaterials, Part IV: Risk Assessment of Nanoparticles")
Health IssuesHealth and environmental issues combine in the workplace of companies
engaged in producing or using nanomaterials and in the laboratories engaged in nanoscience and
nanotechnology research. Sntate IssuesHealth i problemele de mediu se combin la locul de
munc de companii implicate n producerea sau utilizarea nanomaterialelor i n laboratoarele
implicate n nanostiinta si nanotehnologie de cercetare. It is safe to say that current workplace
exposure standards for dusts cannot be applied directly to nanoparticle dusts. To properly assess
the health hazards of engineered nano-particles the whole life cycle of these particles needs to be
evaluated, including their fabrication, storage and distribution, application and potential abuse,
and disposal. The impact on humans or the environment may vary at different stages of the life
cycle. Este sigur s spun c standardele actuale de expunere la locul de munc pentru praf nu pot
fi aplicate direct la praf nanoparticulelor. Pentru a evalua n mod corespunztor riscurile pentru
sntate ale particulelor nano inginerie ntregul ciclu de via al acestor particule trebuie s fie
evaluate, inclusiv fabricarea lor, stocarea i distribuirea, aplicarea i potenialul abuz, i
eliminarea. Impactul asupra oamenilor sau a mediului poate varia n diferite etape ale ciclului de
via.
Nanotechnology and RegulatorsRegulatory bodies such as the Environmental
Protection Agency and the Food and Drug Administration in the U.S. or the Health & Consumer
Protection Directorate of the European Commission have started dealing with the potential risks
posed by nanoparticles. Nanotehnologia i organisme RegulatorsRegulatory cum ar fi Agenia
pentru Protecia Mediului i Food and Drug Administration din SUA sau Direcia Protecia
Consumatorilor Sntate i al Comisiei Europene au nceput a face cu riscurile poteniale
prezentate de nanoparticule. So far, neither engineered nanoparticles nor the products and

materials that contain them are subject to any special regulation regarding production, handling
or labeling. The Material Safety Data Sheets that must be issued for certain materials often do
not differentiate between bulk and nanoscale size of the material in question. Pn n prezent,
nici nanoparticule de inginerie, nici produsele i materialele care le contin sunt supuse nici unei
reglementri speciale n ceea ce privete producia, manipularea sau etichetare. Fiele tehnice de
securitate care trebuie s fie emise pentru anumite materiale de multe ori nu fac diferena ntre
vrac i dimensiunea scara nanometrica a materialului n cauz. Studies of the health impact of
airborne particles are the closest thing we have to a tool for assessing potential health risks from
free nanoparticles. These studies have generally shown that the smaller the particles get, the
more toxic they become. This is due in part to the fact that, given the same mass per volume, the
dose in terms of particle numbers increases as particle size decreases. Studii ale impactului
asupra sanatatii de particule din aer sunt cel mai apropiat lucru avem la un instrument de
evaluare a riscurilor poteniale pentru sntate din nanoparticule gratuite. Aceste studii au artat,
n general, c mai mici particulele obine, cu att mai toxice ele devin. Acest lucru se datoreaz
n parte faptului c, avnd n vedere aceeai mas per volum, doza n ceea ce privete numrul de
particule crete ca dimensiunea particulelor scade. Looking at all available data, it must be
concluded that current risk assessment methodologies are not suited to the hazards associated
with nanoparticles; in particular, existing toxicological and eco-toxicological methods are not up
to the task; exposure evaluation (dose) needs to be expressed as quantity of nanoparticles and/or
surface area rather than simply mass; equipment for routine detecting and measuring
nanoparticles in air, water or soil is inadequate; and very little is known about the physiological
responses to nanoparticles. Privind datele de la toate disponibile, trebuie s se concluzioneze c
metodologiile de evaluare a riscurilor de curent nu sunt potrivite pentru pericolele asociate cu
nanoparticule; n special, metodele toxicologice i ecotoxicologice existente nu sunt de pn la
sarcina; Evaluarea expunerii (doz) trebuie s fie exprimate ca cantitatea de nanoparticule i /
sau suprafa, mai degrab dect pur i simplu n mas; Echipament pentru detectarea i de rutin
de msurare nanoparticule n aer, ap sau sol este inadecvat; si foarte putin se stie despre
rspunsurile fiziologice la nanoparticule. Regulatory bodies in the U.S. as well as in the EU
have concluded that nanoparticles form the potential for an entirely new risk and that it is
necessary to carry out an extensive analysis of the risk. The outcome of these studies can then
form the basis for government und international regulations. Organismele de reglementare din
SUA, precum i n UE au ajuns la concluzia c nanoparticulele forma potenialul pentru un risc
cu totul nou i c este necesar s se efectueze o analiz aprofundat a riscului. Rezultatul acestor
studii pot forma apoi baza pentru reglementrile internaionale und guvern. In our era of global
trade it is imperative that national and international regulatory bodies cooperate closely not only
with each other, but also with academia and industry, in developing harmonized terminology and
standards, a framework for health and environmental risk assessment and, based on that, the
necessary regulations and guidelines so that nanomaterials and nanotechnology can be developed
responsibly. With that in place we can look forward to optimizing the benefits of nanotechnology
while minimizing and controlling the risks. n epoca noastr a comerului global, este imperios
necesar ca organismele naionale i internaionale de reglementare coopereaz ndeaproape nu
numai unul cu altul, dar, de asemenea, cu mediul academic si industrie, n curs de dezvoltare
terminologia armonizate i standarde, un cadru de evaluare a sntii i a riscurilor de mediu i,
pe baza acestei , reglementrile i orientrile necesare pentru ca nanomaterialele i
nanotehnologia poate fi dezvoltat n mod responsabil. Cu faptul c, n loc ne putem atepta la

optimizarea beneficiilor nanotehnologiei minimiznd n acelai timp i controlul riscurilor.


(http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/spotid=1781.php)

Nanotech: The Unknown Risks

Its green, its clean, its never seen thats nanotechnology!


That exuberant motto, used by an executive at a trade group for nanotech entrepreneurs, reflects the
buoyant enthusiasm for nanotechnology in some business and scientific circles.
"Este verde, e curat, niciodat nu a vzut -! Asta e nanotehnologia"
C motto-ul exuberant, folosit de un executiv de la un grup comercial pentru antreprenori Nanotech,
reflect entuziasmul plutitoare pentru nanotehnologie n unele cercuri de afaceri i tiin ifice.

Part of the slogan is indisputably true: nanotechnology which involves creating and manipulating
common substances at the scale of the nanometer, or one billionth of a meter is invisible to the
human eye.
O parte din sloganul este indiscutabil adevrat: nanotehnologiei - care presupune crearea i
manipularea substanelor comune la scara nanometri, sau o miliardime dintr-un metru - este
invizibil pentru ochiul uman.
But the rest of the motto is open for debate. Nanotech does hold clean and green potential, especially
for supplying cheap renewable energy and safe drinking water. But nanomaterials also pose possible
serious risks to the environment and human health risks that researchers have barely begun to
probe, and regulators have barely begun to regulate.
Dar restul motto-ul este deschis pentru dezbatere. Nanotech deine potenial curat i verde, n
special pentru furnizarea de energie din surse regenerabile ieftine i ap potabil. Dar, de asemenea,
nanomaterialele prezint posibile riscuri grave pentru mediu i sntatea uman - riscurile ca
cercetatorii au inceput abia la sonda, i autoritile de reglementare au nceput abia de a reglementa.
Whats more, the potential damage could take years or even decades to surface. So these tiny
particles could soon become the next big thing only to turn into the next big disaster.
Ce e mai mult, prejudiciul potenial ar putea dura ani sau chiar decenii la suprafa . Deci, aceste
particule minuscule ar putea deveni in curand urmatorul lucru mare - doar s se transforme n
urmtoarea mare dezastru.
Nano enthusiasts see it as the next platform technology one that will, like electricity or microcomputing, change the way we do almost everything. While that prediction is still unproven, theres
no question that nanotech is booming. Universities, industry, and governments around the globe are
pouring billions into creating and developing nanoproducts and applications. A range of
nanotechnologies is already used in more than 600 consumer products from electronics to
toothpaste with global sales projected to soar to $2.6 trillion by 2014.
Entuziati nano-l vd ca urmatoarea "tehnologia platforma" - cel care va, cum ar fi energie electric
sau micro-computing, schimba modul in care facem aproape totul. n acela i timp c predic ia este

nc nedovedite, nu e nici o ndoial c Nanotech este n plin expansiune. Universit ile, industrie,
i guvernele din ntreaga lume sunt turnare miliarde n crearea i dezvoltarea nanoproducts i
aplicaii. O serie de nanotehnologiilor este deja utilizat n mai mult de 600 de produse de consum de la electronice de la pasta de dinti - cu vanzari globale proiectat pentru a urca pana la 2600
miliarde $ pn n 2014.
Environmentalists, scientists, and policymakers increasingly worry that nanotech development is
outrunning our understanding of how to use it safely. Consider these examples from last month
alone:
Ecologiti, oameni de tiin, i factorii de decizie politica din ce in ce v face i griji c dezvoltarea
Nanotech este depasind intelegerea noastra de cum s-l foloseasc n condi ii de siguran . Lua i n
considerare aceste exemple din ultima lun singur:

An animal study from the United Kingdom found that certain carbon nanotubes can cause
the same kind of lung damage as asbestos. Carbon nanotubes are among the most widely used
nanomaterials.

Un studiu de animale din Regatul Unit a constatat c anumite nanotuburi de carbon poate
provoca acelai tip de leziuni pulmonare ca azbest. Nanotuburi de carbon sunt printre cele mai
utilizate pe scar larg nanomaterialele.

A coalition of consumer groups petitioned the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to ban
the sale of products that contain germ-killing nanosilver particles, from stuffed animals to clothing,
arguing that the silver could harm human health, poison aquatic life, and contribute to the rise of
antibiotic resistance.

O coalitie de grupuri de consumatori cerut Ageniei pentru Protec ia Mediului din SUA de a
interzice vnzarea de produse care contin particule nanoargint-ucidere germeni, de la
animale mpiate la haine, argumentnd c argintul ar putea afecta sntatea uman, otrav
viaa acvatic, i s contribuie la creterea a rezistentei la antibiotice.

Researchers in Singapore reported that nanosilver caused severe developmental problems in


zebrafish embryos bolstering worries about what happens when those antimicrobial products, like
soap and clothing, leak silver into the waste stream.

Cercetatorii din Singapore au raportat ca nanoargint cauzat probleme de dezvoltare severe in


embrioni zebrafish - susinerea griji despre ceea ce se ntmpl atunci cnd aceste produse
antimicrobiene, cum ar fi spun i mbrcminte, scurgeri de argint n fluxul de de euri.

The U.S. Department of Defense, in an internal memo, acknowledged that nanomaterials


may present risks that are different than those for comparable material at a larger scale. Thats
an overarching risk with nanomaterials: Their tiny size and high surface area make them more
chemically reactive and cause them to behave in unpredictable ways. So a substance thats safe at a
normal size can become toxic at the nanoscale.

Departamentul Apararii al SUA, ntr-o not intern, a recunoscut c nanomaterialele pot


Asta e un risc major cu nanomaterialele "Prezent ... Riscuri care sunt diferite de cele pentru
materiale comparabile la o scar mai mare.": Dimensiunea lor mici i suprafa mare a le
face mai chimic reactiv i face ca acestea s se comporte ntr-un mod imprevizibil. Deci, o
substan care este n siguran la o dimensiune normal poate deveni toxic la scara
nanometrica.

Australian farmers proposed new standards that would exclude nanotechnology from organic
products.

fermierii australieni propus noi standarde, care ar exclude din domeniul nanotehnologiei
produse ecologice.

The European Union announced that it will require full health and safety testing for carbon
and graphite under its strict new chemicals law, known as REACH (for Registration, Evaluation, and
Authorisation of Chemical Substances). Carbon and graphite were previously exempt, because
theyre considered safe in their normal forms. But the U.K. study comparing carbon nanotubes to
asbestos, along with a similar report from Japan, raised new alarms about these seemingly harmless
substances.

Uniunea European a anunat c va solicita testarea complet de sntate i siguran pentru


carbon si grafit n conformitate cu legislaia strict nou chimice, cunoscut sub numele de
REACH (pentru nregistrarea, evaluarea, i autorizarea substanelor chimice). Carbon si
grafit au fost scutite anterior, deoarece acestea sunt considerate sigure n formele lor
normale. Dar studiul britanic a comparat nanotuburi de carbon la azbest, mpreun cu un
raport similar din Japonia, a ridicat noi alarme cu privire la aceste substan e aparent
inofensive.

Old Materials, New Risks


The EUs move is a critical step toward recognizing nanomaterials as a potential new hazard that
requires new rules and new information.
Mutare a UE este un pas important spre recunoaterea nanomateriale ca un potential pericol nou,
care necesit noi reguli i noi informaii.
The raw materials of nanotechnology are familiar. Carbon, silver, and metals like iron and titanium
are among the most common. But at the nanoscale, these well-known substances take on new and
unpredictable properties. Thats what makes them so versatile and valuable. It also makes them
potentially dangerous in ways that their larger-scale counterparts are not.
Materiile prime de nanotehnologiei sunt familiarizai. Carbon, argint, i metale precum fierul i titan
sunt printre cele mai comune. Dar la scara nanometrica, aceste substan e cunoscute ia pe proprietati
noi si imprevizibile. Asta e ceea ce le face att de versatil i valoros. De asemenea, le face poten ial
periculoase n moduri care omologii lor la scar mai mare nu sunt.
Yet governments are only beginning to grapple with those dangers. Japans labor department issued
a notice in February requiring measures to protect workers from exposure to nanomaterials: It may
be the worlds first nano-specific regulation affecting actual practices. Previously, Berkeley,
California ever ready to stand alone had adopted what is apparently the only nano-specific
regulation in the United States: a requirement that companies submit toxicology reports about
nanomaterials theyre using.
Cu toate acestea, guvernele sunt doar ncep s se confrunte cu aceste pericole. Departamentul de
munc din Japonia a emis un aviz n februarie necesit msuri pentru a proteja lucrtorii mpotriva
expunerii la nanomateriale: Ar putea fi primul regulament nano-specifice din lume care afecteaz
practicile efective. Anterior, Berkeley, California - ntotdeauna gata s stea singur - a adoptat ceea ce
este aparent regulamentul numai nano-specifice din Statele Unite: o cerin pe care companiile
prezint rapoarte de toxicologie despre nanomateriale pe care l folosesc.

At the federal level, the EPA launched a voluntary reporting program in January; industry
participation has been anemic. Both the EPA and the Food and Drug Administration have so far
declined to regulate nanomaterials as such, saying theyre covered under existing regulations. The
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has issued recommendations for handling
nanomaterials, but the agency has no enforcement power.
La nivel federal, EPA a lansat un program de raportare voluntar, n ianuarie; Participarea industriei
a fost anemic. Att EPA i Food and Drug Administration au sczut pn n prezent pentru a
reglementa nanomaterialelor ca atare, spunand ei reglementate n conformitate cu reglementrile n
vigoare. Institutul National pentru Securitate si Sanatate a emis recomandri pentru nanomateriale
de manipulare, dar agenia nu are nici o putere de aplicare.
The European Union, by contrast, is taking a precautionary approach. While U.S. regulators
generally presume products to be safe until proven harmful, the EUs new REACH legislation
demands that manufacturers demonstrate the safety of their chemicals. Just last week, the EU
released a document concluding that nanorisks can be dealt with under the current legislative
framework, with some modifications. For example, the document says that under REACH, when
companies introduce nanoforms of existing substances, they must provide additional material about
the specific properties, hazards, and risks of the nanomaterials.
Uniunea European, prin contrast, este de a lua o abordare precaut. n timp ce autorit ile de
reglementare din SUA presupun, n general, produsele pentru a fi n siguran pn la proba
daunatoare, noua legislaie a UE REACH cere ca producatorii demonstra siguran a produselor
chimice lor. Doar sptmna trecut, UE a lansat un final document care nanorisks "pot fi tratate n
conformitate cu cadrul legislativ actual," cu unele modificri. De exemplu, documentul spune c n
conformitate cu REACH, atunci cnd companiile introduc nanoforme de substan ele existente,
acestea trebuie s furnizeze materiale suplimentare despre "specifice propriet i, pericolele i
riscurile" ale nanomaterialelor.
At this point, however, many of the most basic questions about those nanohazards are unanswered.
What materials are harmful, in what particle sizes and shapes, under what conditions? Who is at
risk: Workers? People using nano-enabled products? Wildlife and ecosystems? How should we
measure exposures?
n acest moment, cu toate acestea, multe dintre ntrebrile cele mai de baz despre aceste
nanohazards sunt fr rspuns. Ce materiale sunt duntoare, n ce dimensiunile particulelor i
forme, n ce condiii? Cine este la risc: Muncitori? Oamenii care folosesc produse a permis nano-?
Wildlife i a ecosistemelor? Cum ar trebui s msoare expunerea?
The U.S. government spends $1.5 billion a year on nano research. Less than 5 percent of that is
aimed at addressing these fundamental questions.

Guvernul SUA cheltuieste 1,5 miliarde $ pe an pentru cercetare nano. Mai putin de 5 la suta din
care are ca scop abordarea acestor ntrebri fundamentale.
Danger Signs
What is known about nanohazards counsels caution.
Ce se stie despre nanohazards sfaturile pruden.
Nanomaterials are so small that they travel easily, both in the body and in the environment. Their

tiny size and high surface area give them unusual characteristics: insoluble materials become
soluble; nonconductive ones start conducting electricity; harmless substances can become toxic.
Nanomaterialele sunt att de mici nct acestea cltoresc cu uurin , att n organism i n mediul
nconjurtor. Dimensiunea lor mic i suprafa mare s le dea caracteristici neobisnuite: materialele
insolubile devin solubile; cele neconductive ncepe efectuarea de energie electric; substan e
inofensive pot deveni toxice.
Nanoparticles are easily inhaled. They can pass from the lungs into the bloodstream and other
organs. They can even slip through the olfactory nerve into the brain, evading the protective bloodbrain barrier. Its not clear whether they penetrate the skin. Once theyre inside the body, its not
clear how long they remain or what they do. Whats more, current science has no way of testing for
nano-waste in the air or water, and no way of cleaning up such pollution.
Nanoparticulele sunt uor de inhalat. Ele pot trece de la plamani in sange si alte organe. Ele pot
aluneca chiar prin nervul olfactiv in creier, se sustrage bariera de protec ie hemato-encefalic. Nu
este clar dac ptrund prin piele. Dup acestea sunt in interiorul corpului, nu este clar ct de mult
timp rmn sau ceea ce fac. Ce e mai mult, tiina actual nu are nici o modalitate de a testare pentru
nano-deeurilor n aer sau ap, i nici o modalitate de cur are o astfel de poluare.
The tiny cylinders known as carbon nanotubes, or CNTs, are among the most widely used
nanomaterials. These tubes, which come in different sizes and shapes, lend extraordinary strength
and lightness to bicycle frames and tennis rackets; researchers are also investigating uses in
medicine, electronics and other fields. The recent UK study found that long, straight CNTs, when
injected into lab mice, cause scarring even faster than asbestos. One of the investigators predicts the
scarring will lead to cancer; other experts are less sure. The study doesnt prove whether its possible
to inhale enough CNTs to cause the same results as the injections. But which workers want to serve
as the test cases?
Mici cilindrii cunoscut sub numele de nanotuburi de carbon, sau CNT, sunt printre cele mai
nanomaterialele utilizate pe scar larg. Aceste tuburi, care vin n diferite dimensiuni si forme, dau
for extraordinar i uurin la cadre de biciclet i rachete de tenis; Cercetatorii au investigat, de
asemenea, utilizri n medicina, electronica si alte domenii. Studiu recent din Marea Britanie a
constatat c CNT lungi, drepte, atunci cand injectate in soareci de laborator, cauza cicatrici chiar mai
repede decat azbest. Unul dintre investigatorii prezice cicatricile va duce la cancer; al i exper i sunt
mai puin sigur. Studiul nu dovedi dac este posibil s inhaleze suficient CNT pentru a determina
aceleai rezultate ca injeciile. Dar care lucrtorii doresc s serveasc drept cazuri de testare?
Another red flag is silver. Manufacturers are lacing ordinary household objects from toothpaste to
teddy bears with nanoparticles of silver, long known for its disinfecting powers. A recent
experiment on nanosilver-containing socks, touted as odor-eating, found that silver particles leaked
out into the wash water. Once there, the silver could interfere with water-treatment efforts, in part by
killing good microbes as well as the nasty ones, and might threaten aquatic life (a fear supported by
the zebrafish study).
Un alt steag rosu este de argint. Productorii sunt cheotoare obiecte de uz casnic ordinare - de la
pasta de dinti la ursulei de plu - cu nanoparticule de argint, lung cunoscut pentru puterile sale de
dezinfectare. Un experiment recent pe sosete care conin nanoargint, touted ca miros-a manca, a
constatat c particule de argint scurgeri n apa de splare. Odat ajun i acolo, argintul ar putea
interfera cu eforturile de tratare a apei, n parte, prin uciderea microbi bun, precum i pe cele urt, i
s-ar putea amenina viaa acvatic (o team susinut de studiul zebrafish).
When Samsung started marketing a washing machine that emits silver ions two years ago, a national
association of wastewater treatment authorities asked the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to

regulate such equipment as pesticides. And indeed, EPA has required some manufacturers to register
nanosilver-containing products like computer keyboards as pesticides or drop their germ-killing
claims.
Cnd Samsung a nceput comercializarea o main de splat care emite ioni de argint n urm cu doi
ani, o asociaie naional a autoritilor de epurare a solicitat Agentiei pentru Protectia Mediului din
SUA de a reglementa astfel de echipamente ca pesticide. i ntr-adevr, EPA a cerut unii productori
s nregistreze produse care conin nanoargint - cum ar fi tastaturi de calculator - ca pesticide sau
abandoneaz creanele-uciderea germeni.
A farm-oriented pesticide law dating to 1947 is scarcely the right tool for addressing the 21st-century
hazards of nanotechnology. But its the only tool that EPA enforcers have, since the agencys
policymakers have explicitly declined to regulate nanomaterials as such.

Un orientate spre ferm pesticide lege datnd din 1947 este greu instrumentul potrivit pentru
abordarea pericolelor 21-lea ale nanotehnologiei. Dar e singurul instrument care autoritile de
aplicare APE au, deoarece factorii de decizie politica ageniei au sczut n mod explicit de a
reglementa nanomaterialelor ca atare.
What Price Convenience?
Of the hundreds of nano-enhanced products now on the market, many are cosmetics, and many
others, such as clothing and computer peripherals, are spiked with silver for unnecessary
antibacterial effects. Convenience items, like stain-resistant sofas and static-free fleece, are a third
big category.
Din sutele de consolidate nano produse acum pe pia, multe sunt produse cosmetice, i multe altele,
cum ar fi mbrcminte i de calculator periferice, sunt ghimpat cu argint pentru efecte
antibacteriene inutile. Elemente de confort, cum ar fi canapele rezistente la pete i fleece-static
gratuit, sunt a treia categorie mare.
It would be easy to say, Who needs this stuff? Just wash your hands (or feet, in the case of the smellresistant socks), clean up your spills and keep the nano magic on the shelf until we know whether its
safe. Indeed, some environmental groups are calling for a moratorium on nano-containing
products.
Ar fi uor de spus, "Cine are nevoie de asta? Doar splai-v pe mini (sau de picioare, n cazul osete
rezistente miros), curata scurgeri dumneavoastr i pstrai-magia nano pe raft pn nu tim dac e
sigur. "ntr-adevr, unele grupuri de mediu cer un moratoriu privind nano-con in produse.
But nanotech also has a tremendous upside in medicine whether for treating cancer or regrowing
bones and in green applications, from affordable solar cells to super-efficient water filtration. In
any case, this technology is not going away. The U.S. House of Representatives voted on June 5 to
reauthorize the $1.5 billion-a-year National Nanotechnology Initiative; the Senate is expected to act
in the coming weeks.
Dar Nanotech are de asemenea o cu susul extraordinar n medicin - dac pentru tratarea
cancerului sau regrowing oase - i n aplicaii verzi, de la celule solare accesibile pentru filtrare
super-eficient a apei. n orice caz, aceast tehnologie nu se ntmpl departe. Camera
Reprezentantilor din SUA a votat la 5 iunie pentru a reauthorize de 1,5 miliarde $ pe an
Nanotehnologie Initiativa Nationala; Senatul este de asteptat sa actioneze in urmatoarele saptamani.

The House bill mandates a detailed implementation plan for environmental, health, and safety
research. Thats an important step forward, but its not enough. As we hurtle into this very small
future, we need to pay much more attention to the potentially large risks.

Casa mandate facturii "un plan detaliat de punere n aplicare pentru, cercetarea in domeniul
sanatatii, mediului i de siguran." Acesta este un pas important nainte, dar nu este de ajuns. Aa
cum am hurtle n acest viitor foarte mici, trebuie s acorde o atenie mult mai mult la riscurile
poteniale mari. (http://e360.yale.edu/feature/nanotech_the_unknown_risks/2029/)