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Ly-Fie Sugianto and Dewi Rooslani Tojib

239

Modeling User Satisfaction


With an Employee Portal
Ly-Fie Sugianto
Senior Lecturer
Clayton Faculty of Information Technology, Monash University,
Building 63, Clayton Campus, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia
Lyfie.Sugianto@infotech.monash.edu.au
Dewi Rooslani Tojib
Ph.D. Candidate
Clayton School of Information Technology, Monash University
Building 63, Clayton Campus, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia
Dewi.Tojib@infotech.monash.edu.au

ABSTRACT
User satisfaction with general information system (IS) and certain types of information
technology (IT) applications has been thoroughly studied in IS research. With the
widespread and increasing use of portal technology, however, there is a need to conduct a
user satisfaction study on portal use -- in particular, the business-to-employee (b2e) portal.
In this paper, we propose a conceptual model for determining b2e portal user satisfaction,
which has been derived from an extensive literature review of user satisfaction scales and
the b2e portal. Nine dimensions of b2e portal user satisfaction are identified and modeled:
information content, ease of use, convenience of access, timeliness, efficiency, security,
confidentiality, communication, and layout.

Key Words: b2e portal, conceptual model, content validation, staff portal, user satisfaction

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1. INTRODUCTION
The integration of the Internet into all business aspects within organizations has
profoundly altered the business process between an organization and its employees. In the
past, the intranet has been a facilitating tool for the workforce. With the availability and
increased of portal technology, however, a growing number of organizations realize the
strategic imperative of integrating web-based IS to support the workforce. Portal features,
such as personalization, a self-service model, and collaboration, are conducive to increased
productivity and work efficiency.
A b2e portal uses a web-based interface to access personalized information,
resources, applications, and e-commerce options. Through the Internet connection,
employees can access a range of internal and external information from their desktops,
notebooks, or mobile devices. They are provided with relevant proprietary information
displayed in a password-protected setting. In addition to reducing the information overload,
a staff portal provides a number of benefits to both organizations and employees, such as
reducing organizational costs for human resources, improving corporate communication,
and improving employee productivity (see Tojib, 2003, for details). As more applications
are integrated into the portal, its role as an employee support system becomes more
dominant.
The b2e portal has received fairly extensive attention in the business literature (for
example, BEA white paper, 2002; Cruz, 2000; Deimler and Hansen, 2001; Geib, 2003;
Oracle, 2000). Several organizations, including Boeing Co., Shell International, General
Motors, and Ford Motor Company have made large investments to develop portals for their
employees (Bannan, 2002). However, very little attention has been given to measuring the
effectiveness of employee portals in delivering their intended benefits. Among the myriad
measures employed to assess IS effectiveness, end user satisfaction is one of the most
widely used (DeLone and McLean, 1992). Furthermore, since the success of b2e portals is
determined by the extent to which they satisfy the portal users requirements (Musgreave
and Porter, 2002), measuring user satisfaction with these portals is an important area of
research.
Our review of the literature on user satisfaction shows that no study has specifically
examined user satisfaction with the b2e portal. The existing user satisfaction scales in the
IS field are considered inappropriate for measuring satisfaction with b2e portals for several
reasons. First, embedded within the b2e portal are technologies with functionalities that
are distinct from those employed within the end user computing (EUC) or transactional
data processing (TDP) environment; that is, search and retrieval processes, work flow
systems, on-line self-service applications, and collaboration tools (Tojib, 2003). Second, it
is evident from the IS literature that past studies barely touch on the patterns or processes
that users employ to collaborate with each other (Ong and Lai, 2004), an important
function which can be facilitated by the b2e portal.
The purpose of this paper is to address this gap in the literature and explore the
development of a conceptual model of user satisfaction with the b2e portal. The
organization of this paper is as follows. Section 2 describes a review of past user
satisfaction studies, followed in Section 3 by a discussion of the domain identification of
user satisfaction with the b2e portal construct. In Section 4, the theoretical and practical
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implications of the research are presented. Section 5 outlines the limitations of this
research, the conclusions derived from the empirical findings, and future research
avenues.
2. USER SATISFACTION WITH B2e PORTALS

2.1 Definition of User Satisfaction


The definition of user satisfaction has evolved with the changes in the IS
environment (Simmers and Anandarajan, 2001). Early research on user satisfaction was
conducted in the TDP environment (for example, Bailey and Pearson, 1983; Ives, Olson,
and Baroudi, 1983), in which users interact with the computer indirectly with the assistance
of an analyst or a programmer (Ong and Lai, 2004). User satisfaction has been defined as
the extent to which users believe that the information system available to them meets their
information requirement (Ives, Olson, and Baroudi, 1983, p. 785). Subsequent research on
user satisfaction has been conducted in the EUC environment (Doll and Torkzadeh, 1988),
in which users interact with the computer directly, through application software, to enter
information or produce reports (Wu, Wang, Chien, and Tai, 2002). In this context, user
satisfaction has been defined as an affective attitude towards a specific computer
application by someone who interacts with the application directly (Doll and Torkzadeh,
1988, p. 261).
The b2e portal operates in a web-based environment. However, the way in which
users interact with it is similar to how they interact with computer applications in the EUC
environment. Once a user successfully accesses the portal, he or she can perform tasks
without consulting computer analysts or programmers unless technical problems occur.
Thus, we can safely adapt the Doll and Torkzadeh (1988) definition and define user
satisfaction with a b2e portal as an affective attitude towards the b2e portal by an
employee who interacts with the portal directly.
2.2 User Satisfaction Studies
Because user satisfaction has been a priority on the IS research agenda for almost
twenty years (Haga and Zviram, 1994), it is one of the most widely researched topics in the
IS field (Harrison and Rainer, 1996). It is not surprising, therefore, that, since the 1980s,
numerous conceptual and empirical studies have been devoted to establishing a standard
user satisfaction scale. A thorough review of the past user satisfaction studies has identified
three broad streams of research. The first group measures user satisfaction with the overall
IS/IT systems (for example, Bailey and Pearson, 1983; Ives, Olson, and Baroudi,
1983).The second group focuses on end user satisfaction with a certain type of IT
application (for instance, Doll and Torkzadeh, 1988). The third group focuses on end user
satisfaction with a web-based information system (for example, Muylle, Moenaert, and
Despontin, 2004; Otto, Najdawi, and Caron, 2000).

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2.3 User Satisfaction with Overall IS Systems


Bailey and Pearson (1983) first attempted to develop a semantic differential scale to
measure user satisfaction with general IS in a TDP environment. Thirty-nine items
contributing to user satisfaction were identified based on a review of 22 studies of the
computer/user interface (Bailey and Pearson, 1983). In a follow-up research, Ives, Olson,
and Baroudi (1983) tested the Bailey and Pearson (1983) scale for its reliability and
validity. Their findings suggested retaining 33 items for evaluating user information
satisfaction. Furthermore, they attempted to produce a shorter version of this scale through
the application of factor analysis. The results showed that the revised model consisted of
three factors: EDP staff and services, information product, and knowledge and involvement.
These factors are measured by 13 items (refer to the paper for these). Later, Baroudi and
Orlikowsky (1988) reaffirmed the reliability and validity of the Ives, Olson, and Baroudi
(1983) short-form scale through a psychometric evaluation.
Since then, many other researchers have used Bailey and Pearson (1983) and Ives,
Olson, and Baroudi (1983) scales when measuring user satisfaction with overall IS
systems. Some researchers adopted those two scales (for example, Mahmood and Becker,
1985; Raymond, 1987; Montazemi, 1988; Foley and Newman, 1988; Bergeron and Berube,
1988; Anderson, 1989; Iivari and Karjalainen, 1989; Iivari and Ervasti,1994). Others
adopted them, depending on the purpose of their research (for example, Khalil and
Elkordy,1999). Very few researchers of IS (for example, Baronas and Louis,1988; Nath,
1989) developed their own scales to measure overall user satisfaction.
2.4 User Satisfaction with Specific IT Applications
The availability of low-cost desktop PCs, the decentralization of IT development
policy, and the availability of user-friendly software applications in the late 1980s and
early 1990s have led to the proliferation of the EUC environment (Powell and Moore, 2002;
Downey, 2004). Recognizing the changes in the IT environment, researchers argue that the
available user satisfaction scales are inappropriate for the EUC environment in which end
users develop and/or interact directly with specific applications (Doll and Torkzadeh,
1988). Doll and Torkzadeh (1988) were the pioneers in developing and validating the first
EUC satisfaction scale which focused on measuring user satisfaction with a certain type of
IT application. This scale is based on a factor model consisting of five first-order factors
(i.e., content, accuracy, format, ease of use, and timeliness) measured by 12 items.
After the publication of Doll and Torkzadeh (1988), a large number of researchers
adapted or adopted their measuring of user satisfaction with a certain type of IT application
(for example, Glorfeld and Cronan, 1992; Seddon and Yip, 1992; Palvia, 1996; McHaney
and Cronan, 1998; Downing, 1999; McHaney, Hightower, and Pearson, 2002; Zviran,
Pliskin, and Levin, 2005). Furthermore, those who developed new scales had also
considered the works of Bailey and Pearson (1983) and Ives, Olson, and Baroudi (1983) as
their reference scales (for instance, Barki and Huff, 1985; Wan and Wah, 1990; Igbaria and
Nachman, 1990; Seddon and Yip, 1992; Lawrence and Low, 1993).

2.5 User Satisfaction with Web-Based IS


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In the 1990s, there were significant changes in IT, especially with the rapid
growth of the Internet. During this period, an increasing number of organizations exploited
and created business opportunities via the Internet (Liao and Cheung, 2001). Furthermore,
the widespread use of Internet technology enabled the development of web-based
information systems. In the field of user satisfaction, some researchers attempted to
develop new scales or used or adapted available scales to measure user satisfaction with
web-based applications. Those who developed new scales are Ho and Wu (1999); Cho and
Park (2001); Huang, Jin, Yang, and Chiu (2004); Muylle, Moenaert, and Despontin (2004).
The Doll and Torkzadeh (1988) scale seems to be still in favor as a measure of user
satisfaction with web-based IS (for example, Otto, Najdawi, and Caron, 2000; Simmers
and Anandarajan, 2001; Xiao and Dasgupta, 2002; Abdinnour-Helm, Chaparro, and
Farmer, 2005) although certain modifications are required to make it relevant to a webbased environment.
3. CONCEPTUAL MODEL
3.1 Domain Identification
The preceding section outlines the findings of our literature review on the topic of
user satisfaction. From the review, we conclude that at present there is no established
theoretical framework for measuring user satisfaction with the b2e portal. A theoretically
grounded model of user satisfaction with the b2e portal necessitates a careful review of the
existing general user satisfaction scales and extant literature. The aim of this review is to
identify the domains of user satisfaction with the b2e portal.
Two widely accepted scales for measuring user satisfaction in IS research -- those
of Bailey and Pearson (1983) and Doll and Torkzadeh (1988) -- were carefully examined.
In addition, for domain identification purposes, we also considered six other scales
measuring user satisfaction with specific IT applications, such as data warehouse (Chen et
al., 2000), b2e benefit systems (Huang et al., 2004), asynchronous learning system (Wang,
2003), Internet shopping (Cho and Park, 2001), knowledge management systems (Ong and
Lai, 2004), and website (Muylle, Moenaert, and Despontin, 2004). Finally, since the
interface medium of the b2e portal is typically a website, we also examined three other
scales to determine the extent to which they are related to the domain in question: web site
quality (Loiacono, Watson, and Goodhue, 2002); internet shopping site quality (Yoo and
Donthu, 2001), and web portals service quality (Yang et al., 2005).
A rigorous study of those scales identified a range of dimensions contributing to
user satisfaction with general IS and certain types of IT applications, as well as end user
perception of the quality of websites and web portals. These dimensions were then grouped
into three main categories: information quality, system quality, and system design quality.
Information quality and system quality are two major perspectives that have been widely
examined by a large number of IS researchers when developing end user satisfaction
models (Bailey and Pearson, 1983; Doll and Torkzadeh, 1988; Yang, et al., 2005). System
design quality is another perspective that is increasingly being examined when developing
research models of user satisfaction with websites (Yoo and Donthu, 2001). As a portal
employs a web-based interface, it is important to investigate the system design quality
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when developing a model of user satisfaction with the b2e portals. Other factors that do not
fall into these three categories were excluded from further investigation.
Observation of the wide range of dimensions revealed that the naming of
dimensions that contribute to user satisfaction is a challenging exercise. Some researchers
use different dimension names but they essentially have identical meanings. For instance,
the factor ease of use (Doll and Torkzadeh, 1988; Cho and Park, 2001; Muylle, Moenaert,
and Despontin, 2004; Yoo and Donthu, 2001) is similar in meaning to the factor learner
interface (Wang, 2003), as well as the factor usability (Chin, Diehl, and Norman, 1988;
Yang, et. al, 2005). Thus, it was necessary to group dimensions that are different in name
but similar in meaning (shown in the Appendix) and create a common name for each
dimension group.
Furthermore, we conducted a thorough examination of extant literature to identify
themes pertinent to user satisfaction with the b2e portal. To facilitate the review process,
we used two broad criteria:
1. The dimensions must be used in most measures of user satisfaction with
various type of IS and IT applications. We believe that dimensions that have
conceptual and empirical relevance to most general user satisfaction scales can
be appropriately included in the b2e portal user satisfaction domain.
2. The dimensions must be theoretically associated with the b2e portal
environment.
Although the features and content of b2e portals may vary from one organization to
another, their primary characteristics are the same regardless of their applications in the
portals. As can be seen in the portal packages offered by vendors, both large (for example,
Plumtree Software, Viador, SAP Portals, Hummingbird, Oracle, and PeopleSoft) and small
portal vendors (for instance, Workscape and ProAct) offer b2e portal solutions with
identical characteristics: the portal must be accessible at any time with Internet connection;
it must incorporate a single log-on procedure; provide role-based content to each employee;
enable employees to undertake more tasks electronically with the integration of self-service
applications; and, act as a medium of communication between the organization and its
employees as well as between employees and their colleagues. Thus, we considered these
major characteristics when investigating dimensions of b2e portal user satisfaction.
Careful examination of the above criteria and characteristics resulted in the
identification of nine dimensions of b2e portal user satisfaction (as illustrated in Figure 1):
information content, ease of use, convenience of access, timeliness, efficiency, security,
confidentiality, communication, and layout. Each of these nine dimensions is discussed in
the following paragraphs.

International Journal of Business and Information

Ly-Fie Sugianto and Dewi Rooslani Tojib

Eu1.Eun

Ease of Use

Ly1..Lyn

Layout

Ca1Can

Convenience of Access

Ic1Icn

Information Content

Cm1Cmn

Communication

Ts1Tsn

Timeliness

Ef1..Efn

Efficiency

Cf1..Cfn

Confidentiality

Sy1.Syn

Security

245

User
Satisfaction
with
B2E Portal

Figure 1. Conceptual Model of User Satisfaction with b2e Portal

3.2 b2e Portal User Satisfaction Dimensions


Convenience of access. Employees must be able to access the portals with Internet
connection regardless of time and location (Melville, 2004). The accessibility of a b2e
portal through the Internet connection makes it convenient for employees who spend more
time out of the office during work hours, or those who work remotely from home. These
employees could be updated on company news and at the same time perform their work
and personal tasks by accessing the portal. Thus, in this study, convenience of access refers
to the ability of the portal to be accessed at any time, anywhere, through intranet, Internet,
and mobile devices.
Ease of use. Ease of use is the most important dimension for portal users, given that
employees are generally required to use a b2e portal in their daily activities. This view is
also supported by Dias (2001), who stated that portal users should be able to easily locate
and access the right information, with minimum training. In this study, ease of use refers to
the extent to which the portal is perceived to be user-friendly. This includes ease of
navigation, training issues, feeling of being in control, and learnability.
Timeliness. Portal users require information on demand fairly quickly, or the
information becomes obsolete (Rushinek and Rushinek, 1985). Since delayed response
time may cause lower user satisfaction and poor productivity (Hoxmeier and DiCesare,
2000), it is very important to ensure that portal users are satisfied with portal response time.
Thus, timeliness will increase user satisfaction and the absence of timeliness will decrease
user satisfaction with the b2e portal. In this study, timeliness refers to the portals ability to
deliver requested information within a reasonable response time.
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Efficiency. End users satisfaction with the system is likely to increase if they
believe that using the system will increase their performance and productivity (Mawhinney
and Lederer, 1990; Vlahos and Ferratt, 1995). In other words, end users believe that, if the
system could assist them in improving their performance and productivity at work, the
system is useful to them. Furthermore, since perceived usefulness has the strongest impact
on end user satisfaction (Calisir and Calisir, 2004), it is worthwhile to investigate whether
this dimension is in fact a domain in user satisfaction with the b2e portal. In this study,
efficiency refers to the ability of the portal to assist employees in performing their tasks
better and faster, streamlining work processes and thereby improving their productivity.
Confidentiality. The integration of employee self-service (ESS) applications into the
b2e portal enables electronic self-submission and self-retrieval of their personal
information. Hence, privacy and confidentiality issues become a serious concern in the online b2e portal environment (Vernon, 2002; Yang et al., 2005). The ability of the portal to
maintain the confidentiality of employees personal information is likely to be associated
with user satisfaction. The dimension confidentiality is defined as the ability of the portal
to provide a sense of assurance that any personal information retrieved or submitted from
and through the portal will not be misused by authorized users.
Security. The security dimension in this study was intended to encompass the
security aspect of the portal access, such as the ability of the portal to ensure a secure
access to all applications and facilities provided. Hence, this dimension includes issues
relating to the security breach of the portal, such as data theft, which will increase in
proportion to the number of organizations storing their personnel files electronically
(MHRIS, 2002).
Communication. Ong and Lai (2004), Wang (2003), and Yang et al. (2005) found
that the ability of the system to enable system users to interact with others influences user
satisfaction. In the b2e portal context, the portal acts as a medium of communication
between organizations and their employees as well as between employees and their
colleagues (London Financial Times, 2002). Thus, the ability of the portal to act as a
communication medium for employees may be an important indicator of user satisfaction
with the b2e portal. In this study, communication refers to the extent to which the portal
could mediate interaction (i.e., information sharing and collaboration) between employees
and their organizations as well as between employees and their colleagues.
Information content. In previous studies, this dimension has typically been
measured in terms of its accuracy, relevancy, currency, and reliability (for example, Doll
and Torkzadeh,1988; Bailey and Pearson, 1983; Ong and Lai, 2004; Yang et al., 2005;
Chen et al., 2000; Muylle, Moenaert, and Despontin, 2004). In this study, information
content is referred to as the relevancy, accuracy, currency, and reliability of information
presented to each employee, based on his/her role in the organization.
Layout. This dimension was derived from Chin, Diehl, and Norman (1988); Cho and
Park (2001); Huang et al. (2004); and Loiacono, Watson, and Goodhue (2002). These
researchers have confirmed the importance of system design quality in measuring user
satisfaction with IT applications. Given the role a portal plays as the interface between the
employees and the organization, effective portal design must be seen as a prerequisite for
successfully implementing b2e initiative. This view is supported by Muylle, Moenaert, and
Despontin (2004), who state that effective website design is needed to ensure the success
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of instituting an e-commerce initiative. Thus, an attractive and aesthetic portal design may
be an indicator of user satisfaction with the b2e portal. In this study, layout is referred to as
the design of the interface and display of the information.
4. EMPIRICAL TESTING AND DISCUSSION
The conceptual model presented in this paper is the result of our preliminary work. We
have been engaged in research to develop a reliable and valid scale for measuring user
satisfaction with the b2e portal. The scale has been constructed based on the conceptual
model described above. This model has undergone content validation following Lynn
(1986). Furthermore, an online questionnaire1 was used as a method of data collection for
the purpose of performing an exploratory and confirmatory study.
A total of 302 responses were collected. These responses were then randomly split
into two parts: 145 cases were used for the exploratory study and the remaining 157 cases
were used for the confirmatory study. The demographics of the survey respondents are
shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Demographics of Survey Respondents (N = 302)
Item

Exploratory Study

Confirmatory Study

Gender

Percentage (%)

Percentage (%)

34.5
65.5

39.5
60.5

9.0
29.7
29.0
32.4

6.4
32.5
27.4
33.8

24.8
6.9
68.3

25.5
8.3
66.2

Male
Female
Age
18-25
26-35
36-45
46 and above
Job Categories
Academic staff
Researcher
General staff

The exploratory study was performed for the items using 145 sample cases of portal
users in Australian universities. Factor rotation and extraction resulted in 22 items in five
interpretable and stable factors: usefulness, confidentiality, ease of use, convenience of
access, and portal design.
The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed using 157 sample cases
from b2e portal users at Australian universities. Our final model for the scale is an 18-item
1

Questionnaire items may be obtained from the authors upon request.

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scale of the above five-factor model: confidentiality, ease of use, portal design, usefulness,
and convenience of access (see Figure 2). Results of the factor loading of items in the final
scale are reported in Tojib and Sugianto (2007). The evolution of the model from the
conceptual stage to the revised version, after going through content validation, to the final
model after going through construct validation, is reported in Sugianto and Tojib (2007).
INITIAL CONCEPTUAL MODEL

EMPIRICAL MODEL

Security
Confidentiality
Confidentiality
Information Content
Timeliness
Layout

Portal Design

Ease of Use

Ease of Use

Efficiency
Usefulness
Communication
Convenience of Access

Convenience of Access

Figure 2. Conceptual Model and Empirical Model of Portal User Satisfaction

With regard to the theoretical contribution this study makes to the learned
community, we believe that this is the first study attempting to operationalize the user
satisfaction construct into conceptually distinct indicators that can be observed and
assessed. In our study, we test the convergent and discriminant validity of the scale against
existing scales, such as the EUC scale (see Tojib and Sugianto, 2007, for details). Our
findings suggest that researchers should not rely on the standard user satisfaction scales
when measuring user satisfaction with web-based applications, as certain types of webbased IS might have distinct characteristics that are not addressed in the standard scales.
An investigation of the relationships between the construct and other variables, such as job
satisfaction and employee loyalty, would be useful for understanding the impact of the IS
environment.
The findings of this study also provide some implications for practice. An
organization may administer the B2EPUS scale to investigate its own b2e portal
performance and identify areas of weaknesses. The scale can also be adapted or
supplemented to fit specific needs; for example, when an organization wishes to measure
the extent to which the portal delivers the intended benefits, or when an organization plans
to create a workplace that is conducive to and supports employee satisfaction and
productivity.
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5. CONCLUDING REMARKS
The review of the user satisfaction literature shows that, currently, no studies exist that
measure user satisfaction with the b2e portal. This paper presents a conceptual model that
formulates nine dimensions determining user satisfaction with the b2e portal. The model
forms the basis for a new scale to measure user satisfaction with a staff portal. Our research
findings serve as the groundwork for expanding research on user satisfaction studies within
a web-based environment. Such studies are important considering that the web-based
system is the common platform employed in todays organizations. With the convergence
of Internet technology and wireless technology, such a system will become even more
predominant. Hence, studies of user satisfaction with portals are worth investigating to take
better use of the available technology.
Some limitations of this study include the sample population we used when
collecting the data using an on-line survey of employees from Australian universities.
Although these employees were b2e portal users, confirming that they generally possess
characteristics of the typical b2e portal users, they were nevertheless not entirely
representative as they were mainly derived from one specific industry. Furthermore, the
sampling method may have potential bias since a sample of willing respondents may not be
generalized. Therefore, future research could utilize the scale with new data sets in other
contexts. Researchers could perform cross-cultural validation using different large samples
from different industries for greater generalization of the scale. Future avenues for this
research could also address the establishment of a relationship between the proposed
construct and other constructs, such as user participation and user productivity.

APPENDIX:
Dimensions of User Satisfaction Model
No.
1

Group
Information Quality
Information Content

Factor

Source

Content
Knowledge content
Usefulness of content
Adequacy of information
System output
Accuracy, format, preciseness

Doll and Torkzadeh (1988)


Ong and Lai (2004)
Yang, et al. (2005)
Yang, et al. (2005)
Nath (1989)
Chen, et al. (2000)
Huang, et al. (2004)
Bailey and Pearson (1983)
Bailey and Pearson (1983)
Bailey and Pearson (1983)
Bailey and Pearson (1983)

Information
Reliability
Currency
Completeness
Information
comprehensiveness
Relevancy
Information relevancy

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Muylle, et al. (2004)


Bailey and Pearson (1983)
Muylle, et al. (2004)

Modeling User Satisfaction with an Employee Portal

250
No.

Group

Format of output

Volume of output
System Quality

Factor
Information comprehensibility
Format of output
Format
Volume of output

System accuracy

Accuracy

Timeliness

Timeliness
Response/turnaround time
Website speed
Processing speed
Response time

Ease of use

7
8

Flexibility
Usefulness

Convenience

10

Security

11
12

System efficiency
System capabilities

13

Personalization

14
15

Knowledge map
Communication

16

Hyperlink connotation
Language
customization

Ease of use
Ease of use
Ease of use
Learner interface
Ease of understanding
Intuitive operation
Usability
Usability
Knowledge manipulation
Flexibility
Information fit to task
Perceived utility
Fulfillment of end users needs
Convenience
Convenience of access
Accessibility
Security
Security of data
Security
Trust
System efficiency
System capabilities
System characteristics
Personalization
Personalization
Knowledge map
Learner community
Knowledge community
Interaction
Hyperlink connotation

17

Language customization

Source
Muylle, et al. (2004)
Bailey and Pearson (1983)
Doll and Torkzadeh (1988)
Bailey and Pearson (1983)
Huang, et al. (2004)
Bailey and Pearson (1983)
Doll and Torkzadeh (1988)
Doll and Torkzadeh (1988)
Bailey and Pearson (1983)
Bailey and Pearson (1983)
Muylle, et al. (2004)
Yoo and Donthu (2001)
Loiacono, et al. (2002)
Doll and Torkzadeh (1988)
Cho and Park (2001)
Muylle, et al. (2004)
Yoo and Donthu (2001)
Wang (2003)
Loiacono, et al. (2002)
Loiacono, et al. (2002)
Chin, et al. (1988)
Yang, et al. (2005)
Ong and Lai (2004)
Bailey and Pearson (1983)
Loiacono, et al. (2002)
Bailey and Pearson (1983)
Chen, et al. (2000)
Huang, et al. (2004)
Bailey and Pearson (1983)
Yang, et al. (2005)
Huang, et al. (2004)
Bailey and Pearson (1983)
Yoo and Donthu (2001)
Loiacono, et al. (2002)
Nath (1989)
Chin, et al. (1988).
Nath (1989)
Wang (2003)
Ong and Lai (2004)
Ong and Lai (2004)
Wang (2003)
Ong and Lai (2004)
Yang, et al. (2005)
Muylle, et al. (2004)
Muylle, et al. (2004)

International Journal of Business and Information

Ly-Fie Sugianto and Dewi Rooslani Tojib


No.

Group
Tailored
communication
System Design
Quality
Layout

Innovativeness

18

251
Factor

Tailored communications

Interface
Screen
Site design
Entry guidance
Website structure
Layout
Aesthetic design
Visual appeal
Innovativeness

Source
Loiacono, et al. (2002)

Huang, et al. (2004)


Chin, et al. (1988).
Cho and Park (2001)
Muylle, et al. (2004)
Muylle, et al. (2004)
Muylle, et al. (2004)
Yoo and Donthu (2001)
Loiacono, et al. (2002)
Loiacono, et al. (2002)

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ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Ly-Fie Sugianto holds a bachelors degree (first-class honours) in engineering from Curtin
University and a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Monash University in Victoria, Australia. She
is a senior lecturer at Monash, teaching and supervising doctoral students in e-commerce. She has
researched and published more than 60 refereed articles in the fields of e-commerce, DSS, b2e
portals, and the deregulated electricity market. Her research reflects her on-going interests in the
study and development of support tools and techniques for intelligent decision making.
Dewi Rooslani Tojib is a research student in the Faculty of Information Technology at Monash
University. She received her bachelor of business systems (honours) degree from Monash in 2003.
She is currently a Ph.D. candidate at the Clayton School of Information Technology at Monash. Her
research interests include b2e portals, user satisfaction, scale development, e-business, and webbased information systems.

Volume 1, Number 2, December 2006