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# Green function in solid-state physics

GPU meeting

Shuxiang Yang
October 25, 2012

Outline

Introduction

Green function

Properties

## Diagrammatic approach to calculate G

Single-particle level

Two-particle level

Conclusion
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Introduction

Introduction

Physics research
Materials

Physics experiments
Modeling
Theoretical & numerical analysis

Sovle model
Interpret results
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Modeling

P.W. Anderson)

## 2-D Hubbard model (quantum system model)

Simplest model able to capture the low energy physics of cuprates
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## We need to solve the Schrodinger equation

for quantum system
Equation of motion

## Note that the hamiltonian is time-independent, we can

separate the two variables as

operator??

scalar

vector

## Four possible configurations per-site

(occupation number representation)

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## Eigen-value and-vector problem

matrix

scalar

vector

Wave-function based

## This puts a severe constraint on the solving of this equation

both in computational time and in memory
e.g. Nc=16, memory requirement for
wave function vector:16GB; Hamiltonian matrix: 7x1010GB !

Outline

Introduction

Green function

Properties

## Diagrammatic approach to calculate G

Single-particle level

Two-particle level

Conclusion
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## Green function in mathematics

Named after the British mathematical physicist George Green.

## Inhomogeneous differential equation

Linear differential operator

examples:

## Green function is defined as

George Green
(07/14/1793~03/31/1841)

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## Once the Green function is calculated,

the solution of equation
is
This can be checked by applying L on both sides and
using the definition of G

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## We only need the following replacement

Green function in physics is defined as (frequency space)

solution:

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## Operator in the Heisenberg representation

Measurement

Other names
propagator, correlation function

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## Physical meaning of Green function

Represents the phase accumulated when particles move

Green function

Self-energy

long-ranged
Short-ranged

Related by Dyson eq
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## Real space vs momentum space

Single-particle vs two-particle

...

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self-energy

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Outline

Introduction

Green function

Properties

## Diagrammatic approach to calculate G

Single-particle level

Two-particle level

Conclusion
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Dyson equation

other forms:

Dyson equation

Taylor expansion

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Diagrammatic representation

Dyson equation
(1)
(2)
(3)
(1)

(2)

(3)

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Diagrammatic representation

Two elements:

## Bare Green function

Contains frequency and dispersion information

Interaction:

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## Question: how to generate and sum these diagrams efficiently?

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Self-consistent calculation
Approximation on
Green function
Approximation on
self-energy

Self-consistent
calculation

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Two-Particle Quantities

## Scattering Process and Vertex

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Parquet Formalism

## 1-particle formalism + 2-particle formalism

Vector: G, T,

Rank-3 Tensor: , F, ,
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HPC
needed
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Conclusion

Green function

## Diagrammatic approach to sum up diagrams

Single-particle level

Two-particle level

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Thank you!
Questions??

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