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II Sentences, Distinction 43, Question 1

Concerning the Sin against the Holy Spirit


a. 3: utrum species peccati in spiritum
sanctum convenienter assignentur in littera.

Article 3: Whether the species of the sin against


the Holy Spirit are fittingly designated in (the
Lombard's) text?

ad tertium sic proceditur. videtur quod


inconvenienter assignentur in littera species
peccati in spiritum sanctum.

It would seem that the species of the sin against


the Holy Spirit are not fittingly designated in (the
Lombard's) text.

nullus enim desperare potest, credens


remissionem peccatorum in ecclesia fieri. sed
negare remissionem peccatorum est
infidelitatis. ergo desperatio est species
infidelitatis, et non peccati in spiritum
sanctum.

Objection 1: For no one is able to despair,


believing that the forgiveness of sins occurs
within the Church. But to deny the forgiveness of
sin belongs to disbelief. Therefore, despair is a
species of disbelief, and is not a sin against the
Holy Spirit.

praeterea, illud quod est infinitum, nullus


potest nimis extendere. sed misericordia dei
infinita est. ergo nullus peccat ex hoc quod
dei misericordiam nimis extendat; et ita
videtur quod nimis praesumere de dei
misericordia, non sit peccatum in spiritum
sanctum, vel species ejus.

Objection 2: Furthermore, that which is infinite, no


one is able to extend excessively (that is, no one
is able to stretch beyond its limits). But the mercy
of God is infinite. Therefore no sinner excessively
extends (or stretches) the mercy of God. And so, it
seems that to presume excessively concerning
the mercy of God is not a sin against the Holy
Spirit, or against its species.

praeterea, accidentia non constituunt


speciem. sed impoenitentia est quoddam
accidens peccati, sicut duratio cujuslibet rei
est accidens ejus, quod solum impoenitentia
dicere videtur, ut scilicet in peccatum usque
ad mortem duret. ergo impoenitentia non est
aliqua species peccati.

Objection 3: Furthermore, accidents do not


establish a species. But impenitence is a kind of
accident of sin, just as the duration of anything
whatsoever is an accident of it, which
impenitence seems merely to designate, namely
that one endures in sin right up to his death.
Therefore, impenitence is not a species of sin.

praeterea, praeteritum et futurum non


diversificant speciem. sed impoenitentia et
obstinatio non differunt nisi secundum
praeteritum et futurum: quia impoenitentia est
ex hoc quod de praeteritis commissis homo
non poenitet; obstinatio autem est in hoc
quod futuris committendis firmiter proposito
inhaeret. ergo impoenitentia et obstinatio non
sunt duae species peccati in spiritum
sanctum.

Objection 4: Furthermore, the past and the future


do not differentiate species (from one another).
But impenitence and obstinacy do not differ
except according to the past and the future. For
impenitence is when a man does not repent of
past offenses, and obstinacy is when he firmly
adheres to the resolution of the committing of
future offenses. Therefore, impenitence and
obstinacy are not two of the species of the sin
against the Holy Spirit.

praeterea, veritas appropriatur filio, qui dicit


joan. 14, 6: ego sum via, veritas et vita. sed
peccatum in filium est quod est contra
appropriatum filii. ergo impugnatio veritatis
non est peccatum in spiritum sanctum, sed in

Objection 5: Furthermore, truth is attributed to the


Son, to whom St. John refers at John 14:6 "I am
the way, the truth and the life." But the sin against
the Son is that which is contrary to what has been
attributed to the Son. Therefore, resisting the

filium.

known truth (impugnatio veritatis) is not a sin


against the Holy Spirit, but rather against the Son.

praeterea, invidia est unum capitale vitiorum,


ut supra dictum est, dist. 42, art. 3, et non est
gravius inter ea. sed alia peccata capitalia
non ponuntur species peccati in spiritum
sanctum. ergo nec invidentia fraternae gratiae
debet peccatum in spiritum sanctum dici.

Objection 6: Furthermore, envy is one of the


capital vices, as was said above at Distinction 42,
article 3, and is not more grave than the others.
But the other capital sins are not put forward as
species of the sin against the Holy Spirit.
Therefore, neither should envy of our brother's
spiritual good (invidentia fraternae gratiae) be
called a sin against the Holy Spirit.

praeterea, oppositorum generum diversae


sunt species. sed peccatum in spiritum
sanctum, quod est ex certa malitia, ex
opposito dividitur contra peccatum in patrem
vel filium, quod est ex infirmitate vel ex
ignorantia. cum igitur quodlibet peccatum
praedictorum, ut desperatio, praesumptio, et
hujusmodi, possit ex infirmitate vel ex
ignorantia accidere: videtur quod non
convenienter assignetur species peccati in
spiritum sanctum.

Objection 7: Furthermore, species are of


opposing and distinct genera. But the sin against
the Holy Spirit, which is because of a definite
malice, is, by reason of opposition, divided from
the sin against the Father and the Son, which
arise, respectively, by reason of weakness and
ignorance. Therefore, since any sin of the
aforesaid, such as despair, presumption, and the
rest, can occur by reason of weakness or
ignorance, it would seem that the species of the
sin against the Holy Spirit are not fittingly
designated.

praeterea, aliquis non peccat ex electione,


prout peccatum in spiritum sanctum ex
electione dicitur, nisi removeantur omnia
quae a peccato retrahere possunt: quolibet
enim retrahente manente, peccatum non
eligitur. sed omnia retrahentia a peccato non
tolluntur nisi per omnia sex enumerata. ergo
nullum istorum sex per se sumptum est
species peccati in spiritum sanctum; sed
simul accepta per modum partium integralium
faciunt unum peccatum in spiritum sanctum.

Objection 8: Furthermore, one does not sin by


reason of choice (as the sin against the Holy
Spirit is said to arise from choice) unless all those
things which are able to draw one away from sin
are (themselves) withdrawn. For when (such) are
withdrawn (but) something (of these) remain, sin
is not chosen. But all those things drawing one
away from sin are not eliminated except through
the six enumerated (species of sin against the
Holy Spirit). Therefore, none of these six taken in
themselves is a species of sin against the Holy
Spirit, but all (of them) taken together by way of
their integral parts make one sin against the Holy
Spirit.

in contrarium est quod in littera determinatur


per auctoritates sanctorum.

On the contrary, however, is the fact that the


species of the sin against the Holy Spirit are
denominated (fittingly) in the (Lombard's) text by
reason of the authority of the saints.

respondeo dicendum, quod, sicut dictum est,


in corp. praec. art., peccatum in spiritum
sanctum, proprie loquendo, secundum quod
est determinatum genus peccati, consistit in
actu voluntatis abjicientis id per quod aliquis
a peccato retrahitur. contingit autem hoc
dupliciter. retrahitur enim aliquis a peccato et

Response: As was said in the body of the


preceding article, the sin against the Holy Spirit,
properly speaking, is a definite kind of sin in so
far as it consists in an act of the will throwing off
that by which one is withdrawn from sin. Now,
this happens in two ways. For someone is
withdrawn from sin and does good either for itself,

operatur bonum propter se, et aliquis propter


aliud. propter aliud autem dupliciter: vel ad
vitanda supplicia, vel ad consequenda
praemia: et neutrum virtuosi est, qui bonum
propter se operatur, et malum propter se fugit:
et haec duo tolluntur per praesumptionem,
quae privat timorem suppliciorum; et per
desperationem, quae tollit spem praemiorum.
propter se autem aliquis operatur bonum vel
fugit malum, quando movetur principaliter ex
aliquo quod in ipso actu virtutis vel peccati
est. hoc autem est dupliciter. aliquid enim
potest considerari in actu virtutis vel vitii ut est
quoddam humanum bonum, et aliquid ut est
quoddam divinum. si ergo consideretur actus
peccati ex parte ejus quod est humanum in
actu; sic duo possunt ibi esse, scilicet
delectatio indebita, et deformitas actus; et ex
utroque aliquis a peccato retrahitur: et
secundum hoc sunt duae species peccati in
spiritum sanctum, scilicet obstinatio et
impoenitentia; quia per obstinationem aliquis
firmiter adhaeret delectationi, ac si non esset
incompetens; per impoenitentiam autem non
vitat deformitatem quae est in actu, quae erat
ratio poenitendi.
divinum autem in actu virtutis, quod etiam a
peccato retrahit, est duplex: unum scilicet
veritas fidei quasi dirigens, et aliud sicut
inclinans, scilicet ipsa gratia per spiritum
sanctum in ecclesiam diffusa: contra primum
est impugnatio veritatis agnitae, contra
secundum invidentia fraternae gratiae.
quidam autem sic accipiunt distinctionem
harum specierum: dicunt enim, quod
peccatum in spiritum sanctum opponitur
specialiter gratiae poenitentiali, per quam fit
remissio peccatorum. ad remissionem autem
peccati quaedam exiguntur ex parte
remittentis, quaedam ex parte ejus cui
remittuntur, et quaedam ex parte ejus per
quod fit remissio. ex parte remittentis
concurrunt duo; scilicet misericordia, et contra
hoc est desperatio; et justitia, et contra hoc
est praesumptio: ex parte ejus etiam cui
remittuntur, duo: scilicet propositum non
peccandi, contra quod est obstinatio; et dolor
de commissis, contra quod est impoenitentia:
ex parte ejus per quod fit remissio, duo:

or by reason of something else. The latter occurs


in two ways, either so as to avoid punishment, or
on account of the reward which follows. Neither
of these is said of the virtuous person, who does
good and flees evil on account of good and evil
themselves. And both of these are destroyed
through presumption which destroys the hope of
reward. One does good and flees evil on account
of these when one is moved primarily because of
something which is in that very act of virtue or a
sin. This, however, is understood in a twofold
way. For something can be considered an act of
virtue or vice as it is a human good, or as it is a
divine good. If, therefore, the act of sin is
considered on its part with respect to what is
human in the act, then two things can be found
there, namely unseemly pleasure, and the
deformity of the act. And because of both of
these, one is drawn away from sin. Accordingly,
there are two species of the sin against the Holy
Spirit, namely obstinacy and impenitence. For
through obstinacy, one firmly adheres to
pleasure, even if this pleasure is not unseemly,
and through impenitence, one does not avoid the
deformity which is in the act, which was the
reason for repentance.
The divine (good), in the act of virtue which
withdraws one from sin, is (also) twofold. First,
(there is) the truth of the faith as it were, directing,
and (secondly) inclining, namely, to grace itself
through the Holy Spirit diffused in the Church.
Contrary to the first there is resisting the known
truth, and to the second, envy against our
brother's spiritual good. Others, however, accept
the distinction of these species in the following
way. For they say that the sin against the Holy
Spirit is opposed especially to penitential grace
through which the forgiveness of sins comes
about. For the forgiveness of sin, something is
required on the part of the one forgiving,
something else on the part of the one who is
forgiven, and again something on the part of the
one through whom forgiveness comes about. On
the part of the one forgiving, two things are found,
namely mercy (against which there is despair),
and justice (against which there is presumption).
On the part of the one who is forgiven, two things
(are also) found, namely the intention not to sin
(against which there is obstinacy), and sorrow

scilicet fides ecclesiae, contra quam est


impugnatio veritatis agnitae; et gratia quae
datur in sacramentis, contra quam est
invidentia fraternae gratiae.

concerning one's offenses (against which there is


impenitence). On the part of the one through
whom forgiveness comes about, two things
(likewise are) found, namely the faith of the
Church (against which there is resisting the
known truth), and the grace which is given in the
Sacraments (against which there is envy against
our brother's spiritual good).

ad primum ergo dicendum, quod desperatio,


secundum quod est species peccati in
spiritum sanctum, non provenit ex hoc quod
aliquis neget remissionem peccatorum; sed
quia remissionem peccatorum, quam fieri
credit, ut liberius vacet peccatis, sponte a se
abjicit, dum non vult tenderein hoc quod
remissionem peccatorum consequatur.

Response to Objection 1: Despair, in so far as it


is a species of the sin against the Holy Spirit,
does not arise when someone denies (the
doctrine of) the forgiveness of sin, but rather
because of the forgiveness of sins (which one
believes to have been effected so that it allows
one to devote oneself more freely to sin), one
readily throws (forgiveness) away from himself,
since he does not want to pursue that which
follows upon the forgiveness of sins.

ad secundum dicendum, quod


praesumptuosus non peccat ex hoc quod dei
misericordiam nimis magnam arbitretur, sed
quia justitiam ejus contemnit; et in hoc etiam
misericordiae derogat, abutens ea, ac si non
esset justa.

Response to Objection 2: The presumptuous


person does not sin by reason of the fact that he
supposes the mercy of God to be excessively
great, but rather because he despises His justice.
In this he also detracts from His mercy, abusing
these things, as if it (God's mercy) were not just.

ad tertium dicendum, quod sicut


perseverantia dicitur dupliciter; uno enim
modo est virtus specialis, prout dicit
propositum perseverandi in bono incepto
usque ad finem; et alio modo est
circumstantia aliarum virtutum, prout dicit
actualem durationem in actibus virtutum
usque ad mortem; ita etiam et impoenitentia,
secundum quod dicit propositum non
poenitendi, est species peccati in spiritum
sanctum; secundum autem quod dicit
permanentiam in peccato usque ad mortem,
negando peccati poenitentiam, sic est
accidens vel circumstantia aliorum
peccatorum.

Response to Objection 3: Perseverance is


named in a twofold way. In one way, it is a
particular virtue as it designates the intention of
persevering in good undertaken from the
beginning right up to the end. In another way, it is
the circumstance of the other virtues as it
designates the actual duration in the activities of
virtue right up to our death. In (light of this
distinction), impenitence is a sin against the Holy
Spirit in so far as it designates the intention of not
seeking forgiveness. However, in so far as it
designates permanence in sin right up to death,
by denying the forgiveness of sin, it is thus an
accident or circumstance of the other sins.

ad quartum dicendum, quod obstinatio et


Response to Objection 4: Obstinacy and
impoenitentia non differunt secundum
impenitence do not differ according to the past
praeteritum et futurum; potest enim aliquis dici and future respectively. For someone is able to
impoenitens qui proponit etiam de peccatis
be called impenitent who intends not to repent
quae faciet, non poenitere: sed differunt
concerning the sins which he will do. They differ,
secundum diversa quae in peccato
rather, according to the differences which are
attenduntur, quae respondent eis quasi
observed with respect to sin, which correspond to
objecta, ut in prima assignatione dictum est. them as objects (of sin), as was said in the first

attribution.
ad quintum dicendum est, quod veritas,
Response to Objection 5: Truth, wisdom, and the
sapientia, et hujusmodi, possunt dupliciter
rest, can be considered in a twofold way, either
considerari; vel secundum propriam rationem, according to the proper descriptions (and in this
et sic appropriantur filio; vel secundum quod way they are attributed to the Son), or in so far as
habent rationem doni, et secundum hoc
they have the aspect of gift, according to which
appropriantur spiritui sancto, qui est primum they are attributed to the Holy Spirit, Who is the
donum, in quo omnia dona donantur, ut in
first gift in whom all gifts are given, as was said in
libro 1 dist. 18, dictum est; et ita aliquis
Book 1, Distinction 18. In this way, one resisting
impugnans veritatem agnitam ex certa malitia, the known truth by reason of definite malice sins
in spiritum sanctum peccat.
against the Holy Spirit.
ad sextum dicendum, quod invidia potest
esse duplex: quaedam quae est de
prosperitate vel exaltatione hominis; et
quaedam quae est de exaltatione gratiae,
sicut quod multi ad dei gratiam convertuntur,
vel aliquid hujusmodi; et talis invidia solum
est peccatum in spiritum sanctum; non
quidem invidia fratris, sed invidia fraternae
gratiae.

Response to Objection 6: Envy can be of two


kinds. First, when it concerns the prosperity or the
elevation of a man, and second when it concerns
the elevation or the exaltation of grace, as when
many people were converted to the grace of God,
or something of this kind. This latter kind of envy
alone is a sin against the Holy Spirit; not the envy
of our brother, but rather the envy of our brother's
spiritual good.

ad septimum dicendum, quod quodlibet


Response to Objection 7: Any of these spoken of
istorum quae dicta sunt, potest dupliciter
in this objection can be taken in two ways. In one
accidere. uno modo ex hoc quod per se
way, in so far as the will, through its own accord,
voluntas tendit in unumquodque ipsorum, ut tends to any one of these, for example because
quia aliquis non vult habere spem de futuris one does not want to have hope concerning
praemiis, aut non vult veritati notae assentire, future rewards, or does not want to assent to the
et sic de aliis; et hae tantummodo sunt
known truth, and so on with respect to the others.
species peccati in spiritum sanctum: quia sic, And only these are species of the sin against the
per se loquendo, est desperatio vel
Holy Spirit. For, properly speaking, there is
praesumptio, et sic de aliis, quando voluntas despair, or presumption, and so too with the rest,
per se in actum desperationis labitur.
when the will, through its own accord, falls into an
secundo potest accidere ex aliquo exteriori, ut act of despair. In the second way, (any of these
propter defectum rationis regentis, vel propter spoken of in this objection) can be understood
aliquem impetum alicujus impellentis, sicut
with respect to some external thing, for example,
quando per infirmitatem vel ignorantiam
on account of a defect of the reason of the one
aguntur; et sic non sunt species peccati in
ruling, or of some impetus of some thing
spiritum sanctum: quia sic non est dicendus impelling, as when through weakness or
aliquis desperatus per se, sed per accidens. ignorance things are done. These are not species
of the sin against the Holy Spirit because
someone is not to be considered as hopeless per
se, but rather per accidens.
ad octavum dicendum, quod quamvis multa
sint quae a peccato retrahere possunt,
secundum quae distinctae sunt species
peccati in spiritum sanctum; tamen aliquis
propter unum illorum tantum a peccando
retrahitur, et alius propter alium; et ideo non
oportet ut omnia semper concurrant ad hoc

Response to Objection 8: Although there are


many things which are able to draw us away from
(those thing which keep us from) sin, according to
which there are distinct species of the sin against
the Holy Spirit, nevertheless, one person is
drawn away from sin by one of these, while
another is so drawn away by another. Thus, it is

quod sit peccatum in spiritum sanctum.

not fitting that every one of these always occur


together so that the sin against the Holy Spirit
might come about.

Stephen Loughlin
(sjl1@desales.edu)

The Aquinas Translation Project


(http://www4.desales.edu/~philtheo/loughlin/ATP/index.html)