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Guidelines for Comprehension

1. Read the whole passage through once to get a general idea of what the passage is about. Do not worry if you come across
unfamiliar words. Sometimes, it is not necessary to understand every word you read.
2. Read the passage a second time, if necessary. The second reading helps you take in the details and improve your understanding.
3. Read the questions carefully. Use cue words in the questions to help you answer the questions. These can be the wh words
(what, when, where, why, who, whose, how) and action verbs (identify, find, list).
4. Questions sometimes contain words found in the passage. Use these words to help you identify the part of the passage where the
answer can be found.
5. You can lift clauses or sentences from the passage to answer questions. You do not have to use your own words unless you are
told to do so. Moreover, there is a danger in paraphrasing you might alter/distort the meaning expressed in the passage.
6. For questions on vocabulary, if you are asked for a word, then give only ONE word and nothing else. Make sure you spell the
word correctly. If you are asked for a phrase, then give the relevant phrase.
7. Some questions require you to use your own words and you must do so.
8. Do pay attention to the tense used in the questions when formulating your answers.
Things to avoid
1. Do not give more than the required information. Sometimes, students copy chunks from a text, giving two or more sentences.
This only highlights their weakness failure to understand the question and/or text.
2. Do not give two or more answers to a question. Some students write down all the possible answers to a question just to be on the
safe side.
3. Do not waste time paraphrasing answers unless you are asked to do so.
How to improve my writing?
HOW TO IMPROVE YOUR WRITING?
I receive a lot of e-mails and queries from my students asking me to give them advice on how to improve their English, especially
their essay-writing. Here is my advice.
1 Use it or lose it
There are times when I wish I have a magic pill that I could give to students. The fact is, there are no shortcuts. To learn a language,
one has to use it. Start today. Speak to your friends.
If you are shy, start with a few words or phrases in your conversation. Practise speaking in front of the mirror.
2 Read it
Read the newspapers. I would recommend the sports pages if you are a sports enthusiast, or the letters to the editor. You will learn
how to give opinions, to complain and to elaborate your ideas. Go to your school library and borrow a book.
Make use of pockets of time during school such as in between classes. I am quite sure you are able to squeeze ten minutes a day for
reading. Do not get bogged down if there are words that you do not know. Just read the easier stuff first.
3 Write it
My students are required to keep a journal in my classes. What is a journal? Is it like a diary? A diary is a record of your daily
experiences but a journal is more than that. It is a collection of your thoughts, responses to events in your life and it may also
include any interesting article, poems or even a song. I keep a journal of articles and quotations that are motivating.
There are many types of journals which you can keep. Check out the bloggers on the Internet for more examples. Search also for
examples of journals to help you get started. (To read all about journaling and how to get started, go to
www.wakimbo.com/htdocs/tools/jrn/pyp/jar.html)
I would like to invite you to join my students in a journaling programme. I have provided seven prompts below to help you get
started. Get a notebook or any old diary and begin your writing journey with me. Make the notebook special by decorating it. Just
use the prompts (questions) to help you get started.
Read the prompt and respond instantly with the first thing that comes to your mind. Do not stop at one sentence or two. Write for as
long as you want without worrying about your grammar.
We will come to errors later. Apart from writing, you can also add pictures, photographs, poems, drawings. Be creative. See you
next week with more prompts. Remember, use it or lose it. Bye.
Day 1: What is something that you like about yourself?
Day 2: Write about three fears of your life.
Day 3: Which quality do you dislike most about yourself? Is it laziness, selfishness, or childishness and why?
Day 4: What is something that makes you happy? Why?
Day 5: Do you have a favourite subject in school and one that you dislike? Write about these subjects.
Day 6: Do you have a favourite teacher? Write about his/her class qualities. What makes you look forward to his/her class?
Day 7: Have you ever had a crush on someone? Write about your experience(s). If you have never had a crush, what do you think
about falling in love? Is it advisable? Is it a waste of time?

POWER WRITING
WRITING BETTER PARAGRAPHS
What is a paragraph?
A paragraph can be divided into three different sections. The first section is the topic sentence which is usually at the
beginning of the paragraph, the body and the closing.
The Topic Sentence
This topic sentence tells you what the paragraph is going to be about, and how it relates to the subject of the essay and the
previous paragraph.
Body Sentences
Body sentences support the topic of the paragraph. There are supporting details and elaboration in these sentences.
Closing Sentence
This sentence completes the idea expressed in the paragraph. It should also set up a connection to the next paragraph.
1. A good paragraph has only one main idea and one or two supporting details.
Example:
First and foremost, I would buy a house for my parents, preferably a bungalow, in a quiet town. I would equip the house with
the latest technology so that it would be a smart home. My mother would have a state-of-the-art kitchen as she loves
cooking. There would also be a robot to clean and vacuum the house. I will certainly make sure that my family is
comfortably settled in this house.
The main idea of the sentence is buying a house for my parents and I go on to describe in detail what the house would be
like.
2. How to elaborate or add supporting details?
To support a topic sentence, consider some of these possible ways:
Add examples
Supply further details or explanation
Tell a story that illustrates the point you're making
Discuss a process
Compare and contrast
Example:
Most word processing software gives you several options for printing. You can print a copy or several copies of the same
document with different fonts. Besides that, you can also print a range of pages. What is more, you can even preview a
document before printing it out. You can finally say goodbye to the good old typewriter.
Topic sentence: word processing software several options for printing.
Body sentences (Supporting details): print a copy, several copies, different fonts, a range of pages, preview.
Note that I have given examples and explanation to support my main idea.
Closing sentence: I end the paragraph by implying that now that you have the software, you can say goodbye to the
typewriter.
3. Choice of words
i. Do not use tired words like beautiful or nice. Use: magnificent, breath-taking, inspiring, fantastic, and so on.
i. Do not pepper your essay with words that are superfluous. If a sentence means the same thing with a word taken out, take
it out. Using extra words and phrases which do not add anything to what you are saying will imply to the examiner that you
are running out of things to say.
Example:
Do not write:
Ever since Mr Tan came into my class, he transformed it, changing it so that it was altogether different from what it has been
like before.
Write:
Mr Tan transformed my class. (Here, give examples of how he did it.)
ii. Do not use words or phrases that are either unheard of or too bombastic.
Chin Yit, a student from Pahang wrote to ask whether using beautiful words will gain her more marks. She had taken these
words from a thesaurus. Her teacher is right. She will not gain more marks as she is testing the examiner and boring her
readers.
Example: propitious (favourable), ebullient (cheerful), affray (scuffle, fight), edacious.

Name: _____________________________________________

Date: _____________

Exercise 1
Deforestation is the cutting or burning down of all the trees in a forest and the conversion of forested areas to nonforest land for use such as arable land or pasture, or for urban use. Deforestation results from removal of trees without
sufficient reforestation, and results in decline in habitat and biodiversity, in wood for fuel and industrial use, and in the
quality of life. In many countries, massive deforestation is on-going and is shaping climate and geography.
Deforestation is a substantial contributor to global warming, and although 70 per cent of the oxygen we breathe
comes from photosynthesis of marine green algae and cyanobacteria, the mass destruction of the worlds rain forests is not
beneficial to our environment. In addition, the incineration and burning of forests plants in order to clear land, releases
tonnes of carbon dioxide which increase the impact of global warming.
Deforestation reduces the content of water in the soil, reduces groundwater as well as atmospheric moisture.
Deforestation reduces soil cohesion, so that erosion, flooding and landslides often result. More flash floods and localised
floods occur because of deforestation. This would not happen if there is forest cover.
Forests support considerable biodiversity, providing valuable habitat for wildlife. Moreover, forests foster
medicinal conservation and forest biotopes are a major, irreplaceable source of new drugs (like taxol).
Deforestation also contributes to decreased evapotranspiration, which lessens atmospheric moisture which in some
cases affects precipitation levels. Water is thus lost in run-off and returns directly to the oceans. According to one
preliminary study, in deforested north and northwest China, the average annual precipitation decreased by one third between
the 1950s and 1980s.
Long-term gains can be obtained by managing forest lands sustainable to maintain both forest cover and provide a
biodegradable renewable resource. Forests are also important stores of organic carbon, and forests can extract carbon dioxide
and pollutants from the air, thus contributing to biosphere stability. Deforestation (mainly in tropical areas) accounts for up
to one third of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. Forests are also valued for their aesthetic beauty and as a
cultural resource and tourist attraction.
The effects of human-related deforestation can be mitigated through environmentally sustainable practices that
reduce permanent destruction of forests or even act to preserve and rehabilitate disrupted forestland. These methods help the
cause and provide a sustainable growth of forests and allow lumber to become a renewable resource.
1.

From paragraph 1,
(a)

what is the meaning of deforestation?


_____________________________________________________________________________[1 mark]

(b)

state one result of deforestation


_____________________________________________________________________________[1 mark]

2.

(a)

From paragraph 2, in what way does deforestation contribute to global


warming?
_____________________________________________________________________________[1 mark]

(b)

From paragraph 3, how does deforestation contribute to floods and landslides?


____________________________________________________________________________ [1 mark]

3.

(a)

From paragraph 4, what is the connection between forests and medicine?


____________________________________________________________________________ [1 mark]

(b)

From paragraph 5, why does the writer mention the statistics from China?
_____________________________________________________________________________[1 mark]

4.

(a)

From paragraph 6, state one role of forests


_____________________________________________________________________________[1 mark]

(b)

From paragraph 7, how can we reduce the effects of deforestation?


_____________________________________________________________________________[1 mark]

5.

In your own word, explain how deforestation can be controlled?


____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________ [2 marks]

Name: _____________________________________________

Date: _____________

Exercise 2

In early March this year, thunderous roars resonate through the Sepang International Circuit (SIC) as the Petronas
Malaysia Formula One Grand Prix stages its round for the season. The event attracts tens of thousands of people, from far
and wide, local and foreign, to witness the hottest motor race in Malaysia.
The SIC has been described as one of the most technically advanced circuits in the Formula One challenge, having
chalked up an astounding cost US$100 000 to build. It can accommodate up to 130 000 spectators with a clear view of the
spectacular track. The specially designed track, built in a valley, allows each spectator to see at least half of the circuit at any
given time. About 30 000 spectators can be seated on two levels opposite the start/finish line. At the end of the main
grandstand vantage point, 1100 visitors can view three quarters of the track.
The pit area is one of the largest in the world of motor sports. This two-storey building houses race control
facilities, 30 pits for the race teams, offices and facilities for the media. There is a fully equipped medical centre in the
complex as well.
Accelerating down the 5.543-kilometre long road track at a hair-raising speed of up to 250km/h, F1 drivers have to
whiz through two long straights and negotiate 15 corners of which three are tight hairpin ones to complete the 56 laps before
they head for chequered flag.
Exciting racing is part of the game as the width of the track provides overtaking chances than many of the other
circuits in other F1 host countries.
Over the years, rules have been changed to make the race more challenging to both drivers and the designers of
engines and tyres. Today, a visit to the pit stop is only for topping up fuel but no changing of tyres is allowed as had been the
practice in previous seasons. This means each car has to keep the same set of tyres for both the qualifying rounds (which are
held prior to the actual race) and the race itself. Changes can only be made if the tyre is damaged or if Race Control decides
that a change is necessary because of weather conditions which require a complete change of tyres. With this change in race
rules, drivers have to face the constant fight to control tyre wear throughout the race.
Additionally, Formula One designers not only have to work on making tyres that last longer but also redesign
engines which allow them to perform efficiently for two whole races. This means that instead of the power units having a life
a little more than the length of one Grand Prix race, they need to last for around 1500 kilometres at racing speeds including
the practice and the qualifying sessions.
Over and above all these new rules, another one that has been introduced is to reduce the downforce applied to
each car. Drivers have to reduce their speed as they head towards the hairpin bends. These major changes are bound to have
an effect on performance. The test comes when the row of red lights goes out over the grid.
Meanwhile, spectators on the ground can expect to feel the heat and power of the race as the cars rush to get the
first of two hairpin bends right and then a hard left at 70km/hr, after whizzing down a straight at 250km/hr. As the race
progresses to a pulsating speed, high drama accompanied by deafening roars across the circuit is expected as each car laps
round the tracks at breakneck speeds to the chequered flag.
Will the SIC see a new winner at the podium? It is anybodys guess. But one thing is certain; each series will
definitely be a thrilling and sizzling battle of man and engines.
1.

(a)
(b)

2.

3.
4.

5.

From paragraph 1, why do lots of people go to the Sepang International Circuit?


____________________________________________________________________
From paragraph 2, how many people can the spectator stand accommodate?
____________________________________________________________________

[1 mark]
[1 mark]

From paragraph 4, describe the Sepang race track that F1 drivers compete in.
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

[2 marks]

From paragraph 4, which word has the same meaning as frightening and dangerous?
____________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark]

From paragraph 6,
(a)
What is allowed at a pit stop visit?
____________________________________________________________________
(b)
Name the two conditions when tyres are allowed to be changed during a race.
(i)______________________________________________________
(ii)_____________________________________________________
(a)
(b)

From paragraph 7, why do F1 engineers have to redesign engines and tyres?


____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
From paragraph 10, the author says that each series is a battle of man and
engines. Why does he say so?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

Name: _____________________________________________

[1 mark]
[1 mark]
[1 mark]

[1 mark]

[1 mark]

Date: _____________

Exercise 3
A very good afternoon to you, my beloved students,
I'm glad so many of you turned up for this afternoon's talk. At this moment, all your thoughts and activities are geared
towards doing well in your SPM examination. Once the SPM exams are over, some of you may feel lost. The purpose of my
talk is to explain the options which are open to you after you have sat for your SPM exams.
What you do after your SPM exams depends very much on whether you want to further your studies. For those who want to
stop schooling after SPM, it is important for you to pick up some skills that will enable you to get a job. Some of you may
want to enrol yourself for practical courses like tailoring and hairdressing. Others may want to become apprentices in
electrical shops and car repair shops. Some may choose to have a career in the fast food line. As for those who prefer to work
in offices, it is essential for you to be computer literate. Many offices are computerised. You need to learn word processing
skills and perhaps, book keeping as well. When you have formal training, you can get better pay for your services.
From an informal survey I did among the Form Five students in this school, I found that the majority of you want to continue
your studies after your SPM. Many options are open to you. You can join a twinning program. This program enables you to
complete one or two years of tertiary education in Malaysia and the rest in a university overseas. Many private colleges cater
for this segment of the student population. For example, Inti, Metropolitan, Stamford, and KDU. One of the selling points of
twinning programs is that you can get a degree of your choice in a shorter time. It is like a short cut which bypasses STPM.
Well, go ahead if your parents can support you.
What about the rest of you who do not want to get a degree overseas? If you want to get a degree from a local university, you
can either choose to do your STPM or apply for a place in the Matriculation or Diploma programs. If you opt for
Matriculation or Diploma programs, you do not need to go through STPM. I know many of you feel that it is futile to go
through two years of STPM and later not qualify for a place in local universities. I've heard groans that it is difficult to score
in STPM. Well, a grown-up baby no longer solely depends on milk. As you move from Form Five to Form Six, you cannot
depend on memorizing to score. In fact, STPM is a very well-coordinated pre-university education program. It would stand
you in good stead regardless of whether you get your tertiary education in Malaysia or overseas.
For those of you who are not able to make it to a university, don't lose heart. STPM is part of a foundational education for
everyone. In these years, you develop critical thinking skills which prepare you for working life. At the end of the two years,
you get a certificate which entitles you to a higher salary scale than an SPM-holder.
SPM is a stepping stone to other achievements in life. Ponder upon what I've said and be clear about what you want to do
after SPM. A clear goal is like a lighthouse in a storm.
Thank you.
Answer the following questions using complete sentences
1. Why would some students feel lost after the SPM exams are over?
2.

How do practical skills help SPM-leavers looking for jobs?

3.

How do most of the Form Five students feel about stopping their studies after their SPM?

4.

Why do some students prefer twining programs to a tertiary education in a local university?

5.

Give two ways in which students can get a degree without going through STPM.

6.

Why do most students do badly in STPM?

7.

According to the passage, why is STPM worth taking? Give two reasons to support your answer.

Fill in the blanks with one correct word from the passage.
8. You are given four ______ to choose from : A, B, C and D.
9.

The ______ of oil palm fruits must be done as soon as the fruits are harvested to prevent them from turning bad.

10. The old man who was knocked down by a lorry is in a ______ condition, and may die if he does not respond to the
treatment given.

Name_______________________________________________

Date___________________

Common and Proper Nouns


Nouns are words that stand for a person, place, thing, or idea. They can be singular (one) or plural (more than
one).
Common nouns do not need to begin with a capital letter.
A proper noun is a name given to a specific person, place, or thing. Proper nouns begin with capital letters.
Each sentence below contains two or more nouns. They are either all common nouns or all proper nouns.
Underline the nouns and then indicate whether they are common or proper. The answers for the first two
sentences are done for you.
1.
Does Jimmy really want to move to California?
proper
2.
An impolite fish asked my brother for a worm.
common
3.
Amy will travel to Norway and Sweden.
4.
Which is larger, Microsoft or Intel?
5.
Cats are very valuable helpers on a farm.
6.
My grandfather wasnt allowed in that dinner because of his strange habits.
7.
Cassy, Samantha, and David are playing outside.
8.
Happiness is a feeling that is hard to describe.
9. Her smile became a frown as she noticed the tiny insects crawling out of her sandwich.
10. The Giants will not play the Cubs in Orlando.

September 8, 1998
English Basics, Volume 3, Number 1
1. Jimmy, California proper
2. fish, brother, worm common
3. Amy, Norway, Sweden proper
4. Microsoft, Intel proper
5. Cats, helpers, farm common
6. grandfather, diner, habits common
7. Cassy, Samantha, David proper
8. Happiness, feeling common
9. smile, frown, insects, sandwich common
10. Giants, Cubs, Orlando proper

Name__________________________________________

Date______________________

Singular and Plural Nouns


Singular means one. Plural means more than one.

There are two or more singular nouns in each sentence. One of those nouns should be changed to its plural form
to be correct. Underline the incorrect noun and write its proper form after the sentence. The first three have
been done for you.
1. The old dog no longer fought over their food.
dogs
2. I read seven story to my son.
stories
3. Harold lost five of his new book.
4. We never noticed the frog that were sitting on the salad.
5. The governor brought all his child to the ceremony.
6. Annabella was outraged when the nurse said she had eleven louse in her hair.
7. There were many flash of light in the sky.
8. Mrs. Dale insisted that her property tax were too high.
9. All my dream came true when you became my wife.
10. Alice, did you remove some shelf from this bookcase?
11. My calf were sore after the race.
12. None of the switch were turned off on that panel.
13. The painter left their ladder in the middle of the driveway.
14. I sent three reply to your e-mail address.
15. All the witch flew over our Halloween party.
16. Penny put many penny in Pattys purple pantry.
17. Apple were the favourite food at the school party.
18. We saw many scary mask on the last night of October.
19. Olivia falls asleep by counting sheep in her mind.
20. I dont believe that John was chased by a bunch of mummy.

English Basics, Volume 3, Number 8


http://www.rhlschool.com/eng3n8.htm
1. dog, dogs
2. story, stories
3. book, books
4. frog, frogs
5. child, children
6. louse, lice
7. flash, flashes
8. tax, taxes
9. dream, dreams
10. shelf, shelves
11. calf, calves
12. switch, switches
13. painter, painters
14. reply, replies
15. witch, witches
16. penny, pennies
17. Apple, Apples
18. mask, masks
19. sheep, sheep
20. mummy, mummies

Name__________________________________________

Date______________________

Pronouns
Pronouns are words that take the place of a noun. They often refer to nouns that have already been mentioned.
Each sentence below contains one pronoun. Underline that pronoun. Then write the noun that is referred to
by that pronoun. The first three have been done for you.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Father asked Paul why he hadnt washed the dog.


Paul
Jill and Jenna ate fifty cookies while they watched the movie.
Jill, Jenna
The robot lifted the rock and put it on the table.
Michael denies the charge that he hit Christopher.
The boys were shocked when they heard the news.
Cheryl took an extra piece of pie and hid it in Joans shoe.
The little pigs considered pickled prunes to be a treat, and squealed with joy upon finding them.
Sally angrily asked Lorrie why she had stolen the boat.
Patrick and Anne said, We are glad to be here.
The children were pleased that the teacher had brought them some candy.
The teachers made a sign that said, The students should treat us with kindness!
Each girl in this room should realize that she could be president someday.

September 21, 1998


English Basics, Volume 3, Number 3
1. he, Paul
2. they, Jill, Jenna
3. it, rock
4. he, Michael
5. they, boys
6. it, pie
7. them, prunes
8. she, Lorrie
9. We, Patrick, Anne
10. them, children
11. us, teachers
12. she, girl

Name________________________________________________________________
Date_______________________________________________

rhlschool.com

Synonyms
Synonyms are words that have the same or similar meanings.
Note the highlighted word in each selection. Underline its synonym. The first
one has been done for you.

1. This law is far from perfect. We need to change parts of it


to make it fair. Unfortunately, its difficult to amend a law.
2. That womans remarks are always rude! Why cant she
keep her comments to herself?
3. Dont expend too much energy on that game or you wont
have enough left to use on homework.
4. You shouldnt make a big deal about Sams errors when you
havent even corrected your own mistakes!
5. Ill create a new account for you if you make a list of
features you want it to have.
6. Carefully observe the behavior of Johns sister Ashley. If
you study her actions, youll understand why John says shes
weird.
7. Jordan is a very smart girl. Shes intelligent enough to
solve puzzles that some adults cant handle.
8. The smell of your shoes is a most unpleasant odor.
9. The smell of that flower is a very pleasant fragrance.
Synonyms

1. amend
2. remarks
3. expend
4. errors
5. create
6. study
7. intelligent
8. odor
9. fragrance

Name__________________________________________Date______________________
English Basics
Volume 4, Number 2, September 13, 1999
www.rhlschool.com

Irregular Plural Nouns


Most nouns in English are made into plural nouns by adding an s to the singular
form. If the noun ends with an s, ch, sh, or x, an es is added to make the noun
plural. Plural nouns that are not made plural in this way are irregular plural
nouns.
There are two or more plural nouns in each sentence. Only one of them is an
irregular plural noun. Underline the irregular plural noun in each sentence and
write the singular form. The first sentence has been done for you.

1.
Vincent helped the women choose their costumes.
woman
2.
The hunters never noticed the two deer by the apple
trees.
3.
Are the geese chasing the other farm animals?
4.
Do turtles have teeth?
5.
The children told their parents about the matches.
6.
You should place the knives and spoons to the left of
the plates.
7.
The children stood on boxes to see the parade.
8.
We took pictures of the oxen as they pulled the wagons.
9.
Sandy knew that many mice were living in the walls of
the old houses.
10. Please keep your hands and feet inside the car.
10

11. All the kings horses and all the kings men ate scrambled
eggs.
Irregular Plural Nouns
1. women, woman
2. deer, deer
3. geese, goose
4. teeth, tooth
5. children, child
6. knives, knife
7. children, child
8. oxen, ox
9. mice, mouse
10. feet, foot
11. men, man

Name__________________________________________Date______________________
English Basics
Volume 4, Number 1, September7, 1999
www.rhlschool.com

Regular Plural Nouns


Most nouns in English are made into plural nouns by adding an s to the singular
form. If the noun ends with an s, ch, sh, or x, an es is added to make the noun
plural.
The underlined noun in each sentence is spelled in its singular form. Write the
correct plural form after the sentence. The first one is done for you.

1. There are too many box in our attic. boxes


2. How many picture did you take on your trip?
3. Cheryl doesnt enjoy washing dish.
4. There are three church in our little community.
5. Our soccer team has had four wins and three loss.
In each sentence there is one singular noun that should be plural. Underline that
noun and write the correct form after the sentence. The first one is done for you.

1. We put ten of our best crystal glass on the table. glasses


2. All the student in that school wear uniforms.
3. Our watch dont show the same time.
11

4. Why are all school bus painted yellow?


5. Seven protester were arrested after the riot.
6. We saw some bright flash of light coming from the woods.
7. Why must I pay four different tax on the same income?
Regular Plural Nouns
1. boxes
2. pictures
3. dishes
4. churches
5. losses
1. glass, glasses
2. student, students
3. watch, watches
4. bus, buses or busses
5. protester, protesters
6. flash, flashes
7. tax, taxes

Name__________________________________________Date______________________
English Basics
Volume 4, Number 27, April 24, 2000
www.rhlschool.com

Suffixes Beginning With Vowels - Review


Add the correct suffix to the italicized word in each sentence. The first two are done for
you.

1.
You will not be permit to swim with the sharks! (ed, er)
permitted
2.

The plane is depart at noon. (ing, ish) departing

3.

Football is a very excite sport. (est, ing)

4.
er)

The doctor gave her an inhale to help her breathe. (en,

5.

Your opinion is certainly debate. (able, ist)


12

6.

This is the big SUV ever manufactured. (er, est)

7.

The colonists rebel against the king. (ed, ish)

8.

You did a very fool thing! (ish, able)

9.
The scarecrow is deter the crows from eating our corn.
(er, ing)
10. The old road has to be repave. (ed, ing)
Suffixes Beginning With Vowels - Review
1. permitted
2. departing
3. exciting
4. inhaler
5. debatable
6. biggest
7. rebelled
8. foolish
9. deterring
10. repaved

Name__________________________________________Date______________________
English Basics
Volume 4, Number 26, April 3, 2000
www.rhlschool.com

Suffixes Beginning With Vowels


Suffixes are endings that are added to root words. If the ending begins with a
vowel, the spelling of the root word usually changes. For example, if the root word
ends with a single vowel-single consonant, the final consonant is usually doubled.
dig + ing = digging

trap + er = trapper

Add the correct suffix to the italicized word in each sentence. The first one is done for you.

1.

The dog beg for another treat. (ed, er) begged


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2.

Are you plan to visit me in Myrtle Beach? (ed, ing)

3.

The doctor found a stop in Paul's intestine. (able, age)

4.

Morris is in a crab mood! (al, y)

5.

Has your cream diet made you any thin? (er, ing)

6.

That bulb gives the room a red glow. (ish, ist)

7.

The boxer wanted to flat his opponent. (en, est)

8.
Why are you wearing wool on the hot day of the year?
(est, ist)
9.
al)

We won't give up because the game is still win. (able,

10. Roxanne cram fourteen brownies into her mouth. (ed, est)
Suffixes Beginning With Vowels
1. begged
2. planning
3. stoppage
4. crabby
5. thinner
6. reddish
7. flatten
8. hottest
9. winnable
10. crammed

Name__________________________________________Date______________________
English Basics
Volume 4, Number 25, March 27, 2000
www.rhlschool.com

14

Suffixes Beginning With Vowels


Suffixes are endings that are added to root words. If the ending begins with a
vowel, the spelling of the root word usually changes. For example, if the root word
ends with a silent e, the e is usually dropped.
skate + ing = skating

late + er = later (not lateer)

Add the correct suffix to the italicized word in each sentence. The first one is done for you.

1.
Only a great write could produce such a novel. (en, er)
writer
2.

I never receive an answer to my question. (ed, ing)

3.

Cheryl is a very like person. (able, al)

4.

You shouldnt fly on such a haze night! (al, y)

5.

Is the mall close at the usual time? (or, ing)

6.

Decent people will reject any race law. (ish, ist)

7.

This song will live up the party. (en, est)

8.
All my clothes came out of the laundry with a blue tint.
(ish, ist)
9.

A tide wave can wipe out an entire village. (able, al)

10. This may be one of the close elections in our history. (en,
est)
Suffixes Beginning With Vowels
1. writer
2. received
3. likable
4. hazy
5. closing
6. racist
7. liven
8. bluish
9. tidal
10. closest
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Name__________________________________________Date______________________
English Basics
Volume 4, Number 24, March 20, 2000
www.rhlschool.com

Suffixes Beginning With Consonants


Suffixes are endings that are added to root words. If the ending begins with a
consonant, the spelling of the root word is usually not altered. For example:
nice + ly = nicely

The final e was not dropped before ly was added.

Add the correct suffix to the italicized word in each sentence. The first one is done for you.

1.

The old picture was bad faded. (ment, ly) badly

2.

The governor made a state to the press. (ful, ment)

3.

Their loss caused much sad. (ness, less)

4.

Mr. Keyes is a force speaker. (ful, ty)

5.

The fox sly hid his motives. (ful, ly)

6.

He richly deserves that punish. (ness, ment)

7.

Meg was false accused of stealing. (ly, ty)

8.

Their agreement is a hope sign. (ful, less)

9.

A care act can cause much pain. (ful, less)

10. She questions his fit to be a leader. (ful, ness)


Suffixes Beginning With Consonants
1. badly
2. statement
3. sadness
4. forceful
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5. slyly
6. punishment
7. falsely
8. hopeful
9. careless
10. fitness
Note: One could make an argument for the alternative answers for numbers 8 and 9. The
context favors the ones given.

spm grammar worksheets


English Grammar and Usage - Free Worksheets - RHL School
http://rhlschool.com/english.htm

SUGGESTED ANSWERS
Exercise 1
1.
From paragraph 1,
(a)
What is the meaning of deforestation?
Deforestation is the cutting down or burning down of trees in forests and the conversion of forested areas to
nonforest land for use.
(b)

State one result of deforestation


Deforestation results in decline in habitat/in biodiversity/ in wood for fuel and industrial use/ in quality of life

17

2.

3.

4.

5.

(a)

From paragraph 2, in what way does deforestation contribute to global warming?


The incineration and burning of forest plans in order to clear land, release tonnes of carbon dioxide which
increase the impact of global warming.

(b)

From paragraph 3, how does deforestation contribute to floods and landslides?


It reduces soil cohesion

(a)

From paragraph 4, what is the connection between forests and medicine?


Forests preserve / foster medicinal conservation

(b)

From paragraph 5, why does the writer mention the statistics from China?
He wants to illustrate that deforestation leads to reduced evapotranspiration

(a)

From paragraph 6, state one role of forests


Forests provide a biodegradable renewable resource/ forests are important stores of organic carbon./ forests
can extract carbon dioxide and pollutants from the air, thus contributing to biosphere stability.

(b)

From paragraph 7, how can we reduce the effects of deforestation?


We can do this through environmentally sustainable practices.

In your own word, explain how deforestation can be controlled?


It can be done through the enforcement of laws. (Any acceptable answer)

Exercise 2
1.
(a)
(b)

From paragraph 1, why do lots of people go to the Sepang International Circuit?


They go there to watch the Petronas Malaysia Formula One Grand Prix.
From paragraph 2, how many people can the spectator stand accommodate?
It can accommodate a maximum of 130 000 spectators

2.

From paragraph 4, describe the Sepang race track that F1 drivers compete in.
It is 5.543 kilometres long with two long straights and 15 corners. Three of the corners are tight hairpin bends.

3.

From paragraph 4, which word has the same meaning as frightening and dangerous?
Hair-raising

4.

From paragraph 6,
(a)
What is allowed at a pit stop visit?
Refuelling only

5.

(b)

Name the two conditions when tyres are allowed to be changed during a race.
(i)
When the tyres are damaged
(ii)
When the weather conditions require a complete change of tyres

(a)

From paragraph 7, why do F1 engineers have to redesign engines and tyres?


They have to design engines and tyres that are more powerful and efficient to last through two days of racing

(b)

From paragraph 10, the author says that each series is a battle of man and engines. Why does he say so?
Because it is not only a competition that tests the efficiency and power of engines but also the F1 drivers
driving skills.

Exercise 3
Answers
1. They do not have a clear goal to work towards.
2. Having practical skills makes it easier for them to find better paying jobs.

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3. Most of them feel that they'd rather continue with their studies.
4. They can study for a degree as they like, and complete it in a shorter time.
5. The two ways are: (i) They can join a twinning program after SPM and get a degree from a foreign university. (ii) They
can join the Matriculation or Diploma program in a local university after SPM.
6. They used the wrong method of studying for the STPM exams.
7. STPM equips a person with the necessary knowledge and skills for his future use. (i) It gives one a comprehensive
academic groundwork for tertiary education. (Ii) it trains one to think critically and thus be better quipped for working
life.
8. options
9. processing
10.critical

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