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Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible

Contents
AQA SPEC 3.1.1 AS Section A: Materials and Components....................................6
3.3.1 A2 Section A: Materials and Components.....................................................6
AQA SPEC 3.1.2 AS Section B: Design and Market Influences................................8
3.3.2 A2 Section B: Design and Market Influences.................................................8
AQA SPEC 3.1.3 AS Section C: Processes and Manufacture.................................10
3.3.3 A2 Section C: Processes and Manufacture..................................................10
Fibres................................................................................................................... 14
Microfibers........................................................................................................ 17
Modern microfibers........................................................................................... 17
Natural Fibres...................................................................................................... 17
Cotton:.............................................................................................................. 17
Linen:................................................................................................................ 18
Sisal.................................................................................................................. 18
Wool:................................................................................................................ 19
Cashmere:........................................................................................................ 20
Mohair:............................................................................................................. 20
Ramie............................................................................................................... 21
Silk:................................................................................................................... 21
Cultivated Silk:................................................................................................. 21
Wild Silk:........................................................................................................... 22
Manufactured Fibres............................................................................................ 22
Asbestos:.......................................................................................................... 22
Viscose:............................................................................................................ 22
Lyocell:............................................................................................................. 23
Modal:............................................................................................................... 24
Acetate:............................................................................................................ 24
Rubber:............................................................................................................. 24
Acrylic: (Polyacrylic)......................................................................................... 25
PVC: (Chlorofibre) (Polyvinyl)............................................................................25
Elastane: (Elastomeric) (Lycra).........................................................................25
Fluorofibres:...................................................................................................... 26
PTFE:................................................................................................................ 26
Nylon: (polyamides).......................................................................................... 26
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Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible


Polyester:.......................................................................................................... 27
Polyolefines: (polyethylene) (polypropylene)....................................................27
Aramid:............................................................................................................. 28
Glass:................................................................................................................ 28
Carbon:............................................................................................................. 29
Metallic:............................................................................................................ 29
Ceramics:......................................................................................................... 29
Yarns.................................................................................................................... 30
Twist................................................................................................................. 30
Folded Yarns..................................................................................................... 31
Blends.................................................................................................................. 34
Woven Fabrics...................................................................................................... 35
Plain Weave...................................................................................................... 35
Twill Weave....................................................................................................... 36
Satin Weave...................................................................................................... 36
Pile Weaves...................................................................................................... 37
Brocade Weave................................................................................................. 38
Jacquard weave................................................................................................ 38
Tartan:.............................................................................................................. 38
Crepe:............................................................................................................... 39
Traditional and cultural methods of producing fabric........................................40
Warp and Weft-Knitted Fabrics............................................................................. 41
Plain Weft Knit:................................................................................................. 42
Single Jersey Knit:............................................................................................. 42
Double Jersey:................................................................................................... 43
Rib Knit:............................................................................................................ 43
Jacquard Knit:................................................................................................... 43
Pique Knit:........................................................................................................ 43
Warp Knit:......................................................................................................... 44
Tricot:................................................................................................................ 44
Locknit.............................................................................................................. 44
Velour:.............................................................................................................. 44
Polar Fleece:..................................................................................................... 44
Panel Knitting:.................................................................................................. 45
Piece Goods:..................................................................................................... 45
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Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible


3D Whole-Garment Knitting:..........................................................................45
Non-Woven Fabrics.............................................................................................. 45
Felt................................................................................................................... 46
Bonded non wovens......................................................................................... 46
Tufted non wovens............................................................................................ 47
Open-work fabrics............................................................................................ 47
Modern and Smart Materials................................................................................ 48
Combination fabrics.......................................................................................... 49
Technology in textiles....................................................................................... 49
Polymers........................................................................................................... 49
Finishes................................................................................................................ 50
Mechanical finishing processes........................................................................51
Chemical finishing processes............................................................................51
Biological finishes............................................................................................. 51
Thermochromatic finishes................................................................................51
Nanomaterials and integrated Components.......................................................51
Integrated electronics....................................................................................... 53
Decorative Techniques......................................................................................... 53
Dyeing and Printing.......................................................................................... 53
Dyeing of fabrics:............................................................................................. 54
Direct Dye......................................................................................................... 54
Reactive Dye.................................................................................................... 54
Vat Dye............................................................................................................. 54
Disperse Dye.................................................................................................... 54
Acid Dye........................................................................................................... 54
Colour fastness of textiles:...............................................................................55
Preparation....................................................................................................... 55
Dyeing Textiles................................................................................................. 56
Hand dyeing..................................................................................................... 56
Commercial dyeing........................................................................................... 57
Continuous dyeing............................................................................................ 57
Batch dyeing.................................................................................................... 57
Printing............................................................................................................. 57
Joining.................................................................................................................. 58
Fastening and Components................................................................................. 58
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Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible


Computer Aided Design (CAD).............................................................................60
Production............................................................................................................ 64
One-off Production............................................................................................ 64
Batch Production.............................................................................................. 64
Mass Production................................................................................................ 64
Other Production Systems................................................................................65
Off-the-Peg Manufacture................................................................................... 65
Just-in-Time Stock Control.................................................................................... 65
Industrial and commercial practice......................................................................65
Manufacturing Systems:...................................................................................65
Stages of Manufacture:........................................................................................ 67
1. Fabric manufacture-...................................................................................... 67
2. Fabric preparation-....................................................................................... 68
Dyeing:............................................................................................................. 68
Printing:............................................................................................................ 69
Finishing Processes:.......................................................................................... 70
Seams.................................................................................................................. 73
British Standards and Health and Safety.............................................................74
British Standards Institute (BSI)........................................................................75
Health and Safety................................................................................................ 75
Health and Safety for the Consumer:..................................................................76
Legislation:....................................................................................................... 76
Textile product maintenance................................................................................77
Development of Technologies and Design...........................................................80
The effects of major developments in textiles technology:...............................80
Some examples of major developments are:...................................................80
Marketing............................................................................................................. 81
Product Life Cycle............................................................................................. 82
Marketing and Advertising...................................................................................86
The marketing function:................................................................................... 86
Role of new technology in marketing and sales of textiles products:..................88
Jobs in the Textiles/Fashion Industry....................................................................89
Industrial Textiles................................................................................................. 98
Technical Textiles................................................................................................. 98
Performance Textiles............................................................................................ 98
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Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible


Technological Developments............................................................................... 99
Market Influences................................................................................................ 99
Environmental Issues......................................................................................... 100
Moral Issues....................................................................................................... 101
Fashion designers.............................................................................................. 102
Vivienne Westwood........................................................................................ 102
Paul Smith...................................................................................................... 103
Alexander McQueen....................................................................................... 104
John Galliano................................................................................................... 104
Christian Dior.................................................................................................. 105
Coco Chanel................................................................................................... 106
Art Movements.................................................................................................. 107
Arts and Crafts Movement..............................................................................107
Art Nouveau.................................................................................................... 108
The Bauhaus................................................................................................... 108
Art Deco......................................................................................................... 108
Memphis......................................................................................................... 109

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Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible

AQA SPEC 3.1.1 AS Section A:


Materials and Components

Fibre types READ AQA BOOKLET & TEXTILE


INNOVATION
Source and classification of the main fibre
groups
Understand that fibres come from a variety of
different sources and that their qualities are related
to the fibre group to which they belong. Candidates
should have sufficient outline knowledge of the
manufacturing process to enable them to understand
how this affects properties, eg melt spinning of
synthetic fibres produces smooth continuous
filament. Detailed knowledge of processes is not
required.
Natural fibres
-Plant/cellulose: cotton, linen, ramie
-Animal/protein: wool, silk, hair
Manufactured fibres
-Regenerated fibres: eg viscose, acetate, modal
-Synthetic (including microfibres): eg nylon,
polyester, acrylic, elastomerics, PVC
Commercial names of fibres and fabrics
Be aware of popular names of natural, man-made and
synthetic fibres and fabrics, including Tactel, Lyocell,
Tencel, Lycra, polar fleece and Trevira

Yarns READ AQA BOOKLET & TEKOT HANDOUT


Carding, spinning
Understand that fibres need to be made into yarns to
manufacture woven and knitted fabrics.
The importance of twist

3.3.1 A2 Section A: Materials


and Components

Fibre Classification and Generic Names READ AQA


BOOKLET & TEXTILE INNOVATION
Classification of fibres from both traditional and nontraditional sources for identification of and an understanding
of the products developed from these
fibres
Natural fibres
generic terms Cellulose (vegetable); bast, leaf and
seed fibres
Protein (animal); wool, silk (cultivated and wild varieties)
luxury hair fibres, including cashmere, mohair, angora,
llama, Vicuna
Mineral; asbestos.
Man-made fibres
Regenerated fibres
Natural polymers Regenerated cellulosic; viscose, modal,
lyocell, cupro, acetate and triacetate, rubber, alginate,
Synthetic
Synthetic polymers; elastomeric, fluorofibres, polyamides,
polyacrylic (acrylics), polyesters, Chlorofibres(polyvinyl),
polyolefines (polyethylene, polypropylene) Aramid fibres
Inorganic, including glass, carbon, metallic, ceramics
read textiles innovation
Shape and formation of fibres An understanding of
the different cross-sectional and linear formation that fibres
can occur in both natural form and those that can be
engineered during synthetic and man-made fibre production
Commercial Names of Fibres and Fabrics
A knowledge of commercial names of fibres and fabrics used
in sales and marketing and the recognition of brand
familiarity and fibre and fabric promotion.
Technical Terms Related to Yarns
Tex, denier systems for numbering yarns

Yarn types
Knowledge of basic yarn types and how they
influence the qualities of the fabrics made from
them, eg staple and filament yarns, single and plied
yarns, textured and bulked yarns, fancy yarns
Blending and mixing of fibres
Staple fibre blends, core spun
Fabric manufacture READ AQA BOOKLET& TEKOT
HANDOUT
Knowledge of the structure of the main construction
methods and the differences between them.
Understanding of the qualities given to the fabrics by
the construction methods, including typical end-uses
Woven
Plain (Tabby)
Twill and satin weaves
Pile weaves, eg cut/loop pile
Special effects achieved with coloured yarns and
Blended fibres, boucle and crepe fabrics
Knitted
Weft knits, eg single and double jerseys, rib knit,
hand and machine knits
Warp knits, including, tricot, velour

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Fabric Construction Methods READ AQA BOOKLET &


TEXTILE INNOVATION
Knowledge of Industrial and hand methods of fabric
construction methods
Understanding of a wide range of woven structures,
including basic and fancy weaves, twill and satin variations,
brocades, jacquards, three yarn system woven fabrics,
double cloth and pique fabrics
Special woven effects: yarn dyed stripes, plaids, tartans,
madras, checks and crepe
Knowledge of global cultural woven traditions; including the
Ashanti strip weaving, the Back strap looms used in South
America, Ikat weaving in Indonesia
Understanding of a range of knitted structures weft knit;

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible


Non-wovens
Production of felts and bonded fabrics

plain, single jersey, double jersey, pique, rib knits, jacquard


knits, warp knit, locknit, atlas, Raschel lace and net
structures
Hand and machine knitted methods, panel knitting, fully
fashioned panels, whole garment knitting
Non-woven methods of fabric manufacture felted, bonded
(adhesive or heat), needled. Methods of bonded
manufacture, lamination, stitch bonded
Methods of creating open work fabric leno, lace,
net, crotchet, macram
Braid and narrow fabrics

Smart materials created to provide specific properties


READ TEXTILE INNOVATION& AQA BOOKLET

Influence of new technology, micro fibres, breathable


membrane systems.

Awareness of a range of different smart fabrics, eg


heat reactive, fabrics developed for health and safety
applications, performance fabrics
Fabric finishes READ AQA BOOKLET & TEKOT HANDOUT
Knowledge of the effects of finishes and the reasons
they are needed in relation to the fibre/fabric
properties and end use of the product. Detailed
knowledge of the chemicals involved and methods of
application is not required.
Brushing, calendering, flame retardancy, water
resistance, non-iron/crease resistance, stain
resistance, shrink resistance, heat setting to give
permanent pleats
Surface decoration READ AQA BOOKLET & TEKOT
HANDOUT
Dyeing; domestic and industrial methods (vat,
discharge and resist), stages at which dye is applied
(fibre, yarn, fabric, finished product), dye fastness
Printing (screen, roller, transfer, ink jet, stencilling)
Embroidery, quilting
Product components READ TEKOT HANDOUT
Candidates should have knowledge of a variety of
components and their appropriateness for a range of
products in relation to the end-user, fabric and
design considerations.
Fastenings
Including buttons with buttonholes/loops, zips,
poppers, clips, buckles, clasps, Velcro, D-rings, hooks
and eyes, fabric and ribbon ties
Trims
Including braids, ribbons, piping, edgings,
petersham,bindings, fringing, lace, beads, sequins,
diamantes, motifs
Threads
Including sewing threads, embroidery threads,
special effect threads
Working properties of fibres and fabrics READ TEXTILE
INNOVATION
Knowledge and understanding of the properties of
fibres and fabrics and their physical characteristics in
relation to their choice for various design solutions
Fibre properties
Strength, extensibility, elasticity, fineness,
electrostatic charge, lustre, thermal insulation,
flammability, moisture absorption, shrinkage
Fabric qualities

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Working Properties
Properties of fibres, yarns and fabrics
An understanding of how properties of different fibres, yarns
and fabrics can affect their use in a wide range of
commercial applications
An awareness of new performance codes in relation to the
selection of materials for a range of end uses
Identify, test and compare the relative properties of
fabrics
Knowledge of commercial testing to meet British Standards

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible


Strength, durability, elasticity, flammability, thermal
qualities, creasing, absorption, stretch, formability,
handle, drape, weight, pattern repeat, directional
pile, nap, texture, lustre

(BSI fabric testing)

Testing of materials WATCH DVD


Experience of basic testing to determine appropriate
properties in relation to chosen end use

Evaluate the use of materials testing as set out in British


Standards

Awareness of fabric testing undertaken in industry


Manipulating and combining materials READ AQA
BOOKLET & TEKOT HANDOUT
Understand the need to combine materials and have
outline knowledge of the main methods used.
Mixtures, blends and laminates
Fibre content, properties and typical applications,
reasons for use
Combining materials
Interfacings, underlinings, linings, interlinings; types
and applications in relation to fabric weight and
construction, and end use of product

Consumer advice in relation to the performance of different


fabrics

Manipulating and Combining Materials


Yarn creation
Understanding of yarn types; folded/plied, cabled, core,
fancy, colour effects, structure effects (slub, bourette,
boucle, chenille), lustre effects, texturing and textured yarns
Categories of yarns novelties, specialised, performance.
The importance of mixtures, blends and laminates to
include the development of new technologies
Understand the need to blend fibres or produce mixture
fabrics or laminates to create aesthetic effects, performance
fabrics, improved care and maintenance
The impact of new developments, including smart and
reactive materials such as phase changing materials,
phosphorescent materials, microencapsulated fibres and
fabrics

AQA SPEC 3.1.2 AS Section B:


Design and Market Influences

Development of design
http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0767725.html
History of design
Study to include some of the major developments of
design throughout the nineteenth and twentieth
centuries
Understanding of influences on aesthetic attitudes to
style and fashion up to the present day
Product evolution and product analysis
A study of manufactured products to illustrate the
way in which the demands of a product have evolved
as a result of new materials and technologies.
Appraisal of functional, aesthetic, technical and
economic considerations in the design and
manufacture of products
Consideration of aspects of physical surroundings as
shaped by designers, craftsmen and technologists
Design in practice
Design methodology
Analysis, research, inspiration, idea generation,
illustration, modelling, planning, evaluating and
testing
The role of the designer
An understanding of the varying roles of the
commercial designer
Exploring different approaches to designing
Understanding of manufacturing constraints on
product design

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3.3.2 A2 Section B: Design and


Market Influences
Development of Technologies and Design

The effects of major developments in textiles


technology
Developments in the production of fibre, yarns, fabric,
product manufacture, finish, colour application and
decoration, production systems, computer control and
increased automation
New technological developments in textiles product
design
The work of past and present textile designers
As related to textile and fashion products in particular, but
also to include design movements and the inherent
influences on product design, including trends, street
culture, music and the media, world events. To have an
understanding of the developments of fashion in clothing,
accessories and furnishings. To appreciate the influence and
contribution of leading fashion and textile designers.
Design in Practice
Product life cycle
An understanding of life cycle analysis concepts of product
introduction, growth, maturity, decline and replacement,
product disposal relating to the life cycle of a product
impact of recycling and environmental issues
Fashion cycles
Sales and marketing cycles for product groups including
fad, classic, standard. Industry development cycles from
colour, fibre trends and predictions to products at the point
of sale, eg Influence of trends from fashion, cultural and
media sources. Importance and purpose of trade fairs,
influence of trends and changes in lifestyle on textile

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible


An awareness of the environmental issues in relation
to the design of textile products
Social and moral implications of product design
Design sources
Candidates should be able to respond to a variety of
stimuli drawing from direct observation of natural
and man-made forms, secondary sources in relation
to specified design briefs.
Aiding the design process
Use of inspirational moodboards, designer
sketchbooks. Analysing working and aesthetic
characteristics of a range of materials and surface
decoration techniques. Understand industrial process
used to produce these effects. Recognising design
faults in existing products
Market research
Client profiling, identifying target market,
consumer and product research, eg opinion polls,
questionnaires
The marketing function
Customer identification
An awareness of the use of new technology in the
marketing of textile products
Product costing, calculation and profit
Presentation of colourways
Product life cycles
Understanding the expected life cycle of products
Copyright protection
The issue of copyright, patenting and their
importance to the designer and manufacturer

products, lifestyle analysis


Understanding target markets, analysing existing products
The marketing function
Marketing and branding of new fibres and other textile
products
The importance of labelling, packaging and corporate
identification
The advertising and promotion of textile products using a
wide range of media and the use of new technology
The purpose of marketing mix of product, place, promotion,
price use of visual merchandising different retail markets
and points of sale
Role of new technology in marketing and sales of
textiles products
Developments in virtual reality and product simulation
New technology marketing and product promotion
e commerce
An awareness of multi-national textile companies and the
concept of global marketing
Meeting customer requirements/profitability through
identifying socio-economic groups and demographic
trends, niche marketing
The role of professionals within the textiles industry
The role of buyer, merchandiser, fabric and garment
technologist, visual merchandiser
The role of the designer
The professional interfaces between client/designer,
designer/manufacturer, manufacturer/retailer,
manufacturer/user
An awareness of constraints placed upon designers
including environmental issues Social, political, ethical
influences
Selection of materials and components appropriate to
specific market requirements
Working to client specifications, designing within Budgets
Product classification
Textile product groups garment product groups
including menswear, womenswear, childrenswear,
workwear, sportswear, accessories, foundationwear,
leisurewear, formal dress, suitability of products for
identified market
Furnishing textiles for domestic and public places
Industrial textiles
performance textiles protective textiles
Retail point of sales High street independent department
stores and boutiques, multiple retailers, multiple
department stores, chains, mail order, web sites, interactive
media

Communication methods
Candidates should be able to communicate the detail
and form of products, environments and systems so
that they may be manufactured
They should be able to identify and use appropriate
means to communicate ideas, design proposals and
evaluations to a range of audiences, including clients
and potential users of the product, eg presentation
boards, fashion illustration, interior sketches,
swatches, colourways
Illustration
Selection and use of appropriate 2D/3D techniques,
eg sketching, drawing, use of mixed media, collage
Enhancement

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Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible


Rendering use of line/tone/colour/form
Texture to represent materials, surface finishes and
applied decoration
Presentation two-dimensional and threedimensional
Products
Information drawing
Quantitative graphs, pie charts, bar charts,
pictograms
Organisational and topological flow charts,
sequential/schematic
Modelling
Using three-dimensional form mock-ups,
prototypes, scale models
Use of ICT
Selection and use of CAD, word processing/DTP,
spreadsheets, databases and modelling software
Design in the human context
Human needs
Designing to meet physiological, psychological and
sociological needs of various groups of people, eg
young, elderly, physically handicapped in different
environments and communities
Human factors
Ergonomic and anthropometric influences and
constraints
The relationship between people, products and the
environment
Health and safety READ AQA BOOKLET & TEKOT
HANDOUT
Risk assessment in relation to the design and
manufacture of products
Safety standards imposed by BSI, recommended by
the DTI for product design
Recommendations for health and safety at work for
employees and the implications for the employer

Design in the Human Context


Health and Safety
Issues of health and safety in relation to industrial,
commercial and trading practices health and safety of
users of textile products COSHH
BSI standards for product testing
Impact of technological development
Balance between gain and loss for the individual and the
community in terms of ethical, social, environmental and
economic considerations.
Environmental concerns
Use of natural resources, organic production, materials
utilisation, conservation, waste disposal/ management,
pollution, recycling, Green technology, environmental
problems, planned obsolescence

Applications/material areas
Apparel fabrics to satisfy basic clothing
requirements, eg protection, adornment, fashion,
utility, sportswear (performance sport and
leisurewear), footwear, accessories
Household fabrics, eg table/bed linen, furnishing
accessories, furnishings, floorings
Industrial textiles, eg fire protective wear,
components for vehicles/machines, automotive
fabrics, tents, awnings, harnesses, medical textiles
READ TEKOT HANDOUT
Environmental concerns READ AQA BOOKLET
Use of natural resources, materials utilisation,
conservation, waste disposal/management, pollution
in broad terms, recycling Green technology,
environmental problems

AQA SPEC 3.1.3 AS Section C:


Processes and Manufacture
Industrial and commercial practice
READ AQA BOOKLET & TEKOT HANDOUT
Manufacturing systems
One-off, batch, mass/line production, vertical, inhouse production, pre-manufactured components,

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3.3.3 A2 Section C: Processes


and Manufacture
Industrial and Commercial Practice

Appreciation and understanding of the use of CAM for fabric


printing, knitting and weaving, pattern drafting and grading,
robotic control for garment construction

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible


manufacturing specifications
Response to market demands
Manufacturing sub-systems
Just in time production (JIT)
ICT application
Knowledge and understanding of CAD/CAM for
designing and manufacturing processes, fabric
production, pattern production, embroidery, garment
manufacture
CAD (Computer Aided Design); design of fabrics,
products, colourways, product modelling pattern
construction
CAM (Computer Aided Manufacture); understanding
of fabric manufacture, lay planning, computer
controlled cutting, sewing, pressing, decoration
ICT used in the integration of manufacture (CIM)
Pattern drafting
Basic pattern/template drafting, including the
knowledge and use of technical terms (basic block,
labelling and notching, balance marks, seam
allowance and ease)

Use of ICT in manufacturing data control (EDI)


EDP (Electronic Data Processing)
EDI (Electronic Data Interchange)
CAA (Computer Aided Administration) stock control
CAD (Computer Aided Design) design of fabrics,
products, colourways, product modelling, pattern
construction
CAM (Computer Aided Manufacture) understanding
and application of fabric manufacture, lay planning,
size grading, controlled cutting, controlled decoration,
controlled construction, controlled pressing
PPC (Production Planning and Control) networking
Future implications CIM (Computer Integrated
Manufacture)
Global Production
Global production offshore production imports and
exports, branded contracted goods
Manufacturers Sub-contractors, wholesalers, CMT
(Cut, make and trim) operations
Product Maintenance
Care and maintenance of products HLCC
International labelling, symbols, descriptions
Understanding of temperature requirements for different
fibres
Testing for colour fastness

Principles of grading
Basic adaptation to create unique individual styles
Product manufacture
Fabric preparation, lay planning, marking and cutting
out, methods of joining, shaping, finishing of edges,
selection of construction techniques appropriate to
the fabric being used and the product being made.
Pressing use of correct tools
Labelling and packaging
To plan appropriate methods and processes for the
manufacture of chosen products, including
amendments and adaptations of prototypes and the
use of industrial manufacturing processes
Product maintenance
Care and maintenance of products
Information shown on care labels, including symbols
used
Relationship between care recommendations and
fibre/fabric properties
Environmental concerns
An awareness of the environmental issues in relation
to fibre/fabric production and the dyeing of fabrics
and piece goods
Health and safety
Risk assessment and health and safety issues related
to the manufacture of textile products

Health and Safety


Risk assessment, Health and Safety issues related to
production. Role of the HSE and Health and Safety legal
requirements
Product Manufacturing
Fibre, yarn and fabric manufacture
Knowledge of the processes used to manufacture fibres and
yarns use of texturing processes including false -twist, knit
de knit, air jet production of stretch yarns, bulked yarns,
formation of fancy yarns including chenille
Fabric manufacture
Dyeing: Preparation of fabric (desizing, scouring, bleaching),
batch dyeing processes (jig, winch, jet dyeing methods),
continuous dyeing, semicontinuous, resist methods
Dye affinity to different fibres, including direct, reactive, vat,
disperse, acid
Grey or greige goods, the dyeing of fibres (stock and top),
yarns (skeins), fabric (piece goods), garments
Dyeing in response to consumer demand, dyeing in relation
to seasonal trends
Printing methods: direct, discharge, transfer, resist, hand
(block, stencils), roller, rotary/flat bed screenprinting, digital
printing
Finishing: Intermediate processes including fixation,
washing, drying and heat setting
Mechanical finishing including raising, calendering,
embossing, pleating, shrinking, beetling, stone and sand
washing, laser cutting
Chemical finishing including water repellency, laminating,
stain resistance, flame resistance, antistatic, mothproofing,
anti-pilling, rot proofing, antifelting, hygienic (sanitised)
Coating and lamination
New developments in finishes, including smart and reactive
finishes, reflective finishes, photochromic
dyes,

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Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible


Product manufacture
Production systems and distribution organisation of
manufacturing companies
Understanding of Unit production, quantity production;
understanding of bespoke production
Production Organisation Systems: synchronised, section,
progressive bundle, UPS (Unit production system), to include
line and team working, QRM teams
Production Planning and Control: line balancing,
factory load, warehouse packing and dispatch
Response to market demands (QRM)
In-depth production planning to include inputs,
processes, outputs, loops and feedback
Understanding of the processes
Systems and Control

Systems and control READ AQA BOOKLET & TEKOT


HANDOUT
Quality assurance and quality control
Quality control checks throughout the manufacturing
process
Systems diagrams input, process, output
Loop feedback systems which ensure quality
Awareness of quality and finish in the manufacture of
own products

Quality control systems


Control of quality throughout the manufacturing process
quality built into design inspection checks for quality
Quality assurance, conformance and nonconformance. TQM
control systems. Quality control data systems for
garment/product manufacture
Awareness of quality and finish in the manufacture of
own products

3.1.1 AS Section A: Materials and


Components
Warmth

Absorbency

Comfort

(comfort)

(comfort)

(comfort)

3.3.1 A2 Section A: Materials and


Components
Handle and
drape

Strength

Elasticity

Aftercare

(functional)

(functional)

(functional)

(aesthetics)

Natural fibres
Wool

Warm to
wear.

Slow, can
absorb

Silk

Cashmere

Mohair

Cotton

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Cool, but
good
insulation so
warm as
well.
Very warm.
Excellent
thermal
insulation.
Good
thermal
insulation.
35% warmer
than wool.
Cool to wear
unless
brushed.

1
3

its weight in
water and not
feel wet. Repels
water droplets.
Very slow
drying.
Fast, can
absorb

1
3

its weight in
water.
Slow
absorbency.
Poor.

Highly
absorbent.
Slow drying.

Fine wool, very


comfortable.
Coarse wool,
scratchy.

Very soft or
coarse
handle.
Good drape.

Medium
strength, not
durable.

Very good.
Creases
drop out.

Wash and iron


with care, may
shrink. Dry clean.

Very
comfortable.

Soft handle
and elegant
drape.

Good
strength.

Very good,
creases
drop out.

Wash and iron


with care, best
dry cleaned.

Soft and
luxurious.
Excellent
comfort.
Excellent,
luxurious.

Luxurious
handle, light,
good drape.

Not-durable.

Wash with care.

Luxury
handle, light
and good
drape.

Durable,
hardwearing.
10% stronger
than wool.

Good
elasticity.
Crease
resistant.
Good.
Crease
resistant.

Very
comfortable
unless wet.

Soft handle.
Good drape.

Good
strength,
abrasion

Poor.
Creases
easily.

Wash, boil, iron


damp. May
shrink.

Use extreme
care.

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible


Angora

Very warm. 2
X warmer
than wool.
Average
warmth

Slow.

Very soft

Good
absorbency

Very
comfortable
especially in
warm weather

Fresh and
cool to wear.

Highly
absorbent. Fast
drying.

Stiffer and
harder than
cotton.

Low warmth.

More absorbent
than cotton.

Comfortable to
wear.

Lyocell
(high performance
viscose fibre)

Low warmth.

Very good
absorbency.
More absorbent
than cotton.

Very
comfortable.

Rubber
(natural from
latex)
(synthetic from
petrochemicals)
Modal
(regenerated)

Good, high
warmth.

Low
absorbency.

Stretchy,
poor drape.

Low warmth.

Highly
absorbent. 50%
more absorbent
than cotton.

Uncomfortable
due to lack of
breathability.
Warm, pliable
and soft.
Very
comfortable.
Very soft.

Asbestos
(mineral fibre
mined)
Acetate

Good
thermal
insulation.
Low warmth.

Poor.

Itchy, often
uncomfortable.
Comfortable, but
prone to static.

Polyester

Low warmth,
unless
textured.

Aramid
(Kevlar)

Low warmth.
Excellent
heat
resistance.

Low
absorbency.
Fast drying.
Very low
absorbency.
Hydrophobic.
Fast drying.
Average.

Rough
handle. Poor
drape.
Soft handle
and elegant
drape.
Soft or firm
handle.

Polyamide (Nylon)

Low warmth,
unless
textured.

Elastane
(elastomeric
fibres) (Lycra)
Fluorofibres

Low %
always used
in blends.
Low warmth.

Very low
absorbency.
Hydrophobic.
Fast drying.
Absorbent.
Dyes well.

Chlorofibre
(polyvinyl)
(PVC)
Polyolefines
(polyethylene)
(polypropylene)

Ramie

Linen

Manufactured fibres
Viscose

13 | P a g e

Fair
elasticity.

Hand wash, cool.


Do not tumble dry.

One of the
strongest
natural fibres.
Even stronger
when wet. Not
very durable.

Little
elasticity.

Can be washed
or dry-cleaned.

Good strength
and durability.

Poor.
Creases
very badly.

Wash, boil, easily


ironed.

Lower
strength than
cotton.
Stronger than
other cellulose
fibred,
including
cotton and
many types of
polyester.
Good natural
stretch.

Poor.
Creases
easily.
Poor.

Washable. Easy
to iron.

Excellent.
Does not
crease.

Lower
strength,
abrasion
resistance and
durability than
cotton.
Excellent.

Poor
elasticity.
Creases
easily.

Sensitive to light,
oils, solvents and
grease. Cant be
washed easily.
Recyclable.
Washable. Do not
bleach. Easy to
iron. Can be drycleaned and
ironed.

Low strength.
Poor abrasion
resistance.
Very strong
and abrasion
resistant.

Higher than
viscose, but
creases.
Very good.
Crease
resistant.

Soft, flexible
handle.
Good drape.

Five times
stronger than
steel.
Excellent.

Flexible.

Comfortable, but
prone to static.
Micro fibres
breathable.
Adds stretch
comfort.

Soft or firm
handle.

Very strong
and abrasion
resistant.

Very good.
Crease
resistant.

Soft or firm
handle.

Good
strength.

Breathable.
Flexible.

Soft, fine
handle.

Durable.

Provides
good
insulation.
Warm.

Non-absorbent.
Doesnt dye
well.
Low
absorbency.
Hydrophobic.
Waterproof.

Very high.
Crease
resistant.
Fair
elasticity.

Breathable and
flexible.

Strong, firm,
fine handle.

Very strong
and durable.

Flexible.

Low warmth.

Non-absorbent.

Soft when finely


spun.

Good drape.

High strength.
Durable.

Good
stretch.
Crease

Comfortable, but
prone to static.
Micro fibres
breathable.
Flexible and
comfortable.

Soft handle.
Average
drape.
Can have
stiff or brittle
handle.
Doesnt
drape well
due to
stiffness.
Firm handle.
Smooth
surface.
Good drape.

resistance,
and durability.
Durable.

Soft or firm
handle.
Good drape.
Excellent
handle.
Good drape.

Silky, soft
handle.
Good drape.

Poor.

Disposable.
Totally
biodegradable,
can be recycled.
Biodegrades in 8
days.

Difficult. Easycare finish can be


applied.
Wash and iron
with care.
Thermoplastic.
Machine
washable. Iron
with care.
Thermoplastic.
Machine
washable. Use
detergents with
care to ensure
properties are not
reduced.
Machine
washable. Iron
with care.
Thermoplastic.
Machine
washable.
Thermoplastic.
Degrades slowly.
Used as a
coating.
Machine
washable. Fast
drying. Iron with
care. Do not
tumble dry.
Good soil and
stain release, but
not oil or grease.

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible


Acrylic
(polyacrylic)

Warm to
wear.

Fast drying.

Comfortable to
wear.

Very soft
wool-like
handle,
good drape.

Good
strength.

resistant.
Very good.
Crease
resistant.

Fibres
Fibres are the basis for all textiles. You need to know the difference between natural and synthetic
fibres, how each fibre is used, and which fibres can be combined together.
Textile materials are made in three stages:
1. spinning: fibres are spun into yarns
2. weaving or knitting: yarns become fabrics
3. finishing: fabrics are finished to make them more useful
A fibre is a fine and flexible textile raw material, which has a high ration of length to thickness. All
fibres can be classified as natural or manufactured. Fibres can be short or very long, depending on
where they came from and how they were manufactured.

Staple fibres are relatively short in length. Natural staple fibres can range in length from a few
millimetres, to around a metre.
All synthetic fibres are manufactured as continuous filaments of indefinite length, which run
the whole length of the yarn. Some synthetic continuous filaments are cut into staple lengths.
Silk is the only natural continuous filament fibre. It can be as long as one kilometre, when it is
taken from the silk cocoon.

Working Properties Of Fibres And Fabrics


Fibre Properties:
-

Aesthetic (to do with the look)


Functional
Comfort

Strength- whether or not a fibre will break under tension


Extensibility- how much a fibre can stretch until it breaks
Elasticity- how much a fibre will stretch and regain its original shape
Fineness- the thickness of the fibre
Electrostatic charge- if a fibre contains static, it will be clingy and not drape well. Synthetic
fibres are prone to static.
Lustre- a slight shine
Thermal insulation- whether the fibre is a good or bad conductor of heat

14 | P a g e

Machine
washable. Iron
with care, may
shrink.
Thermoplastic.

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible


Flammability- all fibres burn, flammability is to do with whether the fibre will catch fire quickly or
not and how it reacts to heat, i.e. will it melt?
Moisture absorption- the amount of liquid the fibre will absorb, important to know because of
comfort of wearer and ease of washing/drying time etc.
Shrinkage- whether or not a fibre will shrink when washed, tumble-dried or ironed etc.

Fabric qualities
Durability-whether the fabric will withstand wear and tear, is it resistant to abrasion, will rubbing
cause the surface to pill (go bobbly)
Creasing- will the fabric keep creases in or shed them easily
Stretch- how far the fabric will stretch
Formability- does the fabric hold its shape well?
Handle- is the fabric soft? How does it feel when handled?
Drape- how the fabric hangs, is the fabric supple and flexible?
Weight- is the fabric heavy or light, is the weight suitable for its purpose?
Pattern repeat- is the printed pattern a large or small repeat? This will effect how economical it
will be to cut out the fabric pieces so that the pattern lines up when made into a garment
Directional pile- the raised surface of a pile fabric or brushed fabric, does it look different when
looked at from different directions, e.g. velvet that looked different from different angles.
Nap- the raised surface of a pile fabric or brushed fabric
Texture- what the fabric feels like, is it smooth, bobbly, rough etc

Microfibers
Microfiber technology combines a high number of very fine fibres into one yarn of decitex or less. This
means that 10 kilometres of the filament weigh one gram or less. A microfiber is around 60 to 100
times finer than a human hair. Microfibers can be:

Manufactured from polyester, polyamide or acrylic.


Blended with other synthetic fibres of with natural fibres.
Used in fabrics that have an enormous variety of appearances and end-uses.
Used in smart and technical fabrics for active wear, all weather wear and for a range of
industrial uses.

Modern microfibers

Elastane (Lycra) is always used in a blend with other fibres. It is used to make sportswear,
body-hugging clothes and bandages. It has good handle and drape, is durable, crease
resistant, stretchy (more comfortable) and is easy care. It has low warmth and is absorbent.

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Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible

Tencel is a 'natural' microfiber made from cellulose derived from wood-pulp. It is used for
shirts and jeans. It has soft handle, good drape, is breathable, durable, crease-resistant,
easy-care and biodegradable. It is absorbent and has low warmth.

Natural Fibres
Vegetable Fibres (cellulose)
Seed
Cotton
Stem
Linen (flax)
Leaf

Sisal

Animal Fibres (protein)


Wool
Wool
Fine hair
Cashmere
Mohair
Silk
Cultivated
Wild

Mineral Fibres
Silicate

Asbestos

Cotton:

Cool to wear unless brushed


Highly absorbent
Slow drying
Very comfortable unless wet
Soft handle
Good drape
Good strength, abrasion resistance and durability
Poor elasticity creases easily
Natural cellulose from the seed of the cotton plant
Produced as a staple fibre
Absorbs up to 65% of own weight without dripping
Non-static because it always contains some moisture
Naturally breathable
Biodegradable and recyclable
Fabrics:
calico, corduroy, denim, gingham, drill, terry towelling
Finishes:
mercerising for higher strength and lustre
synthetic resin treatment non-iron and crease resist
stain-resist finishes using Teflon or silicone
flame retardant finish using Proban
Cotton is harvested by hand or by picking machines and may need to be dried if harvested wet
Cotton plants require a tropical climate and wet soil for growth
The fibres are separated from the seeds by a process called ginning. The separated fibres are called
lint.
Typically blended with polyester, polyamide, viscose, modal, Elastane.
Common blend ratios 50/50 60/40 70/30
Typical cotton fabrics include, calico, corduroy, denim, gingham, drill, terry towelling
Typical end uses include household linen, curtains and towels, shirts, underwear, trousers and jeans,
work wear, awnings and sewing thread.
Washable, can be boiled and bleached, dries slowly, best ironed damp, can be dry-cleaned and tumble
dried (may shrink)

Linen:

Natural cellulose from the stem of the flax plant


Produced as staple fibres
Fresh and cool to wear
Strong, durable, long lasting, smooth surface, good drape

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Highly absorbent, fast drying, fresh and cool to wear


Non-static because it always contains some moisture
Crisp, firm handle, stiffer and harder than cotton
Shrink proof, washes, irons and dyes well
Low elasticity, so creases very badly
Dirt-repellent, anti-microbial
Biodegradable and recyclable
Synthetic resin treatment for crease-resist finish
Stain-resist finishes using Teflon or silicone
Fabrics:
interlining, Holland (for window blinds), mattress ticking, pure linen for clothing
Typical blends include Linen 50% Cotton 50%, Linen 70% Nylon 25% Elastane 5%, Linen
70% Modal 30%, Linen 50% Cotton 46% Acrylic 4%.
Typically blended with viscose, Tencel, polyester and silk
Typical linen fabrics include interlining, Holland (for window blinds)
Typical end uses include, household linen, tablecloths, curtains, and tea towels, shirts, skirts,
and suits, ropes, sewing thread and geotextiles
Washable, can be boiled and bleached, quick drying, irons easily when damp, can be drycleaned and tumble dried.

Sisal:

This is a natural sustainable fibre, produced from the leaves of the agave cactus. Sisal is high
strength, durable, easy to dye, water resistant, has good abrasion resistance, good anti-static
properties and is fairly easy to keep clean. It is used for agricultural twines, ropes, hairbrush
bristles, baskets and natural floor coverings, which can be blended with wool to make them
softer and warmer.

Wool:

Wool from the fleece of a sheep


Produced as staple fibres

Hydrophilic can absorb

Naturally breathable, rapidly absorbs moisture vapour


Hydrophobic repels raindrops
Mostly non-static because if always contains some moisture
Very soft or coarse handle, depending on fineness.
Good drape
Medium strength, not durable
Smooth can be cool
Bulky warm
Inbuilt UV protection and fire-resistance
At least 40% inbuilt natural stretch and elasticity good crease resistance, creases drop out
Bio-degradable and recyclable

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1
3

of its weight in water without feeling wet

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible

Machine washable wool for wovens and knitwear at 40C, using the wool cycle and
approved detergents
Total Easy Care Wool for wovens and knitwear
Silicon treatment for weatherproofing
Typical wool fabrics include cool wool, felt, herringbone, flannel, sport wool, tartan, tweed
Typical end uses include blanket, carpets and upholstery, suits, jumpers, overcoats, sports
garments, ties, scarves, hats and socks, industrial felts, agricultural blankets and geotextiles
Washable (with care, unless easy finish), do not bleach, very slow drying, steam iron under a
cloth or fabric goes shiny. Can be dry-cleaned. Do not tumble dry, dry in direct sunlight or over
heat.

Woollen Process
Coarse, hairy, irregular, rustic appearance because they are
made from shorter, sometimes coarse staple fibres which are
rubbed during manufacture. Woollen fabrics are finished to
give a felted, hairy surface, suitable for jackets, blankets or
overcoats.
1. Almost any spinnable fibre can be spun using the
woollen system. Compressed bales of washed and
sorted raw wool, recovered wool or other fibres are
fed into a willowing machine for opening and
cleaning the loose fibres.
2. Different fibre and colour types are mixed and oiled
to improve spinning capability.
3. Fibre portions are fed into a carding machine for
orientation and cleaning.
4. A fibre web is divided into ribbons and rubbed to
form the slubbing yarn, which is drafted to the
required fineness, twisted and wound into yarns.

Worsted Process
Smooth, uniform, regular, fine and lustrous because they are
made from longer types of staple wool fibres, which are
combed, doubled and drafted smooth and fine during
manufacture. Worsted fabrics are finished to give a smoothfaced fabric, which shows the yarn colours clearly. They are
used for suits, trousers and skirts.
1. The fleece wool is sorted according to quality,
separated into tufts, cleaned and dried.
2. These are fed into a willowing machine for opening
and cleaning the loose fibres.
3. Different fibre and colour types are mixed and oiled
to improve spinning capability.
4. Fibre portions are fed into a carding machine for
orientation and cleaning.
5. Fibred are doubled, drafted and mixed to improve
their regularity.
6. The short fibres are combed, drafted and twisted
into a yarn roving of the required fineness, twisted
and wound into yarns.

Cashmere:

The fine under hair of the Kel goat from India, Mongolia and Iran, shorn once a year
Produced as staple fibres
One goat produces 200-250 grams per year (just enough for a scarf!)
Two goats produce enough yarn for a 1-ply sweater
It takes 24 goats to produce enough cashmere for a coat
Soft, luxurious handle and appearance
Light, lustrous
Good thermal insulator
Crease-resistant, dirt-repellent
Non-static, fire-resistant
Expensive due to limited supply
Typically blended with wool, silk and polyester
Expensive luxury fabric for coats, and suits

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Luxury knitwear
Luxury interior textiles for cars, planes and yachts

Mohair:

Hair of the angora goat, from Texas, South Africa, Turkey, shorn twice a year
Produced as staple fibres
Soft, silky, luxury handle and touch
Good thermal insulator 35% warmer than wool
Durable, hardwearing 10% stronger than wool, crease-resistant, dyes well
Dust-repellent, fire-resistant
Expensive due to limited supply
Typically blended with wool, cotton and silk
Expensive worsted fabrics for suiting
Eveningwear
Scarves and knitwear

Ramie

High natural lustre which is improved by washing


Natural stain
Sometimes stiff or brittle handle
Doesnt drape well due to stiffness
One of the strongest natural fibres even stronger when wet
Not very durable
Creases very easily poor crease resistance
Little elasticity
Not harmed by mild acids
Dyes easily
Can be bleached

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Resistant to sunlight
Resistant to rotting and all types of bacteria
Keeps shape and doesnt shrink
Can be washed or dry-cleaned
Absorbent
Comfortable to wear especially in warm weather
Insulates well
High cost to the environment

Silk:
Cool but insulating so can be warm
Highly absorbent so slow drying
Very comfortable unless wet
Soft handle
Good drape
Very elegant
Good strength
Very good elasticity
Creases drop out
Wash and iron with care best dry cleaned

Cultivated Silk:

Silk fibres from the cocoon of the Mulberry silkworm


Produced as filaments up to 1km in length and as spun silk
Fine, smooth, lustrous, soft handle, elegant drape
Elastic, fairly crease-resistant, creases drop out

Can absorb up to

Non-static because it always contains some moisture


Strong, durable, light
Cool, but a good insulator, so it also provides warmth
Polyurethane coating to make silk fabric waterproof
Typical fabrics include chiffon, crepe, damask, satin, twill, voile
End uses include, luxury day and evening wear, underwear, wadding for performance
skiwear, racing bike tyre reinforcement, scarves, ties, hats, handbags, umbrellas, sewing and
embroidery threads.
Can be affected by perspiration causing it to rot. Wash carefully, do not bleach, iron on back
of fabric, steam and water can leave stains, best to dry-clean, do not tumble dry or dry in
direct sunlight

1
3

of its weight in water without feeling wet

Wild Silk:

Silk filament fibres from the cocoon of the wild Tussah silk moth
Filaments ad spun silk
Coarse, rustic, uneven, thicker fibre
Harsh handle, heavier than cultivated silk
Absorbent and non-static because it always contains some moisture
Dyes to dark, dull colours, dull lustre
More sensitive than cultivated silk to perspiration could stain

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Manufactured Fibres
Natural
polymers
Regenerated
cellulose
Cellulose
ester
latex

Viscose modal

Synthetic
polymers
Polyvinyl

Acetate

Chlorofibre

Rubber

Polyurethane
Fluorofibre
Polyamide
polyester

Inorganic
Acrylic

Carbon

Carbon fibre

Polyvinyl
chloride (PVC)
Elastane
Teflon
Nylon
polyester

glass

Glass fibre

Metallic
ceramic

Metal fibres
Ceramic fibres

Asbestos:

Mineral fibre mined


Non-flammable
Resistant to chemicals
Resistant to insects and microorganisms
Good thermal insulation
Used where heat resistance was required n products such as car brake linings, roof
insulation, fire-resistant clothing, theatre safety curtains and ironing boards
No longer in use because it is a serious health hazard
Occasionally found in buildings and has to be removed with great care by experts
Modern fibres such as Nomex can provide superior heat and flame resistance, combined with
high-strength and easy-care

Viscose:

Natural cellulose from wood pulp from pine or eucalyptus trees


Produced as staple and filament yarns
More absorbent than cotton, non-static because it always contains some moisture
Naturally breathable, absorbing 14% of water vapour
Fine, with soft handle and good drape
Low ability to trap air low warmth
Lower strength, abrasion resistance and durability than cotton, can tear when wet
Poor elasticity, so creases easily
Dyes and prints to bright colours
Shrinks
Biodegradable and recyclable
Inexpensive to produce
Synthetic resin treatment to reduce creasing and shrinkage although absorbency is reduced
Wide range of finishes can be applied such as textures and crimps
Typically blended with cotton, linen, wool, polyester and Elastane
Filament viscose produces lustrous and crepe fabrics
Staple viscose produces cotton, linen and wool-type fabrics
End uses include curtains, shirts, dresses, lingerie, ribbons and trimmings
Washable, do not bleach, easy to iron, can be dry-cleaned but not tumble dried
Fabrics: filaments lustrous and crepe fabrics
staples cotton, linen and wool-type fabrics
Viscose filaments are manufactured fibres. The spinning process for viscose fibre involves coagulating,
or setting the liquid fibres in a bath of chemicals. The fibres set at an irregular rate which makes tiny
grooves or striations, along the length of the filaments. These striations give the fibre and irregular
cross-section. Viscose has a relatively smooth surface which is able to reflect light. As this can be an
unwanted property, a de-lustring chemical is often added to the spinning solution to reduce this ability to
reflect light. The shape and the cross section of a fibre effects its lustre and handle. The shape of the
cross section of manufactured fibres can be changed using spinnerets with different cross sections.

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Production
1. Raw material, cellulose, is extracted
2. The cellulose is purified, bleached, pressed into sheets and dissolved in sodium hydroxide
3. It is then pressed again, shredded and aged
4. Chemicals are then added and liquid is extruded through the holes of a spinneret in a spinning bath
5. This is Wet Spinning
6. The cellulose solidifies and is drawn into filaments and washed to remove chemicals
Wet spinning is used for Viscose and Acrylics
In wet spinning the polymer solution is extruded into a chemical fluid which solidifies the filaments

Lyocell
The generic name given to a new family of cellulosic
fibres and yarns that have been produced by solvent
spinning. Marketed under the Tencel brand name, it is
a high performance staple Viscose fibre produced from
renewable sources of wood pulp.
The process is widely regarded as being
environmentally friendly and the product offers a
number of advantages over traditional cellulosic fibres.

Tencel
The brand name for a high performance Viscose fibre
made from 100% regenerated cellulose from trees.
Tencel is stronger than Viscose cellulosic fibre and is
characterised by its stiffness and drape.

Lyocell:

High performance staple Viscose fibre


Produced from renewable sources of wood pulp
Made using an environmentally friendly process that recycles non-toxic solvent used in its
manufacture
Can be recycled, incinerated or biodegraded
Lyocell can be digested in sewage and the fibre degrades completely in eight days to leave
water and carbon dioxide only, which can be used to power the sewage plant itself

Fibrillation
Surface effects
Strength
Absorbency
Disposal

Characteristics
The ability for the fibres to spilt to give micro-fine surface hairs. Manufacturers
of technical products can develop these microfibers to suit specific end-uses.
Finishing processes such as dying, milling, felting, sueding, sanding and
brushing are used on woven fabrics, non-wovens and paper.
Lyocell is stronger than other cellulose fibres including cotton and outperforms
many types of polyester.
Lyocell is easy-care, dyes well, has good wicking properties and is breathable.
Totally biodegradable and can be recycled.

Modal:

Natural cellulose from wood pulp


Produced mainly as staple fibre
Mainly used in blends
Absorbs up to 50% more moisture than cotton, non-static because it always contains some
moisture
Naturally breathable
Silky, smooth, very soft handle and good drape
Low ability to trap air low warmth
Lower strength, abrasion resistance and durability than cotton
Poor elasticity, so creases easily
Dyes to brilliant colours
Shrinks less than viscose
Biodegradable and recyclable
Inexpensive to produce
Synthetic resin treatment to reduce creasing and shrinkage, although absorbency is
reduced

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Wide range of finishes can be applied such as textures and crimps


Typically blended with cotton, polyester, wool silk and Elastane
Lustrous fabrics, blended knitted and woven fabrics
End uses include bed and table linen, terry towelling, shirts, jumpers, socks, nightwear,
jackets, sports and active wear and soft denim
Washable, do not bleach, easy to iron, can be dry-cleaned and tumble dried

Acetate:

Cotton cellulose and acetic acid


95% of the acetic acid can be recycled
Produced as filaments and microfibers
Low absorbency, fast drying, prone to static
Naturally breathable
Subdued lustre, smooth, very soft handle with elegant drape
Low warmth, dyes well
More elastic than viscose but creases easily
Thermoplastic, sensitive to dry heat
Biodegradable and recyclable
Inexpensive to produce
End uses include, silk type fabrics for eveningwear etc., microfiber performance fabrics and
embroidery yarns, ribbons and trimmings
Typically blended with wool or viscose for winter fabrics, cotton, linen or silk for summer
fabrics, polyester and Elastane

Rubber:

Natural rubber is made from latex, although synthetic rubber from petrochemicals is mainly
used today. Its natural stretch and pliability have made rubber useful for flooring, waterproof
coverings, types and Wellington boots. In the past, rubber yarns were used to provide stretch
in swimwear and underwear. Rubber can be printed onto garments and accessories and can
be used as moulded hoods and pockets. It can also be applied to specific areas of a product,
such as the fingers of work gloves. Natural rubber is:
o Warm pliable and soft
o Antistatic, antibacterial and anti-slip
o Sensitive to light, oils, solvents or grease
o Not breathable, so ventilation is needed
o Joined by stitching or adhesives
o recyclable

Acrylic: (Polyacrylic)

sourced from petrochemicals


inexpensive to manufacture
can be manufactured as filament of spun fibres
can be spun as microfibers
low absorbance, fast drying, prone to static
good strength, crease-resistant
soft wool-like handle with good drape
warm, easy care
thermoplastic, sensitive to steam and heat, can result in shrinkage
non-renewable resource

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typically blended with wool or viscose for winter fabrics, cotton, linen or silk for summer
fabrics, polyester or Elastane

PVC: (Chlorofibre) (Polyvinyl)

Sourced from petrochemicals


Manufacture uses chlorine
Can be manufactured as filament or spun fibres
Can be manufactured as a coating
Strong, flexible, durable
Breathable, easy care and waterproof
Provides good insulation
Thermoplastic
Non-renewable resource, although PVC bottles can be recycled
Spun fibres always blended with other fibres including cotton, linen, viscose, modal, wool and
silk

Elastane: (Elastomeric) (Lycra)

Sourced from petrochemicals


Made from segmented polyurethane
Composed of soft, flexible segments bonded with hard, rigid segments
Elastane yarn is always covered by another yarn
Inbuilt capacity to stretch up to 7 times original length, then recover when tension is released
Provides lively, supple fabric with enhanced drape
Adds comfort, softness and crease-resistance
Improves body-shaping and shape retention
Can be engineered to provide precise combination of yarn thickness, texture, brightness and
stretch performance to suit the end use of fabric or garment
For example can provide chlorine resistance and comfort in swimwear, lasting fit in leather,
washable and crease resistant linen
Absorbent, dyes well, easy care
Non-renewable resource
Elastane fibres are always combined with other fibres, natural or synthetic. Common blends
include maximum 20% for swimwear, 15% for hosiery, 2-5% jersey fabrics, 2% for woven
fabrics and 1% for flat knits

Fluorofibres:

Sourced from petrochemicals


Synthetic polymer used mainly as a coating
Flexible
Durable
Breathable
Easy care
Doesnt dye well
Water repellent
Oil, chemical and stain resistant
Windproof
Water-based
CNC free

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Doesnt harm the environments


Non-renewable resource
Degrades slowly
Uses: to protect all fibres and leather, garments, upholstery, curtains, sportswear, ties,
mattresses, work wear, shoes

PTFE:

Sourced from petrochemicals


Synthetic polymer used mainly as a coating
Flexible, durable
Breathable, easy care, hardly dyes
Water repellent, oil, chemical and stain resistant, windproof
Water-based, CFC-free, doesnt harm the environment
Non-renewable resource, degrades slowly
Used to protect all fibres and leather

Nylon: (polyamides)

Sourced from petrochemicals


Inexpensive to manufacture and produced as textured filament, staple fibres and microfibers
Can be engineered to provide a wide range of properties and characteristics
Non-absorbent and prone to static; textured filaments transport moisture away from the body
Fineness ranges from microfibers to coarse fibres can be fine and soft or firm, depending on
fibre fineness, fabric construction and finishing
Flat filaments trap little air so are cool; textured filaments trap air so provide warmth
Very strong, excellent abrasion resistance, tear resistance and durability
Windproof, hydrophobic, water-repellent, easy care, lightweight, flammable, soft, good drape
Good elasticity, so good crease recovery
Thermoplastic, can be textured and heat set, sensitive to dry heat
Can be engineered to provide breathable comfort
Dyes well, yellows and loses strength with long exposure to sunlight
Resistant to alkalis, solvents, mildew and fungus, but degraded by concentrated acids
Non-renewable source, non-bio-degradable
Anti-static treatment
flame-resist treatment
Wide range of treatments to engineer specific properties
Typically blended with wool, cotton, linen, silk and other synthetics
Textured filament fabrics, staple fibre fabrics and microfiber fabrics
End uses include, carpets, curtains, tights, underwear, socks, active sportswear, all weather
wear, fleece, tents, clothing

Polyester:

Sourced from petrochemicals


The most used and versatile synthetic fibre
Inexpensive to manufacture
About 60% produced as staple fibres
Also produced as textured filaments and microfibers

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Can be engineered to provide a wide variety of properties and characteristics


Non-absorbent and very prone to static; textured filaments transport moisture away from the
body
Fineness ranges from microfibers to coarse fibres can be fine and soft or firm, depending on
fibre fineness, fabric construction and finishing
Flat filaments trap little air so are cool, textured filaments trap air so provide warmth
Very strong, excellent abrasion resistance, tear resistance and durability
Windproof, hydrophobic, water-repellent, easy-care, lightweight, good heat resistance, soft,
good drape
Very good elasticity so very good crease resistance
Thermoplastic, can be textures, bulked and heat set, sensitive to dry heat
Can be engineered to prove breathable comfort
Dyes well, yellows and loses strength with long exposure to sunlight
Resistant to acids, alkalis, solvents, mildew and fungus, but attacked by concentrated acids
Non-renewable source
Can be recycled 25 PET bottles makes one jumper!
Anti-static treatments
Flame-resist treatment for interiors end use
Wide range of treatments to engineer specific properties
Some PET fabrics can be laser cut and heat welded
Filament fibres usually textures
Staple fibres are blended with wool, cotton, viscose, modal, linen and silk
Staple fibre fabrics, textured filament fabrics, microfiber fabrics
End uses include furnishings, upholstery, carpets, bedding, childrens nightwear and transport
textiles, garments, ties, scarves, rainwear, linings, net curtains, sports and leisure wear, all
weather wear, microfiber fleece garments, work wear, 100% staple yarn sewing thread,
wadding for duvets and pillows, medical textiles such as artificial ligaments
Machine washable, launders well at low temperatures, do not bleach, fast drying, iron with
some care, can be dry-cleaned and tumble dried

Trevira a branded type of Polyester, produced by Hoechst Fibres Inc. It offers better pilling
performance than regular polyester

Polyolefines: (polyethylene) (polypropylene)

Synthetic
Made from petrochemicals
Thermoplastic with a low melting point
High strength
Resistant to chemicals
Non-absorbent
Very good wicking properties
Crease-resistant
Soft when finely spun
Good soil and stain release but not oil or grease
Non-allergenic
Engineered for use in a wide range of end produces and is extensively used for carpet
backing, sacks, webbing, twine, fishing nets, vegetable bags and ropes
Used for upholstery and for the pile of carpets as it is very durable and has excellent soft
touch and crush recovery
The good wicking properties of polypropylene enable it to be used in medical and hygiene
products
Other end-uses include awning, synthetic surfaces for sports, sportswear and geotextiles

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Polypropylene has about 70% of the geotextile market

Aramid:

Kevlar

Generic name for a family of synthetic polymer fibres made from petro-chemicals
Expensive high-tech aramid fibres can be engineered to produce woven, knitted, non-woven
or cabled technical textiles which provide high strength and heat-resistance
Brand name for a family of Aramid fibres
High strength
Lightweight
Flame and chemical-resistant
Flexible and comfortable
Important in a wide variety of industrial end-uses
Five times stronger than Steel
Flexibility and comfort make it suitable for a range of protective wear, such as chemicalresistant work wear
Used for bulletproof vests because of its bullet stopping power

Other end uses:


Equipment used for high-risk activities such as hot-air ballooning
High-tension cables and ropes for bridges and ships
Protective gloves
Strong lightweight protective equipment such as ski-helmets
Tennis racquets

Glass:

Powdered compounds of mineral origin


Glass fibre reinforced polyester produced for over 40 years
Glass fibre painted with silicon to keep it pliable
Durable, strong, shatterproof
Poor abrasion resistance
Heat and cold resistant so does not soften or become brittle
Good electrical properties
Non-stick, non-toxic
Reflective
Resistant to chemicals, mildew and fungus
Used with an anti-static treatment
Requires a surface finish to reduce skin irritation
End uses: aerospace and military industries, flame and heat barriers, roof coverings, sterile
hospital wall coverings, outerwear protective garments
Aftercare: machine washable, can bleach, can be dry-cleaned and tumble dried

Fibreglass
Made of extremely fine fibres of glass. It is used as a strengthening agent, e.g. glass reinforced plastic
Commonly used as an insulation material and to produce flame retardant fabrics for specialised applications

Carbon:

Made by burning acrylic fibre to produce carbon


First produced over 20 years ago
Used to replace metals
Very strong
Lightweight

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Abrasion and tear resistant


Flame-resistant at very high temperatures
Resistant to chemicals, low shrinkage in heat
Non-renewable resource
New blend developments are ongoing
End uses: transport, upholstery, sports products, protective clothing for the emergency
services and armed forces
Aftercare: machine washable, can bleach, can be dry-cleaned and tumble dried

Graphite Fibres
Extremely thin and composed of mostly carbon atoms. The carbon atoms are bonded together in microscopic crystals which
make the fibre very strong for its size. Several thousand carbon fibres are twisted together to form a yarn, which may be used
by itself or woven into a fabric. Carbon fibre is very strong but lightweight and these properties make it very popular in
aerospace, civil engineering, military and motorsports, along with other competition sports. However it is relatively expensive
when compared to similar materials such as fibreglass or plastic. Carbon fibres are used in the production of electro-conductive
fibres used to make intelligent fabrics or wearable computers. Because the fibres are flame retardant they are used to make
some specialised fabrics such as those used for aeroplane interiors.

Metallic:

Aluminium, copper and steel most commonly used


Silver and gold used for more expensive end uses
Silver is the most effective anti-microbial material
Thin sheet metal cut in strips or fine wire used as yarn
Metal thread spun round core yarn
A metallised polyester yarn called Lurex has been used since the 1980s and is often coated
with fine plastic to prevent tarnishing
Strong
Lightweight
Abrasion resistant
Protects against electromagnetic pollution
Conductive and delectable by radar useful for wearable electronics and GPS
Anti-static
Protection for active sports
Aluminium provides shape memory
End uses: decorative textiles, active sportswear, work wear and protective industrial clothing,
medical end uses
Aftercare: can be washed and tumble dried

Ceramics:

Powdered compounds of metal oxide, metal carbide, metal nitride or their mixtures
Becoming more widely incorporated into garment fabrics
Ceramic content fabrics can regulate the body temperature wearer is cooler in heat or
warmer in cold temperatures
Resistant to very high temperatures
Provides UV protection
Good insulation
Resistant to chemicals
Low thermal conductivity
End uses: swimwear, UV protective clothing, industrial work wear, electrical, thermal and
sound insulation
Aftercare: machine washable, can bleach, can be dry-cleaned and tumble dried

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Ceramics are noted for their high temperature resistance as they can withstand
temperatures of more than 1000C. They are also extremely lightweight, have low
thermal conductivity and chemical stability they can resist attack from most
corrosive chemicals. They are widely used in thermal insulation industry. Ceramic
molecules can be incorporated into synthetic fibres, either by coating them with
ceramic particles or by encapsulating them within the fibre. The inclusion of
ceramic molecules in a synthetic fibre can give the fabric UV protection
properties e.g. Esmo and sunfit fabrics. Ceramic molecules can also make fabrics
which are able to regulate body temperature, e.g. Thermolite, a lightweight fibre
with a hollow core.

Yarns
Yarn is defined as a fine continuous length of fibres or filaments, with or without twist. To be useful,
yarns need to be strong enough to be made into fabric. Generally, lengths of fibres are produced
through the process of spinning into a variety of different yarn types, such as singles, ply, cabled, core
spun or fancy yarns. The thickness of yarn (the yarn count) and the tightness of the yarn twist, affect a
fabrics weight, flexibility, handle, texture, appearance and end use.

All staple yarns are spun from fibres into a variety of different yarns such as singles, piled,
cabled, core or fancy yarns.
The thickness of yarn (yarn count) and yarn twist affect a fabrics weight, flexibility, handle and
end-use.
Too much twist may make a yarn hard, whereas too little twist may result in a weak yarn. Soft
knitting yarns usually have less twist, but warp yarns for weaving need a higher twist so they
are strong enough to withstand the tension in the loom.
Staple yarns are made from fibres such as cotton, flax, wool, spun silk or cut manufactured
fibres.
Filament yarns are made from continuous filaments of silk and manufactured synthetic fibres
such as polyester or nylon.
Blended fibres like acrylic/cotton can be made permanently bulky using heat to increase the
volume of thermoplastic acrylic. This gives a warm soft handle, suitable for knitwear.
Thermoplastic continuous filament synthetic yarns can be textured using a heat process. This
gives an elastic, warm, soft handle, suitable for tights, swimwear, underwear, outerwear and
carpets.

Twist
Twist is put into yarns during spinning to make them stronger, so they are suitable for weaving or
knitting. Yarns can be spun clockwise (Z twist) or anti-clockwise (S twist). Fabrics made from spun
yarn usually have Z twist in the warp and may have S twist in the weft. Light is reflected in opposite
directions from the two types of yarn, so striped effects can be produced in fabrics by having alternate
stripes of S and Z twist in the warp.

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Continuous filament yarns are made by lightly twisting filament fibres together.
Staple yarns are made from short staple fibres; these have to be carded or combed, so that they all lie
in the same direction, before being twisted together to form a yarn.
Filament fibres can be chopped into short staple fibres; this means that they will need to be twisted
together to make a yarn. If a filament fibre is to be blended with a staple fibre, the long filaments need
to be cut into staple before being spun into yarn.
Filament yarns are smooth but staple yarns are hairy. Hairy yarns are good at trapping air between
the fibres this means that they are good insulators and will make fabrics which are warm. Smooth
yarns are not so good at trapping air and so make fabrics which are not good at insulating. The hairy
yarns can also trap moisture between the fibres.

Folded Yarns
Folded or piled yarns are made by twisting together at least two single yarns, in order to:

Improve the strength and regularity

Eliminate twist liveliness

Make heavier structures

Achieve special effects

The direction of twisting is designated as S or Z, just as in single yarns. Normally the folding twist is in
the opposite direction to that of the single yarns. Folding twist may be soft, normal, or hard, according
to the number of turns per metre compared to that in the single components. Balanced twist is when
the folding twist is approximately equal and opposite of the singles. In single yarns, or in folded yarns
with unbalanced twist, the yarn contains residual torque resulting from the twisting together of the
fibres. This can cause the yarns to snarl during processing, and garments to become distorted after
laundering. Thus the highest quality knitted fabrics are made from two-folded yarns with balanced
twist.
Cabled yarns are made by twisting together folded yarns.

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Folded Yarns-

Cabled Yarns-

Core Yarns-

Folded yarns are made in


a single processing step,
combining 2, 3 or more
single yarns into one by
twisting them together.

Cabled yarns require more


than one twisting stage.
Two or more folded yarns
may be twisted together to
form a cabled yarn.

Core yarns have long been used for


burnt out effects in woven fabrics. The
covering component is made of a
different material from the core and can
be selectively removed, according to a
printed pattern.
Stretch fabrics can be made from core
yarns in which the core is an Elastane
filament and the covering is made from
natural fibre, or textured filament yarn.
Core-spun yarns are made by covering
a core filament yarn with staple fibres in
a single spinning process.
Sewing threads are often made from
core or core-spun yarns. The synthetic
filament core gives high strength whilst
the cover yarn or covering fibres
prevent the needle from over-heating
and protect the core from softening or
melting at the needle during high-speed
sewing.

Colour Effects
Mixture of Ingrain yarns are made
by mixing fibres of different
colours during spinning. This
results in a heather effect. For
example: Marengo

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Structure Effects
Slub yarns are single or folded
yarns having long thick places,
regularly or irregularly disposed.
The slub effect is made either in
spinning or folding. Fabrics may
have the character of linen or wild
silk, which is favoured in
furnishings.

Lustre Effects
Matt/lustre effects are
obtained by mixing
matt and bright fibres.
Lustre and Glitter
effects can also be
obtained by the use of
metal fibres
(uncommon today) or
metallised plastic films

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible


Melange or Vigoureux yarns are
spun from combed silver or top
which has been printed with
stripes. The appearance is
somewhat like a mixture.

Bourette or Knop yarns are folded


yarns containing short, often
coloured bunches of fibres or yarn
at regular or irregular intervals. The
knops may be formed during
carding, during spinning, or during
folding. Fabrics have a structured
surface. Example: Donegal tweed.

Mottle or Marl yarns are made by


spinning from two-colour rovings
or from two rovings of different
colours. The appearance is like
mouline but with less sharp
contrast.

Boucl or Loop yarns are


compound yarns made by a special
folding process which results in
wavy or looped projections. Fabrics
have a more or less grainy handle
and a textured surface. Examples
boucl, fries, frott.

Jasp or Moulin yarns are made


by folding two or more differently
coloured yarns, or yarns made
from different fibres with different
dyeing behaviour. They give a
mottled appearance. For example:
fresco.

Chenille is a cut pile yarn, it is soft


and voluminous. These yarns are
made by cutting special fabrics into
strips. They are used in furnishing
fabrics and knitwear.

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Crpe yarns are used to make


fabrics with a wrinkled surface and
a sandy handle. They are made
from highly twisted yarns. Fabric
examples: crpe de chine,
georgette, crepon, marocain.

such as Lurex, or
clear films, or manmade fibres with
special cross-sections.
Fabric examples:
brocade, lame.

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible


Blends
Most modern fabrics contain more than one fibre. This is because there is no such thing as the perfect
fibre so manufacturers include different fibres in a blend. Blending is achieved by spinning two or
more fibres together to make a yarn.
This enables a fabric to be made which will be better suited to the product.
In order to make a successful blend, the fibres must be the same length so that they can be mixed
together before they are spun into a yarn. Continuous filament yarns can be twisted together to make
a multi-filament yarn, e.g. polyester and nylon.
The main reasons for blending fibres are:

To help reduce the cost of the fabric


To give different effects in the texture and handle of the fabric
To allow for novelty effects when the fabric is dyed
To make a fabric with specific qualities for a particular end use
To make the fabric stronger
To make a fabric easier to care for
To enable fabrics to be more crease resistant
To allow fabrics to be heat set

Popular blends include:


Polyester and cotton blends are commonly used to make a wide variety of fabrics. Different
percentages of cotton and polyester are included according to what the fabric is to be used for. The
polyester helps cancel out the shrinking, creasing and slow drying of cotton. The cotton makes the
fabric better at absorbing moisture and makes the fabric feel nicer next to the skin.
Elastomeric fibres like Lycra are blended with many other fibres. The Lycra gives the fabric some
stretch the higher the percentage of Lycra, the more the fabric will stretch. Only very small amounts
of Lycra are needed to give a lot of stretch Lycra is never used on its own to make a fabric because
of its high stretch. Elastomeric fibres are combined with other fibres by core-spinning, wrapping or
interlacing. The Lycra also makes the fabric more crease resistant. Fabrics containing Lycra should
not be washed and ironed at high temperatures as this may damage the Lycra.
Viscose fibres are used in many blends. They help make the fabric more absorbent and soft to
handle. As viscose is cheap to manufacture, it can help reduce the price of the fabric.
Wool is often blended with nylon for products such as socks, trousers, jackets and coats. The wool
makes the fabric soft and warm, and makes it a bit more luxurious. The nylon gives improved strength
and resistance to abrasion, makes the fabric lighter in weight and helps prevent the wool from
shrinking when it is washed. The inclusion of nylon will also reduce the overall cost of the fabric.

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Woven Fabrics
Most fabrics are made by weaving or knitting yarns, although non-woven fabrics are made by bonding
or felting fibres together. A fabric's appearance, properties and end use can be affected by the way it
was constructed.
Woven fabrics - Woven fabrics are made up of a weft - the yarn going across the width of the fabric and a warp - the yarn
going down the length of
the loom. The side of the
fabric where the wefts are
double-backed to form a
non-fraying edge is called
the selvedge.

Plain Weave
The most used weave structure and is made from most fibre types. Plain weave fabrics are
strong, firm and hardwearing. They are used for many types of end-uses, including garments,
household textiles and accessories.
In plain-weave fabric the warp and weft are aligned so that they form a simple criss-cross
pattern. Plain-weave is strong and hardwearing, so it's used for fashion and furnishing fabrics.

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Twill Weave

Produces fabric with diagonal lines, which generally run bottom left to top right of the fabric
face. Weaving twills in different directions produces chevron or herringbone fabrics. Twills are
made from many fibre types and drape well. They are used for a variety of end-uses including
jackets, suits, trousers, jeans and curtains.
In twill-weave fabric the crossings of weft and warp are offset to give a diagonal pattern on the
fabric surface. It's strong, drapes well and is used for jeans, jackets and curtains.

Satin Weave

Warp faced, with a smooth, shiny face and a dull back. Satin fabric drapes well so it is used
for curtain linings, evening wear, upholstery, ribbons and trimmings, depending on the fibre
used. Satin can be made from cotton, polyester/cotton, acetate, polyester or silk.

In satin-weave fabric there is a complex arrangement of warp and weft threads, which allows
longer float threads either across the warp or the weft. The long floats mean the light falling
on the yarn doesn't scatter and break up, like on a plain-weave.

The reflected light creates a smooth, lustrous (shiny) surface commonly called satin. The
reverse side is invariably dull and non-shiny. Weave variations include jacquard and damask.

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Pile Weaves

Pile weaves have tufts or loops of yarns which stand up from the body of the fabric

They are classed as three yarn system woven fabrics

Warp Pile Weaves

Weft Pile Weaves

Uncut Loop Pile Weaves

Warp pile weaves have cut


loops e.g. velvet (see below)

Weft pile weaves have cut


loops produced after
weaving e.g. velveteen,
corduroy and needle cord

e.g. terry

One method of producing


velvet is to weave two cloths
face to face with the third (pile)
warp alternating between the
two fabrics. The pile warp is
specially woven in to form the
pile. A knife moves back and
forth at the bottom of the loom
and cuts the pile warp as the
fabric moves forward as it is
woven. This produces two
separate pieces of velvet at
the same time.

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Velveteen has a short pile


produced by cutting the
third (pile) weft after
weaving.
Corduroy is a ribbed cut
weft pile. The pile runs
parallel to the selvedge.
The cords can vary in width
to give jumbo cord or
needle cord.

The pile warp remains slack


and loops above and below
the fabric to form the pile.
Towelling fabrics are
produced using this weave.

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible

Cut Piles

Velvet has a cut warp-pile on the face of the fabric. This gives a smooth, rich, soft, dense and lustrous fabric. Velvet
should be used in one direction only, so pattern pieces run along straight grain with the pile stroking downwards from
head to toe. Cotton velvet is used for luxury products, such as evening wear. Polyester velvet is used for upholstery.
Needle cord has a cut weft-pile on the face of the fabric. The fine ribbed pile runs along the length of fabric, which
may be brushed. Needle cord is usually made from cotton and is used for dress-weights.

Brocade Weave

Brocade is a heavy, jacquard type fabric with a raised pattern or floral design. The pattern
appears in low relief. Traditionally the pattern was produced with gold or silver thread.

Brocade is typically woven on a draw loom.

It is a supplementary weft technique, the ornamental brocading is produced by an additional,


non-structural weft that supplements the standard weft that holds the warp threads together.
The purpose of adding this is to give the appearance that the weave was actually embroidered
on the surface of the fabric.

Ornamental features in brocade are emphasized and sometimes product the effect of low
relief. Sometimes when you turn the fabric over to inspect it from the reverse you can see
floating threads of the brocaded parts hanging in loose groups.

Brocade weaving is used to give texture and detail.

Jacquard weave

Large figured weave

Used for reproducing patterns on a fabric

The repeating motif involves a large number of threads both for the warp and for the weft.
These weaves are produced on looms with Jacquard machines. The contours of the patterns

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are plotted and then filled in with the graphic elements of the various weaves (the raiser). The
finished pattern indicates where to place the Jacquard machine. The warp repeats of certain
Jacquard weaves can consist of several hundred threads.

Complicated patterns often designed and controlled by computer programmes

Tartan:
Tartan is a pattern consisting of criss-crossed horizontal and vertical bands in multiple colours. Tartans
originated in woven wool, but now they are made in many other materials. Tartan is particularly
associated with Scotland. Scottish kilts almost always have tartan patterns.
Tartan is made with alternating bands of colored (pre-dyed) threads woven as both warp and weft at
right angles to each other. The weft is woven in a simple twill, two over two under the warp,
advancing one thread each pass. This forms visible diagonal lines where different colors cross, which
give the appearance of new colors blended from the original ones. The resulting blocks of colour
repeat vertically and horizontally in a distinctive pattern of squares and lines known as a sett.
Each thread in the warp crosses each thread in the weft at right angles. Where a thread in the warp
crosses a thread of the same colour in the weft they produce a solid colour on the tartan, while a
thread crossing another of a different colour produces an equal mixture of the two colours. Thus, a
sett of two base colours produces three different colours including one mixture. The total number of
colours, including mixtures, increases quadratically with the number of base colours so a sett of six
base colours produces fifteen mixtures and a total of twenty-one different colours. This means that the
more stripes and colours used, the more blurred and subdued the tartan's pattern becomes
The shades of colour in tartan can be altered to produce variations of the same tartan. The resulting
variations are termed: modern, ancient, and muted. These terms refer to colour only. Modern
represents a tartan that is coloured using chemical dye, as opposed to natural dye. In the mid-19th
century natural dyes began to be replaced by chemical dyes which were easier to use and were more
economic for the booming tartan industry. Chemical dyes tended to produce a very strong, dark colour
compared to the natural dyes. In modern colours, setts made up of blue, black and green tend be
obscured. Ancient refers to a lighter shade of tartan. These shades are meant to represent the colours
that would result from fabric aging over time. Muted refers to tartan which is shade between modern
and ancient. This type of tartan is very modern, dating only from the early 1970s. This shade is said to
be the closest match to the shades attained by natural dyes used before the mid-19th century.

The Warp

The Weft

Warp and Weft Fabric Image

Crepe:
A fabric characterised by a crinkled or puckered surface. Crimp: The waviness of a fibre or filament.

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A term used to describe a variety of lightweight fabric in various fibers and blends characterized by
their puckered surface obtained by highly twisting either the yarn, or chemical treatments or weave
construction.
A variety of lightweight fabrics characterized by a crinkly surface, obtained either via use of hard twist
yarns, chemical treatments, weave, construction, or some form of embossing or surface treatment.
Crepes are available today in an unlimited variety of fibers and blends, and in many different
constructions.
Crepe is a silk fabric of a gauzy texture, having a peculiar crisp or crimpy appearance.
A fabric characterized by a broad range of crinkled or grained surface effect.
(Flat Crepe) - Also called French Crepe or Lingerie Crepe but not exactly the same. It is the flattest of
all the crepes with only a very slight pebbled or crepe effect hard twist alternating 25 x 22 in filling;
warp has ordinary twist. It is very soft and pliable, which makes it good for draping. It is very light
weight - 2 times as many ends as picks. Most of it launders well and is often used in accessories,
blouses, dress goods, negligees, pajamas and other pieces of lingerie and linings.
(Moss Crepe or Sand Crepe) - Has a fine moss effect created by plain weave or small Dobby. Made
with a spun-rayon warp and a filament rayon filling. The two-ply warp yarn is very coarse and bulkier
than the filling. Mostly made in rayon and synthetics but some in silk.
(Georgette Crepe) - Lightweight, sheer fabric that is stiffer and with body giving an excellent wear.
Has a dull, crinkled surface achieved by alternating S and Z yarns in a high twist in both warp and
filling directions. Georgette has a harder, duller, more crinkled feel and appearance than crepe de
chine.

Traditional and cultural methods of producing fabric


Ashanti Strip Weaving:
Also known as a Kente cloth. Made by the Ashanti people of Ghana and is the most labour intensive
weaving in the world. It became a true art form and represented the concept of royalty and status.
Traditionally the Ashanti people only worked around geometric patterns. The spider Anansi taught the
art of weaving to two brothers who had discovered his web while on a hunting trip. Anansi also taught
them how to spin and dye the threads. Since then the Ashanti have used the strip looms Anansi
taught them to build. Men traditionally do the strip weaving in West Africa.
Ikat Weaving:
Ikat is the method of weaving that uses a resist dyeing process similar to tie-dye on either the warp or
weft fibers. The dye is applied prior to the threads being woven to create the final fabric pattern or
design. One of the oldest forms of textile decoration. Ikat weaving styles vary widely. Many design
motifs may have ethnic, ritual or symbolic meaning or have been developed for export trade.
Traditionally, Ikat are symbols of status, wealth, power and prestige. Because of the time and skill
involved in weaving Ikat, some cultures believe the cloth is imbued with magical powers
Back Strap Looms:
Blackstrap weaving is an ancient art practiced for centuries in many parts of the world. Peru,
Guatemala, China, Japan, Bolivia, and Mexico are a few of the places they use the blackstrap loom.
Today it is still used on a daily basis in many parts of Guatemala by Mayan women to weave fabrics
for clothing and other household cloths.

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The looms are simple - typically 6 sticks- usually handmade by the weaver. A blackstrap loom is easily
portable because it can simply be rolled up and laid aside when not in use. The back rod is tied to a
tree or post while weaving and the other end has a strap that encircles the waist and the weaver can
move back or forward to produce the needed tension. The weaver usually sits on the ground but as
the person ages that is more difficult and they may use a small stool.
In the western highlands of Guatemala the women have typically used cotton yarn for their weavings
and used natural plants from their area to dye the yarn various colors. They still tint yarn by hand but
also buy cotton yarn that's already been chemically dyed. The natural tints are softer colors than
chemical dyes. These natural tints come from plants and bark such as:
sacatinta - a blue color
coconut shell - brown
carrots - orange
achote - soft orange/peach
hibiscus flower - rosy pink
chilca - soft yellow
bark of the avocado tree - beige
quilete - celery green
guayabe - brown / gold
sacatinta & coconut shell gray

Warp and Weft-Knitted Fabrics


Weft- knitted fabric is made from a single yarn, which is fed across the width of the fabric. Weft knits
are stretchy, with a right and wrong side and may ladder. Weft knitting, done by hand is used to make
one off designer products, such as jumpers of cushions. Industrial computer controlled knitting
machines, using CAD/CAM systems produce around 90% of jersey, rib and jacquard fabrics used for
T-shirts, underwear, socks and knitwear.

Warp-knitted fabrics are made on straight or circular knitting machines. Each loop of the fabric is fed
by its own separate yarn. The loops interlock vertically, along the length of the fabric. Warp knits are
stretchy but do not ladder and cant be unravelled. Warp knits such as velour and Terry are used for
leisure and sportswear, furnishings and sheets.

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Weft-knitted fabric is made by looping together long lengths of yarn. It can be made by hand
or machine. The yarn runs in rows across the fabric. If a stitch is dropped it will ladder down
the length of the fabric. The fabric is stretchy and comfortable and is used for socks, T-shirts
and jumpers.

In warp-knitted fabric the loops interlock vertically along the length of the fabric. Warp knits
are slightly stretchy and do not ladder. Warp-knitted fabric is made by machine. It is used for
swimwear, underwear and geotextiles.

Plain Weft Knit:

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The simplest type


Can be produced by hand, on a domestic knitting machine or industrially. It is made
up when one yarn travels the width of the fabric in the same way that a weft thread
goes across from selvedge in a woven fabric. Each successive row of loops is drawn
through the previous row of loops in the fabric.

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible

Single Jersey Knit:


Weft Knit
It has a lot of stretch and is easily distorted, especially when washed
It drapes softly and easily takes the shape of the figure
Fabrics do not crease easily
Fabrics trap air and are good insulators in still air. But moving air is able to get through
the gaps in the fabric, making it cool to wear in wind.
Ladders easily if snagged
There is a distinct back and front (face) of the fabric
The front is smooth and the back shows loops and the fabric has a tendency to curl
at the edges. It was first made by hand in Jersey for fishermans clothing in handknitted single jersey, the front is called plain and the back is called purl. Single
jersey is made industrially using a single set of needles, to produce fabric that is
generally plain without any rib. It has relatively low stretch in the width and can be
made from cotton, cotton blends, acrylic, polyester, modal, viscose or wool. 2-5%
Elastane blends provide added comfort, crease-resistance, enhanced drape and
better shape retention. Single jersey is generally used for T-shirts, jumpers and
underwear.

Double Jersey:
Weft Knit
Doubled jersey fabric is made on two sets of needle beds, in which the needles are
opposite each other and work alternately. It takes two courses to produce one row of
loops on the face and back, which look identical. Double jersey fabrics are compact,
stable, durable and retain their shape, although they are not very elastic. They can be
cut like woven fabrics and can be used for T-shirts, underwear, polo shirts,
sportswear, skirts and leggings.

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Rib Knit:
Weft Knit
Rib fabrics are made on two sets of needles, which are staggered. Alternate loops are
knitted in opposite directions, to form vertical lines in the fabric. The most popular form
of knitted rib is 2X2, in which both sides of the fabric look the same. The fabric is very
elastic widthways, making is suitable for jumpers, waistcoats, underwear and socks.

Jacquard Knit:
Weft Knit
Jacquard fabric has a patterned design in three of more colours. It is made by
selecting needles to knot coloured yarns in a specified pattern, using CAD/CAM
systems. In each succeeding course, the pattern is built up and if the colour is not
required on the face, it floats at the back. There is a limit to the length of float and the
fabric is not very elastic. Jacquard knits go in and out of fashion for winter knitwear.

Pique Knit:
Weft Knit
This is the fabric that is most associated with the original Lacoste Alligator Polo shirt.
Also sometimes called mesh, pique is characterized by a textured fabric face with lots
of tiny holes and a fabric back that is smooth. The construction is designed to pull
moisture from the skin and wick it into the air, keeping the fabric, and the wearer,
relatively dry and cool. Before the days of high tech and high performance Polyester
yarns, Pique was the original performance fabric.
In the 1920s, pique fabrics were an innovation that was used in the first use-specific
athletic wear, particularly in the original tennis and polo shirts, as athletes began to
move away from participating in sports in long sleeve button down shirts that covered
up all skin.
The extraordinary comfort of this fabric soon popularized it for less serious athletes.
Today, pique knit polo shirts are especially popular for everyday wear and corporate
apparel.

Warp Knit:

Warp-knitted fabrics are made on straight or circular CAD/CAM knitting machines.


Each loop of the fabric is fed by its own separate yarn, which is fed into the knitting
zone parallel to the fabric selvedge. These loops interlock vertically, along the length
of the fabric. Warp knits have some elasticity, do not ladder and cant be unravelled.
Although they can be cut like woven fabrics, warp knots have a limited application for
clothing, being mainly used for swimwear, leisure and underwear, linings, laces,
ribbons and trimmings. They are also used for net curtains, furnishing and bed linen.
Warp knits are mainly used in industrial end-uses including geotextiles.
More complicated structure using many separate yarns which are interlaced
sideways. The loops are formed along the length of the fabric. In the same way that
the warp thread runs parallel to the selvedge of a woven fabric.
In more complicated warp knits, the needles travel sideways for two or more wales
before making a new loop.
It is less stretchy than weft knit and therefore produces a firmer fabric.
Fabrics do not ladder and cannot be unravelled row by row
Faster than weft knitting and is the cheapest method of fabric production using yarns.

Tricot:
Warp Knit

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Tricot is industrially proceed warp-knitted fabric, mostly using synthetic yarns, with
each yarn working in a zigzag fashion. It is used for gloves, lingerie and lightweight
furnishing.

Locknit:
Warp Knit
A combination of Tricot and 2X1 plain knit stiches, made from filament yarns. The
resulting lustrous fabric is used for lining and underwear. The face of the fabric has
vertical wales of small loops, whilst the back shows a zigzag stitch formation.

Velour:
Warp Knit
Knitted pile fabric made from continuous filament fibres, has a raised fleecy surface
effect, formed from cut loops that stand up from the fabric.

Polar Fleece:
Warp Knit
Modern manufactured polar fleece, made from acrylic, nylon, or polyester, is a type of
double boucle knit, densely raised on one face or both, producing a fleece effect.
Polar fleece is a lightweight, high bulk, breathable and warm fabric used as insulation
in leisure and sportswear. This modern fleece should not be confused with natural
fleece, the entire wool coat of the sheep, which is shorn off in one piece.

Panel Knitting:

Garment length knitting is where the fabric is knitted in individual panels of a width to
suit the end product. The start of the knitting is secured with a ribbed edge. This type
of knitting produces some fabric waste.

Piece Goods:

Cut-and-sew blanket knitting is where long lengths of knitted fabric are produced in
the form of a tube on a circular knitting machine. The fabric can be processed in
tubular form or cut open (usually after dyeing). It is then cut to shape and sewn to
make the product. Although this type of knitting produces higher levels of fabric waste,
this is kept to a minimum through the use of CAD lay-planning systems.

3D Whole-Garment Knitting:

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3D knitting is where whole products are knitted in one piece, incorporating all the
garment shaping. There is minimal sewing necessary and no fabric waste.

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible


Non-Woven Fabrics
Non-woven fabrics are textile structures made directly from fibres rather than
from yarn.
Non-woven fabric is made by bonding or felting.
Felt is a non-woven fabric made from animal hair or wool fibres matted together
by moisture, mechanical action and heat. Wool felt is expensive, but blends with
acetate, nylon or acrylic to reduce its price. Felt has no strength, drape or
elasticity, but it does not fray and is warm and resilient. It retains its shape and
can be made flame-retardant. It is used for blocking into hats, for slippers and
toys.
Bonded-fibre fabric is made from a web of fibres, bonded with adhesives,
solvents or by the thermoplastic property of some or all of the fibres. Bondedfibre fabrics are used mainly as fusible interlining, which are air-permeable,
dimensionally stable, crease resistant, stable to washing and dry-cleaning and
easy to use.
Bonded-fibre fabrics are made from webs of synthetic fibres bonded together
with heat or adhesives. They are cheap to produce but not as strong as woven or
knitted fabrics. Bonded-fibre fabrics are mainly used for interlining. They are
easy to sew, crease resistant, do not fray and are stable when washing and dry
cleaning.
Wool felt is a non-woven fabric made from animal hair or wool fibres matted
together using moisture, heat and pressure. Felt has no strength, drape or
elasticity but it is warm and does not fray. Wool felt is expensive. It is used for
hats and slippers and in handcrafts.

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Pressed wool felt is made from


animal hair or wool fibres
matted together by moisture,
mechanical action, and heat.
Felt fabric is made from fibres
containing at least 50% animal
hair, usually wool, so wool felt
is expensive.
The fibre web is squashed
together in a felting machine,
then milled using mechanical
pressure, heat and moisture.
The fibres become entangles
through repeated treatment
until the required density of
felt is achieved.

Woven or knitted
felt is made from
fabrics containing
animal hair or
wool, which are
matted by
moisture,
mechanical action
and heat in a
milling machine.
The original fabric
construction is
covered by a
smooth surface,
making the fabric
warm and
windproof. The
woven fabric
called Loden
(used for
overcoats) is
produced in this
way.

Needle felt is made from fibres matted


together by mechanical action using
barbed needles to entangle the fibres.
Almost any type of fibre can be used,
but in practice, synthetic fibres are
generally used.

In the mechanical process, a bulky web


(batt) of fibres is repeatedly punched by
a bank of barbed needles. Every needle
drags fibres to the base of the web to
form loops in the fibres. This entangles
the fibres to form the fabric, which is
usually given additional strength by a
fibre-bonding technique.
In hydro-entangled needle felt, staple
fibres are entangled in a web with highpressure water jets (also called spun
laced fabric.)
Needle felts are elastic and lightweight
and are mainly used for floor coverings,
waddings, interlinings, upholstery
materials, mattress covers and filters.

Felt has no strength, drape or elasticity, but does not fray and is warm and resilient. Acetate,
nylon and acrylic can be blended with wool in felt, to improve the drape, reduce shrinkage
and make it more economical to produce. Felt retains its shape and absorbs sound and can be
made flame-retardant. It is used for blocking into hats, for slippers, toys, insulation materials
and soundproofing in speakers. Felt made from animal hair, such as from rabbits is called fur
felt this is used for hats.

Felt

Bonded non wovens

Bonded webs are made from a web of fibres, bonded with adhesives, solvents or by the
thermoplastic property of some or all of the fibres. Bonded webs for garments are layered in a
carding machine, to build up a batt of the required thickness with the layers built either across
or down or a combination of both. This kind of non-woven fabric is mainly used for fusible
interlinings, which are air-permeable, dimensionally stable, crease-resistant, stable to
washing and dry-cleaning and easy to use.

Adhesive bonded webs


are made from a web of
fibres, bonded together
by the application of
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Thermally bonded webs


are made from a web of
fibres, bonded together
through the

Solvent bonded webs are


made from a web of
fibres, bonded together
using a solvent the fibre

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible


adhesive. The adhesive
may be applied to the
web by spraying, dipping
or foam spreading,
followed by pressing the
web.

thermoplastic property of
some or all of the fibres
under pressure and heat
the fibre surfaces soften
and fuse together
permanently.

surfaces soften and fuse


together permanently at
their touching points.

Tufted non wovens

Tufting is the most used manufacturing process for making carpets and rugs. They are made
by machines that insert pile yarns into a backing fabric. The pile, which can be looped or cut,
fixed into the backing with an adhesive coating.

Open-work fabrics

These fabrics include lace, braid and crotchet, all of which are minor textile techniques in
comparison with knitting and weaving.

Lace is a fine, open fabric


of mesh or net, which can
be patterned. Bobbin lace
is traditionally produced
by hand, using pins on a
pillow, around which the
lace bobbins work the
lace. Embroidery lace is
made by hand or
machine, by working an
embroidered pattern onto
a ground fabric. The
ground is removed by
cutting is away or by
using a burnt-out
technique. Raschel lace is
made on a warp-knitting
machine. Lace is used for
curtains, bedspreads, and
as decorative edging on
garments.

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Braid is made by the


diagonal interlacing of at
least two sets of warp
yarns. It is used for
trimmings and ribbons.

Crotchet is a hand-made
chain of loops, produced
from a single thread
using a hook. The chains
of loops can be linked to
make crotchet fabric.
When crotchet is in
fashion, it is generally
machine-made and used
to make accessories such
as bags and hats.

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible

Modern and Smart Materials


Modern and smart fabrics are designed to maximise characteristics such as lightness, breathability,
waterproofing etc., or to react to heat or light. They are usually manufactured using microfibers.

AQA definition A smart material is defined as one which is able to react to external stimulus /
changes in the environment without human intervention. Smart Materials include ones that:-

monitor body functions and administer medicines/give warnings;


maintain a personal micro-climate, eg Stomatex, Outlast;
can provide buoyancy and support, eg bodysuits for medical/physiotherapy support ;
have chromatic properties and change colour in response to specific situations;
have shape memory, eg Corpo Nove shirt which adjusts to differing temperatures;
are self-cleaning, eg nano-technology fabrics triggered by sunlight;
use biomimetics that imitate nature, eg Fastskin, Stomatex;
can generate solar power when exposed to sunlight;
can sense and track movement, eg SensFloor Smart carpets.

Microfiber

Technology
Woven polyester

Polar fleece

Brushed polyester,
warp knit

Gore-Tex

Laminated membrane

Micro-encapsulated

Different microcapsules embedded in


the fibres

Heat sensitive

Thermochromatic

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Properties
Lightweight
Soft
Good drape
Breathable
Shower-proof
Lightweight
Soft
Breathable
Warm
Breathable
Lightweight
Waterproof
Gives off an aromatic
scent
Can reduce body
odour
Can provide vitamins,
medicines or reduce
skin irritation
Micro-encapsulated

End-use
Raincoats
Active sportswear

Fleece, jumpers and


blankets
All-weather jackets and
shoes
Underwear
Anti-bacterial socks
Medical textiles

Childrens clothes

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible

Light sensitive

Photchromatic dyes

dye can change colour


in response to heat
(lasts about 5-10
washes)
Smart pigments
change colour in
response to sunlight

Sports clothing
Fire-fighters clothing
Wound dressings
t-shirts
military clothing

Combination fabrics - Fabrics can be layered and combined to improve their handle,
appearance or performance. For example:

An interfacing fabric such as Vilene can be stitched or laminated to other fabrics. This
reinforces, stiffens and gives strength to collars and cuffs to prevent the fabric from stretching
or sagging.

A quilted fabric has two or more layers sewn together to give an attractive appearance and
added warmth.

Gore-Tex can be laminated to another fabric using adhesive or heat. Gore-Tex is used for allweather clothing and shoes because it is breathable and waterproof.

Kevlar is a high-strength, lightweight and flexible fibre. It is used in bicycle tyres, racing sails
and police bullet-proof vests because of its high strength-to-weight ratio.

Thinsulate is a highly insulating but thin fabric. The microfibers in Thinsulate are fine and
capture more air in less space, making it a better insulator. It traps air between the wearer
and the outside. It can be machine washed and dry cleaned, and is breathable as well as
moisture resistant. Scuba divers wear a Thinsulate suit under a dry suit when diving in cold
water.

Technology in textiles - Textiles manufacturers use new technological developments to


improve fabrics by giving them new properties. These might be developed for a special reason, but
then adapted to be used in everyday products. For example:

Memory foam moulds to the user's shape and can return to its original state. It was originally
developed for NASA astronauts and is now used in memory-foam mattresses and seats.

Smart-shape-memory alloy returns to its original shape when heated. Smart memory fibres
are woven with nylon to make smart-memory shirts that don't need ironing.

Fastskin is used in swimsuits to simulate the texture of sharkskin. It increases a swimmer's


speed by reducing drag through water.

Polymers
Textile materials are made from natural or synthetic fibre-forming polymers. A polymer is the generic
name for a combination of large molecules, made from a chain of smaller repeating chemical units
called monomers.

Natural polymers exist as short fibres, which need to be combed, lined up and twisted to
make longer, usable lengths.
Vegetable fibres, such as cotton and linen, are composed of the glucose polymer cellulose
The animal fibre wool, from the fleece of a sheep, is composed of the protein polymer keratin
Hair fibres, such as cashmere and mohair, are also based on the protein polymer keratin
Regenerated natural fibres, such as viscose and modal are manufactured from the cellulose
in wood pulp. This is dissolved in chemicals and extruded through the tiny holes in a spinneret
into an acid bath, to produce fine continuous filaments or pure regenerated cellulose.

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Most synthetic polymers are manufactured from petrochemicals, using the process of
polymerisation to produce long chains of fibre-forming linear polymers. These are converted
by solution or melted and extruded through spinnerets to form continuous filaments of
synthetic fibres. There are two main methods of polymerisation, called addition polymerisation
and condensation polymerisation.

Acrylic, PVC and PTFE are made by addition polymerisation in which similar monomers are
added to each other to form long chains, called homopolymers.

Polyamide and polyester are made by condensation polymerisation in which two different
monomers are added together to form long chains, called copolymers.

Elastane is made by block polymerisation in which two different monomers are pre-formed
into blocks and then added together, to form block copolymers.

elastomers
Elastomers can be stretched
and return to their original
shape, such as the branded
Elastane fibre Lycra.

Thermosetting polymers
Thermosetting polymers have
cross-links between the long
chain molecules. They set with
heat and cannot be softened
when re-heated. They are not
used for textiles.

Thermoplastic polymers
Thermoplastic polymers have
long chain molecules that are
not cross-linked. They soften
when heated and become hard
again when cool. Acetate,
acrylic, polyamide and polyester
are all thermoplastics and
should be ironed with care.

Finishes
All fabrics used in products will have been finished in some way to make them suitable for their end
use. Good finishing can greatly improve the aesthetic and functional properties of fabrics, enhancing
their handle, drape and aftercare properties.
Finishing process
Physical finishing processes use heat, pressure
or steam and machine processes.

Example of how finishing benefits fabrics


Cotton or nylon is brushed (or raised) to
give a soft, warm handle.
Wool fabrics are shrunk to make them
compact and to reduce further shrinking.
Chemical finishing processes involve the use of
Viscose fabrics may be given an easychemicals, which can cause environmental
care treatment.
damage.
Silk ties can be Teflon coated to make
them stain resistant.
Biological finishing processes involve the use of
Most denim products in Europe are
natural enzymes, such as those used in
biostoned. This is less expensive than
biostoning denim, which causes little
traditional stonewashing and reduces
environmental damage.
damage to the fabric.
Dyeing and printing involve the use of chemicals
Most fabrics are dyed to improve the
to enhance the aesthetic characteristics of
aesthetic characteristics and to make
textiles.
them fashionable.
Printing makes fabrics attractive to the
target market.
Decorative and stitch techniques.
Appliqu and embroidery add to the style
of the product.
Textile products are also finished as part of a quality assurance process. Product finishing ensures
that the product is fault-free, clean and matches specifications. Finishing improves the properties and
quality of the product, and can be:

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Aesthetic, like pressing to improve the ease of manufacture. Final pressing improves
presentation of the product.
Decorative, like applying logos, braid or fringing to add to the style of image of the product.
Functional, like self-finishing seams by over locking to improve the product quality.

Finishing - Finishing is done to improve the appearance, properties and quality of a product. It covers
many different processes, some mechanical and some chemical.

Mechanical finishing processes


- Mechanical finishing uses heat, pressure and rollers to improve the appearance of the fabric.
Brushing - Brushing cotton or nylon fabrics makes them fluffy and warm, with a soft handle. The
fabrics pass through rollers with wire brushes that lift the fibres to form a nap.
Calendaring - Calendaring is the industrial equivalent of ironing. It smoothes the fabric and improves
its lustre. Engraved calendar rollers are used to emboss relief patterns on the fabric surface.
Heat-setting - Heat-setting is used for thermoplastic fabrics (polyester and nylon). The fabrics are set
in permanent shapes or pleats.

Chemical finishing processes


- Chemical finishing involves the application of chemical solutions or resins to improve the
appearance, handle or performance of a fabric.
Bleaching - Cotton and synthetic fabrics are bleached before dying. This makes it easier to dye pastel
shades.
Mercerising - Cotton or linen fabrics are mercerised using the alkali caustic soda. Mercerised fabrics
are stronger, dye well and have improved lustre.
Shrink resist - Wool can be given a shrink-resist finish using silicone or Teflon. This results in soft,
smooth, lustrous yarns and fabrics that are machine washable.
Crease resist - Cotton and viscose fabrics are given a crease-resistant finish using resin. This makes
them easy care. They dry fast and smooth and need little ironing.
Flame resistant - Children's nightwear and cotton/viscose furnishings must by law be given a flameresistant finish. This often makes the fabric stiffer and weaker.
Smart finishes - These are new, high-tech methods for finishing products.
Anti-bacterial finishes - Anti-bacterial finishes are applied to the fabric surface to slow down the
growth of bacteria. They control odours in sports shoes and reduce infection in medical products.
Coating - Coating involves applying a layer of polymer to the surface of the fabric. Teflon coating
makes fabrics stain resistant, water repellent and breathable

Biological finishes
- Biological finishes use natural enzymes to change a fabric's appearance. Bio-stoning gives a stonewashed finish to denim fabrics.

Thermochromatic finishes
- Thermochromatic substances change colour due to a change in temperature.

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Nanomaterials and integrated Components
Nanomaterials - Nanomaterials are those broadly defined as having tiny components with at least
one measurement below 100 nm. Sometimes nanomaterials are used as thin films or surface
coatings, as on computer chips or as nanowires, nanotubes, or as blobs of tiny nanocrystalline
particles.
In the clothing sector special functional textiles are under development, for example self-cleaning
textile surfaces or protective insulating clothing. Antimicrobial silver nanoparticles are already used in
socks, shoe insoles and a few clothing textiles. By using nanostructured polymer coatings on textile
surfaces, textiles and other products may be enhanced to include new properties like these listed
below.
Two key factors cause the properties of nanomaterials to be special: their quantum effects and their
structure. Their tiny structure means they have a greater relative surface area than other materials
and this can alter or improve properties such as strength and electrical characteristics or reactivity.
Their quantum effect can affect the electrical, magnetic or optical performance.
Properties vary but can include improvements such as:

magnetic/optical performance

electrical conductivity

strength/elasticity

thermal conductivity

absorbency

This has resulted in the development of:

harder and tougher tools

water-repellent and anti-bacterial coatings

wear- and scratch-resistant hard coatings

UV absorbent and reflective transparent-looking nanosized titanium dioxide and zinc oxide in
some sunscreens

a military battle suit that that will withstand blast waves (currently being developed by the
Institute of Soldier Nanotechnologies at MIT)

Nanomaterial finishes

ZANO

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Characteristics

UV-absorbers for fabrics: protects


fabrics from degradation, protects
against sunburn of wearer.
ZANO is a fungistat.

Uses

Summer clothing
Hammocks
Tents
Mountain wear
Climbing wear
Sportswear
Swimwear
Tents

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible


UV-absorbers for fabrics: protects
fabrics from degradation, protects
against sunburn of wearer.

Summer clothing
Umbrellas

NanoGrain TiO2 (rutile) or Optisol

Partial UV-absorbers for fabrics,


protects fabrics from degradation,
protects against sunburn of wearer.

Summer clothing
Tents

NanoGrain TiO2 (anatase)

Can combat malodours on textiles


by stopping decomposition of food,
sweat, etc.

Socks and underwear


Shoe insoles
Sportswear
Children's clothing

NanoGrain
CeO2

Integrated electronics
- LEDs and other electronic components such as sensors are being integrated into textile and other
products, and can offer a dual-purpose product like a wearable light-emitting garment or a roll-up
illuminated mat.

Testing of materials
British Standards Institute (BSI)- develops the tests that set the standards that products have
to meet to ensure their safety and quality. Products have to meet these standards and will be
awarded a number eg. BS 3320 (seam strength test). The BSI helps develop British,
European and International standards which are used to ensure safety and quality
of a wide range of products. Standard tests are often set at the request of
individual manufacturers and retailers and form an essential part of a quality
assurance system. Testing of materials and components, processes and prototypes
prior to manufacture requires the use of standard tests under controlled conditions.

Tests done in industry- tests are carried out on fibres, yarns and fabric before they are
manufactured. Testing is carried out under strictly controlled laboratory conditions. Tests include;
tensile strength, seam strength, burst strength, tear strength, crease resistance, flammability,
drape etc etc.
Consumer testing of garments is also carried out to asses the performance and acceptability of
the product.
Consumer advice- information given to the buyer of the product about the performance of
particular fabrics, e.g. a symbol or logo on the label to explain that the product meets certain BSI
standards. The kite mark shows that the product has been independently tested under strict
conditions and complies with BSI standards. The CE mark shows that the product meets
European safety standards.
Testing before manufacture
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Testing before manufacture ensures the production of quality textile products
avoids costly mistakes and protects the consumer against faulty or unsafe goods.
Tests make use of Manufacturing specifications
Fibre testing processes, to identify fabric content and to avoid
counterfeiting of expensive fabrics
Fabric testing procedures to identify processes and properties such as
abrasion resistance, aftercare, colourfastness, crease resistance, drape,
durability, elasticity, flammability, pilling, shrinkage, stain resistance,
strength, thermal insulation, water and wind resistance
Manufacturing prototypes to test for performance ease of
manufacture, aftercare and fitness for purpose. Quality control is the
standard method of putting quality assurance into practice. It can involve
statistical sampling, to inspect a sample of garments across a colour and
size range
Consumer testing to test for performance in wear and acceptability of
the product.

Testing textiles under controlled conditions


Tests on textiles need to be carried out under controlled conditions, to make sure
that they are fit for the purpose in other words, that they meet the quality and
safety requirements for the specification.
Product specifications are only of use if there are appropriate methods available
for testing of properties. Performance properties can be measured by a number
of test methods. For example, for fluorochemicals, standard tests exist for oil
and water repellence and stain release. Performance durability can be measured
by testing after repeated laundering, dry cleaning or abrasion cycles.
Testing under controlled conditions means
Using tests that can be repeated time and time again
Taking into account physical and chemical properties, yarns and fabric
construction, fabric finishes and the end use of textiles
Controlling variables
Being objective about results
Taking account of the scale and dimension for example, small fabric
swatches may not behave in the same way as fabrics are used in a
product

Comparative testing
It is very difficult to carry out objective testing outside a textiles laboratory,
although two methods are appropriate testing against specification and testing

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against known properties. Common tests carried out include tensile strength,
yarn snapping, seam strength, tear strength, crease resistance, drape.

Fire testing
Made from safe non-toxic materials
Must comply to a range of standards depending on their use

Decorative Techniques
Fabrics usually need to be washed, bleached and dyed before they are made into textile products.
Garments are assembled using various joining techniques including sewing, fusing and heat-sealing.
Finishing improves the appearance, handle and performance of fabrics, while pressing is used to
shape and stabilise fabrics.

Dyeing and Printing


Before dyeing and printing the fabric is prepared by washing, bleaching and
mercerising, in which the yarn is treated to improve strength, lustre and
receptivity to dye. Fabrics can be dyed by hand or by machine.

Dyeing of fabrics:
- there are many different dyes available for colouring fabrics; most of them have
been developed for a particular application. Textile dyeing involves the
permanent application of a colorant to a fibre to give a uniform colour. In order to
be successful, the colorant must be able to be absorbed by, or react with, the
textile fibre. It must also be soluble so that it can go into the spaces between the
fibre molecules.
Dyes are classified according to their ability to dye different fibres:

Direct Dye cellulosic fibres, including cotton


Soluble in water and used for dyeing viscose, cotton and modal fibres. They are moderately fast to
light but have poor wash fastness. Salt can be added to the dye bath to help the fibre absorb the dye

Reactive Dye cellulosic and protein fibres, nylon


Water soluble dyes which form a strong chemical bond with cellulosic and protein fibres. They give
bright colours which are fast to washing

Vat Dye cellulosic fibres


Not soluble in ware and give excellent wash and light fastness. Indigo, used to dye denim blue, is one
of the best known vat dyes. In order to get the dye into the fibre. It has to be converted into a soluble
form by removing oxygen. Once the dye is in the fibre, it is converted back to its insoluble form by
oxidation, which makes the molecules too big to get out of the fibres. A lot of indigo dye sits on top of
the fibre rather than being absorbed into it, and this is what causes it to rub off onto other fabrics and
to lose some colour when washed

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Disperse Dye Acetate, polyamide, acrylic, polyester
Used to dye fibres which have hydrophobic (water-hating) properties. These dyes are almost insoluble
in water and are applied to the fibre in the form of a fine aqueous dispersion. They are held inside by
chemical bonds

Acid Dye Protein fibres, polyamide


Soluble in water and are applied to the fabric in an acidic dye bath. They have
good fastness to light but the wash fastness varies

Solvent dyes have been developed which are applied to fabric using organic
solvents instead of water. This sis because water usage and disposing of it
afterwards in a form which will not cause pollution has become very expensive.
Solvent dyes are also very expensive to use because there is a cost involved in
recovering the organic solvent so that it can be used again. The equipment used
is also very expensive, making these dyes not especially economical to use.
There are a number of issues to consider when selecting dyes to use on a fabric
for a particular end use:
Colour requirements shade
Fastness requirements how well will the dye stay on/in the fabric
Cost
Generally dyes with better properties are more expensive but sometimes, in
order to meet consumer demand, dyes with poor properties are used because
they are the only ones available that will give a certain shade.
The process of dying consists of three steps:
1. Immersing the textile in the dye bath
2. The dye attaching to the textile fibre
3. Fixing the dye to the fibre
The strength with which the dye is held in the fibre depends on the physical
forces resulting from the shape of the dye molecule and structure of the fibre,
and also to the chemical forces that nay be present. The strength with which the
dye is retained within the fibre is related to the property of washing fastness.

Colour fastness of textiles:


When selecting dyes for a particular end use, colour fatness must be considered.
Fabrics may need to have fastness to the following
Bleaching, dry cleaning, washing (important for clothing products worn
regularly), light (important for furnishing products), perspiration (important for
fashion products), gas fumes, rubbing (important for seating and some clothing
products), miscellaneous

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Preparation
when the fabric comes from the loom or knitting machine it is not ready to be
dyed or used straight away. At this stage it is referred to as Grey (greige) or
loomstate cloth and it often has a natural creamy colour. Fibres, especially the
natural fibres, have natural impurities in them, e.g. fats, waxes and salts. There
will also be other impurities picked up during the processing, e.g. oil and dirt
from machines, and starch added to strengthen the yarn before weaving. These
have to be removed before the fabric can be dyed or finished, otherwise the
colour or finish will not attach itself evenly to the fabric.
Preparation processes

Desizing

Size is a starch, gum or gelatine type of substance which is applied


to warp yarns before they are woven into fabrics. This helps to
strengthen them so that they will be more able to stand up to the
constant movements of the loom. Most of these substances are
soluble in water so they can easily be removed by washing.

Scouring

Scouring removes fatty and waxy impurities which would prevent


the fabric from being wetted. Cotton fabrics are scoured by
boiling them in caustic soda solution. This method would not be
appropriate for wool fabrics as they would be damaged by the heat
and the alkali; instead they are moved through warm detergent
solutions to remove the fatty deposits in the fibres. More modern
methods involve washing the fabrics in solvent to remove the oils
and grease.

Bleaching

Fabrics are sometimes bleached to obtain a fabric which is evenly


white before colour is added. Cotton fabrics are bleached using
carefully controlled amounts of hypochlorite bleach or hydrogen
peroxide. Both of these are oxidizing bleaches (they remove
unwanted colour by adding oxygen to the stain to make it
colourless.)

Wool

Is often left in its naturally creamy colour. It is never treated with


chlorine bleaches as these will damage the scales on the wool
fibres. It can be bleached using hydrogen peroxide (as used to
bleach human hair), or by using sulphur dioxide gas, a reducing
agent which works by removing oxygen from the stain to leave it
colourless.

Fluorescent
whitening agents

Commonly used to whiten all fibre types, especially where a very


white fabric is required. These are colourless dyes which cause the
fabric to reflect and ultraviolet light which makes it appear to be
whiter and brighter. These fluorescent dyes will be broken down by
the bleaches commonly used in home laundering, and this is the
reason why consumers are sometimes advised not to bleach white
cotton fabrics.

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Dyeing Textiles
dyeing can occur at various stages during processing during which they are
transformed from the fibre to the finished article:
Dope Dyeing dope or spun dyeing is a process whereby the de is added
to the spinning solution of man-made fibres prior to spinning the fibre. This
method results in the textiles having good light and wash fastness.
Stock Dyeing when textile fibres are dyed in a loose form the term stock
dyeing is used. This method is relatively cheap and has the advantage
that if the dyeing is uneven it will be removed by the blending process
that follows when converting the fibre into yarn.
Yarn Dyeing yarns are dyed before being made into fabric.
Piece Dyeing this is when woven or knitted fabrics are dyed in the piece.
Garment Dyeing made-up garments are dyed as required. This allows
manufacture of fashion products to apply colour at the last minute as and
when there is consumer demand for the latest shades.

Hand dyeing
In hand dyeing, fabrics are immersed in hot or cold dyes in a dye bath. The dye
bath is agitated so the dye reaches all areas. When the desired colour is
achieved the fabric is removed and rinsed to remove excess dye. Then it is fixed
with a mordant or a fixing agent such as salt. The strength of a dye colour is
determined by the:

amount of time in the dye bath


absorbency of fibres
original fabric colour
concentration of the dye colour in the dye bath
effective use of a mordant or fixative

Commercial dyeing
- In industrial production fabric is dyed by continuous or batch dyeing.

Continuous dyeing -The fabric is passed through a dye bath, and then
squeezed between rollers to spread the dye evenly and remove excess.
Continuous dyeing is used for colours that do not need to change too quickly
with fashion.

Batch dyeing -Fabrics are produced without dye. Instead, they are dyed to
order in large batches according to the colours required. Batch dyeing is used for
fabrics that have to change in colour frequently because of fashion.

Printing
-Fabrics is printed by block or screen printing.

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Block printing - Block printing is done using metal or wooden blocks, one for each
colour. The background shapes are cut away to leave a raised design on the
block. Dye is applied and stamped onto the fabric. This is a slow process used by
specialised craft industries.
Screen printing - In screen printing a pattern is printed onto fabric through a
stencil held in place by a screen. Each screen prints one part of the design in one
colour. After printing the dyestuff must be fixed using steam or dry heat.
Manual flat-bed screen printing - Manual flat-bed screen printing is a slow
process, done by hand. It is used by designer-makers for complicated fabric
designs or for small runs.

Mesh is stapled to a frame to make a screen.

Masking tape is stuck to the underside of the screen.

A stencil is made from paper.

The stencil is placed under the screen but on top of the paper.

Ink is poured at one end of screen.

A squeegee is used to press down and draw ink across screen.

The screen is carefully lifted.

The print is checked before the process is repeated.

Industrial flat-bed screen printing - Industrial flat-bed printing automates this

process, with the fabric moved through the machine on a conveyor belt and the
print repeating rapidly.
Rotary screen printing - Rotary screen printing uses CAD and roller squeegees. One

roller is used for each colour. This is a very fast process used in the continuous
printing of furnishing and clothing fabrics.

Joining
Textile materials are joined by stitching, fusing or heat-sealing.
Stitching - Stitching two fabrics together produces an unfinished seam.
Finishing the seam prevents fraying and produces a hard-wearing, neat
finish.
Fusing - Fusing is used to permanently join two fabrics together using an
adhesive resin.
Fusing by hand is used to join Vilene to fabric to make it stable and strong. It is
also used to reinforce and strengthen fabrics for garments, bags and accessories
and allows hems to be turned up without stitching.
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In a factory there are two types of machine used for fusing. A flat-bed press is
used to join short fabric lengths for batch production, and a conveyor press is
used for fusing long fabric lengths for mass production.
Heat-sealing - Heat-sealing is used for synthetic fibres made from
thermoplastics, such as polyester or nylon. It is used to set a material into a
shape, e.g. pleats. It is also use to seal the seams on tents and all-weather gear
to make them waterproof.

Fastening and Components


Textile products are made not only from fabrics but also from a variety of
components and fastening. The main purpose of this is to enhance the products
style and performance.
Type of fastening

Typical end-use

Polyester button

Shirts, blouses and underwear

Nylon buttons

Coats and jackets, sports and leisurewear

Metal buttons

Blazers, jeans and knitted waistcoats

Leather buttons

Sports jackets and knitted cardigans

Wooden buttons

Knitted and sports garments

Moth of pearl buttons

Womens outerwear and underwear

Plastic zip fastener

Lightweight and fine fabrics used in garments and


household products

Metal zip fastener

Sports goods

Single and double-sided zips

Leisure and sports products

Nylon Velcro

A range of fashion garments, sports and leisure


goods

Metal hooks and eyes

Trousers and skirts

Metal or plastic press studs

A range of garments and household goods

Metal, leather or plastic


buckles

Belts and clasps

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3.1.3 AS Section C: Processes and
Manufacture

3.3.3 A2 Section C: Processes and


Manufacture

Computer Aided Design (CAD)


Computer-aided design - The term computer-aided (CAD) design includes all the computer
applications and hardware devices that can be used to aid digital design. CAD speeds up the design
process by making it quick and easy to test and modify ideas before production starts. This reduces
mistakes and cuts costs. Uses of CAD in textiles design include:

Wire-frame modelling, surface modelling or solid modelling can be used to texture map or
simulate virtual products in 3D, from which clients can choose one to be sampled in fabric.
This saves the time and cost of sampling a large selection of real products.

Graphics applications enable ease the production and storage of accurate working drawings
and lay plans.

Colour ways can be accurately modelled at the design stage.

Material quantities and costs can be easily calculated.

Computer networks improve communication between designers, clients and manufacturers


thus speeding up the design-feedback loop.

Use of CAD:
(read Textiles at the Cutting Edge chapter 2 p.175)

Fabric design/
Colourways

Product design/
Product modelling
Pattern production and
grading

Used to store colour and style information


Create and modify ideas quickly and easily
2D modelling of fabrics and colourways
Used for texture mapping of fabric designs onto virtual
products
Show 3D virtual products to clients on screen
To present a virtual catwalk show to clients
To make accurate drawings for manufacturing specification
Adapted patterns are digitised onto computer
Automatic grading of patterns increasing or decreasing flat
pattern pieces to create larger or smaller sized garments, e.g.
8,10,12 etc.

Use of CAM:
(read Textiles at the Cutting Edge chapter 3 p.197)

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Knitting

Computer controlled knitting machines flat knitting, circular knitting


or whole garment knitting (p.225)

Weaving

Computer controlled looms e.g Jacquard weaving to produce


complex patterns in woven cloth

Lay-planning

Computers used to work out the most efficient position of the pattern
pieces. They can give maximum utilisation of fabric to save on
wastage and costs. The marker (the actual plan) can then be sent by
computer to automated cutting machines.

Cutting

Layers of fabric are layed out flat by an automatic spreading machine.


Computer controlled cutting machines use information from the lay
plan to cut through layers of fabric using a laser.

Sewing

Automated sewing machines can perform tasks like making


buttonholes, bar-tacking (a re-inforcement like on a belt loop) or
constructing a double seam without the need for pinning or tacking.
Machinists still have to feed the garment into the machine.

Pressing

Industrial pressing equipment can include;

Embroidery

Pressing unit with high pressure steam iron


Flat-bed press for trousers
A steam dolly for finishing a whole garment (the garment is
placed on a form which is inflated with steam for one or two
minutes)
A tunnel finisher garments are conveyed through a chamber
in which they are steamed and dried.
Computer controlled embroidery machines to rapidly produce badges
or embroidered fabric. Many threads are used at once.

Use of ICT:
(read Textiles at the Cutting Edge chapter 1 page 166)
CIM

EDI

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Computer Integrated Manufacture CIM systems integrate the use of


all the different functions of computers including CAD/CAM to enable
fast, efficient and cost-effective manufacturing. CIM includes:
Management of product design and development
Production planning and control
Quality assurance and control
Materials and stock control
Cost control
Electronic Data Interchange: allows computers to communicate directly
and enables the transfer of data between business partners, via
telecommunications links and networks. E.g barcode is read at the till

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point and information of stock control goes to manufacturer.
EDP

CAA

PPC

Global Production:

Off-shore production

Imports/exports

Branded goods

Contracted goods

Wholesalers

CMT operations

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Electronic Data Processing the use of information, eg using


databases

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Systems and Control

Quality control systems:

Quality control throughout


manufacturing
Quality Assurance

TQM control systems

Production
One-off Production
This is wear a one-off textile product is made by and individual designer-maker, a craftsperson or a
company to meet an individual clients requirement. It is also called individual production, job
production and make through production. It is a traditional method in which a whole garment or textile
is assembled by one operator. Each product is only made once or only in small quantities. This
process needs highly skilled, experienced operators and versatile machinery. Tailors are one

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example, producing individually made suits to exact measurements for the customer. Craft workers
produce small quantities of items, carrying out each process from start to finish on each one.

The product is made by an individual or small team from start to finish


Traditional methods of manufacture are used
The operators are highly skilled and use versatile equipment
Haute couture is an extreme example of this production method

Batch Production
Items are produced in specific quantities. They may be made in one production run or in batches to be
repeated at certain times. A batch can range in number from two or three products to a hundred
thousand or more. In a batch production manufacturing system, each piece of equipment may be
used to make several different products, for example skirts today, trousers tomorrow. This means that
the machinery used must be far more versatile than that used in mass production. The workers who
operate the machines are likely to be more skilled because the job they do changes day by day
according to the batch run. In a large factory, many batches of different products, of varying quantities,
scheduled for different customers and delivery dates, will be processed at the same time. This
involves complex planning for the use of machines and the personnel to operate them, so that orders
can be met on time.

A reasonable number of products are produced, possibly to meet seasonal demand, e.g.
swimwear
Production costs are considerably less than for individual production

Mass Production
Large quantities of products are involved in mass production. Machines are in continuous use for long
periods of time, so they are very specialized and expensive. The machinery and the operator skills are
highly specific for the job in hand. Equipment, labour and supply of materials and components are well
organised to ensure a smooth flow of work through the factory and to minimise the cost of making
each product. Increasingly, computers are used to monitor and control processes. Variations in the
manufactured products are kept to a minimum, to minimize any changes necessary to the tooling of
the machines, which take time and money.

Used to manufacture large numbers of identical products over a long period of time
Products are usually not complicated and can be made cheaply, e.g. tights or vests
Types of mass production include:
Synchronised/ straight-line production work is passed along a production line where
each operator is responsible for one task, which they perform repeatedly
Repetitive flow production manufacture is divided into sub-assembly lines that each
focus on one area of the process
Continual flow production used for massive volume items; the process runs 24
hours a day and is never shut down

Other Production Systems


Cell production or section systems:

Divide the workforce into small teams that all produce the same product
Rely on each team to take responsibility for the quality of the products produced by them

Progressive bundle production:

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Uses small teams that are each responsible for a particular part of the production process
Is like cell production, but for individual parts of the garment

Off-the-Peg Manufacture
Except for Haute Couture and individual/job production, the different production systems are designed
to produce off-the-peg garments (ready-made garments in standard sizes).
Uses templates in standard sizes helps to keep costs down.
One-off garments that are made to specific measurements for an individual are called bespoke and
are usually far more expensive.

Just-in-Time Stock Control


Just-in-time stock management means that materials, components and sub-assemblies are delivered
a short time before they are needed. This means that less space is required for storage and no money
is wasted on surplus stock. With this type of stock control there must be no mistakes; otherwise
production can be held up.

Industrial and commercial practice


Manufacturing Systems:
One-off production

Also called bespoke, made-to-measure, custom made or job


production.

Batch production

Mass/line production

Means designing and making one-off textile products to a


clients specification.
one-off products are often more expensive because materials
and labour costs are higher
often made by a craftsperson and quality is checked as work
progresses
tools and equipment may be less auto-mated
end product often individual and of high quality
examples are: hats, bags, cushions, or haute couture
products, or made to measure garments (by a tailor)
Where fixed quantity of identical products are made either for stock or
order. Can be used to respond quickly to market demands for
seasonal products,e.g in a particular colour
High volume production is used for manufacturing large quantities of
textile products for stock or order.

Vertical production

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Cost effective method of making identical products


Uses standard materials, components and basic pattern,
equipment and processes
Used to make products that dont change quickly with fashion,
e.g. uniforms, work-wear, badges, yarns, underwear
Where the same company makes the raw materials (fabrics etc) and
the garments and does the distribution. They do not have to rely on

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In-house production

suppliers as it is all done by the same company.

Progressive bundle
system

Where teams are used to produce parts of a garment, which is then


passed on to the next team, literally in a bundle of fabric.

QRM

Quick Response Manufacturing:

Pre-manufactured
components
Manufacturing
specifications

Used to produce garments quickly in response to customer


demand
Manufacturers use information from EPOS (Electronic Point of
Sale) tills in the shops which gives details of what is being sold
QRM reduces levels of finished goods waiting in stock
Cuts the costs of tying money up in stock
Most textile products need components. Manufacturers buy in premanufactured components such as zips, buttons etc. They will have a
stock of basics and make a special order for specialised components.
Each product has a manufacturing specification, this document
ensures that the product is made as the designer intends. It provides
clear, detailed instructions about the products styling, materials and
construction. It is an essential part of the production plan and enables
the profitable manufacture of identical products. A manufacturing
specification should include the following:

Sub-Assembly

Just-in-Time production
(JIT)

A description of the product


A drawing to show the front, back and side views
Clear design and construction details
All dimensions, sizes, seam allowances and tolerances
Information about materials and components, including a fabric
sample.
Where parts of the garment or product are made separately to the
main part and joined together at the end. E.g shirt sleeves or collar.
This is an efficient use of time, equipment and labour and therefore
reduces costs.
Where materials and components are ordered so they arrive at a
factory just in time for production. This requires careful planning. JIT is
often used in QRM where goods are produced quickly. Its advantages
are:

Reduces need to keep stockpiles of materials, components etc


Reduces space needed for stock
Reduces levels of finished goods put into stock

Stages of Manufacture:
1. Fabric manufactureFibre production
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See diagrams in Chapter 3 p. 88 91. Look at the processes

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involved in; Cotton spinning, Wool production, Viscose production and
synthetic fibre production.

Yarn production

Texturing processes a heat process to give the fibres durable crimps,


coils or loops along the length. Texturing adds bulk and makes the yarn
warmer, more elastic, absorbent and softer.

Examples of synthetic fibres and yarns which have been textured or


bulked in different ways.

2. Fabric preparationDyeing:
Preparation of fabric for
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Desizing: this means getting out the sizing agent which is sometimes

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dyeing

starch, used to stiffen the fabric


Scouring: means washing out the natural fats, waxes, dirt and oils
that are in the fabric.
Bleaching: this means destroying the natural colour of the fabric
using hydrogen peroxide making it pure white.

Batch Dyeing

Jig dyeing: passing of fabric through a dye bath from one roller to the
other roller, this keeps the fabric flat and gives an even colour
Winch dyeing: the fabric is bunched together to form a long rope
this is then circulated around rollers and winches through the dye
bath.
Jet dyeing: Fabric moves along a heated tube where jets of dye
solution are forced through it at high pressure.

Continuous dyeing

Fabrics are fed continuously into a dye solution. The speeds can vary
between 50 to 250 meters per minute. Continuous dyeing is a popular
dyeing method and accounts for around 60% of total yardage of the
products that are dyed.

Resist methods

Means where methods are used to "resist" or prevent the dye from
reaching all the cloth, thereby creating a pattern and ground. The
most common forms use wax, some type of paste, or a mechanical
resist that manipulates the cloth such as tying or stitching. Examples
are Tie-Dye and Batik (using wax)

Direct dyeing

The type of dye used for cellulosic and some protein fibres

Reactive dyeing

Used for natural fibers making them among the most permanent of
dyes. "Cold" reactive dyes are very easy to use because the dye can
be applied at room temperature. Reactive dyes are by far the best
choice for dyeing cotton and other cellulose fibres.

Vat dyeing

Where the fabric or garment is immersed in a bath or vat of dye

Disperse dyeing

Type of dye used for polyester

Acid dyeing

Used on protein fibres such as wool or silk

Stages of dyeing

Dye can be applied at any stage of the manufacturing process


depending on requirements. Eg. Fibres, Yarns Fabric or Garment.

Printing:
Direct printing

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Simplest printing method, creating a positive image in one or more

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colours onto a white or pale background.
Discharge printing

The creation of a negative image, a white or coloured pattern on a


dark background. By using bleach or other chemicals to destroy the
dye already present.

Transfer printing

The transference of an image to fabric via paper (like the heat transfer
press in school) sublimation inks are used.

Roller printing

Where the print is applied to fabric using and inked roller, not used
much nowadays in manufacturing. More of a traditional method.

Rotary/flat bed screen


printing

Rotary screen printing: dye is applied to the fabric from within a rotary
tube which is engraved with the printing pattern.
Flat bed screen printing: the printing paste is pushed through a screen
onto the fabric. The pattern is created by blocking out areas of the
screen with filler.

Digital printing

Uses ink jet printers to print CAD designs directly onto fabric using
special printing inks.

Finishing Processes:
See page 100 of TatCE
Fixation

Where the colour or print is fixated into the fabric (made permanent)
can be through chemicals or steam. To make the fabric colourfast (so
that the colour doesnt wash out)

Washing

Fabrics can be washed before they are manufactured into products.


They are also tested in laboratory conditions to ensure that they can
withstand certain temperatures and conditions.

Drying

Fabrics need to be dried at a consistent heat and air flow

Heat-setting

Synthetic fibres can be heat treated to set them permanently into


shape, for example pleats. Natural fibres have to have a resin
treatment first before they can be heat set.

Mechanical Finishes:
Raising

Like brushing, fabric is passed through rollers covered with fine


flexible wire brushes which lift up the fibres to form a soft surface
called a nap.

Calendering

Like flattening, fabric is passed through heated heavy rollers under


pressure (like industrial ironing) to smooth the surface, and add a
sheen.

Embossing

Similar to calendering except the rollers have a raised pattern on them

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which gets transferred onto the fabric
Shrinking

Some fabrics need to be pre-shrunk before being made into


garments. Eg. Cotton.

Beetling

Fabric is passed through a machine with revolving wooden hammers


that gives fabric a lustrous sheen

Stone/sand washing

A process used to give a newly manufactured cloth or garment a


worn-out appearance. Stone-washing also helps to increase the
softness and flexibility of otherwise stiff and rigid fabrics such as
canvas and denim. The process uses large stones to roughen up the
fabric being processed. The garments are placed in a large horizontal
industrial clothes washer that is also filled with large stones. As the
wash cylinder rotates, the cloth fibers are repeatedly pounded and
beaten as the tumbling stones ride up the paddles inside the drum
and fall back down onto the fabric.

Laser-cutting

Laser cutting provides a clean cut on synthetic materials and


seals the edge. Intricate shapes can be cut out or engraving
fabric is possible by setting the laser higher.

Chemical Finishes:
Water repellency

Teflon or Scotchguard resin finish applied to repel water

Laminating

Combining 2 or more layers of different materials which are bonded


together by glue or heat. (Using iron-on interfacing is an example of
laminating)

Stain resistance

Teflon or Scotchguard resin treatment to repel stains

Flame resistance

Proban reduces flammability of fabric, increases stiffness, adds to


cost.

Mothproofing

Mitin chemicals applied to make the fibres inedible to moth grubs

Anti-pilling

Fabric is treated with chemicals so that it does not form bobbles

3. Pattern Drafting:
Basic pattern/template

Basic block

Notches, balance marks


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Seam allowance

Ease

Principles of grading

4. Garment production:

lay-planning

Marking and cutting out

Methods of joining

Finishing edges

Pressing

Labelling and packaging

Seams

A plain seam is the most commonly used method of joining woven fabrics.
An overlock seam stitches, cuts and finishes the seam in one process. This is used for a
range of products including underwear and knitwear.
A flat seam (seam cover) is made using twin needles to create a stitch on top and an overlock
stitch below. This binds the cut edges of straps. Belt loops or the hems of fabrics that fray, e.g.
for T-shirts or belt loops on jeans.
A cup seam is used for the seams of knitted fabrics.

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A lap seam is commonly used on the seams of jeans and shirts, providing a very strong seam
with two rows of stitching.
Heat-sealed joins are applied to fabrics made from thermoplastic fibres, like polyester and
polyamide (nylon). Heat-sealing is often used in combination with taped seams to help
waterproof products such as all-weather wear or tents.

British Standards and Health and Safety

BS 5722, flammability performance of fabrics and fabric assemblies used in sleepwear and in
dressing gowns mandatory for nightwear for children and the elderly. Flammability
performance relates to the whole garment, including all threads, trimmings, decorations and
labels.
BS EN 23758, the care labelling code. Care labels are voluntary and use symbols that are
consistent with those used on washing machines, irons and detergent packs.

Regulations require that most textile products be labelled with the type and quantity by percentage of
different fibres used. The label must:

Use the generic name of the fibre, such as acrylic, rather than a trade name like Dralon
Give the percentage fibre composition, such as 60% cotton, 40% polyester, with the highest
quantity first.

Applying British Standards:


Anthropometrics

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Implementing

Applying to Hazards and Risk

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible


Control

Garment sizes are very important to


everyone in the supply chain, from
designers, manufacturers and
retailers right to the end-users.
Clothing sizes are standardised so
that is they cannot be tried on at the
time of purchase, consumers have
a way of assessing which size the
require. All the data relating to the
size and shape of the human body
is called anthropometrics.
Anthropometric data needs to be
representative of the greatest
numbers of people, particularly in
relation to garment size.

One example of the implementation


of BS can be seen in the
manufacture of childrens
nightwear. This nightwear is
described as being made for
children over the age of three
months and under thirteen years of
age.

Childrens nightwear
includes night-dresses,
dressing gowns and
bathrobes, all of which
must meet the
requirements of BS 5722:
flammability performance
of fabrics and fabric
assemblies used in
sleepwear and in dressing
gowns.

BS 5722 relates to the


whole garment, threads,
trimmings, decorations
and labels. The test
procedures for checking
flammability have to
comply with British
Standards (BS) guidelines
and must be carried out
under controlled
conditions.

It is mandatory for all


childrens nightwear, baby
garments, childrens
pyjamas and terry
towelling bath robes made
for sale, to carry a
permanent label to show
they meet the flammability
standard.

Under the Health and Safety at


Work Act 1974, risk assessment is
a legal requirement for all
manufacturers in the UK. Its use is
an essential part of any Quality
Management System. In any
designing and making process,
therefore, it is the responsibility of
the manufacturer to ensure that
hazards are controlled, both in
manufacture and use of a product
by a consumer.

A hazard is a source of
potential harm or damage
or a situation with potential
for harm or damage.

A risk combines the


likelihood that a hazard
might occur and the
consequences of the
hazard.

British Standards Institute (BSI)


The British standards institute (BSI) helps develop British, European and International Standards,
which are used to ensure the safety and quality of a wide range of products. Standard tests are often
set at the request of individual manufacturers and retailers and form an essential part of a quality
assurance system. Testing of materials and components, processes and prototypes prior to
manufacture requires the use of standard tests under controlled conditions.

Health and Safety


Health and safety issues for products are related to the production of the consumer.
Regulation
The Trade Descriptions Act 1988
The Textile Products (Indication of Fibre Content)

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Example of application
Cant say a product is waterproof if its not. A
fabric can be waterproof.
Fibre content must be accurate, but there is a

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible


Regulation 1986
The Weight and Measures Act 1985 & 1987
The Consumer Protection Act 1987
The General Product Safety Regulations Act
1994

tolerance of 3%.
Stated sizing must be accurate.
The onus of proof of a fault is on the consumer.
Product must have correct labelling description.
In normal use childrens wear must not give any
risk or potential risk.

Health and safety at work is the responsibility of employers and employees. Manufacturers are
required to follow strict rules and regulations, based on the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974.
Employees are required to follow safety procedures to reduce risks in using materials, machinery and
manufacturing processes. It makes employers criminally liable for failure to meet regulations. It set up
the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) which is responsible for checking that the Act is being
followed. HSE and local authority inspectors visit workplaces to make sure that health and safety
regulations are being followed. It gives employees the right to be represented on health and safety
matters. It places and obligation on employees to use safety equipment. The Act requires business to
make a risk assessment of their activities. The company must appoint a Health and Safety Officer
who will check the workplace for possible risks and puts into place the necessary procedures and/or
equipment to reduce risks for the employers.
Many chemicals are used in the textile industry, and these may be dangerous to health is not stored
and used correctly. The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations (1994)
form part of the risk assessment. All workplaces should appoint a person to be in charge of first aid,
and workplaces should have clearly marked and well stocked first aid kit.

Health and Safety for the Consumer:


Products must also be safe for the consumer to use and must comply with a range of safety
standards and specifications. In many cases, safety of products is a matter of law and
manufacturers have a responsibility for the goods they produce. BSI provides advice on the
safety standards for a wide range of products including products made from flame-resistant
materials.
Fabric

Fabrics must be considered for their ability to burn and/or melt easily. This can be
particularly[y dangerous in certain situations e.g. nightclothes for children and elderly
people, furnishings in public buildings.
Soft toys may be dangerous for young children, especially the wadding material used
inside them.
In some occupations where fire is a hazard, protective clothing will be needed. Any

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places where the public collect together must have flame-resistant furnishings.
Babies often put things in their mouth. The fabric therefore has to be safe with no
loose fibres or harmful chemicals or fabrics.
These can be a hazard for certain people and in certain situations. Small parts may
easily be dislodged and swallowed by a small child, small fingers can become
trapped in zips and buckles, children have been killed because of drawstrings and
toggles, belts and braces have been caught in bus and lift doors.
Fastenings

Trousers for small boys should not have a zip fastening.


Fastenings and other trims used on clothing for small children should not resemble
food.
The elderly and some disabled people may have difficulty with some fastenings.

Temperature

Sharp
Edges

Certain products need padding to provide insulation against extreme heat e.g. oven
gloves.
Firm corners and sharp edges in a product must be well padded the user may not
realise that under and attractive fabric there is a sharp corner. Wire can be particularly
dangerous as it may work its way through the fabric over a period of time. Textile
products are checked to ensure that there are no metal objects, e.g. Broken needle
parts, in the item before it leaves the factory.

Legislation:
Nightwear (Safety) Regulations 1985
These regulations prohibit the supply of
childrens nightwear that do not meet
flammability performance requirements. The
regulations also specify labelling
requirements.

The Furniture and Furnishings (Fire Safety


Amendment) Regulations 1993
These regulations cover the fabric furnishings in
public places. In the UK, fire brigade officers
usually decide on the flammability requirements
for buildings and their contents where the public
has access. This kind of public building includes
schools and hospitals and places of
entertainment such as cinemas, nightclubs and
concert halls.

Textile product maintenance


- A care label on a textile product gives the consumer useful information about product maintenance.
Good labels provide details on:

Fibre content, which is the percentage of each fibre used to make a fabric, e.g. 50 percent
cotton, 50 percent polyester. This is a legal requirement.

Flammability. This is a legal requirement for children's nightwear.

Standard care symbols (see diagrams).

Standard size, which is a standard measurement of the human body. For example, women's
clothes might come in sizes 10, 12, 14, 16.

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All manufacturers use similar symbols to tell the consumer how to look after the product; the care of
textile products depends on the fibre content and fabric finishes used.
Washing instructions
Symbol

Instructions

Symbol

Instructions

Wash at 95 degrees, whites only

Wash at 40 degrees, dark colours only

Wash at 60 degrees, colours

Wash at 40 degrees, viscose

Wash at 60 degrees, modal

Wash at 30 degrees

Wash at 50 degrees

Wash by hand only

Wash at 40 degrees

Do not wash

Washing instructions are shown as a washing bowl. Similar symbols are found on washing machines
to show different cycles. The number in the washing bowl shows the maximum temperature, and the
line underneath the bowl tells you to use a special wash for synthetic fabrics. A hand in the bowl
means you can only hand wash the product.

Bleaching instructions
Symbol

Instructions
Bleach

Symbol

Instructions
Do not bleach

Bleaching instructions are shown as a triangle. A cross over the triangle means do not wash with
bleach.

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Ironing instructions
Symbol

Instructions

Symbol

Instructions

Iron: high temperature

Iron: low temperature

Iron: normal temperature

Iron: cold, do not use steam

Ironing instructions are shown by a picture of an iron. The dots on the iron show the maximum
temperature at which it is safe to iron the product: three dots is very hot; one dot is cool. A cross over
the iron means do not iron.

Instructions for dry cleaning


Symbol

Instructions

Symbol

Dry clean: all


methods

Instructions
Dry clean with perc (dry-cleaning fluid,
tetrachloroethylene) only

Dry cleaning instructions: a circle symbol means that it's safe to dry clean the product. The letter
inside tells the dry cleaners what method should be used. A cross over the circle means do not dry
clean.

Tumble drying instructions


Symbol

Instructions
Tumble dry: high temperature

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Symbol

Instructions
Do not tumble dry: viscose

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible


Tumble dry: low temperature

Do not tumble dry

Tumble dry: low temperature, modal

Tumble drying instructions are shown by a square with a circle inside. The dots show the temperature
at which it is safe to dry the product. A cross over the symbol means do not tumble dry.

3.1.2 AS Section B: Design and Market


Influences

3.3.2 A2 Section B: Design and Market


Influences

Development of Technologies and Design

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The effects of major developments in textiles technology:
We have come to expect more from our clothing and other textile products. New textiles are
being developed all the time mostly to try to improve the performance of existing products,
therefore to keep the consumer buying new products maximising sales and profits. Read
more about the effects of new developments in Section B, Chapter 1 p.118. And p.213
Modern and smart materials

Some examples of major developments are:


Fibre production

E.g Organic cotton, Spider silk, Lyocell, microfibres, nanofibres,


Non-traditional fibres sources such as leaf hemp/pineapple/seed etc.
More on new fibres in Textile Innovation Book.

Yarn production

Blended yarns such as Lyocell and Lycra. Heat treatments on yarn to give
texture such as crimping or bulking.

Fabric production

Biomimetics fabrics that imitate nature, read page 96 of Textile Innovation


book, examples are;
Fastskin by Speedo (fabric for swimwear that acts like shark skin)
Stomatex (fabric that imitates the way the surface of a leaf breathes and
regulates temperature)
Super Microft (fabric that imitates the self-cleaning surface of the Lotus leaf)
Anti-gravity fabric (imitates the feet of the Gecko lizard that can climb up walls
or hang off ceilings like Spiderman!)

Garment production

Mass production and automated systems mean that clothes can now be made
very quickly and cheaply. Manufacturers can respond quickly to demand
(QRM= Quick Response Manufacture) Many made overseas.

Finishes

E.g. Bio-stoning or resin treatments (such as Teflon stain resistant)

Colour application

Printing techniques such as; dye sublimation and digital printing mean higher
definition of colours, higher quality print.
Higher colour-fastness of dyes.

Decoration

CAD embroidery techniques quick, efficient, consistent quality.

Main effects for consumers are:

Higher performance of products


Higher levels of comfort
Better quality products
Cheaper products but we buy more than we need
More choice of products easily available
Increased safety especially for high-risk sports etc
Easy-care clothing

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Main effects for manufacturer are:
More efficient systems lower wastage, lower expenditure
Increased sales and profit
Less workers needed again lower expenditure
Safer practices in factories
Negative effects are:
More products = more use of resources = adverse effect on environment
Encourage people to regard products as throwaway or easy-come, easy-go
Less employment bad for economy
Ethical issues - Increased expectation of cheap clothing puts pressure on manufacturers to pay low
wages to workers who make the clothing.

Design in Practice
Marketing

Product life cycle


analysis

Disposal/environmen
tal issues
Read more in Textiles at
Cutting Edge p.293 onwards.

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Designers and manufacturers look at the life cycle of products to


identify how well a particular product is doing and decide when
to replace it. Most products go through 5 stages
1. Introduction - a new product, perhaps introduced by
style leaders/catwalk designers, new ideas. At this stage
the product is only worn by style leaders/trend setters
paying high prices for exclusivity
2. Growth the product becomes more popular, the style
becomes better known, may be simplified and will cost
less, worn by style followers.
3. Maturity the product is at its peak of popularity, styles
are readily available and worn by average consumer at
paying low prices
4. Decline the product has passed its peak of popularity,
is can be picked up in the sales by bargain hunters!
5. Replacement the product is obsolescent and no longer
likely to sell at all. New styles/products are coming in.
We have to consider whether it is necessary to constantly
produce new products which use resources and have an impact
on the environment. Should designers try to convert our throwaway society into something more sustainable? REFUSE,
REUSE, REDUCE.

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible


Fad-

Fashion/Standard-

Classic/Basic-

A fad product is introduced into a store,


quickly rises to best seller then almost
immediately declines and is unlikely to
reappear.

A fashion product is a product which is


introduced into stores slowly, moves up to
a top seller and then quickly declines, but
unlike fad may reappear in later years.

A classic product is introduced into a


slowly increases and declines at an
average rate but never drops off the s
completely. Its top selling point is lowe
than fad but keeps on selling.

Product Life Cycle

A fashion cycle is a variation of the product life cycle which reflects the sales
history of the prevailing style of consumer articles such as clothes, accessories or
interior products. A fashion cycle is seen as comprising three stages defined as
distinctiveness, primary emulation and secondary emulation. Take up of a new
fashion is done by innovators seeking distinctiveness who will then be emulated
by early adopters who wish to copy them. In urn if the fashion appears to be
attractive to the mass market manufactures will bring out large quantities of
similar products at much lower prices which will attract the early majority; with
the result that the innovators may well look elsewhere to regain distinctiveness
and start a new fashion cycle.
Trickle-down effect the oldest theory of distribution is the trickle-down theory. In
this model, a style is first offered and adopted by people at the top of society
with status and gradually becomes accepted by those lower classes. Once the
fashion is adopted by those below, the first adopters reject that look and find
another. Fashion generally works on a trickle-down system as designers are the
inspiration that leads to mass production of any particular product.
An example is Burberry. Once famed for their upper class status,
Burberrys iconic check fabric was worn by Kate Moss and other fashion icons.
However, their iconic print led to their downfall, as the masses knocked off cheap
bags, clothes and accessories. Burberry struggled to retain its polished image
and resulted in a new advertising campaign, seen today rarely displaying the
traditional and iconic check.
Bubble up effect the development of street fashions worn by ordinary people
into exclusive fashions for celebrities. The bubble up effect in fashion is a term
used to denote styles that originate as street fashion before developing into
exclusive designer versions. In the 21st century there is less trickle down from
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designers and more bubble up from the street as there is a bigger diversity of
styles accepted due to the increase in trend and style groups (indie, fashionistas,
vintage, prep.)
Technological innovation and the internet increasingly used to predict trends.
Influence of media creates trends and trend groups based on likes and interests.
(Rock music rock-style clothing)
Sneezers help to spread fashion trends they include bloggers, columnists and
online advertisements that pop up and make you think I want that
Trend forecasting companies employ trend chasers often these are fashion
designers and use a wide range of information. Trade magazines such as Drapers
Records are especially important for fabric predictions.

Trends:
The influence of trends on textile and product design is very important,
especially for fashion products. Trend forecasting is and essential activity for
designer of fibres, yarns, fabrics, accessories, garments and interiors. They use
market research techniques to research colour, style and fashion trends, so they
can predict what people will want and will then buy.

Developing a Fashion Forecast:


1. Identify the basic facts about past trends and forecasts
2. Determine the causes of change in the past
3. Determine the difference between past forecasts and actual behaviours
4. Determine the factors likely to affect trends in the future

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5. Apply forecasting tools and techniques while paying attention to issues of
accuracy and reliability
6. Follow the forecast continually to determine reasons for significant deviations
from expectations
7. Revise the forecast when necessary

Long Term Forecasting:


5 years or more
lines

Timeline sufficient for decisions related to repositioning or extending product


initiating new businesses
reviving brand images
planning new retain concepts

Short Term Forecasting:


1 year +
Timeline allows for the segments of the textile / apparel pipeline to coordinate
seasonal goods around looks that can be communicated to the customer through
the press and stores
Fashion Scan:
Following the latest fashion news to spot emerging fashion & lifestyle trends
Focus on colour, textiles or style forecasting
Consumer Scan:
Attempts to identify clusters of people who share characteristics
Usually combined with demographics, lifestyle, attitudes and behaviour
Used to determine target market
Can be used to better understand consumer behaviour
Fashion Analysis:
Combines FASHION SCAN and CONSUMER SCAN to determine what is likely to
happen next
Brings together expertise of a fashion insider & the insights of consumer
behaviour
Social and Economic Trends:
Cultural changes in society involve shifts in lifestyle and reflect changes in
generational cohorts or cycles in the economy
Affects mass scale purchasing decisions
Casual lifestyle, trend resistant consumer

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Megatrends- large scale shifts that cross industry lines

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Fashion Cycles

The time that it takes for a product to complete its life-cycle


varies by what type of product it is. In the fashion industry there
are three categories as follows:
Fad fad products catch on well and peak quickly, e.g. hot pants
in the 1970s or Jeggings.
Classic practical, easy to use products that are always
needed, e.g. tights, duvet covers.
Standard most fashion products follow a standard cycle lasting
about 2 years, e.g. pencil skirts, tunic tops

Industry
development
cycles from
colour, fibre
trends and
predictions to
products.
Read more in Textiles
at the Cutting Edge p.6
onwards

New products are developed using a design process, similar to


how you design and make your own products for Textiles. The
design cycle for a one-off designer dress for a catwalk show
would be as follows;
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Start with a predicted colour trends, fabric, fibre trends


ideas would be researched
a moodboard would be created
working sketches, pattern and toile development
fitting of toile on model and production
finished garment shown in Autumn/Winter or
Spring/Summer catwalk show

A mass-produced item would follow a different design cycle:


1. identify a need
2. market research and analysis
3. development of concept
4. prototype pattern and sample made and tested
5. pattern templates made and graded for different sizes
6. marker making (lay-planning)
7. production
8. distribution and marketing

Influence of
trends from
fashion, cultural
and media
sources.

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Fashion is influenced by many things designers may get


inspiration from

street-style; developed by teenagers initially but picked up


by designers e.g punk, grunge
other periods in history; also known as revivalist fashion,
e.g 50s skirts, 80s shoulder pads
modern media, tv, films. E.g mens kilts from film
Braveheart

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible

Importance and
purpose of
trade fairs

New technologies, fabrics and processes which give


designers opportunities to create innovative products, e.g
Gore-Tex
World events. E.g environmental concerns, recession

Trade shows are held all over the world to showcase the latest
fibres and fabrics. Suppliers have stands at which designers,
merchandisers and buyers can browse and find inspiration. For
example, Premiere Vision which is held twice a year in Paris.
This fashion and textile trade show is the ultimate in the
industries trend forecasting and innovative design events.

Lifestyle
analysis

Analysing consumer lifestyles means examining the way people


live rather than where they live or their age, income or
occupation. Lifestyle analysis is based upon a person's activities,
interests and opinions. People of the same age, income, and
occupation, who live in the same area, purchase a wide variety of
goods and services. Knowing more about your potential
customers' lifestyles will help you understand them and thus,
serve them better.

Target Market
groups

A product will be more successful and therefore more profitable if


it is aimed at the needs and wants of a particular market
segment. Consumers can be divided up by age group, gender,
level of disposable income and end-use.

Read more in Textiles


at the Cutting Edge
p.151 & p.286

Marketing and Advertising


Read: Textiles at the Cutting Edge p.277 Chapter 3

The marketing function:


The aim of marketing is to influence potential customers to buy your product. Advertising and
promotion will give a message about how your product is better, more unique than others its
USP (Unique Selling Preposition)

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Marketing
and
branding of
new fibres
and other
textile
products

Often done through campaign that addresses the consumer directly,


e.g. use of swing tickets showing the fibre brand logo and giving
information on the performance of the fibre,
e.g. Lycra, Modal, Tencel. This adds perceived quality to the garment
and attracts the buyer.

Develop instantly recognisable style this promotes reliability, quality

Importance and hopefully develops a band loyalty with consumers. Most textile
of labelling, products do not require much packaging other than swing tag.
packaging
and
corporate
identificati
on
Advertising
and
promotion
of textile
products
(range of
media)

Range of media includes;

Media
TV

Radio

Internet

Magazines

In-store

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Disadvantages

Advantages

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible


Newspapers

The
marketing
mix:
product,
place,
promotion,
price.

Product: Is your product or service totally unique? Unless so, it's


likely that someone else is servicing your potential clients already.
Is it new / different / unusual / designed to fill an identified need?
Does your product answer a problem customers may have or fulfil
a need
Price:Are you less expensive, or more expensive than the
competitors? Some people will not buy the cheapest, assuming
that cheap means inferior.
Promotion:To some people, image is everything and they would
rather pay five times the price for something with a designer label
or a quality reputation than pay less for an unknown brand.
Place: Place represents the location where a product can be
purchased. It is often referred to as the distribution channel.
Including actual stores and internet stores.

Visual
merchandis
ing

Different
retail
markets
and points
of sale

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Visual merchandising is promoting the sale of goods by how they


are presented in store. Visual merchandising starts with the store
building itself. Many elements can be used by visual
merchandisers in creating displays, including colour, lighting,
space, product information. Fashion retail shops will place
particular ranges very carefully e.g. colour ranges together,
particular produts placed to entice the customer into the store and
spend.
High street independent department stores and boutiques, multiple
retailers multiple department stores, chains mail order, websites,
interactive media.

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible


Role of new technology in marketing and sales of
textiles products:
See Textiles at the Cutting Edge p.184 bottom of page onwards.

Virtual reality
product
simulation
Mutli-national
textile companies
and global
marketing
Identifying socioeconomic groups,
demographic
trends, niche
marketing.

Companies that are globally recognised for example; Lycra, Teflon,


Tactel, Nike, Adidas.
See Textiles at the Cutting Edge p. 129
Done through Market Research (See p. 281)

Jobs in the Textiles/Fashion Industry


Fashion
Designer

Fashion designers work on the design of items of clothing and fashion ranges. Some may focus completely on one
specialist area, such as sportswear, children swear, footwear or accessories.
They produce designs for the haute couture, designer ready-to-wear and high street fashion markets.
Developments in technology mean that a design can be on sale as a finished product in the high street within six
weeks.
Depending on their level of responsibility and the company they work for, designers may work to their own brief or
be given a brief to work towards, with specifications relating to colour, fabric and budget.
The main areas of work for fashion designers are:

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High street fashion: this is where the majority of designers work and where garments are mass
manufactured (often in Europe or East Asia). Buying patterns, seasonal trends and celebrity catwalk
influences play a key role in this design process. It is a commercial area and heavily media led;
ready-to-wear (also known as prt--porter): where established designers create ready-to-wear
collections, produced in relatively small numbers;
haute couture: requires large amounts of time spent on the production of one-off garments for the
catwalk - which are often not practical to wear - usually to endorse other brands and create a look
creating/visualising an idea and producing a design by hand or using computer-aided design (CAD);
keeping up to date with emerging fashion trends as well as general trends relating to fabrics, colours
and shapes;
planning and developing ranges;
working with others in the design team, such as buyers and forecasters, to develop products to meet a
brief;
liaising closely with sales, buying and production teams on an ongoing basis to ensure the item suits the
customer, market and price points;
understanding design from a technical perspective, i.e. producing patterns, toiles and technical
specifications for designs;
sourcing, selecting and buying fabrics, trims, fastenings and embellishments;
adapting existing designs for mass production;
developing a pattern that is cut and sewn into sample garments and supervising the making up of these,
including fitting, detailing and adaptations;
overseeing production;
negotiating with customers and suppliers;

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible

Managing marketing, finances and other business activities, if working on a self-employed basis.
Experienced designers with larger companies may focus more on the design aspect, with pattern cutters and
machinists preparing sample garments. In smaller companies these, and other tasks, may be part of the
designer's role.

Buyer

A retail buyer is responsible for planning and selecting a range of products to sell in retail outlets. The buyer must
consider the following factors when making purchasing decisions:

customer demand (e.g. price, quality and availability);

market trends;

store policy;

Financial budgets.
Buyers source new merchandise and review existing ones to ensure products remain competitive. By fully
understanding customer needs, they are able to maximise profits and provide a commercially viable range of
merchandise at competitive prices. Keeping up to date with market trends and reacting to changes in demand are
key elements of the role.
Retail buyers have a considerable amount of responsibility and autonomy in what is often a pressured
environment.

Merchandi
ser

analysing consumer buying patterns and predicting future trends;

regularly reviewing performance indicators, e.g. sales and discount levels;

managing plans for stock levels;

reacting to changes in demand;

reacting to changes in logistics;

meeting suppliers and negotiating terms of contract;

maintaining relationships with existing suppliers and sourcing new suppliers for future products;

liaising with other departments within the organisation to ensure projects are completed;

attending trade fairs, in the UK and overseas, to select and assemble a new collection of products;

participating in promotional activities;

writing reports and forecasting sales levels;

presenting new ranges to senior retail managers;

liaising with shop personnel to ensure product/collection supply meets demand;

seeking merchandise feedback from customers;

Training and mentoring junior staff.


Merchandisers are responsible for ensuring that products appear in the right store at the appropriate time and in
the correct quantities. This involves working closely with the buying teams to accurately forecast trends, plan stock
levels and monitor performance. While the buyer selects the lines, the merchandiser decides how much money
should be spent, how many lines should be bought and in what quantities. In smaller companies, the same person
may be responsible for both buying and merchandising.
Merchandisers play a key role within organisations, as profitability can be affected by how successfully they
undertake their work. Merchandisers set prices to maximise profits and manage the performance of ranges,
planning promotions and markdowns as necessary. They also oversee delivery and distribution of stock and deal
with suppliers.

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planning product ranges and preparing sales and stock plans in conjunction with buyers;
liaising with buyers, analysts, stores, suppliers and distributors;
maintaining a comprehensive library of appropriate data;
working closely with visual display staff and department heads to decide how goods should be displayed
to maximise customer interest and sales;
producing layout plans for stores;
forecasting profits and sales, and optimising the sales volume and profitability of designated product
areas;
planning budgets and presenting sales forecasts and figures for new ranges;
controlling stock levels based on forecasts for the season;
using specialist computer software, for example to handle sales statistics, produce sales projections and
present spreadsheets and graphs;
analysing every aspect of bestsellers (for example, the bestselling price points, colours or styles) and
ensuring that bestsellers reach their full potential;
monitoring slow sellers and taking action to reduce prices or set promotions as necessary;
gathering information on customers reactions to products;
analysing previous season's sales and reporting on the current season's lines;
making financial presentations to senior managers;
accompanying buyers on visits to manufacturers to appreciate production processes;
meeting with suppliers and managing the distribution of stock, by negotiating cost prices, ordering stock,
agreeing timescales and delivery dates, and completing the necessary paperwork;
identifying production and supply difficulties and dealing with any problems or delays as they arise;

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible

Managing, training and supervising junior staff.


A clothing/textile technologist works on the design, development and production of fibres, yarns and textiles. They
carry out a range of technical, investigative and quality control work to ensure the end product performs to
specifications.

Fabric and
Garment
Technologi
st

They also work on the development of products, improving production efficiency and quality while liaising with
those involved in the production process.
The textile and clothing industries are closely linked and end products range widely from clothing to household and
industrial textiles.

Visual
Merchandi
ser/
Display
Designer

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developing manmade fibres and quality assessing natural fibres;


spinning fibres into yarn, and knitting or weaving yarn into fabrics;
producing non-woven materials;
identifying the latest fabric trends, developments and innovations;
overseeing the dyeing, printing and finishing processes;
ensuring quality in areas such as strength, durability, colourfastness, and water and chemical resistance;
advising commercial colleagues on technical aspects of the business;
liaising with designers, and adapting designs to suit production methods;
making and sizing pre-production garments;
sourcing fabrics and accessories;
undertaking quality evaluations of materials and checking the quality of the final product;
Responding to product queries, including complaints, from wholesalers and customers.
Display designers and visual merchandisers use their design skills to promote the image, products
and services of businesses and other organisations.
Display designers focus on designing displays, stands and panels for exhibitions, conferences and
other events. They also produce point-of-sale displays, which are installed in hundreds of retail outlets.

Visual merchandisers create window and in-store displays of goods for retail shops and department
stores.

The work involves researching to get an understanding of what is needed, and coming up with design
ideas. Visual merchandisers also source elements such as lighting, props and accessories.

It is important to make the most of the space available, work within a budget and meet deadlines.
Installing and dismantling displays may also be part of the job description.

making presentations to potential clients to win contracts

discussing the brief with the client and identifying the key messages they wish to convey

gaining an in-depth understanding of the client's organisation, products, image and target market

considering factors such as the space available for the display, any special features it should
incorporate (such as chairs, models and computers) and the client's budget

coming up with design ideas, images and graphics incorporating the client's logo and corporate
colours, and discussing these with the client

researching costs and working within a budget

revising designs according to feedback from clients and other members of the design team

Overseeing the production of the chosen design, checking the quality and making sure the project is
completed to schedule.

Producing a display usually involves working with printers, exhibition contractors, plastics
manufacturers and metal fabricators. The job could also involve arranging for the display to be
transported to and from exhibitions, installed, dismantled and stored when not in use. Designers may
liaise with suppliers of lighting, furniture, flower arrangements and other accessories.

Visual merchandisers create imaginative, eye-catching displays of goods in retail stores. They aim to
attract the attention of customers and encourage them to buy. Their tasks can include:

researching lifestyle and design trends and making sure designs will appeal to the target audience

working with other members of the design, marketing and buying team to develop themes and colour
schemes for displays - for example Christmas, Valentine's day, sales and special promotions

sketching designs and developing floor plans, making the most of the space available

taking direction from head office on corporate schemes when appropriate

sourcing materials such as props and lighting

installing and dismantling displays

preparing visual merchandising packs, including plans and photographs, for other stores in the chain,
to make sure all displays present a consistent image

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible

Visiting branches to train and brief staff on arranging displays.

The role of the designer:


Read Textiles at the Cutting Edge: p.147-150
Job Description

Fashion designers work on the design of items of clothing and fashion


ranges. Some may focus completely on one specialist area, such as
sportswear, childrenswear, footwear or accessories. They produce
designs for the haute couture, designer ready-to-wear, and high street
fashion markets. Developments in technology mean that a design can
be on sale as a finished product in the high street within six weeks.
Depending on their level of responsibility and the company they work
for, designers may work to their own brief or be given a brief to work
towards, with specifications relating to colour, fabric and budget

Areas of fashion:
The main areas of work for fashion designers are:
High street fashion: this is where the majority of designers work and
where garments are mass manufactured (often in Europe or the Far
East). Buying patterns, seasonal trends and celebrity catwalk
influences play a key role in this design process. It is a commercial
area and heavily media led.
Ready-to-wear: Established designers create ready-to-wear
collections, produced in relatively small numbers.
Haute couture: This requires large amounts of time spent on the
production of one-off garments for the catwalk - which are often not
practical to wear - usually to endorse other brands and create a
look.

Typical Work Activities


Tasks depend on the market the designer is working for, but core
responsibilities include:

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creating/visualising an idea and producing a design by hand or


using computer-aided design (CAD);

keeping up to date with emerging fashion trends as well as


general trends relating to fabrics, colours and shapes;

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible

planning and developing ranges;

working with others in the design team, such as buyers and


forecasters, to develop products to meet a brief;

liaising closely with sales, buying and production teams on an


ongoing basis to ensure the item suits the customer, market and
price points;

understanding design from a technical perspective, i.e., producing


patterns, toiles and technical specifications for designs;

sourcing, selecting and buying fabrics, trims, fastenings and


embellishments;

adapting existing designs for mass production;

developing a pattern that is cut and sewn into sample garments


and supervising the making up of these, including fitting, detailing
and adaptations;

overseeing production;

negotiating with customers and suppliers;

managing marketing, finances and other business activities, if


working on a self-employed basis.

Experienced designers with larger companies may focus more on the


design aspect, with pattern cutters and machinists preparing sample
garments. In smaller companies these, and other tasks, may be part
of the designer's role.
Environmental constraints
upon designers
Eco-Fashion

Working to client
specifications, designing
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Simply put, the term eco-fashion refers to stylized clothing hat uses
environmentally sensitive fabrics and responsible production
techniques. Eco-fashion clothes can be defined as, clothes that take
into account the environment, the health of consumers and the
working conditions of people in the fashion industry. Clothes and
accessories that meet such criteria are usually made using organic
raw materials, such as cotton grown without pesticides, or re-used
materials such as recycled plastic from old soda bottles. Eco-fashions
don't involve the use of harmful chemicals and bleaches to colour
fabricsand are made by people earning fair wages in healthy
working conditions.
Designers need to take into account the resources of the company for
which they work. They need to appeal to the customer profile which

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible


within budgets

may have a set price point. They need to work to a set budget,
bearing in mind at all times the cost of raw materials and components
and manufacturing processes that will be needed e.g. loads of
seams, complex construction = more expensive.

Design in the human context


Health and Safety: Read more: Textiles at the Cutting Edge p.44/45

H&S during production of


textile products

H&S at work is the responsibility of the employers and employees.


Manufacturers are required by law to follow strict rules and
regulations, based on the Health & Safety at Work Act 1974.
Employees are required to follow safety procedures to reduce the
risks in using materials, machinery and manufacturing processes.

Risk Assessment

This means identifying the risks and putting control systems in place
to minimise the risk of injury or accident. Each production task to be
performed will have to have a risk assessment carried out. Risk
assessment is also carried out on textile products to ensure that they
do not pose a threat of injury or accident.

HSE

The Health and Safety Executive is a government body which advises


employers and employees on all aspects of H&S. It also sets the
regulations that employers must follow.

COSHH

Control Of Substances Hazardous to Health. The COSHH regulations


require employers to control substances that can harm workers'
health.

BSI standards for product


testing

British Standards Institution (BSI) is the independent regulator of


standards for manufactured products.

Read more in Chapter 2


Consumer Interests page
266 onwards

Products must comply with these standards, one to remember is


BS5722 which sets out the flammability performance of fabrics used
in sleepwear and dressing gowns.

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Impact of technological development:
Balance between gain and
loss for individual and
community in terms of
ethical, social environmental
and economic
considerations

Values issues and new technology are discussed on page 247


Textiles and the Cutting Edge.

Environmental concerns:
Read up on this; page 293 Textiles at the Cutting Edge
Use of natural
resources

Organic production

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Materials utilisation

Waste disposal

Pollution

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Recycling

Planned
obsolescence

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Industrial Textiles
These are textile materials manufactured to meet specific technical requirements in a
wide variety of industries. They are used for functional end-uses, either as part of an
industrial process or incorporated into industrial products. Industrial textiles are often
used in the aerospace and transport industries. They often replace existing traditional
materials because they provide superior characteristics and properties such as strength,
lightness, durability and resistance to heat or corrosion.
Examples: Fire resistant space suits, optical fibres, Seat belts, airbags, tyres, belts, carpet
backing and upholstery, Conveyor belts, filters, cables and ropes
The average car contains 13-14kg of textiles. These are used not only in carpets,
upholstery, seat belts and airbags but also as flexible reinforcements in the tyres, brake
pipes, water hoses and belts. The bodywork may be made from glass-reinforced
composites and insulation is achieved through the use of heat and sound absorbing
textiles. Oil and petrol filters keep the car running smoothly.
Technical requirements relate to the functional performance of a textile, matching its
properties and characteristics with its end-use. Technical requirements can relate to the
way a textile performs, such as its strength, elasticity, breathability, durability or fireresistance. For example, the technical requirements of a bouncy castle could be strong,
hardwearing, waterproof, puncture proof and non-slip.

Technical Textiles
Technical textiles are manufactured mainly for their technical performance and functional
properties rather than for aesthetic characteristics. Only a small proportion of technical
textiles are manufactured from high-tech fibres like Kevlar, Nomex or carbon fibres. Most
technical textiles are made from everyday fibres such as polyester, polypropylene,
polyamide (nylon), acrylic, viscose or cotton.
The properties and structures of technical textiles are usually modified to meet the
requirements of specific end-uses. This may include the use of microfibers, which can be
blended with other synthetic or natural fibres to make fabrics that are strong, lightweight,
easy-care and weatherproof. Technical fabrics can be woven, knitted or non-woven,
depending on the end use. Many geotextiles, for example, are warp knitted. Technical
fabrics are often coated with Teflon or PVC to give them enhanced properties, like stainresistance.
Technical textiles are used in a wide range of applications including protective clothing,
upholstery, furnishings, buildings, civil engineering, sports products, leisure goods,
agricultural products, medicine and health care.

Performance Textiles
Technical textiles that are used for more fashion-orientated products for outdoor pursuits
or sport are sometimes called performance textiles. These are textiles that relate to a
products performance in a specific end-use, such as skiing or swimming.
Performance textiles are developed from technical specifications that define how the
product should perform, such as windproof, breathable or aerodynamic. The look of
these products is also important if they are to sell into a competitive market, so aesthetic
properties are an important factor I their design. The development of performance
textiles has been the driving force behind many innovations in clothing fabrics. Some of
the benefits originally incorporated into performance wear such as breathable are now
seen to be indispensable in many fashion products. Similarly, Lycra is now used
extensively in fashion clothing to provide comfort properties.

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Performance requirements relate to the functional and aesthetic performance of a textile,
matching its properties and characteristics with its end-use. Performance requirements
can relate to the way a textile performs such as tensile strength, tear strength, abrasion
resistance or shrink-resistance and the way a textile looks such as its style, drape, or
comfort properties. For example, the performance requirements of skiwear could be
warm, breathable, waterproof, windproof, durable, easy-care and fashionable.

Technological Developments
Technology Push

New technologies used


to develop new products

Using new styling to


develop new products
before old ones wear out

Improving product
quality through
development of new
materials or processes

New technologies used


to develop new
manufacturing systems
or processes

Explained through:
Developments in
materials technology
or processes e.g.
Tencel or Teflon
coating
Development of new
technologies e.g.
using Bio-sensors in
sportswear to
monitor heart rate
The need to increase
market share e.g.
creating the need to
be modern or
fashionable
Developments in
fibres e.g. Sport wool
Developments in
biotechnology e.g.
bio polishing
cellulose fabrics to
reduce pilling
CAD/CAM enables
faster time to market
ICT enables Quick
Response
manufacturing
Laser technology
results in garment
size measuring
booths

Resulting in:

Updating existing
products or
developing new ones
Creating new smart
products

Updating existing
products through
colour and styling
Creating new
modern brands
Updating existing
products
Creating new brands

Faster turn-round of
fashionable styling
Fast response to
customer demand
Mass-produced
bespoke garments

Market Influences
Market Pull
Market place demand
creates a need for:
Higher quality
products
Value for money
New or modern

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Explained through:
A rise in consumer
expectations e.g.
more money to
spend
Changes in lifestyle
e.g. an ageing

Resulting in:
Updating existing
products
Creating new brands
Targeting specific
market groups

Textiles AS/A2 Revision Bible

styling

Changing consumer
attitudes creates a
demand for:
Environmentallyfriendly or
recyclable
products

Demographics creates a
demand for:
Products with
improved
performance,
function or appeal
Bespoke garments

population
The influence of the
work of fashion
designer e.g. the
need to be
fashionable
Greater awareness
of environmental,
ethical or moral
issues e.g. global
warming or
deforestation
Changes in lifestyle
e.g. greater leisure
time results in need
for higher
performance
sportswear
An ageing population
needs clothes with
better fit, form and
function

Using different
materials of
processes to
manufacture existing
products
Creating new eco
brands
Updating existing
products
Using different or
new materials or
technology
Mass-produced
bespoke garments

Environmental Issues
The manufacture, use and disposal of textile materials and products can have serious
consequences for the environment in the following ways:
Fibre sources o Growing cotton uses fertilisers and pesticides which can pollute the
atmosphere and waterways
o Synthetics are made from petrochemicals which come from non-renewable
resources and burning of which releases harmful gasses

Changes to the landscape because of intensive farming and deforestation


o When growing cotton crops and producing wood for regenerated fibres

Manufacturing and finishing processes use chemicals such as those found in


dyestuffs, and their effluent can be damaging. Large quantities of water are also
necessary for these processes

Waste is produced when fabrics are made into products, and this may end up in
landfill sites

The manufacture of components may use plastics and metals as well as energy

Packaging of the products can be wasteful of paper, card, plastics, printing inks,
and the energy used to produce and transport the packaging

Caring for textile products requires the use of detergents, dry cleaning fluids,
energy and water

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Transportation of raw materials and finished goods produces co2 emissions from
transport systems
o Contributing to global warming and damage to infrastructures as well as
pollution to water

Disposal of discarded textile products is often to landfill sites


o Fabrics and components often take many years to decompose with the
consequent methane production, and leeching of heavy metals from
components such as zips

There are many ways in which textiles can be made greener and reduce their carbon
footprint. These include:
Recycling of fabrics and the production of new fabrics from recycles materials can
reduce waste
Development of new fibres, such as Tencel, which come from sustainable sources
and use clean technology in their manufacture. Inego, a new fibre to replace
polyester, is made from plant starches and is fully bio-degradable
Using fewer dyes or develop fibres which grow coloured. Microfibers and dark
colours use enormous amounts of dye and water to achieve the desired colour
Assessing a products life cycle and considering its impact from cradle to grave
Reducing the amount of packaging; ensure its biodegradable and recyclable
Using detergents which are effective at lower temperatures (30C) and washing
machines which are energy efficient and use less water. Only wash clothes when
they are dirty and dry them outside when possible
Considering using energy produced from renewable resources
Using more environmentally friendly forms of transport and consider manufacture
of materials and products nearer to the places that they will be sold
Reducing the need to discard perfectly serviceable products just because fashion
has changed by having fewer changes in fashion no more disposable or fad
fashions

Moral Issues
Consumers are becoming more aware of the conditions in which textile products are
manufactured. In the UK, there are laws to protect health and safety of workers and
prevent them from being exploited by employers.
When textile products are made in other countries, especially less economically
developed ones (LEDCs), those laws dont apply.
The pesticides and fertilisers used on cotton crops can have disastrous effects on the
health of farmers and other workers if they breathe in the spray, or if it comes into
contact with their body. Chemicals from the pesticides and fertilisers can pollute water
courses, poisoning drinking water.
Growing cotton uses vast amounts of water. In many countries where cotton is grown,
there is not enough water for the people who live there to drink.
Many workers in LEDCs are paid very little and forced to work long hours, often in hot,
cramped and dangerous factories. Sometimes these workers are young children. Some
manufactures in the UK have been known to employ illegal immigrants to manufacture
textile products for little pay in dangerous conditions.
Many of the fashion textile products that are sold at low process have been
manufactured with no regard for the workers health, safety or dignity. People buying
such cheap products need to ask themselves if the cheap fashion products, which they

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will throw away as soon as a new fashion appears, are worth the human suffering
involved in their manufacture.
Many consumers now look for Fair Trade and eco-friendly products.
Fair trade standards specify minimum social, economic and environmental requirements,
which producers must meet to be certified.
In the Fairtrade system, a company that meets the required standards of manufacture
can buy a Licence Agreement with the Fairtrade Foundation. This licence entitles the
company to apply the FAIRTRADE Mark to specific products covered by the agreement.

Fashion designers
Vivienne Westwood

1941 present British Fashion Designer


Vivienne Westwood is one of the most influential designers of her time. She went to Harrow Art School,
before training as a teacher! In the late 1960s, Westwood opened a highly influential shop in the Kings
Road, London, selling leather and rubber clothes. In 1976 Westwood produced her bondage collection
of studded, strapped and buckled clothing. Although these clothes were thought to be shocking at the
time, they have since influence much of mainstream fashion and she is credited with setting off the
Punk trend. Westwoods Pirate and New Romanticism themes of the 1980s set fashions that were ten
years ahead of their time. These styles included swirling petticoats, buckles, ruffles and pirate hats.
Her signature styles have also included underwear worn as over wear, corsets and crinolines and
Grunge, using torn clothing and exposed seams. In 1991 Westwood began showing her collections in
Paris, designing for Vivienne Westwood Red Label and Vivienne Westwood Gold Label.
In 1965 Vivienne Westwood met Malcolm McLaren who triggered her interest in fashion and
experimentation with her image. He introduced her to a range of political and artistic ideas which
continue to influence her work today.
In 1971 they took over a shop at 430 Kings Road, London. The first incarnation, Let it Rock, modelled
itself on the 1950s Teddy-boy aesthetic. In 1973 let it Rock ceded to Too Fast to Live Too Young to die
in tribute to James Deans death and stocked fetish wear previously only available by mail order.
In 1975 the shop was rebranded SEX, later named Seditionaries and became involved with the
significant street style of the second half of the 20th century, Punk. It was famous for cruse and
evocative garments bondage trousers, and t-shirts with slogans such as Cambridge rapist and
paedophilia which caused controversy and outrange in the mainstream of British society. The Sex
Pistols were a highly effective promotional image for the shop.
As punk began to influence the mainstream, she looked towards romanticism. Her pirates collection
(1979-1981) was adopted by musicians labelled the New Romantics.
In 1983 she turned the subcultural inspiration of the street into a deeper relationship with historicism.
It was during this time that Westwood pioneered underwear as outerwear, in collections that revelled
in the corset.
1985 Mini-Crini collection designed and shown in the Cour du Louvre, Paris, and the Limelight
nightclub, New York.
1987 Designs Harris Tweed collection inspired by the clothes of the British establishment
1990 her first formal recognition in being awarded Fashion Designer of the Year by the British Fashion
Council

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1991 designs slash and cut menswear collection. Awarded Fashion Designer of the Year for the
second year running.
1992 awarded an O.B.E as well as being made Honorary Senior Fellow at the Royal College of Art
1993 designs the Vivienne Westwood iconic Orb
2005 joins the board of trustees for Liberty and designs a T-shirt in defence of Liberty and Human
Rights
In 2011 she was named Britain's Greatest British Fashion Designer in a poll conducted by Greenall.
Over 3000 people voted with the Westwood scooping 24 per cent of the national vote.
She dedicated her spring/summer2012 menswear show to the Olympics. Westwood made sure each
catwalk look referred to the Games in some manner including T-shirts that came covered in printed
torches, medals and statuesque Greek figures.
Vivienne Westwood and photographer Juergen Teller went to Africa in 2011 to work on her
autumn/winter 2011-12 Ethical Fashion Africa collection. A programme which enlists thousands of local
women to use their skills to produce bags for Westwood and earn a fair wage in return. "This project
gives people control over their lives," she said. "Charity doesn't give control, it does the opposite, it
makes people dependant."
In 2011 she joined the Occupy London anti-capitalist protesters outside St Paul's Cathedral. She has
often outlined her concerns for climate change and during a talk at the V&A in 2009 Westwood said:
"There is hardly anyone left now who believes in a better world."
Never shy of controversy, Westwood complained of the lack of style in society. "People have never
looked so ugly as they do today, regarding their dress," she told journalists after her Red Label show in
London. "We are so conformist, nobody is thinking. I'm a fashion designer and people think 'what do I
know?' but I'm talking about all this disposable crap. So I'm saying buy less, choose well, make it last
in history people dressed much better than we do. If you saw Queen Elizabeth it would be amazing,
she came from another planet. She was so attractive in what she was wearing."
To celebrate the Queen's Diamond Jubilee, she launched a new capsule collection inspired by gowns
Queen Elizabeth had previously worn. The range, entitled the Red Carpet Capsule Collection, also paid
homage to the British flag. Took out iconic as Alex doesn't like us using it.
In 2012 Westwood criticised plans of a London council to ban charity Scope from basing its clothing
banks on council-owned land. A keen supported of charity shops she told the Evening Standard:
Charity shops are part of the fabric of our great city, but this short-sighted approach is totally unfair
and damages charities at the expense of a quick buck."
Vivienne Westwood credited London and its thriving culture scene as her biggest inspiration in a film
for the Tate Britain's 'This Is Britain' campaign. "The great thing about London for me is the culture the museums," the designer said in the film.
In 2012 Westwood triggered controversy when she created a T-shirt in support of Julian Assange. The
T-shirts were given to her guests to wear front row at her spring/summer 2013 show. "I'm a big
supporter of Julian Assange," Westwood told Reuters.
She selected the grand setting of the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office to show her
spring/summer 2013 Red Label collection. The choice of the venue was a result of Westwood's
involvement in the government's GREAT campaign. The designer fronted an international campaign as
part of the initiative, which celebrated excellence in the creative industries, while promoting Britain as
the preeminent place to study, visit or invest.
In 2012 she partnered with The Woolmark Company to create a luxury 12-piece-collection made from
the finest Australian merino wool. "When I first began as a fashion designer, well over 30 years ago, I
succeeded in re-introducing into fashion the idea of knitwear, the English twinset," Westwood told
British Vogue. "Wool is one of the world's great natural fibres, famous for its versatility and comfortwarm in winter, cool in summer."
In January 2013 she helped rebrand the English National Ballet with a new campaign that shows the
ballet dancers wearing her creations. "It's a dream come true to be able to collaborate with someone
of such stature," said Tamara Rojo, the English National Ballet's artistic director. "Her designs capture
the creativity and ambition of our dancers who, in turn, add drama and movement to the clothes."

Paul Smith
Paul Smith is a label that has become synonymous with classic British tailoring and style. Inspired by the
traditional British menswear he admired as young boy - such as his brother's Post Office shirts and the tweeds
of the Nottinghamshire country set - Smith's greatest attribute is simplicity. He has described his designs as
"well-made, good quality, simple cut, interesting fabric, easy to wear" and often adds a splash of vibrant colour,
a floral print or his signature multi-coloured stripes.
Born in 1946 in Nottingham, England, Smith's childhood ambition was to become a professional racing cyclist.
He left school at 15 with no qualifications and began working in a Nottingham clothing warehouse as an errand
boy. He relished his cycle to and from the warehouse each day until aged 17 he was in a serious accident and
sustained injuries that put an end to his racing ambitions. Six months in hospital followed, during which Smith
made friends with people from the local art college who would introduce him to the world of art and fashion.
Returning to his job at the warehouse, he used his newly acquired interest in art and fashion and began making
displays for the showroom. Soon after, he was made menswear buyer.
Smith also started to take evening classes in tailoring in Nottinghamshire where he learned to cut cloth as well
as the basics. Soon after, he joined Lincroft Kilgour in Savile Row after being spotted by Chairman Harold
Tillman, where his designs were worn by celebrities including footballer George Best.

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Paul Smith now has 15 shops and concessions in the UK and 200 shops worldwide, in markets including Japan,
Paris, Milan, New York and Hong Kong. The business, still based in his native Nottingham, has turnover of
325million. As chairman and designer, Sir Paul is still involved in every aspect of it.
Known for his positive outlook on business and life, Smith has become a key figure of the British fashion
industry. Although he is an internationally celebrated fashion artist nowadays, Smith is known to have remained
very much down to earth. He frequently visits his shops, talks to customers, and learns about his clientele's
needs.
In 1969, Smith met his wife-to-be Pauline Denyer, then a fashion design student at the Royal College of Art.
With Denyer's encouragement he opened his first shop called Paul Smith Vtement Pour Homme on 10 Byard
Lane, Nottingham in 1970. It was the only shop outside London to sell labels like Kenzo and Margaret Howell,
and Smith soon started selling pieces that he had designed himself and had made up by local manufacturers.
"That first shop was only 12ft square and I thought, "There's not much to see. Why would anyone come?" So I'd
always have a poster from the Pompidou Centre to sell, or three school notebooks from a trip to Greece," Smith
told the Telegraph in 2008.
By 1976 Paul showed his first menswear collection in Paris, under the Paul Smith label. He gradually expanded
the retail business, being the first fashion brand to open on Floral Street in London's Covent Garden in 1979. His
shop offered an eclectic combination of clothes and finds for men which reflected his own magpie personality.
In 1990, Smith created his first children's collection.
After discovering that 15 per cent of his clothes were bought by women, who were attracted to his modern use
of fine and classic materials, he first introduced a women's collection in 1993. In the same year, Smith took
over the traditional (established in 1885), but bankrupt work wear company R. Newbold and quickly
incorporated many of their famous cuts into his collection.
He received a CBE in 1994 for his services to the British fashion industry.
In 1995, Paul Smith Limited was awarded The Queen's Award for Industry for export achievement. In the same
year, London-based Design Museum opened a retrospective of Smith's 25 years of work in the fashion business,
called True Brit, marking the first time the renowned museum devoted an entire exhibition to a single fashion
designer.
He was awarded the Honorary Freedom of the City of Nottingham in February 1996.
In 2000, Smith was awarded a knighthood, an accolade that until then had only been bestowed upon one
designer - Hardy Amies. On the same day he wed Pauline, his partner of 30 years.
In October 2001, Smith published his first book, entitled You Can Find Inspiration in Everything. The tome was
described by Smith as his brain on to the page".
In May 2002, Smith accessorised the England team for their World Cup matches in Japan and Korea. Working
with the FA and Umbro he designed a selection of leather wallets, cufflinks, shoes, eyewear, watches and
luggage.
He won Menswear Designer of the Year and Women's Contemporary Designer of the Year at the British Style
Awards in 2003.
In September 2004, Paul Smith was named Designer of the Year for the fourth year running at theGQMen of the
Year awards. "I am absolutely delighted," he said. "It's a really genuine honour."
In February 2007, Smith was awarded an honorary fellowship of the Royal Institute of British Architects - an
organisation that rewards outstanding contributions made to the world of art, design and architecture. The
lifetime accolade is handed out to just ten people annually. "Receiving the honorary fellowship is a real honour,"
said Smith. "I am both shocked and delighted because RIBA is an association that I really admire, and
architecture is very close to my heart."
Smith admires the work of Yves Saint Laurent. "I was fortunate enough to see some of Yves Saint Laurent's first
haute couture shows in his Paris salon - one in particular I remember was in homage to the Vietnam War and it
was all in black. Then he did the famous see-through blouse in clear silk chiffon. The audience literally took a
mass in-take of breath - as if we'd been watching a firework display. Obviously the fact that he pioneered le
smoking for women proved how modern his thinking was,"
Despite his earlier accident, Smith has maintained his interest in cycling and is an avid follower of professional
racers. He dressed professional cyclists and Olympic winners Sir Chris Hoy and Bradley Wiggins CBE for their
various official engagements, following their successes at the 2008 Beijing games.
In May 2009 Sir Paul Smith dressed football team Manchester United ahead of their Champions League Final
against Barcelona. He created two suits - one in a grey Prince of Wales check and the other in black wool which both featured specially created red lining and stripe piping, accompanied by a black raincoat and
luggage set for each player. "It is exciting to be involved with Manchester United," Sir Paul Smith said. "They
have such an international fan base and I know our customers in Japan, Korea, and Hong Kong - in fact all South
East Asia, Europe and the US - will be interested in the partnership. It has been an honour designing and
supplying suits for the team."
In 2010 Smith was honoured at the Cond Nast Traveller Innovation and Design Awards.
He launched Paul Smith Junior in the autumn of 2010. Staying true to his unique vision showcasing a bright,
punchy colour palette and silhouettes inspired by the men's and women's catwalk offerings. "It is really exciting
to return to designing clothes for babies and children. It is 10 years since we had a children's collection which
we stopped because we literally could not keep up with the workload due to the business of our men's and
women's collections," said Sir Paul Smith.

Alexander McQueen
Born in the East End and the son of a taxi driver, Alexander McQueen was the quintessential bad boy made
good. He had brains and brawn, having survived over ten years as a solo designer and being brought into the
Gucci Group stable, which bought a 51 per cent stake in his company 2002. In 2008, his company not only

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turned a profit but was also opening new stores from LA to Beirut. He was awarded the coveted Designer of the
Year Award at the British Fashion Awards four times.
Alexander McQueen was born in 1970 in the East End of London - the son of a taxi driver.
He left school at 16 and trained on Savile Row at Gieves & Hawkes, where he reportedly once embroidered a
suit for the Prince of Wales with the words "I am a c**t" (in the lining).
In 1991 his entire degree show was bought by influential stylist Isabella Blow, whose later suicide in 2007 led to
him dedicating his entire spring/summer 2008 collection to her memory.
He earned his master's degree in fashion design from London's Central Saint Martins (formerly Central Saint
Martins College of Art and Design) in 1992.
The of LVMH president, Bernard Arnault, controversially installed McQueen as John Galliano's successor at
Givenchy in 1996. McQueen told Vogue in October 1997 that his debut couture offering for the label was "crap",
but he stayed with the house until March 2001 - continuing to create challenging collections, including one
featuring car-robots spraying paint over white cotton dresses and double amputee model Aimee Mullins striding
down the catwalk on intricately carved wooden legs - until the contract which he said was "constraining his
creativity" was ended.
McQueen won the British Fashion Awards' British Designer of the Year four times and won the Men's Wear
Designer of the Year award in 2004. In 2003, he received the CFDA Award for Best International Designer and
was honoured with a CBE from Queen Elizabeth II for his services to the fashion industry.
His spring/summer 2010 collection, which featured alien-inspired make-up and reptilian prints, was lauded as
his best by the fashion press, with Selfridges buying director Anita Barr telling VOGUE.COM she believed it
would be the department store's "bestselling collection ever".
McQueen died, aged 40, on February 11 2010, amid unconfirmed reports that he committed suicide.
Alexander McQueen delivered collections that were often described in superlatives: "I didn't plan out my life like
that," he said. "When people recognise and respect what you do, that's nice, but I don't think you ever do this
to be famous. Fame should be left to the film stars. We're just offering a service."
Alexander McQueen was one of the most influential and creative fashion designers around. He learned his
tailoring skills when working as a pattern cutter for a Savile Row mens tailor. He then trained as a theatre
costume designer and worked for Romeo Gigli in Milan, before training at Central Saint Martins College of Art
and Design in London. In 1992 McQueen launched his own label and became the enfant terrible of the fashion
world. Despite the shock value of his designs McQueen is a highly creative designer with finely honed tailoring
skills. He designed for his own label and was chief designer for the French fashion house Givenchy. McQueen
used cutting edge fabrics, such as laminated lace, vinyl with metal rivets, tartan PVC and synthetic fabric
spattered with stainless steel.

John Galliano
John Galliano was born in Gibraltar and graduated from Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design in
London. He sold his graduation collection to the London designer store Browns in 1984. He is one of the most
influential and original designers of the late 20th century, whose clothes are often shocking. His collections are
sometimes based on themes such as Fallen Angels. Galliano also bases his ideas on historical themes, using
contexts such as the Highlands of Scotland, the Russian Steppes, and American gangsters, to product kilts,
frock coats and ball gowns. Although Galliano raids historical themes for his ideas, he uses modern fabrics and
precision tailoring with bias fabric cutting to create clothes that influence many other designers. In 1995
Galliano was made chief designer for the French fashion house Givenchy haute couture and RTW, but left in
1996 to design for Dior. He also designs for his own label.
Is John Galliano a pirate, Russian migr, revolutionary, dandy, or soldier? For every collection as chief designer
at Dior, he adopted each look as he thoroughly immerses himself in his creative process.
Incredibly, after 20 years in the business, he still maintains the drive of the impoverished fashion student he
started out as. Superb tailoring and delicate detail are his trademarks.
Born in Gibraltar in 1960.
His first class degree collection from Saint Martins College, 'Les Incroyables', was bought by Joan Burstein for
the window of her South Molton Street shop, Browns.
John Galliano launched his own label in 1984. He was British Designer of the Year in 1987, 1994 and in 1997 he
shared it with Alexander McQueen.
Due to frequent bankruptcy, in 1995 he accepted the job of creative director Givenchy in Paris. He was the first
Brit to head a French couture house (His designs from that era are now collector's items).
In 1996, Galliano was appointed as creative director of Christian Dior.
He was made a Chevalier in the French Legion of Honour in January 2009.
Galliano is almost as famous for his dramatic final-bow-costumes as he is for his fantastical designs. He has
finished his show wearing all from Napoleon and country squire outfits to looks inspired by the artful dodger
and an astronaut.
In 2011, he helped VOGUE.COM celebrate its 15th birthday by sharing his 15 favourite fashion memories, from
Kate storming the runway in a crinoline to dressing Diana, Princess of Wales.
He is known for creating some of the industry's most famous collections, including the Blanche Dubois (inspired
by Streetcar Named Desire and starring Kate Moss) in October 2008, the Napoleon and Josephine (inspired by
the love story of these famous historic figures) in March 1992 and the Princess Lucretia (inspired by the Russian
princess) in October 1993.

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Last season saw him celebrate 15 years working at Dior - he marked the occasion with a collection inspired by
one of Dior's long-term friends and original illustrators, Rene Gruau. For his own label he offered a show that
looked like a raid on a Twenties theatre wardrobe, with pantomime wigs, chiffon dresses and floral silk blouses.
To achieve his considerable output Galliano relies on an extreme fitness regime, including a daily six mile jog
along the Seine. "It helps to concentrate the mind and I find that I have so much more energy and focus."
In February 2011, Galliano was arrested for an alleged assault and shortly afterwards a video appeared online
of him apparently making anti-Semitic remarks towards people in a Paris bar. As a result, Dior dismissed him
from his role as creative director on March 1 2011.

Christian Dior
Christian Dior was a French couturier, best known for his eponymous fashion house which is often referred to as
just Dior.

Born in the seaside town of Granville on the coast of Normandy in 1905, he was the son of a wealthy
fertiliser manufacturer and was one of five children. Aged five, he moved with his family to Paris.

Although his parents had hopes of him becoming a diplomat, Dior was artistically inclined and began
to sell his sketches on the street to make pocket money. Upon leaving school, Dior took over a small
art gallery which his father bought for him, where he and a friend sold work by artists including Pablo
Picasso.

Following the onset of the Great Depression in 1929, the death of both his mother and his brother, and
the collapse of his father's business, Dior was forced to close his art gallery. He then went to work with
fashion designer Robert Piguet until he was called up for military service in 1940.

At the end of his service in 1942, he began working for couturier Lucien Long, where he and Pierre
Balmain were the primary designers. During the war, Lelong - like other French ateliers including
Jeanne Lanvin and Nina Ricci - dressed the wives of Nazi officers and French collaborators as a way of
preserving the fashion industry throughout the conflict for both economic and artistic reasons.

At the same time, Dior's younger sister Catherine joined the French Resistance, resulting in her capture
by the Gestapo and subsequent imprisonment at the Ravensbrck concentration camp. She survived
and was liberated in 1945. In 1947, Dior named his debut fragrance Miss Dior as a tribute to her.

He founded the house of Christian Dior on December 16, 1946 at 30 Avenue Montaigne Paris, backed
by Marcel Boussac, a cotton-fabric magnate. Officially, the house of Dior considers 1947 to be the year
of conception as that is when Dior showed his first collection.

On February 12, 1947, Dior showed his debut collection, presenting the 90 different looks. Named
"Corolle" and "Huit", the lines were quickly christened the "New Look", a phrase coined by US Harper's
Bazaar magazine editor Carmel Snow. The look consisted of a calf-length, full skirt, a cinched waist and
fuller bust than had been seen since the turn of the century. A rebuttal to post-war fabric restrictions the average dress used 20 yards of fabric - the look received some criticism upon release. The
opulence of his designs contrasted with the grim post-war reality of Europe, and helped re-establish
Paris as the joyful fashion capital it had once been.

The house was inundated with orders and world-famous stars such as Rita Hayworth and Margot
Fonteyn bought and wore pieces, raising Dior's profile significantly. Dior was even invited to stage a
private presentation of the collection for the British royal family - although King George V reportedly
forbade the young princesses, Elizabeth and Margaret, from wearing the New Look in case it set a bad
example at a time when rationing was still in force.

He was known to be very superstitious, a quality which increased with age. Each collection included a
coat named after his place of birth, Granville; in each show at least one model wore a bunch of his
favourite flower, lily of the valley; and he never began a couture show without having consulted his
tarot card reader.

Dior established a luxury ready-to-wear house on the corner of 5 th Avenue and 57th Street in New York
in November 1948. It was the first of its kind. In the same year, he launched Dior Parfums - with Miss
Dior being the first fragrance to launch, and Diorama launching the following year.

In 1949, Dior was the first couturier to arrange licensed production of his designs. Having realised the
importance of the complete look - and that the New Look could not be successfully achieved without
the correct Dior shoes, gloves and hat - Dior, together with business partner Jacques Rout, licensed
his name to a range of luxury accessories. Furs, stockings, ties and perfume were also manufactured in
regional centres across the world, spreading his brand name quickly around the globe. Although this
move was heavily criticised by the French Chamber of Couture - who denounced the move as
cheapening the haute couture industry - licensing became a profitable move for Dior and the atelier's
lesson was followed by nearly all of the period's fashion houses.

In 1955, the 19-year-old Yves Saint Laurent became Dior's design assistant. Christian Dior later met
with Yves Saint Laurent's mother, Lucienne Mathieu-Saint Laurent, in 1957 to tell her that he had
chosen Saint Laurent to succeed him at Dior. She said at the time she had been confused by the
remark, as Dior was only 52 at the time.

Shortly after his meeting with Saint Laurent's mother, Christian Dior suffered a fatal heart attack on
October 24, 1957, leaving the house in disarray. Some 2,500 people attended his funeral, including all
of his staff and famous clients led by the Duchess of Windsor. In an attempt to stabilise the label,
Jacques Rout appointed the then-21-year-old Yves Saint-Laurent as artistic director.

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Saint Laurent remained in the position until he was conscripted into the army, during which time he
was dismissed from Dior by Rout and replaced by Marc Bohan. Bohan proved very successful as Saint
Laurent's replacement, defining a new era and new silhouette for Dior, the Slim Look, a more modern
and svelte version of Dior's iconic shape.
In 1978, the Boussac Group filed for bankruptcy and its assets, including Dior, were sold to the Willot
Group. After it went into administration, Bernard Arnault and his investment group purchased the
Willot Group's holdings for "one symbolic franc" in 1994. On assuming power, Arnault drastically
altered Dior's operations. In 1985, Arnault became chairman, CEO and managing director of Christian
Dior. He repositioned it as the holding company Christian Dior S.A and in 1988, took a 32 per cent
equity stake into the share capital of LVMH creating one of the leading and most influential luxury
goods conglomerates in the world, whilst Christian Dior remains to stand alone as a megabrand in its
own right.
Gianfranco Ferre was made stylistic director of Christian Dior in 1989, replacing Marc Bohan. He
remained in this position until 1997.
In 1997, Arnault appointed British designer John Galliano to replace Marc Bohan at the creative helm.
"Galliano has a creative talent very close to that of Christian Dior. He has the same extraordinary
mixture of romanticism, feminism and modernity that symbolised Monsieur Dior. In all of his creations his suits, his dresses - one finds similarities to the Dior style," said Arnault of Galliano.

Coco Chanel
So great is Coco Chanel's legacy that fans make pilgrimages to her Paris apartment (although she also lived in
the Paris Ritz for 30 years), which is preserved as she left it and endlessly referenced for style - as is every
image of her and every tiny thing she ever designed. From her use of monochrome to her oversized 'costume'
pearls and cuffs, everything is still sublimely, continuously referenced. As she once said: "Fashion fades, only
style remains the same."
Gabrielle Bonheur "Coco" Chanel was born in 1883 and died in 1971
She created a new look for women in the 20th century, creating clothes that were primarily comfortable. A
Chanel suit of 1923 or handbag is still seen as a landmark purchase for women of increasingly younger ages
The Chanel No.5 scent is the bestselling in the world
The interlocking Cs of Coco Chanel remain one of the ultimate brand insignia
Since 1983, Chanel has been designed by Karl Lagerfeld
The building where her apartment is in Paris was bought by Chanel in 1920, and still houses the ground-floor
shop, the haute couture workrooms in the attic (where 100 seamstresses still work entirely by hand), and what
is now Karl Lagerfeld's study
Coco Chanel's bobbed hair, bright red lips and outspoken manner also broke the mould. This smoking,
outspoken woman never married - although she had relations with the English industrialist Arthur "Boy" Capel who lent her the money to buy Rue Cambon - Igor Stravinsky and the second Duke of Westminster Hugh
"Bendor" Grosvenor, the richest man in Europe. Keira Knightley followed Kate Moss as the new face of Coco
Mademoiselle in 2007. The brand could not be more alive with watches, beauty, fragrance, womenswear and
new stores.
In 2009 a biopic film based on her life titled 'Coco before Chanel' was released. Audrey Tatou was given the
lead-role and follows as she goes from orphan to Haute Couture designer.
19203 and 1930s:
In France, the designer Coco Chanel epitomised the modern woman. She designed comfortable, loose blouses,
chemise dresses and clothes that were sporty, relaxed, wearable and well suited to the outdoor lifestyle that
was being promoted as healthy in the 1920s. These clothes were designed to be worn without corsets and were
made with fewer linings to make them lighter and more flexible. Chanel believed that fashion must meet the
needs of modern lifestyles and give women freedom of movement. In 1916 she began using knitted jersey
fabrics, a relatively cheap fabric previously sued for underwear and by 1918 was producing cardigans and
twinsets. Chanel was one of the most influential designers of the 20 th century. Her clothes broke away from the
fussy over decorated clothing of the 19th century. She adapted mens tailoring and produced classic suits with
short skirts, always relying on good cut, finish and high quality fabric. What we now consider to be a normal
part of womens clothing trousers, tweeds, pea jackets, berets, blazers, raincoats, the little black dress,
slinback shoes and accessories were all introduced by Chanel.
In the 1920s fashion clothing became more widely available as clothing by designers like Chanel was copied by
RTW. Clothing that once had only been for the wealthy suddenly became available to the woman on the street.
This was a dramatic change for ordinary people who had previously only has every day and best clothes that
had to last for years. Of course, designer clothing was still unaffordable for most people, but its very exclusivity
increased its desirability. The production and distribution of affordable RTW fashion was an important turning
point in the democratisation of fashion. The very styling of the clothes themselves, together with lower prices
meant that social class was not immediately discernible through what you wore.

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Art Movements
Arts and Crafts Movement
Inspired by socialist principles (everyone being equal) and led by William Morris, the
members of the movement used the medieval system of trades and guilds to set up their
own companies to sell their goods. Unfortunately, it has the reverse effect and, apart from
the wealthy middle classes, hardly anyone could afford their designs.
The arts and crafts movement is called a reform movement because it was closely
associated this the anti-industrial movement that came about in the late 19 th century.
William Morris (1834-1836) was the most influential thinker of the Arts and Crafts
movement. His philosophy revolved around a love of simple design inspired by the Middle
Ages when art and production were closely connected in medieval craft guilds
Morris saw the effects of industrialisation environmental pollution, poverty for workers
and the production of poor quality products and proposed the reform of commercial art in
order to manufacture well-designed and well-crafted consumer goods.
This was the start of the revolt against the over decorated products beloved by well-off
Victorians.
The Arts and Crafts movement promoted the idea of handcrafted products as being
superior to industrial ones.
This type of simple undecorated furniture and furnishings created a demand for simplicity
of design and fitness for purpose
It had an important influence on Art Nouveau, the Bauhaus, on Scandinavian and UK design
and can be said to form the basis of modern design in Europe
The legacy of William Morris is still seen today. have nothing in your house that you do not
know to be useful or believe to be beautiful
Morris raised the design for everyday domestic accessories and fittings to an art form. He
drew his inspiration from the flowing shapes of nature and interpreted them as repeat
prints for wallpaper and textiles
These products represented the values of truth to material and form. Morriss style has
been reproduced and reinterpreted throughout the 20th century, making him one of the UKs
most influential textile designers.
Today, manufacturers such as Libertys and Sanderson are still producing textiles inspired
by Morris.

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Art Nouveau

Art Nouveau was an important reform movement that developed at the turn of the 19 th
century in France
It developed into an international movement between 1895 and the First World War. Art
Nouveau styling was built around the use of simple natural forms, the curved lines and
shapes of climbing plants, geometric forms based on Japanese art.
Art Nouveau was an influential decorative style, which was used in architecture, wrought
ironwork, glass, furniture, fabrics and wallpaper.
The paintings of Gustav Klimt, often used as inspiration by textile designers typify the Art
Nouveau style.
In some ways the Art Nouveau movement was similar to the Arts and Crafts movement. Art
Nouveau designers considered themselves to be artists rather than designers, rejected
industrial mass production, produced design work that was only available to the wealthy.
Art nouveau is sometimes described as being between art and industry, because it
encouraged a return to handcrafted [products. Some say that it delayed the development
of modern industrial design.

The Bauhaus

1919 1933
The Bauhaus school was founded by the architect Walter Gropius in 1919. In 1937 the
new Bauhaus was founded in the USA, where the Bauhaus style became known as the
international style

The place of Bauhaus as the centre of modernism and functionalism is unchangeable,


because it laid down the basic principles of design that are still meaningful today

These design principles influence modern teaching about industrial design many Bauhaus
products still look modern today. The principal aims of the Bauhaus were to use modern
materials and to combine the concepts of form and function

Design and education in the Bauhaus school was centred on students experimenting with
colour, form and modern materials

In some ways it has a similar philosophy to the reforming Arts and Crafts movement,
because it offered an education in artistic and handicraft skills

The Bauhaus art training was given by important artists of the day, such as Johannes Itten,
Lyonel Feininger, Paul Klee, Georg Muche and Oscar Schlemmer. It was the first time that
professional artists were involved in teaching future industrial designers.

The key difference from the Arts and Crafts movement was that the Bauhaus linked the
design of products to their manufacture by industry

Students chose a commercial workshop and the longest running and most successful was
textiles, which was run and attended by women

Textiles in the hierarchy of design was seen as womens work. However the Bauhaus
textile designers were talented designers who embraced technology and incorporated the
use of new or unusual materials, such as cellophane, leather and early synthetics.

The result was a rebirth of hand weaving and a new professionalism in designing textiles
for mass production
The Bauhaus textile designers created fabrics that has acoustic and light-reflecting
properties, were reversible, were multi-layered with some combining double and triple
weaves, were made by the Jacquard loom

Art Deco

Art Deco was originally a French phenomenon that was influential in the early decades of
the 20th century
Although Art Deco style was thought to be highly modern and elegant, it was definitely
anti-mass production
It focused on one-off, expensive products made from precious materials like snakeskin,
ivory, bronze, crystal and exotic woods. Later materials like steel, glass and plastics were

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used, but the aim was to exploit their decorative characteristics rather that any functional
properties
The Art Deco style was influenced by Art Nouveau, Cubism, Futurism, African Art and
Egyptian cultures
In furniture and other products the styling made use of geometric shapes and zigzag
patterns or ornamental inlays imitating ivory and tortoiseshell
Although it was anti-mass production, Art Deco did influence the design of many massproduced products that were made from new materials such as aluminium
The Art Deco style was used extensively in domestic interiors and architecture between
1920 and 1939. The great couturiers such as Poiret, Chanel and Schiaparelli were all
influential designers of the Art Deco era.

Memphis

Memphis was the name of a group of designers who established themselves in Milan in
Italy in 1981
The main figure in the group was the architect Ettore Sottass, a consulting product
designer
The Memphis designers were interested in the practical objects of daily life, the mass
production of such objects and their promotion and marketing through advertising
Influenced by comic strips, films, punk music and different combinations of materials, their
witty, stylistic designs typified the fast pace of interior fashion in the 1980s
Memphis designers combined materials such as colourful plastic laminates, glass, steel,
industrial sheet metal and aluminium
Emerging at exactly the right time in the 80s, the Memphis group introduced a new
understanding of design, the main purpose of which was decorative and witty, rather than
functional
The groups sheer innovation and boldness influences any number of bright, interesting
ideas that emerged around that time. It sparked a chain reaction across Europe, most
notably Spain, Germany, France and the UK. Inspired by Memphis, designers shunned the
purely functional in favour of the funky.

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