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Buckingham Pi-Theorem - Dimensionless parameters - Similitude and model studies

- Distorted Models.

Page 1

PART - A

1. What is dimensional analysis?

Dimensional analysis is a mathematical technique used in research work for design and

for conducting model tests, which makes use of the study of the dimensions for soling several

engineering problems. It deals with the dimensions of the physical quantities involved in the

phenomenon.

Testing the dimensional homogeneity of any equation of fluid motion

o Deriving equation expressed in terms of non- dimensional parameters to show the relative

significance of each parameter.

3. What do you mean by fundamental units and derived units? Give example.

The various of physical quantities used in flied phenomenon can be expressed in terms of

fundamental or primary quantities

E.g.: Mass (M), length (L), time (T)

The quantities which are expressed in terms of the fundamental or primary quantities are called

derived or secondary quantities

E.g.: Velocity, area, density

Velocity = distance per unit time (L/T2)

Dimensional homogeneity means the dimensions of each term in an equation on both sides are

equal. Thus if the dimensions of each term on the both sides of an equation are the same is

known as dimensionally homogenous equation.

E.g.: v = 2gh

Dimensions of L.H.S

V=L/T =LT-1

Dimensions of R. H. S

=2GH=L/T2*L

=L2=L=LT-1

Dimensions of R. H. S = Dimensions of R. H. S = LT-1

Page 2

Dimensional analysis thus helps to check that equations might be true.

However, it does not prove that they are correct as well.

It states that, if there are n variables (independent and dependent variables) in a physical

phenomenon and if these variables contain m fundamental dimensions (M, L, T), the variable are

arranged into (n-m0 dimensions terms.

7. What are the advantages and applications of model testing? /dimensional analysis/model

analysis

Advantages:

The merits of alternative designs can be predicated with the help of model testing. Model

testing can be used to detect and rectify the defects if an existing structure which is not

functioning properly. The performance of the hydraulic structure or hydraulic machine can be

easily predicted in advance from its model.

Applications

Civil engineering structures such as dams spillways weirs canals etc

o Turbines pumps and compressors

o Design of harbors ships & submarine

o Aero planes rockets & missiles

o Flood control investigation of silting and scour in rivers irrigation channels

What is meant by model and Prototype?

The model is the small scale replica of the actual structure or machine. The actual

structure or machine is called Prototype.

Model analysis is an experimental method of finding solution of complex flow problems

the model is the small scale replace of the actual structure or machine

Page 3

The actual structure or machine is called prototype the study of models of actual machine is

called model analysis

Geometric Similarity:

It is said to exist between the model and the prototype. The ratio of all corresponding

linear dimension in the model and prototype are equal.

Kinematic Similarity:

It means the similarity of motion between the model & prototype. The kinematic

similarity is said to exist between model and the prototype if the ratios of the velocity and

acceleration at the corresponding points in the model and at the corresponding points in the

prototype are the same.

Dynamic Similarity:

It means the similarity of forces between the model & prototype. Thus dynamic similarity

is said to exist between the model and the prototype if the ratios of the corresponding forces

acting points are equal.

Similitudes is defined as the similarity between the model & prototype in every respect,

which means that the model and prototype have similar properties or model and prototype

completely similar.

11. Define: 1. Reynolds number 2. Eulers numbers 3. Weber numbers 4. Mach numbers

write their significances for fluid flow problems?

(1) Reynolds Number (Re): It is defined as the ratio of inertia force of a flowing fluid and the

gravity force of the fluid.

E.g.: flow through open channels, Flow over matches wires

(2) Eulers Number (Eu): It is defined as the square root of the ratio of inertia force of a flowing

fluid to pressure force.

E.g.: discharge through orifices sluices and mouth pieces, Flow through pipes and pressure rise

due to sudden closure of values

(3) Webers Number (We):

Page 4

It is defined as the square root of the ratio of the inertia force of a flowing fluid to the

surface tension force

E.g.: capillary movement of water in soils, Flow of blood in veins & arteries

(4) Machs Number (M): It is defined as the square root of the ratio of the inertia force to the

elastic force

E.g.: significance Compressible fluid problem at high velocities such as motion of high speed

projections and missiles

o Undistorted models

o Distorted models

13. Give the dimensions of the following physical quantities (a)pressure, (b) surface tension,

(c) dynamic viscosity, (d) kinematic viscosity.

o Pressure ML-1 T-2

o Surface tension ML-1 T-2

o Dynamic viscosity ML-1 T-1

o Kinematic viscosity L2 T-1

o Rayleighs method

o Buckinghams -theorem

15. What are the similarities between model and prototypes? List the similitude involved in

the model analysis.

o Geometric similarity

o Kinematic similarity

o Dynamic similarity

Page 5

The undistorted models are those models which are geometrically similar to their

prototypes or other words if the scale ratio for the linear dimensions of the model and its

prototype is same, the model is called undistorted model.

o Exit pressure and velocity distribution are not true

o A model wave may differ from that of prototype

o Both extrapolation and interpolation of results are difficult

18. Submarine is tested in the air tunnel identify the model law applicable

o Reynolds model law

o To check the dimensional homogeneity of the given equation

o To determine the dimension of a physical variable

o To convert units from one system to another through dimensional homogeneity

o It is a step towards dimensional analysis

20. Give two example of a fluid flow situation where Froude model law is applied.

o Free surface flows such as flow over spillways, weirs, sluices, channels

o Flow of jet from an orifice or nozzle

o Where waves are likely to be formed on surface

o Where fluids of different densities flow over one another

21. In making dimensionless analysis what rules do you follow for choosing the scaling

variable?

Three rule are followed to select variable for dimensionless analysis

1. Geometric property

2. Flow property

3. Fluid property

Page 6

A model is said to be distorted if it is not geometrically similar to its prototype. For a

distorted model different scale ratios for the linear dimensions are adopted.

E.g.: in case of rivers harbors etc, two different scale ratios one for horizontal dimensions and

other for vertical dimensions are taken

o Rivers

o Harbours

o Reservoirs

24. Define Reynolds model law?

Reynolds model law is the law in which models are based on Reynolds numbers. Model

based on Reynolds on number includes:

o Pipe flow

o Resistance experienced by sub- marinas air planes fully immersed bodies etc

The numbers of repeating variables are equal to the number of fundamental dimensions

(m) of the problem

The choice of repeating variable if governed by the following consideration

o As far as possible the dependent variable should not be select as repeating variable

o The repeating variable should be choose in such a way that one variable contains

geometric property other variable contains flow property and third variable contains fluid

property

o The repeating variables selected should not from a dimensionless group

o The repeating variables should have the same dimensions

o No two repeating variables should have the same dimensions

Page 7

Advantages:

The merits of alternative designs can be predicated with the help of model testing

Model testing can be used to detect and rectify the defects if an existing structure which

is not functioning properly

The performance of the hydraulic structure or hydraulic machine can be easily predicted

in advance from its model

o The vertical dimensions of the model can be measured accurately

o The cost of the model can be reduced

o Turbulent flow in the model can be maintained

It is ratio of linear dimension of prototype to linear dimension of model

o It is impossible to product the exact behavior of the prototype by model testing alone

o The two models of same prototype behavior will be different

o Scale ratio will not be same

o So discrepancy between models& prototype will always occur it is known as scale effect

Discharge = Area X Velocity = L2 X L/T =L3/T = L3/T-1

Torque = Force X (D/2) = Mass X Acceleration X L = M X (L/T2) X L = ML2T-2

Reynolds Number: It gives measure of ratio of the inertial forces to the viscous forces &

it is a dimensionless quantity.

Page 8

Physical significance:

1. It signifies the relative predominance of inertia to viscous

2. It is very useful in determining whether the flow is laminar or turbulent.

forces.

Npr = Cp (viscosity)/(thermal conductivity)

Cp specific heat, J per ( Kg Kelvin)

viscosity in poise (gm per( cm sec))

thermal conductivity in Watt per (meter kelvin)

Significance: Prandtl number is important in heat transfer.

Each term = m+1, where m is equal to 3 and also called repeating variables. Out of 6

variables R, l, V, , and K, three variables are to be selected as repeating variable. R is a

dependent variable and should not be selected as a repeating variable.

Out of the 5 remaining variables, 1 is geometric property, 2nd one variable flow property,

3rd one fluid property.

Page 9

PART B

1. Write short note on dimensional analysis. What are the secondary or derived quantities?

Dimensional analysis is a method of dimensions. It is a mathematical technique used in

research work for design and for conducting model tests. It deals with the dimensions of the

physical quantities involved in the phenomenon. All physical quantities are measured by

comparison, which is made with respect to an arbitrarily fixed value. Length L, mass M and

time T are three fixed dimensions which are of importance in Fluid Mechanics. If in any

problem of fluid mechanics, heat is involved then temperature is also taken as fixed dimension.

These fixed dimensions are called fundamental dimensions or fundamental quantity.

Secondary or derived quantities are those quantities which possess more than one

fundamental dimension. For example, velocity is denoted by distance per unit time (L/T), density

by mass per unit volume (M/L 3 ) and acceleration by distance per second square (L/T 2 ).

Then velocity, density and acceleration become as secondary or derived quantities. The

expressions (L/T), (M/L 3 ) and (L/T 2 ) are called the dimensions of velocity, density and

acceleration respectively. The dimensions of mostly used physical quantities in Fluid

Mechanics are given in Table 12.1.

S.No

Physical Quantity

Symbol

Dimensions

(a) Fundamental

1

Length

Mass

Time

(b) Geometric

4

Area

L2

Volume

L3

6

Velocity

LT-1

Angular Velocity

T-1

Acceleration

LT-2

Angular Acceleration

T-2

10

Discharge

L3T-1

Page 10

11

LT-2

12

Kinematic Viscosity

L2T-1

13

Force

MLT-2

14

Weight

MLT-2

15

Density

MT-3

16

Specific Weight

ML-2T-2

17

Dynamic Viscosity

ML-1T-1

18

Pressure intensity

ML-1T-2

19

Modulus of Elasticity

K or E

ML-1T-2

20

Surface tension

MT-2

21

Shear Stress

ML-1T-2

22

Work, Energy

W or E

ML2T-2

23

Power

ML2T-3

24

Torque

ML2T-2

25

Momentum

MLT-1

2. Determine the dimensions of the quantities given below : (i) Angular velocity., (ii)

Angular acceleration, (iii) Discharge, (iv) Kinematic viscosity, (v) Force, (vi) Specific weight,

and (vii) Dynamic viscosity.

(Nov/Dec 2013)

Solution:

Time

1

T

rad

1

(ii)Angular acceleration = rad 2 = 2 = 2 =

sec

T

T

L L3

(iii)Discharge = Area Velocity = L = =

T T

(iv)Kinematic viscosity () =

Page 11

u

y

Shear stress

L 1

T L

Mass Acceleration

Area Time

Mass

Volume

M

L3

Force

Area

1

T

L

M 2

T

1

L2

T

ML

1

L2 T2

T

M

LT

ML1 T1

ML3

Kinematic viscosity () = =

Length ML

= 2 =

2

Time

T

Weight

Force

MLT 2

(vi) Specific weight =

=

=

=

3

Volume Volume

L

(viii) Dynamic viscosity is derived in (iv) as = ML-1T-1

3. Check the dimensional homogeneity of the following common equations in the field of

hydraulics.

(Nov/Dec 2012)

(1)

(1)

Q = Cd . a. 2gH

(2)

v = Cmi

Q = Cd . a. 2gH

Dimension of L.H.S Q =

L3

T

= L3 T 1

L

L2

(2)

v = Cmi

L

Dimension of L.H.S v = T = LT 1

Dimension of R.H.S Cmi = T 1 L L = T 1 L = LT 1

Rayleigh's Method. This method is used for determining the expression for a variable which

depends upon maximum three or four variables only. If the number of independent variables

becomes more than four, then it is very difficult to find the expression for the dependent variable.

Page 12

Rayleigh's method, X is function of X1, X2 and X3 and mathematically it is written as

X =f

where K is constant and a, b and c are arbitrarily powers.

The values of a, b and c are obtained by comparing the powers of the fundamental dimension

on both sides. Thus the expression is obtained for dependent variable.

5. The time period (t) of a pendulum depends upon the length (L) of the pendulum and acceleration due

to gravity (g). Derive an expression for the time period.

Solution. Time period t is a function of (i) L and (ii) g

Substituting the dimensions on both sides T1 = KLa . (LT-2)b

Equating the powers of M, L and T on both sides, we have

Power of T,

1 = -2b

b = -1/2

Power of L,

0=a+b

a = -b = -(-1/2) =

t=KL

1

1

2 . g 2

= K

L

g

K = 2

6. Find an expression for the drag force on smooth sphere of diameter D. moving with a uniform

velocity V in a fluid of density and dynamic viscosity . (Nov/Dec 2011)

Solution: Drag force F is a function of

(i) Diameter, D

(ii) Velocity, V

(iii) Density,

(iv) Viscosity,

F = K Da . V b . c . d (1)

where K is non-dimensional factor.

Page 13

MLT-2 = K La . (LT-1)b . (ML-3)c . (ML-1T-1)d

Equating the powers of M, L and T on both sides,

Power of M,

1=c+d

Power of L,

1 = a + b 3c d

Power of T,

-2 = -b d

There are four unknowns (a, b, c, d) but equations are three. Hence it is not possible to find the

values of a, b, c and d. But three of them can be expressed in terms of fourth variable which is most

important. Here viscosity is having a vital role and hence a, b. c are expressed in terms of d which is

the power to viscosity.

c=1d

b=2d

a = 1 b + 3c + d = 1 2 + d + 3 (1 - d) + d = 1 2 + d + 3 3d + d = 2 d

Substituting these values of a, b and c in equation (1), we get

F = K D2d . V 2d . 1d . d

= D2 V 2 ( Dd . V d . d . d ) = K D2 V 2 (

VD

= (

)d

7. Find the expression for the power P. developed by a pump when P depends upon the head H.

the discharge Q and specific weight w of the fluid.

Solution: Power P is a function of

(i) Head, H

(ii) Discharge, Q

P = K H a . Qb . w c (1)

where K = Non-dimensional constant.

Substituting the dimensions on both sides of equation (i)

ML2T-3 = KLa . (L3T-1)b (ML-2T.-2)c

Equating the powers of M, L and Ton both sides,

Power of M,

1 = c,

Power of L,

2 = a + 3b - 2c,

c=1

a = 2 - 3b + 2c = 2 - 3 + 2 = 1

Page 14

Power of T,

- 3 = - b -2c

Substituting the values of a, b and c in (i)

b = 3 - 2c = 3 - 2 = 1

= . . =

8. The efficiency n of a fan depends on the density p, the dynamic viscosity p of the fluid,

the angular velocity at diameter D of the rotor and the discharge Q. Express n in terms of

dimensionless parameters.

(May/June 2014)

Solution: The efficiency depends on

(i) density, p (ii) viscosity. p (iii) Angular velocity, (iv) diameter D

(v) discharge, Q

= K a . b . c . Dd . Qe (1)

where K = Non-dimensional constant.

Substituting the dimensions on both sides of equation (i)

M0 L0 T0 = K (ML-3)a . (ML-1T-1)d . (T-1)c . (L)d . (L3T-1)e

Equating powers of M, L. Ton both sides,

Power of M,

0=a+b

Power of L

0 = - 3a - b + d + 3e

Power of T,

0 = - b - c - e.

There are five unknowns but equations are three. Express the three unknowns in terms of

the other two unknowns which are more important. Viscosity and discharge are more important

in this problem. Hence expressing a. c and d in terms of b and e, we get

a=-b

c = - (b + e)

d = + 3a + b - 3e = - 3b - 3e = - 2b - 3e.

Substituting the values in equation (i), we get

= K b . b . (b+e) . D2b3e . Qe

= K b . b . b . e . D2b . D3e Qe

=(

D2

)b . (

= [(

Q

D3

)e

) . ()]

Page 15

9. The resisting force R of a supersonic plane during flight can be considered as dependent

upon the length of the aircraft l, velocity V, air viscosity , air density and bulk modulus of

air K. Express the functional relationship between these variables and the resisting force.

Solution: The resisting force R depends upon,

(i) length l,

(iii) viscosity ,

(ii) velocity V,

(iv) density ,

R = A la . V b . c . d . K e (1)

Where A is non-dimensional constant.

Substituting the dimensions on both sides of equation (i)

MLT-2 = A La . (LT-1)b . (ML-1T-1)c . (ML-3)d . (ML-1T-2)e

Equating the powers of M, L and Ton both sides,

Power of M,

1=c+d+e

Power of L,

1 = a + b c -3d - e

Power of T,

- 2 = - b c 2e

There are five unknowns but equations are only there. Expressing the three unknowns in terms of

two unknowns ( and K).

Express the values of a, b and d in terms of c and e. Solving,

d=1ce

b = 2 c - 2e

a = 1 b + c + 3d + e = 1 (2 c - 2e) + c + 3 (1 c e) + e

= 1 2 + c + 2e + c + 3 3c 3e + e = 2 c

Substituting these values in (1), we get

= A l2 . V 2 . ( lc V c c c ). (V 2e . e . K e )

= A l2 . V 2 . (

VL

) (

= [(

K

V2

) ()]

10. A partially sub-merged body is towed in water. The resistance R to its motion depends on

the density , the viscosity of the water, length l of the body, velocity V of the body and the

acceleration due to gravity g. Show that the resistance to the motion can be expressed in the

form

Page 16

= [(

) ( )]

(Nov/Dev 2011)

(i) density ,

(ii) viscosity ,

(iii) length l,

(iv) velocity V,

(v) acceleration g

R = K a . b . lc . V d . g e (1)

Substituting the dimensions on both sides of equation (i)

MLT-2 = K (ML-3)a . (ML-1T-1)b Lc . (LT-1)d . (LT-2)e

There are five unknowns but equations are only there. Expressing the three unknowns in terms of

two unknowns ( and g). Hence express a, c and d in terms of b and e. Solving, we get

a=1-b

d = 2 b 2e

c = 1 + 3a + b d e = 1 + 3(1-b) + b (2 b 2e) e

= 1 + 3 3b + b 2 + b + 2e e = 2 b + e

Substituting these values in (1), we get

R = K 1b . b . l2b+e . V 2b2e . g e

= K l2 . V 2 . ( b b lb V b ). (le V 2e g e )

R = K l2 V 2 . (

Vl

lg

)b . ( 2 )2

V

= [(

) . ()]

11. State and explain in detail about Buckinghams -theorem. (May/June 2014, April/May

2011)

The Rayleigh's method of dimensional analysis becomes more laborious if the

variables are more than the number of fundamental dimensions (M, L, T). This difficulty is

overcame by using Buckingham's -theorem, which states, "If there are n variables (independent

and dependent variables) in a physical phenomenon and if these variables contain in fundamental

dimensions (M, L, T) then the variables are arranged into (n - m) dimensionless terms. Each term is

called -term".

Let X1, X2. X3. ..., Xn, are the variables involved in a physical problem. Let Xt be the

dependent variable and X2, X3, , Xn, are the independent variables on which XI depends. Then

X1 is a function of X2, X3, , Xn and mathematically it is expressed as

Page 17

Equation (1) can also be written as

fl (X2, X3, , Xn)= 0 (2)

Equation (2) is a dimensionally homogeneous equation. It contains n variables. If there are m

fundamental dimensions then according to Buckingham's -theorem, equation (2) can be written

in terms of number of dimensionless groups or -terms in which number of -terms is equal to

(n - m). Hence equation (2) becomes as

f (1, 2, , n-m) = 0 (3)

Each of -terms is dimensionless and is independent of the system. Division or multiplication by a

constant does not change the character of the -term. Each -term contains m + 1 variables, where

m is the number of fundamental dimensions and is also called repeating variables. Let in the above

case X2, X3 and X4 are repeating variables if the fundamental dimension m (M, L, T) = 3. Then each

-term is written as.

2 = X2a2 . X3b2 . X4c2. X2

(4)

Each equation is solved by the principle of dimensional homogeneity and values of al, bp el etc., are

obtained. These values are substituted in equation (12.4) and values of a l, rc2, In are obtained. These

values of is are substituted in equation (12.3). The final equation for the phenomenon is obtained by

expressing any one of the rt-terms as a function of others as

1 = [ 2, 3, , n-m ]

2 = 1 [ 1, 3, , n-m ]

12. How are repeating variables selected for dimensional analysis using Buckinghams theorem.

(Nov/Dec 2011)

Method of Selecting Repeating Variables:

The number of repeating variables are equal to the number of fundamental dimensions of

the problem. The choice of repeating variables if governed by the following considerations:

1. As far as possible, the dependent variable should not be selected as repeating variable.

2. The repeating variables should be choosen in such a way that one variable contains geometric

property, other variable contains flow property and third variable contains fluid property.

Page 18

(i) Length, 1

(ii) d

(i) Velocity, V

.

(i) , (ii) (iii) etc.

(i) The repeating variables selected should not form a dimensionless group.

(ii) The repeating variables together must have the same number of fundamental dimensions.

(iii) No two repeating variables should have the same dimensions.

In most of fluid mechanics problems, the choice of repeating variables may be

(i) d. v,

(ii) l, v,

(iii) l, v,

or

(iv) d, v,

13. Write the procedure for solving problems by Buckinghams -theorem for following

problem.

The procedure for solving problems by Buckingham's n-theorem is explained by considering the

problem, which is also solved by the Rayleigh's method. The problem is :

The resisting force R of a supersonic plane during flight can be considered as dependent

upon the length of the aircraft l, velocity V, air viscosity , air density and bulk modulus of air K.

Express the functional relationship between these variables and the resisting force.

Solution:

Step 1: The resisting force R depends upon (i) l, (ii) V, (iii) , (iv) and (v) K. Hence R is a

function of 1, V. p, p and K. Mathematically.

R = f (1, V, , , K) (1)

or it can be written as f1 (R, 1, V, , , K) = 0 (2)

Total number of variables, n = 6.

Number of fundamental dimensions, in = 3.

[m is obtained by writing dimensions of each variables as R = MLT-2, V = LT-1, = ML-1T-1, =

ML-3, K= MLT. Thus as fundamental dimensions in the problem are M, L, T and hence m = 3.]

Number of dimensionless -terms = n - m = 6 3 = 3.

Thus three -terms say 1, 2 and 3 are formed. Hence equation (ii) is written as

f1 (1, 2, 3 ) = 0 (3)

Page 19

Step 2: Each it term = m + I variables, where m is equal to 3 and also called repeating variables.

Out of six variables R, 1, V, , and K, three variables are to be selected as repeating variable. R is a

dependent variable and should not be selected as a repeating variable. Out of the five remaining

variables, one variable should have geometric property, the second variable should have flow

property and third one fluid property. These requirements are fulfilled by selecting l, V and as

repeating variables. The repeating variables themselves should not form a dimensionless term and

should have themselves fundamental dimensions equal to m,, i.e., 3 here. Dimensions of l, V and

are L, LT-1, ML-3 and hence the three fundamental dimensions exist in l, V and and they

themselves do not form dimensionless group.

(4)

3= la3 . Vb3 . c3. K

Step 4: Each -terms is solved by the principle of dimensionless homogeneity. For the first tem, we have

1= M0 L0 T0 = La1 . (LT-1)b1 . (ML-3)c1. MLT-2

Equating the powers of M, L, T on both sides, we get

Power of M,

0 = c1 + 1

Power of L,

0 = a1 + b1 3c1 + 1

Power of T,

0 = -b1 2

a1 = -b1 + 3c1 1 = 2 3 1 = -2

=

2 = M0 L0 T0 = La2 . (LT-1)b2 . (ML-3)c2. ML-1T-1

Equating the powers of M, L, T on both sides, we get

Power of M,

0 = c2 + 1

c2 = -1

Power of L,

0 = a2 + b2 3c2 1

a2 = -b2 + 3c2 + 1 = 1 3 + 1 = -1

Page 20

0 = -b2 1

Power of T,

b2 = -1

=

3rd -term

M0 L0 T0 = La3 . (LT-1)b3 . (ML-3)c3. ML-1T-2

Equating the powers of M, L, T on both sides, we get

Power of M,

0 = c3 + 1

c3 = -1

Power of L,

0 = a3 + b3 3c3 1

a3 = -b3 + 3c3 + 1 = 2 3 + 1 = 0

Power of T,

0 = -b3 2

b3 = -2

3= l0 . V-2 . -1. K

=

f1 (

l2 V2

lV

)= 0

V2

or

= [

l2 V2

= [

lV

K

V2

14. The efficiency of a fan depends on density, dynamic viscosity of the fluid, angular

velocity (), diameter of the rotor and the discharge (Q). Express in terms of

dimensionless parameters.

Solution:

is a function of , , , D and Q

= f (, , , D,Q)

(or)

f1 (, , , , D,Q) = 0 (1)

Page 21

The values of m that is, number of fundamental dimensions for the problem is obtained by

writing dimensions of each variable. Dimensions of each variable are

= Dimensionless

= Ml 3

D = L Q = L3 T 1

m=3

= ML 1 T 1

= T1

Equation is written as f1 (1, 2, 3) = 0. (2)

Each terms contains m + 1 variable, where m is equal to three and is also repeating variable.

Choosing , D, as repeating variables, we have,

2 Da 2 .b2 .c2 .

3 Da 3 .b3 .c3 .Q

First terms:

Substituting dimensions on both sides of 1,

M0 L0 T0 = L a1 (T-1) b1 (M L 3) c1 ( M0 L0 T0)

Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,

Power of M,

0 = c1 + 0

Power of L,

0 = a1 + 0

Power of T,

0 = b1 + 0

1 = D0 0 0 =

If the variable is dimensionless, it itself is a term. Here the variable is a term. As it exists

in first term and hence 1 = . Then there is no need of equating the powers directly the value

can obtained.

Second term:

2 Da 2 .b2 .c2 .

Page 22

a2

M0 L0 T0 = L (T-1) b2 (M L 3) c2 ( M L 1 T 1)

Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,

Power of M,

0 = c2 + 1

c2 = 1

Power of L,

0 = a2 3c2 1

a2 = 3 + 1 = 2

Power of T,

0 = b2 1

b2 = 1

2 = D 2 1 1

Third term:

Sub the dimensions on both sides,

M0 L0 T0 = L a3 (T-1) b3 (M L 3) c3 ( L 3 T 1)

Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,

Power of M,

0 = C3

Power of L,

0 = a3 3c3 + 3

a3 = 3

Power of T,

0 = b3 1

b3 = 1

3 = D 3 1 0 Q

f1 ( ,

D2

Q

D2

)= 0

(or)

= [

15. Using Buckingham's a-theorem, show that the velocity through a circular orifice is given

by = [ ,

orifice, is co-efficient of viscosity, is the mass density and g is the acceleration due to

gravity.

(Nov/Dec 2009)

Page 23

Solution:

V is a function of H, D, , and g

V = f (H, D, , , g) or

f1 (H, D, , , g) = 0 (1)

Writing dimension of each variable, we have

V = LT-1,

H = L,

D = L,

= ML-1T-1, = ML-3,

g = LT-2

Number of -terms

= n - m = 6 - 3 = 3.

Each -term contains m +1 variables, where m = 3 and is also equal to repeating variables. Here V

is a dependent variable and hence should not be selected as repeating variable. Choosing H, g, as

repeating variable, we get three -terms as

2= Ha2 . gb2 . c2. D

3= Ha3 . gb3 . c3.

First -term

Substituting dimensions on both sides

1= M0 L0 T0 = La1 . (LT-2)b1 . (ML-3)c1. LT-1

Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,

Power of M,

0 = c1

c1 = 0

Power of L,

0 = a1 + b1 3c1 + 1

Power of T,

0 = -2b1 1

b1 = -1/2

1= H -1/2 . g -1/2 . 0. V

=

Second -term

Substituting dimensions on both sides

Page 24

Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,

Power of M,

0 = c2

c2 = 0

Power of L,

0 = a2 + b2 3c2 + 1

a2 = -b2 + 3c2 1 = -1

Power of T,

0 = -2b2

b2 = 0

2 = H -1 . g 0 . 0. D

=

Third -term

Substituting dimensions on both sides

3 = M0 L0 T0 = La3 . (LT-2)b3 . (ML-3)c3. ML-1T-1

Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,

Power of M,

0 = c3 + 1

c3 = -1

Power of L,

0 = a3 + b3 3c3 1

Power of T,

0 = -2b3 - 1

b3 = -

3 = H -3/2 . g - . -1.

3 =

3

2 g

3

2 g

3 =

=

V

H V gH

1 =

V

gH

f1 (

V

gH

D

H

) = 0 or

HV

gH

= [ ,

HV

= [ ,

]

Page 25

16. The pressure difference P in a pipe of diameter D and length l due to viscous flow

depends on the velocity V, viscosity () and density () using Buckinghams theorem.

Obtain an expression for P.

(May/June 2012)

Solution:

The only difference is that P is to be calculated for viscous flow. Then in the repeating variable

instead of , the fluid property is to be chosen.

Now P is a function of D, l, , or

P = f (D, l, v, , )

f1 (P, D, l, v, , ) = 0 (1)

Total number of variable n = 6

Number of fundamental dimensions m = 3

Number of terms = n m = 3

Hence the equation is written as

f1 (1, 2, 3) = 0 (2)

Each terms contains m + 1 variable, that are 3 + 1 = 4 variable out of 4 variable 3 are

repeating variables.

Choosing D, v, as repeating variables, we have terms as

1 Da1 .v b1 .c1 .P

2 Da 2 .v b2 .c2 .l

3 Da3 .v b3 .c3 .

First terms:

Sub the dimensions on both sides,

M0 L0 T0 = L a1 (LT-1) b1 (M L 3 T-1) c1 ( M L 1 T 2)

Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,

Power of M,

0 = c1 + 1

c1 = -1

Power of L,

0 = a1 + b1 c1 1

a1 = 1

Power of T,

0 = b1 c1 2

b1 = 1

Page 26

1 D1.v 1. 1.P

1 DP

Second term:

2 Da 2 .vb2 .c2 .l

Sub the dimensions on both sides,

M0 L0 T0 = L a2 (LT-1) b2 (M L 1 T-1) c2 L

Equating the powers of M, L, T on both sides,

Power of M,

0 = c2

Power of L,

0 = a2 + b2 c2 + 1

a2 = 1

Power of T,

0 = b2 c2

b2 = 0

2 D1.v0 .0 .l

2 l

Third term:

Sub the dimensions on both sides,

M0 L0 T0 = L a3 (LT-1) b3 (M L 1 T-1) c3 M L 3

Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,

Power of M,

0 = c3 + 1

C3 = 1

Power of L,

0 = a3 + b3 c3 3

a3 = 1

Power of T,

0 = b3 c3

b3 = 1

3 = D1 v1 1

D p

f1 (

l

D

DV

) = 0 (or)

D p

V

DV

= [ ,

(or) =

[ ,

Page 27

Experiments show that the pressure difference p is a linear function (l / D). Hence (l / D) can be

taken out of the functional as

hf =

=

p

g

V

D

l

D

1

g

[ R e ]

DV

= Re

[ ]

17. The pressure difference P in a pipe of diameter D and length l due to turbulent flow

depends on the velocity V, viscosity (), density () and roughness k. Using Buckinghams

theorem. Obtain an expression for P. (Nov/Dec 2010)

Solution:

p is a function of D, 1, V. , , k

p = f (D, l, V, , , k)

or

f1 (p, D, l, V, , , k) = 0

(1)

Writing dimensions of each variable,

Dimension of p = Dimension of pressure = ML-1T-2

l = L, V = LT-1,

D = L,

= ML-1T-1, = ML-3,

k=L

Number of -terms

= n - m = 7 - 3 = 4.

f1 (1, 2, 3, 4) (2)

Each -terms contains m + 1 or 3 + 1 = 4 variables. Out of four variables, there are repeating

variables. Choosing D, V, as the repeating variables, we have the four -terms as

1 Da1 .v b1 .c1 .P

2 Da 2 .v b2 .c2 .l

3 Da 3 .v b3 .c3 .

4 Da 4 .v b4 .c4 .k

Page 28

First terms:

Sub the dimensions on both sides,

M0 L0 T0 = L a1 (LT-1) b1 (M L 3 T-1) c1 ( M L 1 T 2)

Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,

Power of M,

0 = c1 + 1

c1 = -1

Power of L,

0 = a1 + b1 3c1 1

a1 = -b1 + 3c1 + 1 = 2 3 + 1 = 0

Power of T,

0 = b1 2

b1 = 2

1 D0 .v 2 .1.P

1

p

v 2

Second term:

2 Da 2 .vb2 .c2 .l

Sub the dimensions on both sides,

M0 L0 T0 = L a2 (LT-1) b2 (M L 3) c2 L

Equating the powers of M, L, T on both sides,

Power of M,

0 = c2

c2 = 0

Power of L,

0 = a2 - b2 3c2 + 1

a2 = b2 + 3c2 1 = -1

Power of T,

0 = b2

b2 = 0

2 D1.v0 .0 .l

l

D

Third term:

Sub the dimensions on both sides,

M0 L0 T0 = L a3 (LT-1) b3 ( M L 3) c3 ML-1T-1

Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,

Page 29

Power of M,

0 = c3 + 1

c3 = 1

Power of L,

0 = a3 + b3 3c3 1

a3 = -b3 + 3c3 + 1 = 1 3 + 1 = -1

Power of T,

0 = b3 1

b3 = -1

3 D 1.v 1.1.

3

DV

Fourth -term

4 Da 4 .vb4 .c4 .k

Sub the dimensions on both sides,

M0 L0 T0 = L a3 (LT-1) b3 ( M L 3) c3 ML-1T-1

Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,

Power of M,

0 = c4

c4 = 0

Power of L,

0 = a4 - b4 3c4 + 1

a4 = b4 + 3c4 - 1 = -1

Power of T,

0 = b4

b4 = 0

4 D 1.v0 .0 .k

k

D

f1 (

V2

l

D

DV

, )=0

D

or

= [ ,

, ]

Expression for hf (Difference of pressure head). From experiments, it was observed that pressure

difference. p is a linear function of (l/D) and hence it is taken out of function

p

V2

l

D

= .

DV

, ]

D

p

g

, ]

V2 l

gD

DV

, ]

D

Page 30

Now [

DV D

k

and second is

which is

DV

1

Reynolds numbert

or

1

Re

Re D

the co-efficient of friction which is a function of Reynolds number and roughness factor.

p

g

4f V2 l

f = [

2 gD

DV

, ]

D

Multiplying or dividing by any constant does not change the character of -terms

= =

18. Derive on the basis of dimensional analysis suitable parameters to present the thrust

developed by a propeller. Assume that the thrust P depends upon the angular velocity ,

speed of advance V, diameter D, dynamic viscosity , mass density , elasticity of the fluid

medium which can be denoted by the speed of sound in the medium C. (Apl/May 2010)

Solution:

Thrust P is a function of , V, D, , , C

P = f (, V, D, , , C)

f1 = (P, , V, D, , , C) (1)

Total number of variables. n = 7

Writing dimensions of each variable, we have

P = MLT-2,

= T-1,

V = LT-1,

= MLT-1,

= ML-3,

C = LT-1

Number of -terms = n - m= 7 - 3= 4

Hence equation (1) can be written as f1 (1, 2, 3, 4) (2)

Each -terms contains m + 1 or 3 + 1 = 4 variables. Out of four variables, there are repeating

variables. Choosing D, V, as the repeating variables, we have the four -terms as

1 Da1 .v b1 .c1 .P

2 Da 2 .v b2 .c2 .

3 Da 3 .v b3 .c3 .

4 Da 4 .v b4 .c4 .C

Page 31

First terms:

Sub the dimensions on both sides,

M0 L0 T0 = L a1 (LT-1) b1 (M L 3) c1 ( M LT 2)

Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,

Power of M,

0 = c1 + 1

c1 = -1

Power of L,

0 = a1 + b1 3c1 + 1

a1 = -b1 + 3c1 - 1 = 2 3 - 1 = -2

Power of T,

0 = b1 2

b1 = 2

1 D2 .v 2 .1.P

1

p

D 2 v 2

Second term:

2 Da 2 .vb2 .c2 .

Sub the dimensions on both sides,

M0 L0 T0 = L a2 (LT-1) b2 (ML 3) c2 T-1

Equating the powers of M, L, T on both sides,

Power of M,

0 = c2

c2 = 0

Power of L,

0 = a2 + b2 3c2

a2 = b2 + 3c2 = 1 + 0 = 1

Power of T,

0 = b2 - 1

b2 = -1

2 D1.v 1.0 .

2

D

V

Third term:

Sub the dimensions on both sides,

M0 L0 T0 = L a3 (LT-1) b3 ( M L 3) c3 ML-1T-1

Page 32

Power of M,

0 = c3 + 1

c3 = 1

Power of L,

0 = a3 + b3 3c3 1

a3 = -b3 + 3c3 + 1 = 1 3 + 1 = -1

Power of T,

0 = b3 1

b3 = -1

3 D 1.v 1.1.

3

DV

Fourth -term

4 Da 4 .vb4 .c4 .C

Sub the dimensions on both sides,

M0 L0 T0 = L

a4

(LT-1)

b4

( M L 3)

c4

LT-1

Power of M,

0 = c4

c4 = 0

Power of L,

0 = a4 + b4 3c4 + 1

a4 = - b4 + 3c4 - 1 = 1 + 0 1 = 0

Power of T,

0 = b4 - 1

b4 = -1

4 D0 .v 1.0 .C

4

C

V

f1 (

D2 V2

D

V

DV

, ) = 0 or

V

= [

D2 V2

= [

D

V

DV

, ]

V

, ]

the method of dimensions.

Page 33

Solution:

T = f (D, N, , )

or

f1 (D, N, , ) = 0 (1)

Dimensions of each variable are expressed as

T = ML2T-3,

D = L,

N = T-1,

= ML-1T-1

= ML-3

Number of -terms

= n - m= 5 - 3= 2

Each terms contains m + 1 variable, i.e. 3 + 1 = 4 variables. Three variables are repeating

variable. Choosing D, N, as repeating variables, we have,

1 Da1 .N b1 .c1 .T

2 Da 2 .N b2 .c2 .

Dimensional analysis 1

Substituting dimensions on both sides of 1,

M0 L0 T0 = L a1 (T-1) b1 (M L 3) c1 ( M0 L0 T0)

Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,

Power of M,

0 = c1 1

c1 = - 1

Power of L,

0 = a1 3c1 + 2

a1 = 3c1 2 = -3 2 = -5

Power of T,

0 = b1 2

b1 = -2

1 = D-5 N-2 -1 T

Dimensional analysis 2

2 Da 2 .Nb2 .c2 .

Sub the dimensions on both sides,

a2

M0 L0 T0 = L (T-1) b2 (ML 3) c2 ( M L 1 T 1)

Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,

Page 34

Power of M,

0 = c2 + 1

c2 = 1

Power of L,

0 = a2 3c2 1

a2 = 3c2 + 1 = 3 + 1 = 2

Power of T,

0 = b2 1

b2 = 1

2 = D 2 N 1 1

f1 (

D5

T

N2

D2 N

)= 0

(or)

= [

T

D5

N2

= [

D2 N

20. Using Buckingham's -theorem, shown that the discharge Q consumed by an oil ring is

given by

= [

where d is the internal diameter of the ring, N is rotational speed, is density, is viscosity, is

surface tension and w is the specific weight of oil.

Solution.

Q = f (d, N, , , , w)

or

f1 (Q, d, N, , , , w) = 0 (1)

Dimensions of each variables are

Q = L3T-1,

d = L, N = T-1,

= ML-3,

= ML-1T-1, = MT-2

w= ML-2T-2

Total number of -terms = n - m = 7 - 3 = 4

Hence equation (1) can be written as f1 (1, 2, 3, 4) (2)

Each -terms contains m + 1 or 3 + 1 = 4 variables. Out of four variables, there are repeating

variables. Choosing d, N, as the repeating variables, we have the four -terms as

Page 35

1 d a1 .N b1 .c1 .Q

2 d a 2 .N b2 .c2 .

3 d a 3 .N b3 .c3 .

4 d a 4 .N b4 .c4 .w

First terms:

Sub the dimensions on both sides,

M0 L0 T0 = L a1 (T-1) b1 (ML 3) c1 ( L3T-1)

Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,

Power of M,

0 = c1

c1 = 0

Power of L,

0 = a1 - 3c1 + 3

a1 = 3c1 - 3 = -3

Power of T,

0 = b1 1

b1 = 1

1 d 3 .N 1.0 .Q

1

Q

d3 N

Second term:

2 da 2 .Nb2 .c2 .

Sub the dimensions on both sides,

M0 L0 T0 = L a2 (T-1) b2 (ML 3) c2 ML-1T-1

Equating the powers of M, L, T on both sides,

Power of M,

0 = c2 + 1

c2 = -1

Power of L,

0 = a2 3c2 - 1

a2 = 3c2 + 1 = -3 + 1 = -2

Power of T,

0 = b2 - 1

b2 = -1

2 d 2 .N 1.1.

2

d 2 N Nd 2

Page 36

Third term:

Sub the dimensions on both sides,

M0 L0 T0 = L a3 (T-1) b3 ( ML 3) c3 MT-2

Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,

Power of M,

0 = c3 + 1

c3 = 1

Power of L,

0 = a3 - 3c3

a3 = 3c3 = 3

Power of T,

0 = b3 2

b3 = -2

3 d 3 .N 2 .1.

3

d N 2

3

Fourth -term

4 da 4 .Nb4 .c4 .w

Sub the dimensions on both sides,

M0 L0 T0 = L

a4

(T-1) 4 ( ML 3)

b

c4

ML-2T-2

Power of M,

0 = c4 + 1

c4 = -1

Power of L,

0 = a4 3c4 -2

a4 = 3c4 +2 = -3 + 2 = -1

Power of T,

0 = b4 - 2

b4 = -2

4 d 1.N 2 .1.w

4

w

dN 2

f1 (

d3

N d2

d3

N2

w

d N2

)=0

= [

or

d3

= f1 [

N d2

d3

N2

w

d N2

]

Page 37

21. Define model analysis and write the advantages of model analysis.

For predicting the performance of the hydraulic structures (such as dams, spill ways etc.)

or hydraulic machines (such as turbines, pumps etc.), before actually constructing or models of

the structures or machines are made and tests are performed on them to obtain the desired

information.

The model is the small scale replica of the actual structure or machine. The actual

structure or machine is called Prototype. It is not necessary that the models should be smaller

than the prototypes (though in most of cases it is), they may be larger than the prototype. The

study of models of actual machines is called Model analysis. Model analysis is actually an

experimental method of finding solutions of complex flow problems. Exact analytical solutions

are possible only for a limited number of flow problems. The followings are the advantages of

the dimensional and model analysis :

1. The performance of the hydraulic structure or hydraulic machine can be easily predicted, in

advance, from its model.

2. With the help of dimensional analysis, a relationship between the variables influencing a flow

problem in terms of dimensionless parameters is obtained. This relationship helps in conducting

tests on the model.

3. The merits of alternative designs can be predicted with the helpof model testing. The most

economical and safe design may be. finally, adopted.

4. The tests performed on the models can be utilized for obtaining, in advance, useful

information about the performance of the prototypes only if a complete similarity exists between

the model and the prototype.

22. Write short notes on Similitude. Explain different types of similarities. (Nov/Dec 2013,

2010, 2009, May/June 2012)

Similitude is defined as the similarity between the model and its prototype in every

respect, which means that the model and prototype are completely similar. Three types of

similarities must exit between the model and prototype. They are

1. Geometric Similarity

2. Kinematic Similarity

3. Dynamic Similarity

1. Geometric Similarity:

The geometric similarity is said to exist between the model and the prototype if the ratio

of all corresponding linear dimension in the model and prototype are equal.

Lm= Length of model ,

Page 38

V m= Volume of model

For geometric similarity between model and prototype, we must have the relation,

Lp

Lm

bp

bm

Dp

Dm

Lr

For areas ratio and volumes ratio the relation should be as given below.

Ap

Am

Lp bp

Lm bm

Lr Lr Lr 2

L b D

p p p

Vm Lm b m Dm

Vp

2. Kinematic Similarity:

Kinematic similarity means the similarity of motion between model and prototype. Thus

kinematic similarity is said to exist between the model and the prototype if the ratios of the

velocity and acceleration at the corresponding points in the model and at the corresponding

points in the prototype are the same. Since the velocity and acceleration are vector quantities,

hence not only the ratio of magnitude of velocity and acceleration at the corresponding points in

the model and prototype should be same, but the directions of velocity and accelerations at the

corresponding points in the model and prototype also should be parallel.

Vp1 = velocity of fluid at point 1 in prototype,

Vp2= velocity of fluid at point 2 in prototype,

ap1= Acceleration of fluid at point 1 in prototype,

ap2= Acceleration of fluid at point 2 in prototype,

Vm1, Vm2, am1, am2 = Corresponding values at the corresponding points of fluid velocity

and acceleration in the model.

For kinematic similarity, we have

Vp1

Vm1

Vp2

Vm2

Vr

Page 39

a p1

a m1

a p2

a m2

ar

where ar is the acceleration ratio. Also the directions of the velocities in the model and prototype

should be same.

3. Dynamic Similarity:

Dynamic similarity means the similarity of forces between the model and prototype. Thus

dynamic similarity is said to exist between the model and prototype if the ratios of the

corresponding forces acting at the corresponding points are equal. Also the directions of the

corresponding forces at the corresponding points should be same.

(Fi)p= Inertia force at a point in prototype,

(Fv)p= Viscous force at the point in prototype,

(Fg)p= Gravity force at the point in prototype,

(Fi)p, (Fv)p, (Fg)p = Corresponding values of forces at the corresponding point in model.

Then for dynamic similarity, we have

Fi p Fv p Fg p

F

Fi m Fv m Fg m r

where Fr is the force ratio. Also the directions of the corresponding forces at the corresponding

points in the model and prototype should be same.

23. Explain the physical significance of the Dimensionless numbers. (Nov/Dec 2013, 2010,

May/June 2012)

Dimensionless numbers are those numbers which are obtained by dividing the inertia

force by viscous force or pressure force or surface tension force or elastic force. As this is a ratio

of one force to the other force, it will be a dimensionless number. These dimensionless numbers

are also called non-dimensional parameters. The following are the important dimensionless

numbers:

1. Reynolds number

2. Frouds number

3. Eulers number

4. Webers number

5. Machs number

1. Reynolds number: It is defined as the ratio of inertia force of a flowing fluid and the viscous

force of the fluid. The expression for Reynolds number is obtained as

Inertia force (Fi) = Mass X Acceleration of flowing fluid

Page 40

Velocity

Ti me

= AV V

Volume

Ti me

Velocity

Viscous force (Fv) = Shear stress X Area

Visccous force ( Fv ) = A

= (

du

du

) A = . L A

dy

dy

V

L

Re =

Fi

Fv

A V2

V

. A

L

VL

VL

( )

VL

In case of pipe flow, the linear dimension L is taken as diameter, d. Hence Reynolds number for

pipe flow,

Re

V d

Vd

or

2. Froudes Number (Fe): The Frouds Number is defined as the square root of the ratio of

inertia force of a flowing fluid to the gravitational force. Mathematically, it is expressed as

Fe

Fi

Fg

Fg = Force due to gravity = Mass X Acceleration due to gravity = X L3 X g

= X L2 X L X g = X A X L X g

Fe

Fi

AV 2

V2

V

Fg

ALg

Lg

Lg

3. Eulers number (Eu): It is defined as the square root of the ratio of inertia force of a flowing

fluid to the surface tension force. Mathematically, it is expressed as

Euler's number (E u )

Fi

Fp

Page 41

Fi

AV 2

V2

V

Eu

Fp

pA

p/

p/

4. Webers number (We): It is defined as the square root of the ratio of inertia force of a

flowing fluid to the surface tension force. Mathematically, it is expressed as

Fi

Fg

Fs = Surface tension force = Surface tension per unit length X Length = X L

We

Fi

AV 2

L2V 2

Fg

L

L

We

L V 2

V2

V2

L

L

5. Mach number (M): Mach number is defined as the square root of the ratio of inertia force of

a flowing fluid to the elastic force. Mathematically, it is expressed as

Inertia force

F

i

Elastic force

Fe

Fi = A V 2

Fe = Elastic force = Elastic stress X Area = K X A = K X L2

AV 2

L2V 2

V2

V

M

2

2

KL

KL

K/

K/

K

P

V

.

C

Page 42

For the dynamic similarity between the model and the prototype, the ratio of the

corresponding forces acting at the corresponding points in the model and prototype should be

equal. The ratio of the forces are dimensionless numbers. It means for dynamic similarity

between the model and the prototype, the dimensionless numbers should be same for model and

prototype. But it is quite difficult to satisfy the condition that all the dimensionless number (i.e.,

Re, Fe, We, We and M) are the same for the model and prototype. Hence models are designed on

the basis of ratio of the force, which is dominating in the phenomenon. The laws on which the

models are designed for dynamic similarity are model laws or laws of similarity. The followings

are the model laws:

1. Reynolds model law

25. Explain the different laws on which models are designed for dynamic similarity. What

are they used? (Nov/Dec 2011)

1. Reynolds model law:

Reynolds model law is the law in which models are based on Reynolds number. Model

based on Reynolds number includes:

(i) Pipe flow

(ii) Resistance experienced by sub-marines, airplanes, fully immersed bodies etc.

As defined earlier that Reynold number is the ratio of inertia force and viscous force, and

hence fluid flow problems where viscous forces alone are predominent, the models are designed

for dynamic similarity on Reynolds law, which states that the Reynold number for the model

must be equal to the Reynold number for the prototype.

Vm= Velocity of fluid in model,

m = Density of fluid in model,

Lm = Length or linear dimension of the model,

m = Viscosity or fluid in model,

andVm, m, Lm and m are the corresponding values of velocity, density, linear dimension and

viscosity of fluid in prototype. Then according to Reynold's model law,

[ ] = [ ] ()

= ()

Page 43

, =

, =

And also r, Vr, Lr, and r, are called the scale ratios for density, velocity, linear dimension and

viscosity.

The scale ratios for time, acceleration, force and discharge for Reynold's model law are obtained

as

Lr

Vr

V= , t=

Vr

tr

= mr ar = r Ar Vr ar

= r . L2r . Vr ar

Q r = Discharge scale ratio = (AV)r

Q r = r Ar Vr = r . L2r . Vr

2. Froude Model law:

Froude model law is the law in which the models are based on Froude number which

means for dynamic similarity between the model and prototype, the Froude number for both of

them should be equal. Froude model law is applicable when the gravity force is only

predominant force which controls the flow in addition to the force of inertia. Froude model law

is applied in the following fluid flow problems:

1.

2.

3.

4.

Free surface flows such as flow over spillways, weirs, sluices, channels etc.,

Flow of jet from an orifice or nozzle,

Where waves are likely to be formed on surface,

Where fluids of different densities flow over one another.

Vm = Velocity of fluid in model,

Lm = linear dimension of the model,

gm = Viscosity or fluid in model,

andVp, Lp and gp are the corresponding values of the velocity, length and acceleration due to

gravity for the prototype. Then according to Froude model law,

Vm

gm Lm

Vp

gp Lp

(1)

Page 44

If the tests on the model are performed on the same place where prototype is to operate,

then gm = gp and equation (1) becomes as

Vm

Lm

Vm

Vp

Vp

Lp

1

Lm

L

p

Vp

(2)

=1

Vm

Lp

Lm

= Lr

Lp

Lm

= Lr }

Vp

= Vr = Scale ratio for velocity

Vm

Vp

Vm

= = Lr (3)

Scale ratios for various physical quantities based on Froude model law are:

(a) Scale ratio for time

Length

Time =

Velocity

Tr =

Tp

Tm

L

V

L

( )m

V

( )p

Lp

Vp

Lm

Vm

Lp

Lm

Vm

Vp

= Lr

1

Lr

Vp

= L r

Vm

= L r

Accelaration =

ar =

ap

am

( )p

T

V

( )m

T

Vp

= L r ,

Vm

Vp

Tp

Tm

Vm

V

T

Vp

Vm

Tm

Tp

= L r

1

Lr

=1

Tp

= L r

Tm

L

L3

Q = A V = L2 =

Page 45

Qr =

QP

Qm

L3

)

T p

L3

( )m

T

=(

Lp 3

)

Lm

Tm

Tp

) =

1

Lr

= L2.5

r

V

Fp

Fr =

Fm

p L2p V2p

m L2m V2m

p

m

Lp 2

)

Lm

Vp 2

)

Vm

p

m

= 1 (or)p = m L3r

Fr = (

Lp 2

)

Lm

Vp 2

)

Vm

p=

Force

Area

L2 V2

pp

pr =

Pressure ratio,

= V2

L2

pm

p V2p

m V2m

p = m

V2p

Pr =

V2m

=(

Vp 2

)

Vm

= Lr

Torque = Force X Distance = F X L

Tr =

Torque ratio,

Tp

Tm

(FL)p

(FL)m

= Fr Lr = L3r Lr = L4r

Power = Work per unit time

Power =

Power ratio,

Pr =

Pp

Pm

FL

Pr = . .

T

Fp Lp

Tp

Fm Lm

Tm

Fp

Fm

Lp

Lm

= L3r Lr

1

Lr

1

Tp

Tm

= L3.5

r

Page 46

(Nov/Dec 2009)

Euler's model law is the law in which the models are designed on Euler's number which

means for dynamic similarity between the model and prototype, the Euler

number for model and prototype should be equal. Euler's model law is applicable when the

pressure forces are alone predominant in addition to the inertia force. According to this law:

Vm = Velocity of fluid in model,

pm = Pressure of fluid in model,

m = Density of fluid in model,

Vmpm, m = Corresponding values in prototype, then

Substituting these values in equation (1), we get

Vm

p

mm

Vp

p

pp

(2)

Vm

pm

Vp

pp

(3)

Euler's model law is applied for fluid flow problems where flow is taking place in a closed pipe

in which case turbulence is fully developed so that viscous forces are negligible and gravity force

and surface tension force is absent. This law is also used where the phenomenon of cavitation

takes place.

Weber model law is the law in which models are based on Weber's number, which is the

ratio of the square root of inertia force to surface tension force Hence where surface tension

effects predominate in addition to inertia force, the dynamic similarity between the model and

prototype is obtained by equating the Weber number of the model and its prototype. Hence

according to this law

V

L

m = Surface tensile force in model,

m = Density of fluid in model,

Page 47

Vp, p, p, Lp = Corresponding values of fluid in prototype.

Then according to Weber law, we have

Vm

m L

m m

Vp

p

L

p p

1. Capillary rise in narrow passages,

2. Capillary movement of water in soil,

3. Capillary waves in channels,

4. Flow over weirs for small heads.

5. Mach Model Law:

Mach model law is the law in which models are designed on Mach number, which is the

ratio of the square root of inertia force to elastic force of a fluid) Hence where the forces due to

elastic compression predominate in addition to inertia force, the-dynamic similarity between the

model and its prototype is obtained by equating the Mach number of the model and its prototype.

Hence according to this law:

(M)model = (M)prototype

M=

V

K

Km = Elastic stress for model,,

m = Density of fluid in model,

Vp, Kp and p = Corresponding values for prototype. Then according to Mach law.

Vm

Km

=

m

Vp

K

p

p

1. Flow of aeroplane and projectile through air at supersonic speed, i.e., at a velocity

more than the velocity of sound,

2. Aerodynamic testing,

3. Under water testing of torpedoes,

Page 48

4. Water-hammer problems.

26. A pipe of diameter 1.5 m is required to transport an oil of sp.gr. 0.90 and viscosity

3X10-2 poise at the rate of 3000 litre/s. Tests were conducted on a 15 cm diameter pipe

using water at 20C. Find the velocity and rate of flow in the model. Viscosity of water at

20C = 0.01 poise. (May/June 2013)

Solution:

Given

Dia. of prototype,

Dp = 1.5 m

Viscosity of fluid,

p = 3 X 10-2 poise

Q for prototype,

Sp = 0.9

Density of oil

Dm = 15 cm = 0.15 m

= 0.01 poise = 1 X 10-2 poise or m = 1 X 10-2 poise

m = 1000 kg/m3

Density of water

For the pipe flow, the dynamic similarity will be obtained if the Reynolds number in the model

and prototype are equal

m Vm Dm

m

Vm

Vp

Vp =

900

1000

p Vp Dp

Vm

Vp

1.5

0.15

1102

3102

p

m

Dp m

Dm p

= 3.0

Area of prototype

=

4

3.0

(Dp )2

=

4

3.0

(1.5)2

= 1.697 msec

Rate of flow through model, Qm = Am Vm =

4

4

litres

= .

sec

27. A ship 300 m long moves in sea-water, whose density is 1030 kg/m3. A 1:100 model of

this ship is to be tested in a wind tunnel. The velocity of air in the wind tunnel around the

model is 30 m/s and the resistance of the model is 60 N. Determine the velocity of ship in

sea-water and also the resistance of the ship in sea-water. The density of air in given as 1.24

Page 49

kg/m3. Take the kinematic viscosity of sea-water and air as 0.012 stokes and 0.018 stokes

respectively.

Solution:

Given:

For prototype

Length,

Lp = 300 m

Density of water

Fluid = sea-water

= 1030 kg/m3

Kinematic viscosity

= Vp

Resistance

= Fp

For model

Length,

Lm = (1/100) X 300 m = 3 m

Velocity,

Vm = 30 m/sec

Density of air,

m = 1.24 kg/m3

m = 0.018 stokes = 0.018 X 10-4 m2/sec

For dynamic similarity between the prototype and its model, the Reynolds number for the both

of them should be equal.

Vp Lp

p

Vm Lm

m

Vp =

or

0.012 104

0.018104

3

300

p

m

Lm

Lp

Vm

30 = 0.2

V

Resistance = L3 = L2 = L2 V 2

Fp

Fm

Fp

Fm

=

=

( L2 V2 )p

( L2

V2 )m

1030

1.24

p

m

3000 2

)

3

Lp 2

)

Lm

Vp 2

)

Vm

0.2

( )2 = 369.17

30

Fp = 369.17 Fm = 369.17 60 = .

28. A spill way model built up to a scale of (1/10) is discharged water with a velocity of 1

m/sec, under a head of 100 mm. Find the velocity of water of the prototype, if the head of

water over the prototype is 5.5 meters.

(Nov/Dec 2012)

Page 50

Solution:

Linear scale ratio,

Lr = 10

Velocity of model

Vm = 1 m/sec

Vp

Vm

= Lr = 10

Vp = 10 Vm = 10 1 = 3.162

m

s

29. A spillway model is to be built to a geometrically similar scale of (1/50) across a flume of

600 mm width. The prototype is 15 m high and maximum head on it is expected to be 1.5

m. (i) What height of model and what head on the model should be used? (ii) If the flow

over the model at a particular head is 12 litres per second, what flow per metre length of

the prototype is expected? (iii) If the negative pressure in the model is 200 mm, 'what is the

negative pressure in prototype? Is it practicable? (May/June 2012)

Solution.

Given:

Lr = 50

Width of model,

Bm = 600 mm = 0.6 m

Qm = 12 litres/sec

Pressure in model,

hm = -200 mm of water

Height of prototype

Hp = 15 m

Head on prototype,

Hp* = 1.5 m

= Hm

= Hm*

Height of model, Hm =

Head on model, Hm =

Hp

Hm

Hp

50

Hp

50

=

=

=

Hp

Hm

15

50

= 50

= 0.3

1.50

50

= 0.03

Page 51

Qp

Qm

2.5

= L2.5

= 17677.67

r = (50)

Discharge per metre length of prototype =

Qp

212132.04

=

Length of prototype Width of prototype

212132.04

= 7071.078 litressec

30

This negative pressure is not practicable. Maximum practicable negative pressure head is

7.50m

30. A 7.2 m height and 15 m long spillway discharges 94 m3/s discharge under a head of 2.0

m. If a 1 : 9 scale model of this spillway is to be constructed, determine model dimensions,

head over spillway model and the model discharge. If model experiences a force of 7500 N

(764.53kgf), determine force on the prototype.

(May/June 2014)

Solution. Given:

For prototype : Height

hp = 7.2 m

Length,

Lp = 15 m

Discharge,

Qp = 94 m3/sec

Head,

Hp = 2.0 m

Linear scale ratio,

Force experienced by model,

Lr = 9

Fp = 7500 N

Find: (i) Model dimensions i.e., height and length of model (hm and Lm)

(ii) Head over model i.e., Hm

(iii) Discharge through model i.e., Qm

(iv) Force on prototype (i.e., Fp)

(i) Model dimensions (hm and Lm)

Page 52

hp

hm

Lp

= Lr = 9

Lm

hp

hm =

9

Lp

Lm =

7.2

15

9

9

= 0.8 m

= 1.67 m

Lr =

Hp

=9

Hm

Hm =

Hp

9

= 0.222 m

Qp

Qm

= L2.5

r

Qm =

Qp

L2.5

r

94

92.5

= 0.387 m s

Fr =

Fp

Fm

= L3r

31. The pressure drop in an aeroplane model of size (1/10) of its prototype is 80 N/cm2. The

model is tested in water. Find the corresponding pressure drop in the prototype. Take

density of air = 1.24 kg/m3. The viscosity of water is 0.01 poise while the viscosity of air is

0.00018 poise.

Solution. Given:

Pressure drop in model,

Lr = 40

Fluid in model

Viscosity of water,

m = 0.01 poise

Density of water,

m = 1000 kg/m3

Viscosity of air,

p = 0.00018 poise

Density of air,

p = 1.24 kg/m3

Page 53

As the problem involves pressure force and viscous force and hence for dynamic similarity

between the model and prototype, Euler's number and Reynold's number should be considered.

Making first of all, Reynold's number equal, we get from equation

m Vm Lm

m

p

m

Lp

Lm

m

p

Vm

Vp

p Vp Lp

Vm

(or)

Vp

p

m

Lp

Lm

m

p

1.24

1000

= = 40

=

=

0.01

0.00018

1.24

1000

40

0.01

0.00018

= 2.755

Vm

pm

Vm

Vp

Vp

(or)

pp

Vp

= 2.755

2.755 =

P

Vm

pm

pp

(or)

1.24

1000

pm

pp

pm

m

pp

pm

pp

p

m

1.24

1000

0.0352

2.755

m

p = 0.0352 = 78.267

p

Pm

pp

= (78.267)2

(or)

pp =

Pm

(78.267)2

80

(78.267)2

pp = 0.01306 N/cm2

32. State and explain the conditions under which prototype behavior can be predicted from

model test.

MODEL TESTING OF PARTIALLY SUB-MERGED BODIES

Page 54

Let us consider the testing of a ship model (ship is a partially sub-merged body) in a

water-tunnel in order to find the drag force F or resistance experienced by a ship. The drag

experienced by a ship consists of :

1. The wave resistance, which is the resistance offered by the waves on the free seasurface, and

2. The frictional or viscous resistance, which is offered by the water on the surface of

contact of the ship with water.

Thus in this case three forces namely inertia, gravity and viscous forces are present. Then

for dynamic similarity between the model and its prototype, the Reynold's number (which is ratio

of inertia force to viscous force) and the Froude number (which is the ratio of inertia force to

gravity force) should be taken into account. This means that in this case, the Reynold model law

and Froude model law should be applied.

But for Reynold model law, the condition is

Reynold number of model= Reynold number of prototype

m Vm Lm

m

p Vp Lp

p

Vm Lm = Vp Lp

Vm =

Vp Lp

Lm

= Lr Vp

{ = } (1)

Vm

gm Lm

Vp

gp Lp

If fluid is same for model and prototype and test is conducted at the same place where prototype

is to operate, then gm = gp

Vm

Lm

Vm =

Lm

Lp

Vp

Lp

Vp = Vp

Lp

Lm

= Vp

1

Lr

Lp

Lm

= Lr } (2)

From equations (1) and (2), we observe that the velocity of fluid in model for Reynold

model law and Froude model law is different. Thus it is quite impossible to satisfy both the laws

together, which means the dynamic similarity between the model and its prototype will not exist.

To overcome this difficulty, the method suggested by William Froude is adopted for testing the

Page 55

Step 1. The total resistance experienced by a ship is equal to the wave resistance plus frictional

or viscous resistance.

Let

(Rw)p = Wave resistance experienced by prototype,

(Rf)p = Frictional resistance experienced by prototype, and

(R)w (Rw)w (Rf)m = Corresponding values for model.

Then, we have for prototype, (R)p = (Rw)p + (Rf)p (3)

(R)m = (Rw)m + (Rf)m (4)

Step 2. The frictional resistances for the model and the ship [i.e., (Rf)m and (Rf)p] are calculated

from the expressions given below:

(Rf)p = fp Ap Vpn (5)

(Rf)m = fm Am Vmn (6)

fp = Frictional resistance per unit area per unit velocity of prototype,

Ap = Wetted surface area of the prototype,

Vp = Velocity of prototype,

n = Constant, and

fm, Am, Vm = Corresponding values of frictional resistance, wetted area and velocity of model.

The values of fp and fm are determined from experiments.

Step 3. The model is tested by towing it in water contained in a towing tank such that the

dynamic similarity for Froude number is satisfied i.e., (Fe)m = (Fe)P The total resistance of the

model (Rm) is measured for this condition.

Step 4. The total resistance (Rm) for the model is known from step 3 and frictional resistance of

the model (Rf)m is calculated from equation (5). Then the wave resistance for the model is

known from equation (4) as

(Rw)m = Rm - (Rf)m (7)

Step 5. The resistance experienced by a ship of length L, flowing with velocity V in fluid of

viscosity , density depends upon g, the acceleration due to gravity. By dimensional analysis,

the expression for resistance is given by

R

l2 V2

= [

VL

V2

gL

] = [R e , Fe2 ]

Thus resistance is a function of Reynold number (Re) and Froude number (Fe). For dynamic

Page 56

similarity for model and prototype for wave resistance only, we have

(Rw )P

p L2 V2

p p

(Rw )m

m L2 V2

m m

p

(R w )P =

L2p

L2m

V2p

V2m

(R w )m (8)

(Fe)m = (Fe)P

(or)

Vm

gm Lm

Vp

gp Lp

Vm

Lm

Vp

Lp

(or) Vm =

Lm

Lp

. Vp

p

(R w )P =

m

p

(R w )P =

L2p

L2m

L3p

L3m

V2p

L

V2p m

(R w )m

Lp

(R w )m (9)

Step 6. The total resistance of the ship is given by adding (R w)p from equation (9) to (Rf)p

given by equation (5) as

( ) ( ) +

= ( ) where and are density and kinematic viscosity of the fluid while I is

the length of the body and V is the velocity of flow. If the resistance of a one-eight scale airship model when tested in water at 12 m/s is 22 N, what will be the resistance in air of the

air-ship at the corresponding speed? Kinematic viscosity of air is 13 times that of water

and density of water is 810 times of air.

Solution. Given:

Linear scale ratio,

Lr = 8

Velocity of model,

Vm = 12 m/s

Page 57

Resistance to model, Rm = 22 N

The fluid for model is water and for prototype the fluid is air.

Kinematic viscosity of air = 13 X Kinematic viscosity of water

..

Vp = 13 X Vm

Density of water

..

Pm = 81O X p

Let

Rp = Resistance of the air-ship

= ( )

R

( ) = ( )

=

(or)

)prototype = (

Rp = Rm

R p = 22

p

m

1

810

V2p

V2m

(19.5)2

122

)model

= = .

( = Lr )

(or)

l2p

l2m

Rp

p V2 l2

p p

Rm

m V2 l2

m m

( = Lr = 8)

82 = 4.59 N

34. Explain distorted and undistorted models. (Nov/Dec 2012, 2009, May/June 2012)

CLASSIFICATION OF MODELS

The hydraulic models are classified as :

Page 58

2. Distorted models)

1. Undistorted Models: Undistorted models are those models which are geometrically

similar to their prototypes or in other words if the scale ratio for the linear dimensions of the

model and its prototype is same, the model is called undistorted mod~ The behaviour of the

prototype can be easily predicted from the results of undistorted model.

2. Distorted Models. A model is said to be distorted if it is not geometrically similar to

its prototype. For a distorted model different scale ratios for the linear dimensions are adopted.

For example, in case of rivers, harbours, reservoirs etc., two different scale ratios, one for

horizontal dimensions and other for vertical dimensions are taken. Thus the models of rivers,

harbours and reservoirs will become as distorted models. If for the river, the horizontal and

vertical scale ratios are taken to be same so that the model is undistorted, then the depth of water

in the model of the river will be very-very small which may not be measured accurately. The

following are the advantage of distorted models:

1. The vertical dimensions of the model can be measured accurately.

2. The cost of the model can be reduced.

3. Turbulent flow in the model can be maintained.

Though there are some advantages of the distorted model, yet the results of the distorted model

cannot be directly transferred to its prototype. But sometimes from the distorted models very

useful information can be obtained.

35. Obtain the scale ratios for velocity and discharge of distorted models. (May/June 2013,

Nov/Dec 2011)

Scale Ratios for Distorted Models: As mentioned above, two different scale ratios, one for

horizontal dimensions and other for vertical dimensions, are taken for distorted models.

Let

(Lr )H =

Lp

Lm

Bp

Bm

Linear horizontal dimensions of model

(Lr )V =

hp

hm

Linear vertical dimensions of model

Then the scale ratios of velocity, area of flow, discharge etc., in terms of (Lr)H and (Lr)V can be

obtained for distorted models as given below:

1. Scale ratio for velocity

Vp = Velocity in prototype

Page 59

Vm = Velocity in model

hp

= ( )

hm

= (Lr )V

Ap = Area of flow in prototype = Bp X hp

Am = Area of flow in model = Bm X hm

= ( ) ( )

Qp = Discharge through prototype = Ap X Vp

Qm = Discharge through model = Am X Vm

= ( ) ( ) ( ) = ( ) [( ) ]

36. The discharge through a weir is 1.5 m3/s. Find the discharge through the model of

the weir if the horizontal dimension of the model = (1/50) the horizontal dimension of the

prototype and vertical dimension of the model = (1/10) the vertical dimension of the

prototype.

Solution:

Given:

1

Horizontal dimensions of prototype

Horizontal dimension of model

= 50 (or) (Lr )H = 50

Vertical dimensions of prototype

Vertical dimension of model

Qp

Qm

= (Lr )H [(Lr )V ]

Qm =

Qp

1581.14

3

2

= 10 (or) (Lr )V = 10

= 50 10

3

2

3

= 0.000948 m sec

1581.14

1.50

Page 60

PART A

1. Write a note on distorted models. May/June 2013

2. List the similitude involved in the model analysis. May/June 2013

3. Define the term Dimensional Homogeneity. How is it attained in a fluid equation? Nov/Dec

2012

4. Define the terms Geometric Similarity and Kinematic Similarity. May/June 2013

5. Define scale ratio. May/June 2012

6. Define Kinematic similarity. May/June 2012

7. Write the dimensions of discharge and Torque. Nov/Dec 2011

8. What is meant by Kinematic similitude? Nov/Dec 2011

9. What is the significance of Reynolds number and Prandtl number? Nov/Dec 2011

10. What is meant by geometric, kinematic and dynamic similarities? Nov/Dec 2011

PART -B

1. Write short notes on:

(ii) Scale effect in model study.

(iii) Buckinghams Pi-theorem.

2. An oil of specific gravity 0.91 and viscosity of 0.03 poise is to be transported at the rate of 3

m3/s through a 1.3 m diameter pipe. Model tests were conducted on a 130 mm diameter pipe

using water having viscosity of 0.01 poise. Find the velocity of flow and discharge in the model.

(May/June 2013, Refer Problem No. 15)

3. State and explain in detail about Buckinghams -theorem. (Nov/Dec 2012, Refer Q.No. 3)

4. Check the dimensional homogeneity of the following common equations in the field of

hydraulics

(1) Q = Cd.a.(2gH) and

(2) v = C(mi)

(Nov/Dec 2012)

Page 61

5. What is a distorted model? How does it differ from an undistorted model? Mention the

advantages and disadvantages of distorted models. Nov/Dec 2012

6. A spill way model built up to a scale of 1/10 is discharging water with a velocity of 1 m/sec,

under a head of 100 mm. Find the velocity of water of the prototype, if the head of water over the

prototype is 5.5 meters. (Nov/Dec 2012, Refer Problem No.23)

7. The pressure difference p in a pipe of diameter D and length L due to viscous flow depends

on the velocity V, viscosity and density . Using Buckinghams -theorem, obtain an

expression for p. (May/June 2012, Refer Problem No: 11)

8. Differentiate between the following:

(2) Froude number and Weber number

(3) Distorted model and Undistorted model

9. A spillway model is to be built to a scale ratio of 1:40 across a flume of 600 mm width. The

prototype is 10 m high and the maximum head expected is 1.5m.

(1) Find the height of the model and the head on the model

(2) Find the flow over the prototype when the flow over the model is 12 litres per second.

(3) If a negative pressure of 0.15 m occurs in the model, what will be the negative

pressure in the prototype? Is this practically possible to occur?

(May/June 2012, Refer

Problem No.23)

10. Find all expression for the drag force on smooth sphere of diameter D, moving with a

uniform velocity V in a fluid of density and dynamic viscosity . Use Rayleighs method.

(Nov/Dec 2011, Refer Problem No.3)

11. Discuss briefly on method of selecting repeating variables in Buckinghams -theorem.

(Nov/Dec 2011, Refer Q.No: 4)

12. Obtain the scale ratios for velocity and discharge of distorted models. (Nov/Dec 2011, Refer

Q.No: 12)

13. The variables controlling the motion of a floating vessel through water are the drag force F,

the speed V, the length L, the density and dynamic viscosity of water and acceleration due to

gravity g. Derive an expression for F by dimensional analysis.(Nov/Dec 2011, Problem No: 11)

14. Explain the different laws on which models are designed for dynamic similarity. Where are

they used? (Nov/Dec 2011, Refer Q.No: 9)

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