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UNIT V

DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS AND MODEL STUDIES

Fundamental dimensions - dimensional homogeneity - Rayleighs method and


Buckingham Pi-Theorem - Dimensionless parameters - Similitude and model studies
- Distorted Models.

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PART - A
1. What is dimensional analysis?
Dimensional analysis is a mathematical technique used in research work for design and
for conducting model tests, which makes use of the study of the dimensions for soling several
engineering problems. It deals with the dimensions of the physical quantities involved in the
phenomenon.

2. Write the uses of dimensional analysis?


Testing the dimensional homogeneity of any equation of fluid motion
o Deriving equation expressed in terms of non- dimensional parameters to show the relative
significance of each parameter.

3. What do you mean by fundamental units and derived units? Give example.
The various of physical quantities used in flied phenomenon can be expressed in terms of
fundamental or primary quantities
E.g.: Mass (M), length (L), time (T)
The quantities which are expressed in terms of the fundamental or primary quantities are called
derived or secondary quantities
E.g.: Velocity, area, density
Velocity = distance per unit time (L/T2)

4. Explain the term dimensional homogeneity. How is it attained in a fluid equation.


Dimensional homogeneity means the dimensions of each term in an equation on both sides are
equal. Thus if the dimensions of each term on the both sides of an equation are the same is
known as dimensionally homogenous equation.
E.g.: v = 2gh
Dimensions of L.H.S
V=L/T =LT-1
Dimensions of R. H. S
=2GH=L/T2*L
=L2=L=LT-1
Dimensions of R. H. S = Dimensions of R. H. S = LT-1
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Equation V=2gh is dimensionally homogeneous so it can be used in any system of units.

5. Enumerate the applications of dimensional homogeneity.


Dimensional analysis thus helps to check that equations might be true.
However, it does not prove that they are correct as well.

6. State Buckingham pi-theorem


It states that, if there are n variables (independent and dependent variables) in a physical
phenomenon and if these variables contain m fundamental dimensions (M, L, T), the variable are
arranged into (n-m0 dimensions terms.

7. What are the advantages and applications of model testing? /dimensional analysis/model
analysis
Advantages:
The merits of alternative designs can be predicated with the help of model testing. Model
testing can be used to detect and rectify the defects if an existing structure which is not
functioning properly. The performance of the hydraulic structure or hydraulic machine can be
easily predicted in advance from its model.
Applications
Civil engineering structures such as dams spillways weirs canals etc
o Turbines pumps and compressors
o Design of harbors ships & submarine
o Aero planes rockets & missiles
o Flood control investigation of silting and scour in rivers irrigation channels
What is meant by model and Prototype?
The model is the small scale replica of the actual structure or machine. The actual
structure or machine is called Prototype.

8. What is model analysis?


Model analysis is an experimental method of finding solution of complex flow problems
the model is the small scale replace of the actual structure or machine

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The actual structure or machine is called prototype the study of models of actual machine is
called model analysis

9. What is meant by geometric, kinematic and dynamic similarities?


Geometric Similarity:
It is said to exist between the model and the prototype. The ratio of all corresponding
linear dimension in the model and prototype are equal.
Kinematic Similarity:
It means the similarity of motion between the model & prototype. The kinematic
similarity is said to exist between model and the prototype if the ratios of the velocity and
acceleration at the corresponding points in the model and at the corresponding points in the
prototype are the same.
Dynamic Similarity:
It means the similarity of forces between the model & prototype. Thus dynamic similarity
is said to exist between the model and the prototype if the ratios of the corresponding forces
acting points are equal.

10. Define similitude?


Similitudes is defined as the similarity between the model & prototype in every respect,
which means that the model and prototype have similar properties or model and prototype
completely similar.

11. Define: 1. Reynolds number 2. Eulers numbers 3. Weber numbers 4. Mach numbers
write their significances for fluid flow problems?
(1) Reynolds Number (Re): It is defined as the ratio of inertia force of a flowing fluid and the
gravity force of the fluid.
E.g.: flow through open channels, Flow over matches wires
(2) Eulers Number (Eu): It is defined as the square root of the ratio of inertia force of a flowing
fluid to pressure force.
E.g.: discharge through orifices sluices and mouth pieces, Flow through pipes and pressure rise
due to sudden closure of values
(3) Webers Number (We):

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It is defined as the square root of the ratio of the inertia force of a flowing fluid to the
surface tension force
E.g.: capillary movement of water in soils, Flow of blood in veins & arteries
(4) Machs Number (M): It is defined as the square root of the ratio of the inertia force to the
elastic force
E.g.: significance Compressible fluid problem at high velocities such as motion of high speed
projections and missiles

12. How are hydraulic models classified?


o Undistorted models
o Distorted models

13. Give the dimensions of the following physical quantities (a)pressure, (b) surface tension,
(c) dynamic viscosity, (d) kinematic viscosity.
o Pressure ML-1 T-2
o Surface tension ML-1 T-2
o Dynamic viscosity ML-1 T-1
o Kinematic viscosity L2 T-1

14. State the methods of dimensional analysis?


o Rayleighs method
o Buckinghams -theorem

15. What are the similarities between model and prototypes? List the similitude involved in
the model analysis.
o Geometric similarity
o Kinematic similarity
o Dynamic similarity

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16. What is meant by undistorted models?


The undistorted models are those models which are geometrically similar to their
prototypes or other words if the scale ratio for the linear dimensions of the model and its
prototype is same, the model is called undistorted model.

17. State three demerits of a distorted model


o Exit pressure and velocity distribution are not true
o A model wave may differ from that of prototype
o Both extrapolation and interpolation of results are difficult

18. Submarine is tested in the air tunnel identify the model law applicable
o Reynolds model law

19. Enlist the advantages of dimensional analysis in fluid mechanics


o To check the dimensional homogeneity of the given equation
o To determine the dimension of a physical variable
o To convert units from one system to another through dimensional homogeneity
o It is a step towards dimensional analysis

20. Give two example of a fluid flow situation where Froude model law is applied.
o Free surface flows such as flow over spillways, weirs, sluices, channels
o Flow of jet from an orifice or nozzle
o Where waves are likely to be formed on surface
o Where fluids of different densities flow over one another

21. In making dimensionless analysis what rules do you follow for choosing the scaling
variable?
Three rule are followed to select variable for dimensionless analysis
1. Geometric property
2. Flow property
3. Fluid property
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22. What is meant by the term distorted model?


A model is said to be distorted if it is not geometrically similar to its prototype. For a
distorted model different scale ratios for the linear dimensions are adopted.
E.g.: in case of rivers harbors etc, two different scale ratios one for horizontal dimensions and
other for vertical dimensions are taken

23. What are distorted models?


o Rivers
o Harbours
o Reservoirs
24. Define Reynolds model law?
Reynolds model law is the law in which models are based on Reynolds numbers. Model
based on Reynolds on number includes:
o Pipe flow
o Resistance experienced by sub- marinas air planes fully immersed bodies etc

25. What is meant by repeating variables?


The numbers of repeating variables are equal to the number of fundamental dimensions
(m) of the problem
The choice of repeating variable if governed by the following consideration
o As far as possible the dependent variable should not be select as repeating variable
o The repeating variable should be choose in such a way that one variable contains
geometric property other variable contains flow property and third variable contains fluid
property
o The repeating variables selected should not from a dimensionless group
o The repeating variables should have the same dimensions
o No two repeating variables should have the same dimensions

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26. Enlist the advantages of dimensional analysis in fluids mechanics?


Advantages:
The merits of alternative designs can be predicated with the help of model testing
Model testing can be used to detect and rectify the defects if an existing structure which
is not functioning properly
The performance of the hydraulic structure or hydraulic machine can be easily predicted
in advance from its model

27. Write the advantages of distorted model?


o The vertical dimensions of the model can be measured accurately
o The cost of the model can be reduced
o Turbulent flow in the model can be maintained

28. Define scale ratio?


It is ratio of linear dimension of prototype to linear dimension of model

29. What is meant by scale effects?


o It is impossible to product the exact behavior of the prototype by model testing alone
o The two models of same prototype behavior will be different
o Scale ratio will not be same
o So discrepancy between models& prototype will always occur it is known as scale effect

30. Write the dimensions of discharge and Torque.


Discharge = Area X Velocity = L2 X L/T =L3/T = L3/T-1
Torque = Force X (D/2) = Mass X Acceleration X L = M X (L/T2) X L = ML2T-2

31. What is the significance of Reynolds number and Prandtl number.


Reynolds Number: It gives measure of ratio of the inertial forces to the viscous forces &
it is a dimensionless quantity.

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Physical significance:
1. It signifies the relative predominance of inertia to viscous
2. It is very useful in determining whether the flow is laminar or turbulent.

forces.

Prandtl number is dimensionless number, denoted by Npr.


Npr = Cp (viscosity)/(thermal conductivity)
Cp specific heat, J per ( Kg Kelvin)
viscosity in poise (gm per( cm sec))
thermal conductivity in Watt per (meter kelvin)
Significance: Prandtl number is important in heat transfer.

32. List the steps in determining the groups.


Each term = m+1, where m is equal to 3 and also called repeating variables. Out of 6
variables R, l, V, , and K, three variables are to be selected as repeating variable. R is a
dependent variable and should not be selected as a repeating variable.
Out of the 5 remaining variables, 1 is geometric property, 2nd one variable flow property,
3rd one fluid property.

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PART B
1. Write short note on dimensional analysis. What are the secondary or derived quantities?
Dimensional analysis is a method of dimensions. It is a mathematical technique used in
research work for design and for conducting model tests. It deals with the dimensions of the
physical quantities involved in the phenomenon. All physical quantities are measured by
comparison, which is made with respect to an arbitrarily fixed value. Length L, mass M and
time T are three fixed dimensions which are of importance in Fluid Mechanics. If in any
problem of fluid mechanics, heat is involved then temperature is also taken as fixed dimension.
These fixed dimensions are called fundamental dimensions or fundamental quantity.

SECONDARY OR DERIVED QUANTITIES:

Secondary or derived quantities are those quantities which possess more than one
fundamental dimension. For example, velocity is denoted by distance per unit time (L/T), density
by mass per unit volume (M/L 3 ) and acceleration by distance per second square (L/T 2 ).
Then velocity, density and acceleration become as secondary or derived quantities. The
expressions (L/T), (M/L 3 ) and (L/T 2 ) are called the dimensions of velocity, density and
acceleration respectively. The dimensions of mostly used physical quantities in Fluid
Mechanics are given in Table 12.1.
S.No

Physical Quantity

Symbol

Dimensions

(a) Fundamental
1

Length

Mass

Time

(b) Geometric
4

Area

L2

Volume

L3

(c) Kinematic Quantities


6

Velocity

LT-1

Angular Velocity

T-1

Acceleration

LT-2

Angular Acceleration

T-2

10

Discharge

L3T-1

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11

Acceleration due to Gravity

LT-2

12

Kinematic Viscosity

L2T-1

(d) Dynamic Quantities


13

Force

MLT-2

14

Weight

MLT-2

15

Density

MT-3

16

Specific Weight

ML-2T-2

17

Dynamic Viscosity

ML-1T-1

18

Pressure intensity

ML-1T-2

19

Modulus of Elasticity

K or E

ML-1T-2

20

Surface tension

MT-2

21

Shear Stress

ML-1T-2

22

Work, Energy

W or E

ML2T-2

23

Power

ML2T-3

24

Torque

ML2T-2

25

Momentum

MLT-1

2. Determine the dimensions of the quantities given below : (i) Angular velocity., (ii)
Angular acceleration, (iii) Discharge, (iv) Kinematic viscosity, (v) Force, (vi) Specific weight,
and (vii) Dynamic viscosity.
(Nov/Dec 2013)
Solution:

(i) Angular velocity =

Angle covered in radias


Time

1
T

rad
1
(ii)Angular acceleration = rad 2 = 2 = 2 =
sec
T
T
L L3
(iii)Discharge = Area Velocity = L = =
T T

(iv)Kinematic viscosity () =

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u
y

Shear stress
L 1

T L

Mass Acceleration

Area Time
Mass
Volume

M
L3

Force
Area
1
T
L

M 2
T
1
L2
T

ML
1
L2 T2
T

M
LT

ML1 T1

ML3

Kinematic viscosity () = =

(v) Force = Mass Acceleartion = M

Length ML
= 2 =
2
Time
T

Weight
Force
MLT 2
(vi) Specific weight =
=
=
=
3
Volume Volume
L
(viii) Dynamic viscosity is derived in (iv) as = ML-1T-1

3. Check the dimensional homogeneity of the following common equations in the field of
hydraulics.
(Nov/Dec 2012)

(1)

(1)

Q = Cd . a. 2gH

(2)

v = Cmi

Q = Cd . a. 2gH
Dimension of L.H.S Q =

L3
T

= L3 T 1
L

L2

Dimension of R.H.S Cd . a. 2gH = L2 T2 L = L2 T2 = L2 T = L3 T 1


(2)

v = Cmi
L

Dimension of L.H.S v = T = LT 1
Dimension of R.H.S Cmi = T 1 L L = T 1 L = LT 1

4. Write short on Releighs method. (May/June 2013)


Rayleigh's Method. This method is used for determining the expression for a variable which
depends upon maximum three or four variables only. If the number of independent variables
becomes more than four, then it is very difficult to find the expression for the dependent variable.
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Let X is a variable, which depends on X1, X2 and X3 variables. Then according to


Rayleigh's method, X is function of X1, X2 and X3 and mathematically it is written as
X =f

(X1, X2, X3).

This can also be written as X = K X1a . X2b . X3c


where K is constant and a, b and c are arbitrarily powers.
The values of a, b and c are obtained by comparing the powers of the fundamental dimension
on both sides. Thus the expression is obtained for dependent variable.

5. The time period (t) of a pendulum depends upon the length (L) of the pendulum and acceleration due
to gravity (g). Derive an expression for the time period.
Solution. Time period t is a function of (i) L and (ii) g

t = KLa . gb, where K is constant (1)


Substituting the dimensions on both sides T1 = KLa . (LT-2)b
Equating the powers of M, L and T on both sides, we have
Power of T,

1 = -2b

b = -1/2

Power of L,

0=a+b

a = -b = -(-1/2) =

Substituting the values of a and b in equation (1)

t=KL

1
1
2 . g 2

= K

L
g

The value of K is determined from experiments which is given as


K = 2

6. Find an expression for the drag force on smooth sphere of diameter D. moving with a uniform
velocity V in a fluid of density and dynamic viscosity . (Nov/Dec 2011)
Solution: Drag force F is a function of
(i) Diameter, D

(ii) Velocity, V

(iii) Density,

(iv) Viscosity,

F = K Da . V b . c . d (1)
where K is non-dimensional factor.

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Substituting the dimensions on both sides


MLT-2 = K La . (LT-1)b . (ML-3)c . (ML-1T-1)d
Equating the powers of M, L and T on both sides,
Power of M,

1=c+d

Power of L,

1 = a + b 3c d

Power of T,

-2 = -b d

There are four unknowns (a, b, c, d) but equations are three. Hence it is not possible to find the
values of a, b, c and d. But three of them can be expressed in terms of fourth variable which is most
important. Here viscosity is having a vital role and hence a, b. c are expressed in terms of d which is
the power to viscosity.
c=1d
b=2d
a = 1 b + 3c + d = 1 2 + d + 3 (1 - d) + d = 1 2 + d + 3 3d + d = 2 d
Substituting these values of a, b and c in equation (1), we get

F = K D2d . V 2d . 1d . d
= D2 V 2 ( Dd . V d . d . d ) = K D2 V 2 (

VD

= (

)d

7. Find the expression for the power P. developed by a pump when P depends upon the head H.
the discharge Q and specific weight w of the fluid.
Solution: Power P is a function of
(i) Head, H

(ii) Discharge, Q

(iii) Specific weight, w

P = K H a . Qb . w c (1)
where K = Non-dimensional constant.
Substituting the dimensions on both sides of equation (i)
ML2T-3 = KLa . (L3T-1)b (ML-2T.-2)c
Equating the powers of M, L and Ton both sides,
Power of M,

1 = c,

Power of L,

2 = a + 3b - 2c,

c=1
a = 2 - 3b + 2c = 2 - 3 + 2 = 1
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Power of T,
- 3 = - b -2c
Substituting the values of a, b and c in (i)

b = 3 - 2c = 3 - 2 = 1

= . . =
8. The efficiency n of a fan depends on the density p, the dynamic viscosity p of the fluid,
the angular velocity at diameter D of the rotor and the discharge Q. Express n in terms of
dimensionless parameters.
(May/June 2014)
Solution: The efficiency depends on
(i) density, p (ii) viscosity. p (iii) Angular velocity, (iv) diameter D

(v) discharge, Q

= K a . b . c . Dd . Qe (1)
where K = Non-dimensional constant.
Substituting the dimensions on both sides of equation (i)
M0 L0 T0 = K (ML-3)a . (ML-1T-1)d . (T-1)c . (L)d . (L3T-1)e
Equating powers of M, L. Ton both sides,
Power of M,

0=a+b

Power of L

0 = - 3a - b + d + 3e

Power of T,

0 = - b - c - e.

There are five unknowns but equations are three. Express the three unknowns in terms of
the other two unknowns which are more important. Viscosity and discharge are more important
in this problem. Hence expressing a. c and d in terms of b and e, we get
a=-b
c = - (b + e)
d = + 3a + b - 3e = - 3b - 3e = - 2b - 3e.
Substituting the values in equation (i), we get

= K b . b . (b+e) . D2b3e . Qe
= K b . b . b . e . D2b . D3e Qe
=(

D2

)b . (

= [(

Q
D3

)e

) . ()]

Page 15

9. The resisting force R of a supersonic plane during flight can be considered as dependent
upon the length of the aircraft l, velocity V, air viscosity , air density and bulk modulus of
air K. Express the functional relationship between these variables and the resisting force.
Solution: The resisting force R depends upon,
(i) length l,

(iii) viscosity ,

(ii) velocity V,

(iv) density ,

(v) Bulk modulus K

R = A la . V b . c . d . K e (1)
Where A is non-dimensional constant.
Substituting the dimensions on both sides of equation (i)
MLT-2 = A La . (LT-1)b . (ML-1T-1)c . (ML-3)d . (ML-1T-2)e
Equating the powers of M, L and Ton both sides,
Power of M,

1=c+d+e

Power of L,

1 = a + b c -3d - e

Power of T,

- 2 = - b c 2e

There are five unknowns but equations are only there. Expressing the three unknowns in terms of
two unknowns ( and K).
Express the values of a, b and d in terms of c and e. Solving,
d=1ce
b = 2 c - 2e
a = 1 b + c + 3d + e = 1 (2 c - 2e) + c + 3 (1 c e) + e
= 1 2 + c + 2e + c + 3 3c 3e + e = 2 c
Substituting these values in (1), we get

R = A l2c . V 2c2e . c . 1ce . K e


= A l2 . V 2 . ( lc V c c c ). (V 2e . e . K e )
= A l2 . V 2 . (

VL

) (

= [(

K
V2

) ()]

10. A partially sub-merged body is towed in water. The resistance R to its motion depends on
the density , the viscosity of the water, length l of the body, velocity V of the body and the
acceleration due to gravity g. Show that the resistance to the motion can be expressed in the
form

Page 16

= [(

) ( )]

(Nov/Dev 2011)

Solution: The resistance R depends on


(i) density ,

(ii) viscosity ,

(iii) length l,

(iv) velocity V,

(v) acceleration g

R = K a . b . lc . V d . g e (1)
Substituting the dimensions on both sides of equation (i)
MLT-2 = K (ML-3)a . (ML-1T-1)b Lc . (LT-1)d . (LT-2)e
There are five unknowns but equations are only there. Expressing the three unknowns in terms of
two unknowns ( and g). Hence express a, c and d in terms of b and e. Solving, we get
a=1-b
d = 2 b 2e
c = 1 + 3a + b d e = 1 + 3(1-b) + b (2 b 2e) e
= 1 + 3 3b + b 2 + b + 2e e = 2 b + e
Substituting these values in (1), we get

R = K 1b . b . l2b+e . V 2b2e . g e
= K l2 . V 2 . ( b b lb V b ). (le V 2e g e )
R = K l2 V 2 . (

Vl

lg

)b . ( 2 )2
V

= [(

) . ()]

11. State and explain in detail about Buckinghams -theorem. (May/June 2014, April/May
2011)
The Rayleigh's method of dimensional analysis becomes more laborious if the
variables are more than the number of fundamental dimensions (M, L, T). This difficulty is
overcame by using Buckingham's -theorem, which states, "If there are n variables (independent
and dependent variables) in a physical phenomenon and if these variables contain in fundamental
dimensions (M, L, T) then the variables are arranged into (n - m) dimensionless terms. Each term is
called -term".
Let X1, X2. X3. ..., Xn, are the variables involved in a physical problem. Let Xt be the
dependent variable and X2, X3, , Xn, are the independent variables on which XI depends. Then
X1 is a function of X2, X3, , Xn and mathematically it is expressed as

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X1 = f X2, X3, , Xn) (1)


Equation (1) can also be written as
fl (X2, X3, , Xn)= 0 (2)
Equation (2) is a dimensionally homogeneous equation. It contains n variables. If there are m
fundamental dimensions then according to Buckingham's -theorem, equation (2) can be written
in terms of number of dimensionless groups or -terms in which number of -terms is equal to
(n - m). Hence equation (2) becomes as
f (1, 2, , n-m) = 0 (3)
Each of -terms is dimensionless and is independent of the system. Division or multiplication by a
constant does not change the character of the -term. Each -term contains m + 1 variables, where
m is the number of fundamental dimensions and is also called repeating variables. Let in the above
case X2, X3 and X4 are repeating variables if the fundamental dimension m (M, L, T) = 3. Then each
-term is written as.

1= X2a1 . X3b1 . X4c1. X1


2 = X2a2 . X3b2 . X4c2. X2

(4)

n-m = X2an-m . X3bn-m . X4cn-m. Xn


Each equation is solved by the principle of dimensional homogeneity and values of al, bp el etc., are
obtained. These values are substituted in equation (12.4) and values of a l, rc2, In are obtained. These
values of is are substituted in equation (12.3). The final equation for the phenomenon is obtained by
expressing any one of the rt-terms as a function of others as

1 = [ 2, 3, , n-m ]
2 = 1 [ 1, 3, , n-m ]
12. How are repeating variables selected for dimensional analysis using Buckinghams theorem.
(Nov/Dec 2011)
Method of Selecting Repeating Variables:
The number of repeating variables are equal to the number of fundamental dimensions of
the problem. The choice of repeating variables if governed by the following considerations:
1. As far as possible, the dependent variable should not be selected as repeating variable.
2. The repeating variables should be choosen in such a way that one variable contains geometric
property, other variable contains flow property and third variable contains fluid property.
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Variables with Geometric Property are


(i) Length, 1

(ii) d

Variables with flow property are


(i) Velocity, V

(iii) Height, H etc.


.

(ii) Acceleration etc.

Variables with fluid property :


(i) , (ii) (iii) etc.
(i) The repeating variables selected should not form a dimensionless group.
(ii) The repeating variables together must have the same number of fundamental dimensions.
(iii) No two repeating variables should have the same dimensions.
In most of fluid mechanics problems, the choice of repeating variables may be
(i) d. v,

(ii) l, v,

(iii) l, v,

or

(iv) d, v,

13. Write the procedure for solving problems by Buckinghams -theorem for following
problem.
The procedure for solving problems by Buckingham's n-theorem is explained by considering the
problem, which is also solved by the Rayleigh's method. The problem is :
The resisting force R of a supersonic plane during flight can be considered as dependent
upon the length of the aircraft l, velocity V, air viscosity , air density and bulk modulus of air K.
Express the functional relationship between these variables and the resisting force.
Solution:
Step 1: The resisting force R depends upon (i) l, (ii) V, (iii) , (iv) and (v) K. Hence R is a
function of 1, V. p, p and K. Mathematically.
R = f (1, V, , , K) (1)
or it can be written as f1 (R, 1, V, , , K) = 0 (2)
Total number of variables, n = 6.
Number of fundamental dimensions, in = 3.
[m is obtained by writing dimensions of each variables as R = MLT-2, V = LT-1, = ML-1T-1, =
ML-3, K= MLT. Thus as fundamental dimensions in the problem are M, L, T and hence m = 3.]
Number of dimensionless -terms = n - m = 6 3 = 3.
Thus three -terms say 1, 2 and 3 are formed. Hence equation (ii) is written as
f1 (1, 2, 3 ) = 0 (3)

Page 19

Step 2: Each it term = m + I variables, where m is equal to 3 and also called repeating variables.
Out of six variables R, 1, V, , and K, three variables are to be selected as repeating variable. R is a
dependent variable and should not be selected as a repeating variable. Out of the five remaining
variables, one variable should have geometric property, the second variable should have flow
property and third one fluid property. These requirements are fulfilled by selecting l, V and as
repeating variables. The repeating variables themselves should not form a dimensionless term and
should have themselves fundamental dimensions equal to m,, i.e., 3 here. Dimensions of l, V and
are L, LT-1, ML-3 and hence the three fundamental dimensions exist in l, V and and they
themselves do not form dimensionless group.

Step 3: Each -terms is written as according to

1= la1 . Vb1 . c1. R


(4)

2= la2 . Vb2 . c2.


3= la3 . Vb3 . c3. K

Step 4: Each -terms is solved by the principle of dimensionless homogeneity. For the first tem, we have
1= M0 L0 T0 = La1 . (LT-1)b1 . (ML-3)c1. MLT-2
Equating the powers of M, L, T on both sides, we get
Power of M,

0 = c1 + 1

Power of L,

0 = a1 + b1 3c1 + 1

Power of T,

0 = -b1 2

a1 = -b1 + 3c1 1 = 2 3 1 = -2

Sub. the values of a1, b1 and c1 in 1 of equation (4)

1 = l-2 . V-2 . -1. R


=

Similarly for the 2nd -term,

2= la2 . Vb2 . c2.


2 = M0 L0 T0 = La2 . (LT-1)b2 . (ML-3)c2. ML-1T-1
Equating the powers of M, L, T on both sides, we get
Power of M,

0 = c2 + 1

c2 = -1

Power of L,

0 = a2 + b2 3c2 1

a2 = -b2 + 3c2 + 1 = 1 3 + 1 = -1
Page 20

0 = -b2 1

Power of T,

b2 = -1

Sub. the values of a2, b2 and c2 in 2 of equation (4)

2 = l-1 . V-1 . -1.


=

3rd -term

3= la3 . Vb3 . c3. K


M0 L0 T0 = La3 . (LT-1)b3 . (ML-3)c3. ML-1T-2
Equating the powers of M, L, T on both sides, we get
Power of M,

0 = c3 + 1

c3 = -1

Power of L,

0 = a3 + b3 3c3 1

a3 = -b3 + 3c3 + 1 = 2 3 + 1 = 0

Power of T,

0 = -b3 2

b3 = -2

Sub. the values of a3, b3 and c3 in equation (4)

3= l0 . V-2 . -1. K
=

Step 5: Sub. the values of 1, 2, and 3 in equation (3), we get

f1 (

l2 V2

lV

)= 0
V2

or

= [

l2 V2

= [

lV

K
V2

14. The efficiency of a fan depends on density, dynamic viscosity of the fluid, angular
velocity (), diameter of the rotor and the discharge (Q). Express in terms of
dimensionless parameters.
Solution:
is a function of , , , D and Q
= f (, , , D,Q)
(or)
f1 (, , , , D,Q) = 0 (1)
Page 21

Hence total number of variables, n= 6.


The values of m that is, number of fundamental dimensions for the problem is obtained by
writing dimensions of each variable. Dimensions of each variable are
= Dimensionless

= Ml 3

D = L Q = L3 T 1

m=3

= ML 1 T 1

= T1

Number of terms = n m = 6-3 = 3


Equation is written as f1 (1, 2, 3) = 0. (2)
Each terms contains m + 1 variable, where m is equal to three and is also repeating variable.
Choosing , D, as repeating variables, we have,

1 Da1 .b1 .c1 .


2 Da 2 .b2 .c2 .
3 Da 3 .b3 .c3 .Q
First terms:

1 Da1 .b1 .c1 .


Substituting dimensions on both sides of 1,
M0 L0 T0 = L a1 (T-1) b1 (M L 3) c1 ( M0 L0 T0)
Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,
Power of M,

0 = c1 + 0

Power of L,

0 = a1 + 0

Power of T,

0 = b1 + 0

Substitute the values of a1, b1, c1 and a1 in 1, we get


1 = D0 0 0 =
If the variable is dimensionless, it itself is a term. Here the variable is a term. As it exists
in first term and hence 1 = . Then there is no need of equating the powers directly the value
can obtained.

Second term:

2 Da 2 .b2 .c2 .
Page 22

Sub the dimensions on both sides,


a2

M0 L0 T0 = L (T-1) b2 (M L 3) c2 ( M L 1 T 1)
Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,
Power of M,

0 = c2 + 1

c2 = 1

Power of L,

0 = a2 3c2 1

a2 = 3 + 1 = 2

Power of T,

0 = b2 1

b2 = 1

Sub the values of a2, b2, c2 in 2


2 = D 2 1 1

Third term:

3 Da3 .b3 .c3 .Q


Sub the dimensions on both sides,
M0 L0 T0 = L a3 (T-1) b3 (M L 3) c3 ( L 3 T 1)
Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,
Power of M,

0 = C3

Power of L,

0 = a3 3c3 + 3

a3 = 3

Power of T,

0 = b3 1

b3 = 1

Sub the values of a3, b3, c3 in 3 in the equation,


3 = D 3 1 0 Q

Sub the values of 1, 2, and 3 in equation (ii)

f1 ( ,

D2

Q
D2

)= 0

(or)

= [

15. Using Buckingham's a-theorem, show that the velocity through a circular orifice is given

by = [ ,

], where H is the head causing flow, D is the diameter of the

orifice, is co-efficient of viscosity, is the mass density and g is the acceleration due to
gravity.
(Nov/Dec 2009)
Page 23

Solution:
V is a function of H, D, , and g
V = f (H, D, , , g) or

f1 (H, D, , , g) = 0 (1)

Total number of variable, n = 6


Writing dimension of each variable, we have
V = LT-1,

H = L,

D = L,

= ML-1T-1, = ML-3,

g = LT-2

Thus number of fundamental dimensions, m = 3


Number of -terms

= n - m = 6 - 3 = 3.

Equation (1) can be written as f1 ( 1, 2, 3) = 0 (2)


Each -term contains m +1 variables, where m = 3 and is also equal to repeating variables. Here V
is a dependent variable and hence should not be selected as repeating variable. Choosing H, g, as
repeating variable, we get three -terms as

1= Ha1 . gb1 . c1. V


2= Ha2 . gb2 . c2. D
3= Ha3 . gb3 . c3.
First -term

1= Ha1 . gb1 . c1. V


Substituting dimensions on both sides
1= M0 L0 T0 = La1 . (LT-2)b1 . (ML-3)c1. LT-1
Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,
Power of M,

0 = c1

c1 = 0

Power of L,

0 = a1 + b1 3c1 + 1

a1 = -b1 + 3c1 1 = 2 3 1 = -1 = -1/2

Power of T,

0 = -2b1 1

b1 = -1/2

Substitute the values of a1, b1, c1 and a1 in 1, we get

1= H -1/2 . g -1/2 . 0. V
=

Second -term

2= Ha2 . gb2 . c2. D


Substituting dimensions on both sides
Page 24

2 = M0 L0 T0 = La2 . (LT-2)b2 . (ML-3)c2. L


Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,
Power of M,

0 = c2

c2 = 0

Power of L,

0 = a2 + b2 3c2 + 1

a2 = -b2 + 3c2 1 = -1

Power of T,

0 = -2b2

b2 = 0

Substitute the values of a2, b2, c3 and a1 in 2, we get

2 = H -1 . g 0 . 0. D
=

Third -term

3 = Ha3 . gb3 . c3.


Substituting dimensions on both sides
3 = M0 L0 T0 = La3 . (LT-2)b3 . (ML-3)c3. ML-1T-1
Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,
Power of M,

0 = c3 + 1

c3 = -1

Power of L,

0 = a3 + b3 3c3 1

a3 = -b3 + 3c3 + 1 = - -3 + 1 = - 3/2

Power of T,

0 = -2b3 - 1

b3 = -

Substitute the values of a3, b3, c3 and a1 in 3, we get

3 = H -3/2 . g - . -1.
3 =

3
2 g

3
2 g

Multiply and Divide by V

3 =
=

V
H V gH

1 =

V
gH

Sub the values of 1, 2, and 3 in equation (ii)

f1 (

V
gH

D
H

) = 0 or
HV

gH

= [ ,

HV

= [ ,

]
Page 25

16. The pressure difference P in a pipe of diameter D and length l due to viscous flow
depends on the velocity V, viscosity () and density () using Buckinghams theorem.
Obtain an expression for P.
(May/June 2012)
Solution:
The only difference is that P is to be calculated for viscous flow. Then in the repeating variable
instead of , the fluid property is to be chosen.
Now P is a function of D, l, , or
P = f (D, l, v, , )
f1 (P, D, l, v, , ) = 0 (1)
Total number of variable n = 6
Number of fundamental dimensions m = 3
Number of terms = n m = 3
Hence the equation is written as
f1 (1, 2, 3) = 0 (2)
Each terms contains m + 1 variable, that are 3 + 1 = 4 variable out of 4 variable 3 are
repeating variables.
Choosing D, v, as repeating variables, we have terms as

1 Da1 .v b1 .c1 .P
2 Da 2 .v b2 .c2 .l
3 Da3 .v b3 .c3 .
First terms:

1 Da1 .vb1 .c1 .P


Sub the dimensions on both sides,
M0 L0 T0 = L a1 (LT-1) b1 (M L 3 T-1) c1 ( M L 1 T 2)
Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,
Power of M,

0 = c1 + 1

c1 = -1

Power of L,

0 = a1 + b1 c1 1

a1 = 1

Power of T,

0 = b1 c1 2

b1 = 1

Sub the values of a1, b1, c1 in 1

Page 26

1 D1.v 1. 1.P
1 DP

Second term:

2 Da 2 .vb2 .c2 .l
Sub the dimensions on both sides,
M0 L0 T0 = L a2 (LT-1) b2 (M L 1 T-1) c2 L
Equating the powers of M, L, T on both sides,
Power of M,

0 = c2

Power of L,

0 = a2 + b2 c2 + 1

a2 = 1

Power of T,

0 = b2 c2

b2 = 0

Sub the values of a2, b2, c2 in 2

2 D1.v0 .0 .l
2 l

Third term:

3 Da3 .vb3 .c3 .


Sub the dimensions on both sides,
M0 L0 T0 = L a3 (LT-1) b3 (M L 1 T-1) c3 M L 3
Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,
Power of M,

0 = c3 + 1

C3 = 1

Power of L,

0 = a3 + b3 c3 3

a3 = 1

Power of T,

0 = b3 c3

b3 = 1

Sub the values of a3, b3, c3 in 3


3 = D1 v1 1

Sub the values of 1, 2, 3 in the equation


D p

f1 (

l
D

DV

) = 0 (or)

D p
V

DV

= [ ,

(or) =

[ ,

Page 27

Experiments show that the pressure difference p is a linear function (l / D). Hence (l / D) can be
taken out of the functional as

Expression for difference of pressure head for viscous flow,

hf =
=

p
g

V
D

l
D

1
g

[ R e ]

DV

= Re

[ ]

17. The pressure difference P in a pipe of diameter D and length l due to turbulent flow
depends on the velocity V, viscosity (), density () and roughness k. Using Buckinghams
theorem. Obtain an expression for P. (Nov/Dec 2010)
Solution:
p is a function of D, 1, V. , , k
p = f (D, l, V, , , k)

or

f1 (p, D, l, V, , , k) = 0

(1)

Total number of variables, n = 7


Writing dimensions of each variable,
Dimension of p = Dimension of pressure = ML-1T-2
l = L, V = LT-1,

D = L,

= ML-1T-1, = ML-3,

k=L

Number of fundamental dimensions, m = 3


Number of -terms

= n - m = 7 - 3 = 4.

Now equation (1) can be grouped in 4 -terms as


f1 (1, 2, 3, 4) (2)
Each -terms contains m + 1 or 3 + 1 = 4 variables. Out of four variables, there are repeating
variables. Choosing D, V, as the repeating variables, we have the four -terms as

1 Da1 .v b1 .c1 .P
2 Da 2 .v b2 .c2 .l
3 Da 3 .v b3 .c3 .
4 Da 4 .v b4 .c4 .k

Page 28

First terms:

1 Da1 .vb1 .c1 .P


Sub the dimensions on both sides,
M0 L0 T0 = L a1 (LT-1) b1 (M L 3 T-1) c1 ( M L 1 T 2)
Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,
Power of M,

0 = c1 + 1

c1 = -1

Power of L,

0 = a1 + b1 3c1 1

a1 = -b1 + 3c1 + 1 = 2 3 + 1 = 0

Power of T,

0 = b1 2

b1 = 2

Sub the values of a1, b1, c1 in 1

1 D0 .v 2 .1.P
1

p
v 2

Second term:

2 Da 2 .vb2 .c2 .l
Sub the dimensions on both sides,
M0 L0 T0 = L a2 (LT-1) b2 (M L 3) c2 L
Equating the powers of M, L, T on both sides,
Power of M,

0 = c2

c2 = 0

Power of L,

0 = a2 - b2 3c2 + 1

a2 = b2 + 3c2 1 = -1

Power of T,

0 = b2

b2 = 0

Sub the values of a2, b2, c2 in 2

2 D1.v0 .0 .l

l
D

Third term:

3 Da3 .vb3 .c3 .


Sub the dimensions on both sides,
M0 L0 T0 = L a3 (LT-1) b3 ( M L 3) c3 ML-1T-1
Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,
Page 29

Power of M,

0 = c3 + 1

c3 = 1

Power of L,

0 = a3 + b3 3c3 1

a3 = -b3 + 3c3 + 1 = 1 3 + 1 = -1

Power of T,

0 = b3 1

b3 = -1

Sub the values of a3, b3, c3 in 3

3 D 1.v 1.1.
3

DV

Fourth -term

4 Da 4 .vb4 .c4 .k
Sub the dimensions on both sides,
M0 L0 T0 = L a3 (LT-1) b3 ( M L 3) c3 ML-1T-1
Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,
Power of M,

0 = c4

c4 = 0

Power of L,

0 = a4 - b4 3c4 + 1

a4 = b4 + 3c4 - 1 = -1

Power of T,

0 = b4

b4 = 0

Sub the values of a3, b3, c3 in 4

4 D 1.v0 .0 .k
k
D

Sub the values of 1, 2, 3 and 4 in the equation (2)

f1 (

V2

l
D

DV

, )=0
D

or

= [ ,

, ]

Expression for hf (Difference of pressure head). From experiments, it was observed that pressure
difference. p is a linear function of (l/D) and hence it is taken out of function
p
V2

l
D

= .

DV

, ]
D

Dividing by g to both sides, we have

p
g

, ]

V2 l
gD

DV

, ]
D

Page 30

Now [

, ] contains two terms, First one is

DV D
k

and second is

which is

DV

which is called roughness factor. Now [

1
Reynolds numbert

or

1
Re

, ] is put equal to f, where f is

Re D

the co-efficient of friction which is a function of Reynolds number and roughness factor.
p
g

4f V2 l

f = [

2 gD

DV

, ]
D

Multiplying or dividing by any constant does not change the character of -terms

= =

18. Derive on the basis of dimensional analysis suitable parameters to present the thrust
developed by a propeller. Assume that the thrust P depends upon the angular velocity ,
speed of advance V, diameter D, dynamic viscosity , mass density , elasticity of the fluid
medium which can be denoted by the speed of sound in the medium C. (Apl/May 2010)
Solution:
Thrust P is a function of , V, D, , , C
P = f (, V, D, , , C)
f1 = (P, , V, D, , , C) (1)
Total number of variables. n = 7
Writing dimensions of each variable, we have
P = MLT-2,

= T-1,

V = LT-1,

= MLT-1,

= ML-3,

C = LT-1

:. Number of fundamental dimensions, m = 3


Number of -terms = n - m= 7 - 3= 4
Hence equation (1) can be written as f1 (1, 2, 3, 4) (2)
Each -terms contains m + 1 or 3 + 1 = 4 variables. Out of four variables, there are repeating
variables. Choosing D, V, as the repeating variables, we have the four -terms as

1 Da1 .v b1 .c1 .P
2 Da 2 .v b2 .c2 .
3 Da 3 .v b3 .c3 .
4 Da 4 .v b4 .c4 .C

Page 31

First terms:

1 Da1 .vb1 .c1 .P


Sub the dimensions on both sides,
M0 L0 T0 = L a1 (LT-1) b1 (M L 3) c1 ( M LT 2)
Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,
Power of M,

0 = c1 + 1

c1 = -1

Power of L,

0 = a1 + b1 3c1 + 1

a1 = -b1 + 3c1 - 1 = 2 3 - 1 = -2

Power of T,

0 = b1 2

b1 = 2

Sub the values of a1, b1, c1 in 1

1 D2 .v 2 .1.P
1

p
D 2 v 2

Second term:

2 Da 2 .vb2 .c2 .
Sub the dimensions on both sides,
M0 L0 T0 = L a2 (LT-1) b2 (ML 3) c2 T-1
Equating the powers of M, L, T on both sides,
Power of M,

0 = c2

c2 = 0

Power of L,

0 = a2 + b2 3c2

a2 = b2 + 3c2 = 1 + 0 = 1

Power of T,

0 = b2 - 1

b2 = -1

Sub the values of a2, b2, c2 in 2

2 D1.v 1.0 .
2

D
V

Third term:

3 Da3 .vb3 .c3 .


Sub the dimensions on both sides,
M0 L0 T0 = L a3 (LT-1) b3 ( M L 3) c3 ML-1T-1
Page 32

Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,


Power of M,

0 = c3 + 1

c3 = 1

Power of L,

0 = a3 + b3 3c3 1

a3 = -b3 + 3c3 + 1 = 1 3 + 1 = -1

Power of T,

0 = b3 1

b3 = -1

Sub the values of a3, b3, c3 in 3

3 D 1.v 1.1.
3

DV

Fourth -term

4 Da 4 .vb4 .c4 .C
Sub the dimensions on both sides,
M0 L0 T0 = L

a4

(LT-1)

b4

( M L 3)

c4

LT-1

Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,


Power of M,

0 = c4

c4 = 0

Power of L,

0 = a4 + b4 3c4 + 1

a4 = - b4 + 3c4 - 1 = 1 + 0 1 = 0

Power of T,

0 = b4 - 1

b4 = -1

Sub the values of a3, b3, c3 in 4

4 D0 .v 1.0 .C
4

C
V

Sub the values of 1, 2, 3 and 4 in the equation (2)

f1 (

D2 V2

D
V

DV

, ) = 0 or
V
= [

D2 V2

= [

D
V

DV

, ]
V

, ]

19. The frictional torque T of a disc of diameter D rotating at a speed N in a fluid of

viscosity and density in a turbulent flow is given by = [ ] Prove this by


the method of dimensions.

Page 33

Solution:
T = f (D, N, , )

or

f1 (D, N, , ) = 0 (1)

:. Total number of variable, n = 5


Dimensions of each variable are expressed as
T = ML2T-3,

D = L,

N = T-1,

= ML-1T-1

= ML-3

:. Number of fundamental dimensions, m = 3


Number of -terms

= n - m= 5 - 3= 2

Hence equation (1) can be written as fl (1, 2) = 0 (2)


Each terms contains m + 1 variable, i.e. 3 + 1 = 4 variables. Three variables are repeating
variable. Choosing D, N, as repeating variables, we have,

1 Da1 .N b1 .c1 .T
2 Da 2 .N b2 .c2 .
Dimensional analysis 1

1 Da1 .Nb1 .c1 .T


Substituting dimensions on both sides of 1,
M0 L0 T0 = L a1 (T-1) b1 (M L 3) c1 ( M0 L0 T0)
Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,
Power of M,

0 = c1 1

c1 = - 1

Power of L,

0 = a1 3c1 + 2

a1 = 3c1 2 = -3 2 = -5

Power of T,

0 = b1 2

b1 = -2

Substitute the values of a1, b1, c1 and a1 in 1, we get


1 = D-5 N-2 -1 T

Dimensional analysis 2

2 Da 2 .Nb2 .c2 .
Sub the dimensions on both sides,
a2

M0 L0 T0 = L (T-1) b2 (ML 3) c2 ( M L 1 T 1)
Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,
Page 34

Power of M,

0 = c2 + 1

c2 = 1

Power of L,

0 = a2 3c2 1

a2 = 3c2 + 1 = 3 + 1 = 2

Power of T,

0 = b2 1

b2 = 1

Sub the values of a2, b2, c2 in 2


2 = D 2 N 1 1

Sub the values of 1 and 2 in equation (ii)

f1 (

D5

T
N2

D2 N

)= 0

(or)

= [

T
D5

N2

= [

D2 N

20. Using Buckingham's -theorem, shown that the discharge Q consumed by an oil ring is
given by

= [

where d is the internal diameter of the ring, N is rotational speed, is density, is viscosity, is
surface tension and w is the specific weight of oil.

Solution.
Q = f (d, N, , , , w)

or

f1 (Q, d, N, , , , w) = 0 (1)

Total number of variables, n = 7


Dimensions of each variables are
Q = L3T-1,

d = L, N = T-1,

= ML-3,

= ML-1T-1, = MT-2

w= ML-2T-2

Total number of fundamental dimensions, m = 3


Total number of -terms = n - m = 7 - 3 = 4
Hence equation (1) can be written as f1 (1, 2, 3, 4) (2)
Each -terms contains m + 1 or 3 + 1 = 4 variables. Out of four variables, there are repeating
variables. Choosing d, N, as the repeating variables, we have the four -terms as

Page 35

1 d a1 .N b1 .c1 .Q
2 d a 2 .N b2 .c2 .
3 d a 3 .N b3 .c3 .
4 d a 4 .N b4 .c4 .w
First terms:

1 da1 .Nb1 .c1 .Q


Sub the dimensions on both sides,
M0 L0 T0 = L a1 (T-1) b1 (ML 3) c1 ( L3T-1)
Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,
Power of M,

0 = c1

c1 = 0

Power of L,

0 = a1 - 3c1 + 3

a1 = 3c1 - 3 = -3

Power of T,

0 = b1 1

b1 = 1

Sub the values of a1, b1, c1 in 1

1 d 3 .N 1.0 .Q
1

Q
d3 N

Second term:

2 da 2 .Nb2 .c2 .
Sub the dimensions on both sides,
M0 L0 T0 = L a2 (T-1) b2 (ML 3) c2 ML-1T-1
Equating the powers of M, L, T on both sides,
Power of M,

0 = c2 + 1

c2 = -1

Power of L,

0 = a2 3c2 - 1

a2 = 3c2 + 1 = -3 + 1 = -2

Power of T,

0 = b2 - 1

b2 = -1

Sub the values of a2, b2, c2 in 2

2 d 2 .N 1.1.
2

d 2 N Nd 2
Page 36

Third term:

3 da3 .Nb3 .c3 .


Sub the dimensions on both sides,
M0 L0 T0 = L a3 (T-1) b3 ( ML 3) c3 MT-2
Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,
Power of M,

0 = c3 + 1

c3 = 1

Power of L,

0 = a3 - 3c3

a3 = 3c3 = 3

Power of T,

0 = b3 2

b3 = -2

Sub the values of a3, b3, c3 in 3

3 d 3 .N 2 .1.
3

d N 2
3

Fourth -term

4 da 4 .Nb4 .c4 .w
Sub the dimensions on both sides,
M0 L0 T0 = L

a4

(T-1) 4 ( ML 3)
b

c4

ML-2T-2

Equating the power of M, L, T on both sides,


Power of M,

0 = c4 + 1

c4 = -1

Power of L,

0 = a4 3c4 -2

a4 = 3c4 +2 = -3 + 2 = -1

Power of T,

0 = b4 - 2

b4 = -2

Sub the values of a3, b3, c3 in 4

4 d 1.N 2 .1.w
4

w
dN 2

Sub the values of 1, 2, 3 and 4 in the equation (2)

f1 (

d3

N d2

d3

N2

w
d N2

)=0

= [

or

d3

= f1 [

N d2

d3

N2

w
d N2

]
Page 37

21. Define model analysis and write the advantages of model analysis.
For predicting the performance of the hydraulic structures (such as dams, spill ways etc.)
or hydraulic machines (such as turbines, pumps etc.), before actually constructing or models of
the structures or machines are made and tests are performed on them to obtain the desired
information.
The model is the small scale replica of the actual structure or machine. The actual
structure or machine is called Prototype. It is not necessary that the models should be smaller
than the prototypes (though in most of cases it is), they may be larger than the prototype. The
study of models of actual machines is called Model analysis. Model analysis is actually an
experimental method of finding solutions of complex flow problems. Exact analytical solutions
are possible only for a limited number of flow problems. The followings are the advantages of
the dimensional and model analysis :
1. The performance of the hydraulic structure or hydraulic machine can be easily predicted, in
advance, from its model.
2. With the help of dimensional analysis, a relationship between the variables influencing a flow
problem in terms of dimensionless parameters is obtained. This relationship helps in conducting
tests on the model.
3. The merits of alternative designs can be predicted with the helpof model testing. The most
economical and safe design may be. finally, adopted.
4. The tests performed on the models can be utilized for obtaining, in advance, useful
information about the performance of the prototypes only if a complete similarity exists between
the model and the prototype.

22. Write short notes on Similitude. Explain different types of similarities. (Nov/Dec 2013,
2010, 2009, May/June 2012)
Similitude is defined as the similarity between the model and its prototype in every
respect, which means that the model and prototype are completely similar. Three types of
similarities must exit between the model and prototype. They are
1. Geometric Similarity

2. Kinematic Similarity

3. Dynamic Similarity

1. Geometric Similarity:
The geometric similarity is said to exist between the model and the prototype if the ratio
of all corresponding linear dimension in the model and prototype are equal.
Lm= Length of model ,

bm= Breadth of model

Dm= Dismeter of model

Am= area of model


Page 38

V m= Volume of model

Vp = Corresponding values of the prototype.

and Lp, Bp, Dp, Ap,

For geometric similarity between model and prototype, we must have the relation,

Lp
Lm

bp

bm

Dp
Dm

Lr

Lr is called the scale ratio.


For areas ratio and volumes ratio the relation should be as given below.

Ap
Am

Lp bp
Lm bm

Lr Lr Lr 2

L b D
p p p
Vm Lm b m Dm
Vp

2. Kinematic Similarity:
Kinematic similarity means the similarity of motion between model and prototype. Thus
kinematic similarity is said to exist between the model and the prototype if the ratios of the
velocity and acceleration at the corresponding points in the model and at the corresponding
points in the prototype are the same. Since the velocity and acceleration are vector quantities,
hence not only the ratio of magnitude of velocity and acceleration at the corresponding points in
the model and prototype should be same, but the directions of velocity and accelerations at the
corresponding points in the model and prototype also should be parallel.
Vp1 = velocity of fluid at point 1 in prototype,
Vp2= velocity of fluid at point 2 in prototype,
ap1= Acceleration of fluid at point 1 in prototype,
ap2= Acceleration of fluid at point 2 in prototype,
Vm1, Vm2, am1, am2 = Corresponding values at the corresponding points of fluid velocity
and acceleration in the model.
For kinematic similarity, we have

Vp1
Vm1

Vp2
Vm2

Vr

where Vr is the velocity ratio.


Page 39

For acceleration, we have

a p1
a m1

a p2
a m2

ar

where ar is the acceleration ratio. Also the directions of the velocities in the model and prototype
should be same.

3. Dynamic Similarity:
Dynamic similarity means the similarity of forces between the model and prototype. Thus
dynamic similarity is said to exist between the model and prototype if the ratios of the
corresponding forces acting at the corresponding points are equal. Also the directions of the
corresponding forces at the corresponding points should be same.
(Fi)p= Inertia force at a point in prototype,
(Fv)p= Viscous force at the point in prototype,
(Fg)p= Gravity force at the point in prototype,
(Fi)p, (Fv)p, (Fg)p = Corresponding values of forces at the corresponding point in model.
Then for dynamic similarity, we have

Fi p Fv p Fg p

F
Fi m Fv m Fg m r
where Fr is the force ratio. Also the directions of the corresponding forces at the corresponding
points in the model and prototype should be same.

23. Explain the physical significance of the Dimensionless numbers. (Nov/Dec 2013, 2010,
May/June 2012)
Dimensionless numbers are those numbers which are obtained by dividing the inertia
force by viscous force or pressure force or surface tension force or elastic force. As this is a ratio
of one force to the other force, it will be a dimensionless number. These dimensionless numbers
are also called non-dimensional parameters. The following are the important dimensionless
numbers:
1. Reynolds number

2. Frouds number

3. Eulers number

4. Webers number

5. Machs number

1. Reynolds number: It is defined as the ratio of inertia force of a flowing fluid and the viscous
force of the fluid. The expression for Reynolds number is obtained as
Inertia force (Fi) = Mass X Acceleration of flowing fluid
Page 40

Inertia force (Fi ) = Volume

Velocity
Ti me

= AV V

Volume
Ti me

Velocity

Volume per sec = Area X Velocity = A X V

Inertia force (Fi ) = A V 2


Viscous force (Fv) = Shear stress X Area

Visccous force ( Fv ) = A
= (

du

du

) A = . L A
dy

dy

V
L

By definition, Reynolds number

Re =

Fi
Fv

A V2
V
. A
L

VL

VL

( )

VL

In case of pipe flow, the linear dimension L is taken as diameter, d. Hence Reynolds number for
pipe flow,

Re

V d

Vd

or

2. Froudes Number (Fe): The Frouds Number is defined as the square root of the ratio of
inertia force of a flowing fluid to the gravitational force. Mathematically, it is expressed as

Fe

Fi
Fg

Inertia force (Fi ) = A V 2


Fg = Force due to gravity = Mass X Acceleration due to gravity = X L3 X g
= X L2 X L X g = X A X L X g

Fe

Fi
AV 2
V2
V

Fg
ALg
Lg
Lg

3. Eulers number (Eu): It is defined as the square root of the ratio of inertia force of a flowing
fluid to the surface tension force. Mathematically, it is expressed as

Euler's number (E u )

Fi
Fp

Fp = Intensity of pressure X Area = X A


Page 41

Inertia force (Fi ) = A V 2

Fi
AV 2
V2
V
Eu

Fp
pA
p/
p/
4. Webers number (We): It is defined as the square root of the ratio of inertia force of a
flowing fluid to the surface tension force. Mathematically, it is expressed as

Weber's number (We )

Fi
Fg

Inertia force (Fi ) = A V 2


Fs = Surface tension force = Surface tension per unit length X Length = X L

We

Fi
AV 2
L2V 2

Fg
L
L

We

L V 2
V2
V2

L
L

5. Mach number (M): Mach number is defined as the square root of the ratio of inertia force of
a flowing fluid to the elastic force. Mathematically, it is expressed as

Mach number (M)

Inertia force
F
i
Elastic force
Fe

Fi = A V 2
Fe = Elastic force = Elastic stress X Area = K X A = K X L2

AV 2
L2V 2
V2
V
M

2
2
KL
KL
K/
K/
K

= C = Velocity of sound in the fluid


P

V
.
C

24. Write short note on Model laws or Similarity laws.


Page 42

For the dynamic similarity between the model and the prototype, the ratio of the
corresponding forces acting at the corresponding points in the model and prototype should be
equal. The ratio of the forces are dimensionless numbers. It means for dynamic similarity
between the model and the prototype, the dimensionless numbers should be same for model and
prototype. But it is quite difficult to satisfy the condition that all the dimensionless number (i.e.,
Re, Fe, We, We and M) are the same for the model and prototype. Hence models are designed on
the basis of ratio of the force, which is dominating in the phenomenon. The laws on which the
models are designed for dynamic similarity are model laws or laws of similarity. The followings
are the model laws:
1. Reynolds model law

2. Frouds model law

3. Eulers model law

4. Webers model law

5. Machs model law

25. Explain the different laws on which models are designed for dynamic similarity. What
are they used? (Nov/Dec 2011)
1. Reynolds model law:
Reynolds model law is the law in which models are based on Reynolds number. Model
based on Reynolds number includes:
(i) Pipe flow
(ii) Resistance experienced by sub-marines, airplanes, fully immersed bodies etc.
As defined earlier that Reynold number is the ratio of inertia force and viscous force, and
hence fluid flow problems where viscous forces alone are predominent, the models are designed
for dynamic similarity on Reynolds law, which states that the Reynold number for the model
must be equal to the Reynold number for the prototype.
Vm= Velocity of fluid in model,
m = Density of fluid in model,
Lm = Length or linear dimension of the model,
m = Viscosity or fluid in model,
andVm, m, Lm and m are the corresponding values of velocity, density, linear dimension and
viscosity of fluid in prototype. Then according to Reynold's model law,

[ ] = [ ] ()

= ()

Page 43

, =

, =

And also r, Vr, Lr, and r, are called the scale ratios for density, velocity, linear dimension and
viscosity.
The scale ratios for time, acceleration, force and discharge for Reynold's model law are obtained
as

t r = Time scale ratio =

Lr
Vr

Ar = Acceleration scale ratio =

V= , t=
Vr
tr

Fr = Force scale ratio = (Mass Acceleration)r


= mr ar = r Ar Vr ar

{Ar = Area ratio}

= r . L2r . Vr ar
Q r = Discharge scale ratio = (AV)r
Q r = r Ar Vr = r . L2r . Vr
2. Froude Model law:
Froude model law is the law in which the models are based on Froude number which
means for dynamic similarity between the model and prototype, the Froude number for both of
them should be equal. Froude model law is applicable when the gravity force is only
predominant force which controls the flow in addition to the force of inertia. Froude model law
is applied in the following fluid flow problems:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Free surface flows such as flow over spillways, weirs, sluices, channels etc.,
Flow of jet from an orifice or nozzle,
Where waves are likely to be formed on surface,
Where fluids of different densities flow over one another.
Vm = Velocity of fluid in model,
Lm = linear dimension of the model,
gm = Viscosity or fluid in model,

andVp, Lp and gp are the corresponding values of the velocity, length and acceleration due to
gravity for the prototype. Then according to Froude model law,

(Fe )model = (Fe )prototype (or)

Vm
gm Lm

Vp
gp Lp

(1)

Page 44

If the tests on the model are performed on the same place where prototype is to operate,
then gm = gp and equation (1) becomes as
Vm
Lm
Vm
Vp

Vp
Lp
1

Lm
L
p

Vp

(2)

=1

Vm

Lp
Lm

= Lr

Lp
Lm

= Lr }

Lr = Scale ration for length


Vp
= Vr = Scale ratio for velocity
Vm
Vp
Vm

= = Lr (3)

Scale ratios for various physical quantities based on Froude model law are:
(a) Scale ratio for time
Length

Time =

Velocity

then ratio of time for prototype and model is

Tr =

Tp
Tm

L
V
L
( )m
V

( )p

Lp
Vp
Lm
Vm

Lp
Lm

Vm
Vp

= Lr

1
Lr

Vp

= L r

Vm

= L r

(b) Scale ratio for acceleration

Accelaration =
ar =

ap
am

( )p
T

V
( )m
T

Vp
= L r ,
Vm

Vp
Tp

Tm
Vm

V
T
Vp
Vm

Tm
Tp

= L r

1
Lr

=1

Tp
= L r
Tm

(c) Scale ratio for discharge


L

L3

Q = A V = L2 =

Page 45

Qr =

QP
Qm

L3
)
T p
L3
( )m
T

=(

Lp 3
)
Lm

Tm
Tp

) =

1
Lr

= L2.5
r

(d) Scale ratio for force


V

Force = Mass X Acceleration = L3 = L2 . V = L2 V 2


Fp

Fr =

Ratio for force,

Fm

p L2p V2p

m L2m V2m

p
m

Lp 2
)
Lm

Vp 2
)
Vm

If the fluid used in model and prototype is same, then


p
m

= 1 (or)p = m L3r

Fr = (

Lp 2
)
Lm

Vp 2
)
Vm

= L2r (Lr )2 = L2r . Lr = L3r

(e) Scale ratio for pressure intensity

p=

Force
Area

L2 V2

pp

pr =

Pressure ratio,

= V2

L2

pm

p V2p
m V2m

p = m

If fluid is same, then

V2p

Pr =

V2m

=(

Vp 2
)
Vm

= Lr

(f) Scale ratio for work, energy, torque, moment etc.


Torque = Force X Distance = F X L

Tr =

Torque ratio,

Tp
Tm

(FL)p
(FL)m

= Fr Lr = L3r Lr = L4r

(g) Scale ratio for power


Power = Work per unit time

Power =
Power ratio,

Pr =

Pp
Pm

FL

Pr = . .

T
Fp Lp
Tp
Fm Lm
Tm

Fp
Fm

Lp
Lm

= L3r Lr

1
Lr

1
Tp
Tm

= L3.5
r

Page 46

3. Euler's Model Law:

(Nov/Dec 2009)

Euler's model law is the law in which the models are designed on Euler's number which
means for dynamic similarity between the model and prototype, the Euler
number for model and prototype should be equal. Euler's model law is applicable when the
pressure forces are alone predominant in addition to the inertia force. According to this law:

(Eu )model = (Eu )prototype (1)


Vm = Velocity of fluid in model,
pm = Pressure of fluid in model,
m = Density of fluid in model,
Vmpm, m = Corresponding values in prototype, then
Substituting these values in equation (1), we get
Vm
p
mm

Vp
p
pp

(2)

If fluid is same in model and prototype, then equation (2) becomes as


Vm
pm

Vp
pp

(3)

Euler's model law is applied for fluid flow problems where flow is taking place in a closed pipe
in which case turbulence is fully developed so that viscous forces are negligible and gravity force
and surface tension force is absent. This law is also used where the phenomenon of cavitation
takes place.

4. Weber Model Law:


Weber model law is the law in which models are based on Weber's number, which is the
ratio of the square root of inertia force to surface tension force Hence where surface tension
effects predominate in addition to inertia force, the dynamic similarity between the model and
prototype is obtained by equating the Weber number of the model and its prototype. Hence
according to this law

(We )model = (We )prototype

We is Weber number and =

V
L

Vm = Velocity of fluid in model,


m = Surface tensile force in model,
m = Density of fluid in model,
Page 47

Lm = linear dimension of the model,


Vp, p, p, Lp = Corresponding values of fluid in prototype.
Then according to Weber law, we have
Vm

m L
m m

Vp

p
L
p p

Weber model law is applied in following cases:


1. Capillary rise in narrow passages,
2. Capillary movement of water in soil,
3. Capillary waves in channels,
4. Flow over weirs for small heads.
5. Mach Model Law:
Mach model law is the law in which models are designed on Mach number, which is the
ratio of the square root of inertia force to elastic force of a fluid) Hence where the forces due to
elastic compression predominate in addition to inertia force, the-dynamic similarity between the
model and its prototype is obtained by equating the Mach number of the model and its prototype.
Hence according to this law:

(M)model = (M)prototype
M=

V
K

Vm = Velocity of fluid in model,


Km = Elastic stress for model,,
m = Density of fluid in model,
Vp, Kp and p = Corresponding values for prototype. Then according to Mach law.
Vm
Km

=
m

Vp
K
p
p

Mach model law is applied in the following cases:


1. Flow of aeroplane and projectile through air at supersonic speed, i.e., at a velocity
more than the velocity of sound,
2. Aerodynamic testing,
3. Under water testing of torpedoes,
Page 48

4. Water-hammer problems.

26. A pipe of diameter 1.5 m is required to transport an oil of sp.gr. 0.90 and viscosity
3X10-2 poise at the rate of 3000 litre/s. Tests were conducted on a 15 cm diameter pipe
using water at 20C. Find the velocity and rate of flow in the model. Viscosity of water at
20C = 0.01 poise. (May/June 2013)
Solution:

Given

Dia. of prototype,

Dp = 1.5 m

Viscosity of fluid,

p = 3 X 10-2 poise

Q for prototype,

Qp = 3000 litre/s = 3.0 m3/s

Sp. Gr. of oil,

Sp = 0.9

Density of oil

p = Sp X 1000 = 0.9 X 1000 = 900 kg/m3

Dia. of the model,

Dm = 15 cm = 0.15 m
= 0.01 poise = 1 X 10-2 poise or m = 1 X 10-2 poise

Viscosity of water at 20C

m = 1000 kg/m3

Density of water

For the pipe flow, the dynamic similarity will be obtained if the Reynolds number in the model
and prototype are equal
m Vm Dm
m
Vm
Vp

Vp =

900
1000

p Vp Dp

Vm

Vp

1.5
0.15

1102
3102

p
m

Dp m

Dm p

= 3.0

Rate of flow in prototype


Area of prototype

=
4

3.0
(Dp )2

=
4

3.0
(1.5)2

= 1.697 msec

Vm = 3.0 Vp = 3.0 1.697 = 5.091 msec


Rate of flow through model, Qm = Am Vm =

Q m = 0.0899 m3 / sec = 0.0899 1000

(Dm )2 Vm = (0.15)2 5.091


4
4

litres

= .
sec

27. A ship 300 m long moves in sea-water, whose density is 1030 kg/m3. A 1:100 model of
this ship is to be tested in a wind tunnel. The velocity of air in the wind tunnel around the
model is 30 m/s and the resistance of the model is 60 N. Determine the velocity of ship in
sea-water and also the resistance of the ship in sea-water. The density of air in given as 1.24
Page 49

kg/m3. Take the kinematic viscosity of sea-water and air as 0.012 stokes and 0.018 stokes
respectively.
Solution:

Given:

For prototype
Length,

Lp = 300 m

Density of water

Fluid = sea-water

= 1030 kg/m3

Kinematic viscosity

p = 0.012 stokes = 0.012 X 10-4 m2/sec

Let velocity of ship

= Vp

Resistance

= Fp

For model
Length,

Lm = (1/100) X 300 m = 3 m

Velocity,

Vm = 30 m/sec

Density of air,

m = 1.24 kg/m3
m = 0.018 stokes = 0.018 X 10-4 m2/sec

Kinematic viscosity of air,

For dynamic similarity between the prototype and its model, the Reynolds number for the both
of them should be equal.
Vp Lp
p

Vm Lm
m

Vp =

or

0.012 104

0.018104

3
300

p
m

Lm
Lp

Vm

30 = 0.2

Resistance = Mass X Acceleration


V

Resistance = L3 = L2 = L2 V 2
Fp
Fm
Fp
Fm

=
=

( L2 V2 )p
( L2

V2 )m

1030

1.24

p
m

3000 2
)
3

Lp 2
)
Lm

Vp 2
)
Vm

0.2

( )2 = 369.17
30

Fp = 369.17 Fm = 369.17 60 = .

28. A spill way model built up to a scale of (1/10) is discharged water with a velocity of 1
m/sec, under a head of 100 mm. Find the velocity of water of the prototype, if the head of
water over the prototype is 5.5 meters.
(Nov/Dec 2012)
Page 50

Solution:
Linear scale ratio,

Lr = 10

Height of spill way in the prototype, hp = 5.5 m


Velocity of model

Vm = 1 m/sec

Height of spillway in the model, hm = 100 mm = 0.1 m


Vp
Vm

= Lr = 10

Vp = 10 Vm = 10 1 = 3.162

m
s

29. A spillway model is to be built to a geometrically similar scale of (1/50) across a flume of
600 mm width. The prototype is 15 m high and maximum head on it is expected to be 1.5
m. (i) What height of model and what head on the model should be used? (ii) If the flow
over the model at a particular head is 12 litres per second, what flow per metre length of
the prototype is expected? (iii) If the negative pressure in the model is 200 mm, 'what is the
negative pressure in prototype? Is it practicable? (May/June 2012)
Solution.

Given:

Scale ratio for length,

Lr = 50

Width of model,

Bm = 600 mm = 0.6 m

Flow over model,

Qm = 12 litres/sec

Pressure in model,

hm = -200 mm of water

Height of prototype

Hp = 15 m

Head on prototype,

Hp* = 1.5 m

(i) Let the height of model

= Hm

and head on model

= Hm*

Linear scale ratio, Lr =


Height of model, Hm =
Head on model, Hm =

Hp
Hm
Hp
50
Hp
50

=
=
=

Hp
Hm

15
50

= 50

= 0.3

1.50
50

= 0.03

Width of prototype, Bp = Lr X Bm = 50 X 0.6 = 30 m


Page 51

(ii) Discharge ratio is given by


Qp
Qm

2.5
= L2.5
= 17677.67
r = (50)

Q p = Q m 17677.67 = 12 17677.67 = 212132.04 litressec


Discharge per metre length of prototype =

Qp
212132.04
=
Length of prototype Width of prototype

Discharge per metre length of prototype =

212132.04
= 7071.078 litressec
30

(iii) Negative pressure head in prototype, hP = Lr X hm = 50 X (-0.2) = -10.0 m


This negative pressure is not practicable. Maximum practicable negative pressure head is
7.50m

30. A 7.2 m height and 15 m long spillway discharges 94 m3/s discharge under a head of 2.0
m. If a 1 : 9 scale model of this spillway is to be constructed, determine model dimensions,
head over spillway model and the model discharge. If model experiences a force of 7500 N
(764.53kgf), determine force on the prototype.
(May/June 2014)
Solution. Given:
For prototype : Height

hp = 7.2 m

Length,

Lp = 15 m

Discharge,

Qp = 94 m3/sec

Head,

Hp = 2.0 m

Size of model = (1/9) of the size of prototype


Linear scale ratio,
Force experienced by model,

Lr = 9
Fp = 7500 N

Find: (i) Model dimensions i.e., height and length of model (hm and Lm)
(ii) Head over model i.e., Hm
(iii) Discharge through model i.e., Qm
(iv) Force on prototype (i.e., Fp)
(i) Model dimensions (hm and Lm)

Page 52

hp
hm

Lp

= Lr = 9

Lm
hp

hm =

9
Lp

Lm =

7.2

15

9
9

= 0.8 m
= 1.67 m

(ii) Head over model (Hm)

Lr =

Hp

=9

Hm

Hm =

Hp
9

= 0.222 m

(iii) Discharge through model (Qm)


Qp
Qm

= L2.5
r

Qm =

Qp
L2.5
r

94
92.5

= 0.387 m s

(iv) Force on prototype (Fp)

Fr =

Fp
Fm

= L3r

Fp = Fm L3r = 7500 93 = 5467500 N

31. The pressure drop in an aeroplane model of size (1/10) of its prototype is 80 N/cm2. The
model is tested in water. Find the corresponding pressure drop in the prototype. Take
density of air = 1.24 kg/m3. The viscosity of water is 0.01 poise while the viscosity of air is
0.00018 poise.
Solution. Given:
Pressure drop in model,

pm = 80 N/cm2 = 80 X 104 N/m2

Linear scale ratio,

Lr = 40

Fluid in model

= Water, while in prototype = Air

Viscosity of water,

m = 0.01 poise

Density of water,

m = 1000 kg/m3

Viscosity of air,

p = 0.00018 poise

Density of air,

p = 1.24 kg/m3

Let the corresponding pressure drop in prototype = pp.


Page 53

As the problem involves pressure force and viscous force and hence for dynamic similarity
between the model and prototype, Euler's number and Reynold's number should be considered.
Making first of all, Reynold's number equal, we get from equation
m Vm Lm
m
p
m
Lp
Lm
m
p
Vm
Vp

p Vp Lp

Vm

(or)

Vp

p
m

Lp
Lm

m
p

1.24
1000

= = 40
=
=

0.01
0.00018
1.24
1000

40

0.01
0.00018

= 2.755

Now making Euler's number equal, we get from equation


Vm
pm

Vm
Vp

Vp

(or)

pp

Vp

= 2.755

2.755 =
P

Vm

pm
pp

(or)

1.24
1000

pm
pp

pm

m
pp

pm
pp

p
m

1.24
1000

0.0352

2.755

m
p = 0.0352 = 78.267
p

Pm
pp

= (78.267)2

(or)

pp =

Pm
(78.267)2

80
(78.267)2

pp = 0.01306 N/cm2

32. State and explain the conditions under which prototype behavior can be predicted from
model test.
MODEL TESTING OF PARTIALLY SUB-MERGED BODIES

Page 54

Let us consider the testing of a ship model (ship is a partially sub-merged body) in a
water-tunnel in order to find the drag force F or resistance experienced by a ship. The drag
experienced by a ship consists of :
1. The wave resistance, which is the resistance offered by the waves on the free seasurface, and
2. The frictional or viscous resistance, which is offered by the water on the surface of
contact of the ship with water.
Thus in this case three forces namely inertia, gravity and viscous forces are present. Then
for dynamic similarity between the model and its prototype, the Reynold's number (which is ratio
of inertia force to viscous force) and the Froude number (which is the ratio of inertia force to
gravity force) should be taken into account. This means that in this case, the Reynold model law
and Froude model law should be applied.
But for Reynold model law, the condition is
Reynold number of model= Reynold number of prototype
m Vm Lm
m

p Vp Lp
p

If fluid is same for the model and prototype, then m = p and m = p


Vm Lm = Vp Lp

Vm =

Vp Lp
Lm

= Lr Vp

{ = } (1)

For Froude model law, have from equation as


Vm
gm Lm

Vp
gp Lp

If fluid is same for model and prototype and test is conducted at the same place where prototype
is to operate, then gm = gp
Vm
Lm

Vm =

Lm
Lp

Vp
Lp

Vp = Vp

Lp
Lm

= Vp

1
Lr

Lp
Lm

= Lr } (2)

From equations (1) and (2), we observe that the velocity of fluid in model for Reynold
model law and Froude model law is different. Thus it is quite impossible to satisfy both the laws
together, which means the dynamic similarity between the model and its prototype will not exist.
To overcome this difficulty, the method suggested by William Froude is adopted for testing the
Page 55

ship model (or partially sub-merged bodies) as:


Step 1. The total resistance experienced by a ship is equal to the wave resistance plus frictional
or viscous resistance.
Let

(R)p = Total resistance experienced by prototype,


(Rw)p = Wave resistance experienced by prototype,
(Rf)p = Frictional resistance experienced by prototype, and
(R)w (Rw)w (Rf)m = Corresponding values for model.
Then, we have for prototype, (R)p = (Rw)p + (Rf)p (3)
(R)m = (Rw)m + (Rf)m (4)

and for model,

Step 2. The frictional resistances for the model and the ship [i.e., (Rf)m and (Rf)p] are calculated
from the expressions given below:
(Rf)p = fp Ap Vpn (5)
(Rf)m = fm Am Vmn (6)
fp = Frictional resistance per unit area per unit velocity of prototype,
Ap = Wetted surface area of the prototype,
Vp = Velocity of prototype,
n = Constant, and
fm, Am, Vm = Corresponding values of frictional resistance, wetted area and velocity of model.
The values of fp and fm are determined from experiments.
Step 3. The model is tested by towing it in water contained in a towing tank such that the
dynamic similarity for Froude number is satisfied i.e., (Fe)m = (Fe)P The total resistance of the
model (Rm) is measured for this condition.
Step 4. The total resistance (Rm) for the model is known from step 3 and frictional resistance of
the model (Rf)m is calculated from equation (5). Then the wave resistance for the model is
known from equation (4) as
(Rw)m = Rm - (Rf)m (7)
Step 5. The resistance experienced by a ship of length L, flowing with velocity V in fluid of
viscosity , density depends upon g, the acceleration due to gravity. By dimensional analysis,
the expression for resistance is given by
R
l2 V2

= [

VL

V2
gL

] = [R e , Fe2 ]

Thus resistance is a function of Reynold number (Re) and Froude number (Fe). For dynamic
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similarity for model and prototype for wave resistance only, we have
(Rw )P
p L2 V2

p p

(Rw )m
m L2 V2
m m

or wave resistance for prototype is given as


p

(R w )P =

L2p
L2m

V2p
V2m

(R w )m (8)

But from Step 3,


(Fe)m = (Fe)P

(or)

Vm
gm Lm

Vp
gp Lp

If the model and ship are at the same place, gm = gp


Vm
Lm

Vp
Lp

(or) Vm =

Lm
Lp

. Vp

Substituting the value of Vm in equation (12.40), we have


p

(R w )P =

m
p

(R w )P =

L2p
L2m
L3p
L3m

V2p
L
V2p m

(R w )m

Lp

(R w )m (9)

Step 6. The total resistance of the ship is given by adding (R w)p from equation (9) to (Rf)p
given by equation (5) as

( ) ( ) +

33. Resistance R, to the motion of a completely sub-merged body is given by

= ( ) where and are density and kinematic viscosity of the fluid while I is
the length of the body and V is the velocity of flow. If the resistance of a one-eight scale airship model when tested in water at 12 m/s is 22 N, what will be the resistance in air of the
air-ship at the corresponding speed? Kinematic viscosity of air is 13 times that of water
and density of water is 810 times of air.
Solution. Given:
Linear scale ratio,

Lr = 8

Velocity of model,

Vm = 12 m/s
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Resistance to model, Rm = 22 N
The fluid for model is water and for prototype the fluid is air.
Kinematic viscosity of air = 13 X Kinematic viscosity of water
..

Vp = 13 X Vm

Density of water

= 810 X Density of air

..

Pm = 81O X p

Let

Vp = Velocity of the air-ship (Prototype)


Rp = Resistance of the air-ship

The resistance, R, is given by

= ( )
R

The non-dimensional terms

( ) should be same for the prototype and its model.

( ) = ( )
=

(or)

)prototype = (

Rp = Rm
R p = 22

p
m
1

810

V2p
V2m

(19.5)2
122

)model

= = .

( = Lr )

(or)

l2p
l2m

Rp
p V2 l2

p p

Rm
m V2 l2

m m

( = Lr = 8)

82 = 4.59 N

34. Explain distorted and undistorted models. (Nov/Dec 2012, 2009, May/June 2012)
CLASSIFICATION OF MODELS
The hydraulic models are classified as :
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1. Undistorted models, and

2. Distorted models)

1. Undistorted Models: Undistorted models are those models which are geometrically
similar to their prototypes or in other words if the scale ratio for the linear dimensions of the
model and its prototype is same, the model is called undistorted mod~ The behaviour of the
prototype can be easily predicted from the results of undistorted model.
2. Distorted Models. A model is said to be distorted if it is not geometrically similar to
its prototype. For a distorted model different scale ratios for the linear dimensions are adopted.
For example, in case of rivers, harbours, reservoirs etc., two different scale ratios, one for
horizontal dimensions and other for vertical dimensions are taken. Thus the models of rivers,
harbours and reservoirs will become as distorted models. If for the river, the horizontal and
vertical scale ratios are taken to be same so that the model is undistorted, then the depth of water
in the model of the river will be very-very small which may not be measured accurately. The
following are the advantage of distorted models:
1. The vertical dimensions of the model can be measured accurately.
2. The cost of the model can be reduced.
3. Turbulent flow in the model can be maintained.
Though there are some advantages of the distorted model, yet the results of the distorted model
cannot be directly transferred to its prototype. But sometimes from the distorted models very
useful information can be obtained.

35. Obtain the scale ratios for velocity and discharge of distorted models. (May/June 2013,
Nov/Dec 2011)
Scale Ratios for Distorted Models: As mentioned above, two different scale ratios, one for
horizontal dimensions and other for vertical dimensions, are taken for distorted models.
Let

(Lr)H = Scale ratio for horizontal dimension

(Lr )H =

Lp
Lm

Bp
Bm

Linear horizontal dimensions of prototype


Linear horizontal dimensions of model

(Lr)V = Scale ratio for vertical dimension

(Lr )V =

hp
hm

Linear vertical dimensions of prototype


Linear vertical dimensions of model

Then the scale ratios of velocity, area of flow, discharge etc., in terms of (Lr)H and (Lr)V can be
obtained for distorted models as given below:
1. Scale ratio for velocity
Vp = Velocity in prototype
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Vm = Velocity in model

hp

= ( )

hm

= (Lr )V

2. Scale ratio for area of flow


Ap = Area of flow in prototype = Bp X hp
Am = Area of flow in model = Bm X hm

= ( ) ( )

3. Scale ratio for discharge


Qp = Discharge through prototype = Ap X Vp
Qm = Discharge through model = Am X Vm

= ( ) ( ) ( ) = ( ) [( ) ]

36. The discharge through a weir is 1.5 m3/s. Find the discharge through the model of
the weir if the horizontal dimension of the model = (1/50) the horizontal dimension of the
prototype and vertical dimension of the model = (1/10) the vertical dimension of the
prototype.
Solution:

Given:

Discharge through weir (prototype), Qp = 1.5 m3/s


1

Horizontal dimension of model = 50 Horizontal dimensions of prototype


Horizontal dimensions of prototype
Horizontal dimension of model

= 50 (or) (Lr )H = 50

Vertical dimension of model = 10 Vertical dimensions of prototype


Vertical dimensions of prototype
Vertical dimension of model
Qp
Qm

= (Lr )H [(Lr )V ]

Qm =

Qp
1581.14

3
2

= 10 (or) (Lr )V = 10

= 50 10

3
2

3
= 0.000948 m sec
1581.14
1.50

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ANNA UNIVERSITY QUESTIONS


PART A
1. Write a note on distorted models. May/June 2013
2. List the similitude involved in the model analysis. May/June 2013
3. Define the term Dimensional Homogeneity. How is it attained in a fluid equation? Nov/Dec
2012
4. Define the terms Geometric Similarity and Kinematic Similarity. May/June 2013
5. Define scale ratio. May/June 2012
6. Define Kinematic similarity. May/June 2012
7. Write the dimensions of discharge and Torque. Nov/Dec 2011
8. What is meant by Kinematic similitude? Nov/Dec 2011
9. What is the significance of Reynolds number and Prandtl number? Nov/Dec 2011
10. What is meant by geometric, kinematic and dynamic similarities? Nov/Dec 2011

PART -B
1. Write short notes on:

(May/June 2013, Refer Q.No: 2, 3, 12)

(i) Raleighs method.


(ii) Scale effect in model study.
(iii) Buckinghams Pi-theorem.
2. An oil of specific gravity 0.91 and viscosity of 0.03 poise is to be transported at the rate of 3
m3/s through a 1.3 m diameter pipe. Model tests were conducted on a 130 mm diameter pipe
using water having viscosity of 0.01 poise. Find the velocity of flow and discharge in the model.
(May/June 2013, Refer Problem No. 15)
3. State and explain in detail about Buckinghams -theorem. (Nov/Dec 2012, Refer Q.No. 3)
4. Check the dimensional homogeneity of the following common equations in the field of
hydraulics
(1) Q = Cd.a.(2gH) and
(2) v = C(mi)

(Nov/Dec 2012)

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5. What is a distorted model? How does it differ from an undistorted model? Mention the
advantages and disadvantages of distorted models. Nov/Dec 2012
6. A spill way model built up to a scale of 1/10 is discharging water with a velocity of 1 m/sec,
under a head of 100 mm. Find the velocity of water of the prototype, if the head of water over the
prototype is 5.5 meters. (Nov/Dec 2012, Refer Problem No.23)
7. The pressure difference p in a pipe of diameter D and length L due to viscous flow depends
on the velocity V, viscosity and density . Using Buckinghams -theorem, obtain an
expression for p. (May/June 2012, Refer Problem No: 11)
8. Differentiate between the following:

(May/June 2012, Refer Q.No: 5, 7, 11)

(1) Geometric similarity and Kinematic similarity


(2) Froude number and Weber number
(3) Distorted model and Undistorted model
9. A spillway model is to be built to a scale ratio of 1:40 across a flume of 600 mm width. The
prototype is 10 m high and the maximum head expected is 1.5m.
(1) Find the height of the model and the head on the model
(2) Find the flow over the prototype when the flow over the model is 12 litres per second.
(3) If a negative pressure of 0.15 m occurs in the model, what will be the negative
pressure in the prototype? Is this practically possible to occur?
(May/June 2012, Refer
Problem No.23)
10. Find all expression for the drag force on smooth sphere of diameter D, moving with a
uniform velocity V in a fluid of density and dynamic viscosity . Use Rayleighs method.
(Nov/Dec 2011, Refer Problem No.3)
11. Discuss briefly on method of selecting repeating variables in Buckinghams -theorem.
(Nov/Dec 2011, Refer Q.No: 4)
12. Obtain the scale ratios for velocity and discharge of distorted models. (Nov/Dec 2011, Refer
Q.No: 12)
13. The variables controlling the motion of a floating vessel through water are the drag force F,
the speed V, the length L, the density and dynamic viscosity of water and acceleration due to
gravity g. Derive an expression for F by dimensional analysis.(Nov/Dec 2011, Problem No: 11)
14. Explain the different laws on which models are designed for dynamic similarity. Where are
they used? (Nov/Dec 2011, Refer Q.No: 9)

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