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Theme 3.

Loading of airplanes
Lecture #3(14). Load factor at maneuvers of the plane
Plan:
1. Acceleration in any point of a plane
2. Calculation of mass forces
3. Measurement of load factors in flight
4. Dependence of the load factor from parameters of trajectory
5. Maneuver in a vertical plane
6. Maneuver in a horizontal plane
1. Acceleration in any point of a plane
Let's consider a point A, not conterminous with the center of gravity, but laying
on a longitudinal axis x of the plane. We believe, that the plane a firm not deformable
body and that it goes in a vertical plane with linear and angular acceleration and has
angular speed, rotary movement concerning the center of gravity z , y ,z.
Let's present acceleration in a point A as the sum accelerations the center of
gravity and some additives connected to rotary movement and in projections to axes x
and y .

Fig. 1. A load factor in any point of the plane

I ya I y0 I ya 0 ;

I xa I x0 I xa0 ,
where Iya is projection of acceleration of a point A to an axis y, Ixa - projection of
acceleration of a point A to an axis , I0, IX0 - a projection of acceleration of the
center of gravity to axes and , Iya0 and Ixa0 - projections of acceleration increment
of a point A to axes and from rotary movement. From theoretical mechanic these
increments are accordingly equal to:
1

I ya0 z x ;
I xa 0 ( z2 2y ) x .
Then projections of full acceleration of a point A are equal to:
I ya I y0 z x ;

I xa I x0 ( 2z 2y ) x .
From definition of load factor we have:
F
I m
I
n s
.
G g m g
Upon acceleration we calculate projections of a load factor in a point A:
I ya
I
n ya
; n xa xa ;
g
g
x
n ya n y 0 z ;
g
x
n xa n x0 ( 2z 2y ) ;
g
where ny0, nx0 - are projection of load factor vector to axes x and y in the
center of gravity of the plane, g - acceleration of free fall.
2. Calculation of mass forces
On a body moving with acceleration, the mass (inertial) force acts which is
equal to product of weight on acceleration and directed opposite to acceleration
operates. According to Newtons 2-nd law we have:
Fm mj
Let's multiply and divide the right part on acceleration of free fall:
j
Fm mg ;
g

Fm G n ;
where n is load factor.
From this expression follows, that mass (inertial) force is equal to weight
multiplied on load factor also it is directed opposite to load factor.
From theoretical mechanic at rotation on a circle centrifugal force is equal to:
mV 2
;
R
Where linear speed V from angle speed is equal to:
V R ;
Centrifugal acceleration IYYYCCC is equal to:
F yc

I yc

V 2 2R 2

2 R ;
R
R

Fig. 2. Definition of centrifugal acceleration


Tangential acceleration is equal to:

dV
d
R
;
d
d
I R z
Tangential inertial force F is equal:
F I m .
I

3. Measurement of load factors in flight


If a cargo with weight G to attach to spring weights and to place in a body
moving with acceleration, balance will show readout:
F kx ,
where F - the force measured by a dynamometer, k - rigidity of spring, x moving the end of a spring.
On the other hand on a spring inertial force operates:
F Gn ,
where n - load factor.
Then

kx Gn ,
and further:

G
n.
k
Thus, follows, those indications of a dynamometer are proportional to load factor.
kx
n
G
When G=1 we have
x

n kx

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Fs=kx

Fi=nmg=nG
Fig. 3. Measurement of load factors.
On the ground it is necessary to execute calibration of dynamometer and in
flight of it is possible to use for measurement of load factor. Such devices are used
for measurement of load factor.
With the help accelerometer we can estimate load factor in any point of the
plane and angular acceleration. For these purpose accelerometers are placed in two
points on an axis of the plane and measure load factors nYYY111 and nYYY222. These load
factors are accordingly equal to:

x1
;
g
x
ncg z 2 .
g

n y1 ncg z
ny2

We have received system from two linear algebraic equations with two
unknown ncccggg and ZZZ . From it we calculate:
n y1 n y 2
z g
;
x1 x 2

ncg n y1

n y1 n y 2
x1 x 2

x1 .

4. Dependence of the load factor from parameters of trajectory


In this case the plane is considered as a material point, all forces are put in the
center of gravity. According to measurements in operation of load factors at
performance of maneuvers are such: a fighting turn 3-4, a floor - loop with revolution 4, a turn 3-4, a corkscrew 2-3, loop Nesterova 3-6.
Let's consider the forces working aboard the plane at an output from a dive.

Fig. 4. Maneuvers in a vertical plane


1) Horizontal flight;
2) An input in hill;
3) Rise on a vertical;
4) An output from a hill;
5) A loop;
6) The turned flight;
7) An input in a dive;
8) A dive;
9) An output from a dive;
10) A negative output from a dive.
To establish dependence of load factor from parameters of trajectory, it is
necessary to express resultant surface force through resultant mass (inertial) forces.
Let's write down according to principle Dalambera the equation of balance
of the plane in projections to axes X and Y in flow coordinate system:
F Y P sin( ) G cos F 0 ;

F P cos( ) Q G sin F 0 .
x

where P is thrust of engines; Q drag, - angle of attack, - angle of


inclination of engines, Fc centrifugal inertial force, F - tangential inertial
force.
5

Fig. 5. Load factors at maneuver in a vertical plane


Let's transfer all surface forces to the left part of the equation, and mass in right
Y P sin ( ) G cos F ;

P cos( ) Q G sin F .
In these equations angles and are small so we can neglect
, sin( ) 0 , cos( ) 1 .
Hence we have:

Y G cos Fc ,
P Q F G sin ,
Let's divide both parts by weight of the plane to receive load factor:
2
n cos V ;

y
I m

gR
P Q
G sin I
nx

sin .
g
G
G
G

Let's consider an example. The plane for speed V=1000 km/ h leaves a dive on an
arch of a circle R=1000 m at the angle of an inclination of a trajectory to horizon =0,
2
V2

n y cos

gR

1 1000 / 3.6 / 9 .82* 1000 8 .67

At horizontal flight of the plane it is possible to count R , =0.


Then
I
ny =1; n x x .
g

6. Maneuver in a horizontal plane


Let's consider the established turn, that is a turn at constant height, with constant
speed of flight V=const, H=const, without sliding with an angle of roll , let's
establish dependence of a load factor from angle of roll.

Let's write down the equation of balance for the plane in a projection to an axis y in
earth system coordinate:
F y Y cos G 0 .
From here follows

G
.
cos

We calculate load factor in the connected system of coordinates, having divided


both parts by the weight of the plane
Y
G
1
.
n y1

G G cos cos

Fig. 6. Load factors at maneuver in a horizontal plane


Let's establish dependence of factor of load factor from speed and radius of a
turn. We shall consider the sum of projections to an axis x in earth system coordinate:
F x F Y sin 0 ,
G
.
Y
cos
Hence
sin
Fc Y sin G
.
cos
From this we have
7

Fc cos G sin
Further we divide both parts by G and by cos and receive:
sin F mV 2 V 2 ,

cos G Rmg gR
mV 2
, G=mg
where Fc
R
sin 1 cos 2 ,

1 cos 2 V 2

.
cos
gR
Let's raise to second power the both parts, and then we shall divide the right part
on cos 2 also we shall take a square root
1 cos 2
1
V4
V4
2 2
1 2 2 .
cos 2
g R
cos 2
g R
Hence:
1
V4

,
cos 2
g 2 R2

V4
V4 =
1
n y1 1
1
2
2
cos
g 2R2
g R

1
cos
Thus, we have dependence of a load factor from speed and radius of turn.
where n y 1

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