Sunteți pe pagina 1din 288

PREFACE

INTRODUCTION
Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, Department of AYUSH, New Delhi intends to publish Ayurveda Research Digest
(Quarterly). The main objective of this publication is to disseminate the research information/ citation about research articles on
Ayurveda and related fields published in various journals/magazines subscribed by the Council as well as free on-line journals and
complementary issues received by the Council.
SCOPE
This issue covers more than 400 articles on Ayurveda and related sciences which have been broadly classified under various subjects
viz. Basic & Fundamental Studies, Clinical studies, Drug research, Epigraphical studies, History of medicine, Homoeopathy, Literary
research, Medicinal plants, Naturopathy & Yoga, Tribal health care/ Ethnomedicine, Botany, Drug Review, Drug Standardization,
Quality Control , Haemorroides, Microbiology, Phytochemistry, , Pharmacology , Vaterinery, Tribal Health Care, Etc.
ARRANGEMENT OF DATA
The articles are indexed under subject, which have been arranged alphabetically. Under each subject/ subtopics, the entries are
arranged alphabetically by Author.
Arrangement of each entry is as follows:
Subject/ sub topic
Name of the Authors (seperated by ,) (last name first) .Title of the article.Title of the journal in italic.Year of the journal;Vol of the
journal(issue of the journal within bracket):pages of the journal. If online, URL of the journal mentioned.
JOURNALS INDEXED
This Research Digest consists the recent issue(s) of following journals: subscribed by CCRAS and by the Units of CCRAS.
1.

Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med

2.

African J Biochemistry Research

3.

AIDS Res Ther

4.

Altern Med Rev

5.

Altern Ther Health Med

6.

Am J Cardiol

7.

Anal Chim Acta

8.

Anal Sci

9.

Andrologia

10.

Anim Reprod Sci

11.

Ann Intern Med

12.

Antiviral Res

13.

Aryavaidyan

14.

Asian J Androl

15.

Asian J Tradition Medicines

16.

Ayurveda Maha Sammelan Patrika

17.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol

18.

Biochem Pharmacol

19.

Bioinformation

20.

Biol Trace Elem Res

21.

BMC Cancer

22.

BMC Complement Altern Med

23.

BMC Public Health

24.

Br J Nurs

25.

Breast Cancer Res Treat

26.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol

27.

Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad

28.

Cancer Lett

29.

Cancer Res

30.

Cancer Sci

31.

Carcinogenesis

32.

Cell Biochem Funct

33.

Cell Mol Life Sci

34.

Chang Gung Med J

35.

Chem Biodivers

36.

Chem Biol Interact

36.

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo)

37.

Chin J Integr Med

38.

Clin Exp Rheumatol

39.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev

40.

Complement Ther Med

41.

Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery

42.

Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc

43.

Cult Med Psychiatry

44.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep

45.

Curr Opin Psychiatry

46.

Curr Pharm Des

47.

Current Science.

48.

Drug Discovery Today

49.

Drug Invention Today

50.

Drug Metabol Drug Interact

51.

Drug Saf

52.

Drugs Exp Clin Res

53.

Emerg Med Clin North Am

54.

Environ Health Perspect

55.

Environ Monit Assess

56.

Ethn Dis

57.

Etnobotany.

58.

Eur J Cancer Prev

59.

Eur J Pharmacol

60.

Evid BasedComplement Alternat Med

61.

Exp Gerontol

62.

Expert Opin Ther Targets.

63.

Fitoterapia

64

Food Chem Toxicol.

65.

Gen Pharmacol

66.

Health Policy

67.

Hindustan Antibiot Bull

68.

Holist Nurs Pract

69.

Immunobiology

70.

Indian J Biochem Biophys

71.

Indian J Cancer.

72.

Indian J Chemical Technology

73.

Indian J Chemistry

74.

Indian J Dent Res

75.

Indian J Enviornmental Protection

76.

Indian J ExpBiol.

77.

Indian J Med Res

78.

Indian J Pediatr

79.

Indian J Pharm Sci.

80.

Indian J Physiol Pharmacol

81.

Indian Journal of Natural Products.

82.

InflammoPharmacology

83.

Int Braz J Urol

84.

Int ImmunoPharmacol

85.

Int J Ayurveda Res

86.

Int J Ayurvedic Medicine

87.

Int J Chemical & Analytical Sci.

88.

Int J Clin Exp Hypn

89.

Int J Low Extrem Wounds

90.

Int J Oncol

91.

Imt J Pharm and Clinical Res.

92.

Int J Pharm Quality Assurance

93.

Int J Tuberc Lung Dis

94.

Issues Ment Health Nurs

95.

J Altern Complement Med

96.

J Asian Nat Prod Res

97.

J Assoc Physicians India

98.

J Ayurveda Integr Med.

99.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol

100.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol

101.

J Biosoc Sci

102.

J Cancer Res Ther

103.

J Clin PsychoPharmacol

104.

J Defence Science

105.

J Enviornmental Technology

106.

J Ethnobiol Ethnomed

107.

J EthnoPharmacol.

108.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res

109.

J Gerontol Nurs

110.

J Hazardous Materials

111.

J Herb Pharmacother.

112.

J Indian Institute of History of Medicine

113.

J Indian Med Assoc

114.

J Med Assoc Thai

115.

J Med Biogr

116.

J Med Food

117.

J Nat Prod

118.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry

119.

J Periodontol

120.

J Pharm Biomed Anal

121.

J Pharm Pharmacol

122.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther

123.

J Pharmacognosy

124.

J Pharmacy Res

125.

J Postgrad Med

126.

J Rehabil Med

127.

JRAS

128.

J Rheumatol

129.

J Soc Integr Oncol

130.

J Surg Res

131.

J Toxicol Sci

132.

J Transl Med

133.

J Tropical Medicinal Plants

134.

J Vector Borne Dis.

135.

J. Biosci

136.

JAMA

137.

Journal of AOAC INTERNATIONAL

138.

Lancet

139.

Lymphology

140.

Malays J Reprod Health

141.

Med Anthropol

142.

Med Ges Gesch

143.

Med Hypotheses

144.

Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol

145.

Mol Cancer Ther

146.

Molecules

147.

Mutat Res

148.

Nat Prod Commun

149.

Nat Prod Rep

150.

Nat Prod Res

151.

Nat Rev Nephrol

152.

Neurochem Res

153.

Neurotoxicology

154.

Nutr Clin Pract

155.

Orv Hetil

156.

Parasitol Res

157.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord

158.

Pharm Biol

159.

Pharm Res

160.

Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf

161.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav

162.

Pharmacol Res

163.

Pharmazie

164.

Physiol Plant

165.

Phytochem Anal

166.

Phytochemistry

167.

Phytomedicine

168.

Phytother Res

169.

Plant Foods Hum Nutr

170.

Planta Med.

171.

Platelets

172.

Proc Natt Acad Sci USA

173.

Prog NeuropsychoPharmacol Biol Psychiatry

174.

Public Health

175.

Res J Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry

176.

Sachitra Ayurveda

177.

Scientific J Panchkarma

178.

ScientificWorldJournal

179.

Soc Sci Med.

180.

Steroids

181.

The Indian Forester.

182.

The Indian Practitioner

183.

The Journal of Research and Education in Indian Medicine.

184.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol

185.

Toxicol Lett

186.

Toxicol Mech Methods

187.

Toxicology

188.

Health Trop Anim Prod

189.

Trop Geogr Med

190.

West Indian Med J

191.

Women Health

192.

Yearb Med Inform

193.

Z Naturforsch C

194.

Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We are grateful to Dr. D. Ramesh Babu, Director General, CCRAS for his encouragement and valuable guidance. We are also grateful
to all who coordinate to bring out this issue successfully.
Dr. G.Gnana Sekari
LIO, CCRAS HQs,
New Delhi.

Our Contact Details


CCRAS Website:

http://ccras.nic.in

CCRAS Library Website:

http://ccraslibrary.webs.com

E-mail Ids for Library

ccraslibrary@gmail.com

AYURVEDA

Agarwal AK, Singh M, Gupta N, Saxena R, Puri A, Verma AK, Saxena RP, Dubey CB, Saxena KC. Management of giardiasis by an
immuno-modulatory herbal drug Pippali Rasayana. J EthnoPharmacol.2009;44(3):143-6. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Pippali Rasayana (PR), an Ayurvedic herbal medicine, prepared from Piper longum (Pippali) and Butea monosperma (Palash), and
prescribed for the treatment of chronic dysentery and worm infestations was tested for anti-giardial and immuno-stimulatory activity
in mice, infected with Giardia lamblia trophozoites. It produced up to 98% recovery from the infection. The Rasayana had no killing
effect on the parasite in vitro. It induced significant activation of macrophages as evidenced by increased macrophage migration index
(MMI) and phagocytic activity. Enhancement of host resistance could be one of the possible mechanisms contributing towards the
recovery of animals from the giardial infection.

Agarwal AK, Tripathi DM, Sahai R, Gupta N, Saxena RP, Puri A, Singh M, Misra RN, Dubey CB, Saxena KC. Management of
giardiasis
by
a
herbal
drug
'Pippali
Rasayana':
a
clinical
study.
J
EthnoPharmacol.2004;56(3):233-6.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Pippali Rasayana (PR), an Indian Ayurvedic drug prepared from Palash (Butea monosperma (Lamk) Kuntze; Leguminaceae) and
Pippali (Piper longum L.; Piperaceae), was administered at a dose of 1 g p.o. three times daily for a period of 15 days to patients (25
treated, 25 placebo controls) suffering from giardiasis with clinical signs and symptoms, and stools positive for trophozoites/cysts of
Giardia lamblia. After 15 days of drug treatment there was a complete disappearance of G. lamblia (trophozoites/cysts) from the stools
of 23 out of 25 patients. General signs and symptoms of ill health and abdominal discomfort, presence of mucus, pus cells and RBCs
were significantly reduced. There was a marked improvement in the clinical and haematological profile of the patients. Spontaneous
recovery in 20% cases was recorded in placebo controls.

Aggarwal BB, Ichikawa H, Garodia P, Weerasinghe P, Sethi G, Bhatt ID, Pandey MK, Shishodia S, Nair MG. From traditional
Ayurvedic medicine to modern medicine:identification of therapeutic targets for suppression of inflammation and cancer.Expert Opin
Ther Targets. 2006 ;10(1):87-118. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Cancer is a hyperproliferative disorder that involves transformation, dysregulation of apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis
and metastasis. Extensive research during the last 30 years has revealed much about the biology of cancer. Drugs used to treat most
cancers are those that can block cell signalling, including growth factor signalling (e.g.epidermal growth factor); prostaglandin
production (e.g.COX-2); inflammation (e.g.inflammatory cytokines: NF-kappaB, TNF, IL-1, IL-6, chemokines); drug resistance gene
products (e.g.multi-drug resistance); cell cycle proteins (e.g.cyclin D1 and cyclin E); angiogenesis (e.g.vascular endothelial growth
factor); invasion (e.g.matrix metalloproteinases); antiapoptosis (e.g.bcl-2, bcl-X(L), XIAP, survivin, FLIP); and cellular proliferation
(e.g.c-myc, AP-1, growth factors). Numerous reports have suggested that Ayurvedic plants and their components mediate their effects
by modulating several of these recently identified therapeutic targets. However, Ayurvedic medicine requires rediscovery in light of
our current knowledge of allopathic (modern) medicine. The focus of this review is to elucidate the Ayurvedic concept of cancer,
including its classification, causes, pathogenesis and prevention; surgical removal of tumours; herbal remedies; dietary modifications;
and spiritual treatments.

Aggarwal S, Negi S, Jha P, Singh PK, Stobdan T, Pasha MA, Ghosh S, Agrawal A;Indian Genome Variation Consortium, Prasher B,
Mukerji M. EGLN1 involvement in high-altitude adaptation revealed through genetic analysis of extreme constitution types defined in
Ayurveda. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107(44):961-6. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
It is being realized that identification of subgroups within normal controls corresponding to contrasting disease susceptibility is likely
to lead to more effective predictive marker discovery. We have previously used the Ayurvedic concept of Prakriti, which relates to
phenotypic differences in normal individuals, including response to external environment as well as susceptibility to diseases, to
explore molecular differences between three contrasting Prakriti types: Vata, Pitta, and Kapha. EGLN1 was one among 251
differentially expressed genes between the Prakriti types. In the present study, we report a link between high-altitude adaptation and
common variations rs479200 (C/T) and rs480902 (T/C) in the EGLN1 gene. Furthermore, the TT genotype of rs479200, which was
more frequent in Kapha types and correlated with higher expression of EGLN1, was associated with patients suffering from highaltitude pulmonary edema, whereas it was present at a significantly lower frequency in Pitta and nearly absent in natives of high
altitude. Analysis of Human Genome Diversity Panel-Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (HGDP-CEPH) and Indian Genome
Variation Consortium panels showed that disparate genetic lineages at high altitudes share the same ancestral allele (T) of rs480902
that is overrepresented in Pitta and positively correlated with altitude globally (P < 0.001), including in India. Thus, EGLN1
polymorphisms are associated with high-altitude adaptation, and a genotype rare in highlanders but overrepresented in a subgroup of
normal lowlanders discernable by Ayurveda may confer increased risk for high-altitude pulmonary edema.

Amruthesh S. Dentistry and Ayurveda - IV: classification and management of common oral diseases. Indian J Dent Res. 2008 ;
19(1):52-61. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
This Article, the fourth in the series titled 'Dentistry and Ayurveda,' describes in brief the panchakarma therapy, which is a distinctive
feature of the Ayurvedic method of detoxifying the body. The various therapies and medicines used in Ayurveda have been elaborated.
Further, an attempt has been made to correlate dental diseases in Ayurveda with the modern-day classification, clinical features, and
management.

Arora R, Gupta D, Chawla R, Sagar R, Sharma A, Kumar R, PRasad J, Singh S, Samanta N, Sharma RK. Radioprotection by plant
products: present status and future prospects. Phytother Res.2005;19(1):1-22. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The development of radioprotective agents has been the subject of intense research in view of their potential for use within a radiation
environment, such as space exploration, radiotherapy and even nuclear war. However, no ideal, safe synthetic radioprotectors are
available to date, so the search for alternative sources, including plants, has been on going for several decades. In Ayurveda, the
traditional Indian system of medicine, several plants have been used to treat free radical-mediated ailments and, therefore, it is logical
to expect that such plants may also render some protection against radiation damage. A systematic screening approach can provide
leads to identifying potential new candidate drugs from plant sources, for mitigation of radiation injury. This Article reviews some of
the most promising plants, and their bioactive principles, that are widely used in traditional systems of medicine, and which have
rendered significant radioprotection in both in vitro and in vivo model systems. Plants and their constituents with Pharmacological
activities that may be relevant to amelioration of radiation-mediated damage, including antiemetic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, cell
proliferative, wound healing and haemopoietic stimulatories are also discussed.

10

Auddy B, Ferreira M, Blasina F, Lafon L, Arredondo F, Dajas F, Tripathi PC, Seal T, Mukherjee B. Screening of antioxidant activity of
three Indian medicinal plants, traditionally used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases. J EthnoPharmacol. 2003 ;84(23):131-8. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
A number of Indian medicinal plants have been used for thousands of years in the traditional system of medicine (Ayurveda). Amongst
these are plants used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, loss of memory,
degeneration of nerves and other neuronal disorders by the Ayurvedic practitioners. Though the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases
remains enigmatic, there is evidence, which indicates that defective energy Metabolism, excitotoxicity and oxidative damage may be
crucial factors (Ann. Neurol. 38 (3) (1995) 357). The part of the Ayurvedic system that provides an approach to prevention and
treatment of degenerative diseases is known as Rasayana, and plants used for this purpose are classed as rejuvenators. This group of
plants generally possesses strong antioxidant activity (Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 43 (1992) 1175), but only a few have been
investigated in detail. In the present study, three such Rasayana plants were tested for the first time for their toxicity and free radical
scavenging activity both in vitro and ex vivo. All the three plant infusions (up to 1 mg/ml) showed no toxic effects on the viability of
PC12 cell line as judged by MTT-test. Both ethanolic extracts and water infusions of the plants were tested for their antioxidant
activity in the 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS*(+)) radical cation decolorization assay; inhibition of lipid
peroxidation by plant infusions was carried out using spontaneous lipid peroxidation of rat brain homogenate, and IC50 values were
determined. The results from the ABTS assay showed that the ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia was found to be most potent (IC50
16.07 microg/ml), followed by Evolvulus alsinoides (IC50 33.39 microg/ml) and Cynodon dactylon (IC50 78.62 microg/ml). The
relative antioxidant capacity for the water infusions was observed in the following order: E. alsinoides (IC50 172.25 microg/ml)>C.
dactylon (IC50 273.64 microg/ml)>S. cordifolia (IC50 342.82 microg/ml). The results of water infusions of the plants on lipid
peroxidation were as follows: E. alsinoides (IC50 89.23 microg/ml)>S. cordifolia) (IC50 126.78 microg/ml)>C. dactylon (IC50 608.31
microg/ml).

Aziz N, Gilani AH, Rindh MA. Kushta(s): unique herbo-mineral preparations used in South Asian traditional medicine. Med
Hypotheses.2002;59(4):468-72. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Herbs and minerals are the integral parts of traditional systems of medicine in many countries. Kushta is a form of herbo-mineral
preparations used in traditional systems of medicine (Unani and Ayurvedic) of Indo-Pak subcontinent. These preparations have long
been used and claimed to be the most effective and potent dosage form. However, there are only few scientific studies carried out on
these products because of several reasons mainly being the lack of communication among traditional healers, physicians and
scientists. The objective of this paper is to fill this gap by translating the old concepts in modern understanding, providing possible
explanation and hypotheses. Some recommendations have also been given to provide the path to initiate research in this area of
potential therapeutic value and public concern.
Babu G, Babu A, Bhuyan GC, PRasad GP, Swamy GK. Vandhyatva--a medico historical study. Bull Indian Inst Hist Med
Hyderabad.2006;36(1):83-96. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
As per Ayurveda, important factors for conception are considered as ritu (fertile period), Kshetra (uterus and reproductive organs),
Ambu (Proper nutrient fluid) and Bija (sukra-sonita) and also normalcy of Hdayari (Psychology). Abnormality of properly functioning
Vayu and Satbhavas (matija, pitija, atma, satva, satmaya and Rasa), any one of these causes infertility (Vandhyatva). From the time
immemorial the phenomenon of infertility was prevalent through out the world and this may persist till the human race exists. Every
human being has inherent, intense desire to continue his (one's) own race; to become a mother is one of the most cherished desires of
every woman. Failure to achieve conception by a couple of mature age, having normal coitus during appropriate period of menstrual
cycle regularly, at least for one year of their conjugal is termed as infertility. The historical importance of stri Vandhyatva and a
comparative study regarding its Nidana, Samprapti, Lakshana, Chikitsa etc compiled from various Granthas are being presented in this
paper.
Bafna P, Bodhankar S. Gastrointestinal effects of Mebarid, an Ayurvedic formulation, in experimental animals. J EthnoPharmacol.
2003 ;86(2-3):173-6. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

11

Abstract.
Mebarid, an Ayurvedic formulation, was tested for its anti-diarrhoeal, anti-ulcer and anti-motility activities in animals. Mebarid was
investigated at four dose levels of 125, 250, 500 mg/kg BW. and 1g/kg BW The methods of castor oil-induced diarrhoea and pylorusligation-induced ulcers in rats were used to evaluate the anti-diarrhoeal and anti-ulcer activity, respectively, while charcoal meal test in
mice was the method used for testing its anti-motility effect. Mebarid was found to have significant activity in all the three models.
Thus, it can be concluded that Mebarid possesses anti-diarrhoeal, anti-motility and anti-ulcer activities and can prove beneficial in the
treatment of above gastrointestinal disorders.

Bagul MS, Kanaki NS, Rajani M. Evaluation of free radical scavenging properties of two classical polyherbal formulations. Indian J
Exp Biol.2005;43(8):732-6. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Two polyherbal formulations of Ayurveda viz.Chandraprabha Vati and Maha Yogaraj a Guggulu were evaluated for their free radical
scavenging properties. Methanolic extracts of the formulations were studied in four different in vitro and ex vivo models. Total
phenolic content of Chandraprabha Vati and Maha Yogaraj a Guggulu was found to be 5.24% and 10.74% respectively. Methanolic
extracts of the formulations were good scavengers of all the radicals but there was a difference in the activity of the two formulations
in different models. Chandraprabha Vati was a good scavenger of superoxide radical and Maha Yogaraj a Guggulu was efficient in
scavenging nitric oxide (NO), while both inhibited lipid peroxidation efficiently. Free radical scavenging activity of the different
extracts can be attributed to the presence of various chemical components including phenolics.

Bajaj S, Vohora SB. Analgesic activity of gold preparations used in Ayurveda and Unani-Tibb. Indian J Med Res. 1998 ;108:104-11.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Calcined gold preparations, Ayurvedic Swarna Bhasma (SB) and Unani Kushta Tila Kalan (KTK) were investigated for analgesic
effects in rats and mice using four types of noxious stimuli. Auranofin (AN) used in modern medicine was also studied for
comparisons. The test drugs SB and KTK (25-50 mg/kg, p.o.) and AN (2.5-5.0 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited analgesic activity against
chemical (acetic acid induced writhing), electrical (pododolorimeter), thermal (Eddy's hot plate and analgesiometer) and mechanical
(tail clip) test. While the analgesic effects of SB and KTK could be partly blocked by pretreatment with naloxone (1-5 mg/kg, i.p.,--15
min), such antagonism was not discernible with AN at the doses used. Involvement of opioidergic mechanism is suggested for the
observed analgesic activity.

Balachandran P, Govindarajan R.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Cancer--an

Ayurvedic

perspective.

Pharmacol

Res.

2005

;51(1):19-30.

Abstract.
An integrated approach is needed to manage cancer using the growing body of knowledge gained through scientific developments.
Thousands of herbal and traditional compounds are being screened worldwide to validate their use as anti-cancerous drugs. The
science of Ayurveda is supposed to add a step on to the curative aspects of cancers that have resemblance with clinical entities of
arbuda and granthi mentioned in Sushruta Samhita. Hence, an attempt is made in this review to discuss about the pathology and
therapeutic management of various cancers described in Ayurveda review of literature on anticancer drugs of plant origin revealed
identification of newer Ayurvedic drugs that are not mentioned in the ancient texts. These new findings add up to Ayurvedic science
that has been developed through ages. In addition, details of experimental and clinical studies conducted on single and compound

12

Ayurvedic preparations for their anticancer efficacy strongly emphasize Ayurvedic therapy as a scientifically driven one and not
simply unconventional.

Balasinor N, Bhan A, Paradkar NS, Shaikh A, Nandedkar TD, Bhutani KK, Roy-Chaudhury M. Postnatal development and
reproductive performance of F1 progeny exposed in utero to an Ayurvedic contraceptive: Pippalyadi yoga. J EthnoPharmacol.
2007;109(3):406-11. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Pippalyadi yoga or Pippalyadi Vati is an Ayurvedic contraceptive used in India since ancient times. It is a combination of powdered
fruit berries of Embelia ribes Burm.f. (Myrsinaceae), Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and borax in equal proportion. Though the
contraceptive potential is known since ancient times, no systematic developmental toxicity studies have been carried out. The present
study was carried out to evaluate the postnatal developmental toxicity and the reproductive performance of the progeny exposed in
utero to Pippalyadi yoga. Pippalyadi yoga was obtained from National Institute for Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER),
India and the developmental toxicity was studied by administering three doses, viz. 140, 300 and 700 mg/(kg day) to gravid females
from day 6 to day 16 of gestation. Pippalyadi yoga did not have any adverse developmental effects with low doses, however, with the
five times higher dose, a decrease in body weight of the pups was observed. The reproductive performance of the progeny born to
mothers treated with Pippalyadi was not significantly affected. The present study suggests that in utero exposure to Pippalyadi does
not have any adverse effect on the postnatal development and reproductive performance of the F(1) progeny.

Baliga MS, Bhat HP, Pereira MM, Mathias N, Venkatesh P. Radioprotective effects of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Bael): a concise . J
Altern Complement Med. 2010;16(10):1109-16. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The effective use of radiotherapy in cancer cure and palliation is compromised by the side-effects resulting from radiosensitivity of
bordering normal tissues, which are invariably exposed to the cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation during treatment. In this situation,
use of radioprotective compounds that can protect normal tissues against radiation injury are of immense use. In addition to protecting
normal tissue these compounds will also permit use of higher radiation doses to obtain better cancer control and possible cure.
However, to date, no ideal radioprotectors are available as most synthetic compounds are toxic at their optimal concentrations and
have produced little success in clinics. Radiation ill-effects are principally the result of generation of free radicals, and the antioxidant
compounds that counter them are supposed to be of immense use in preventing them. In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of
medicine, several plants have been observed to avert/ameliorate free radical-mediated ailments--an effect that has been documented-and such plants have recently been the focus of attention. Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Bael), commonly known as Bael, has been
used since antiquity for treating various ailments, some of which are now known to be the result of oxidative stress. In studies
spanning nearly a decade, it has been observed that Bael prevented radiation-induced ill-effects, and the results of these studies
indicate that it has the potential to be an effective, nontoxic radioprotective agent. In this current review, for the first time, an attempt
is made to summarize these observations and to discuss the plausible reasons responsible for Bael's radioprotective effects.

Baliga MS, Dsouza JJ. Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn), a wonder berry in the treatment and prevention of cancer. Eur J Cancer
Prev. 2011. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Emblica officinalis Gaertn. or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, commonly known as Indian gooseberry or Amla, is arguably the most
important medicinal plant in the Indian traditional system of medicine, the Ayurveda. Various parts of the plant are used to treat a
range of diseases, but the most important is the fruit. The fruit is used either alone or in combination with other plants to treat many
ailments such as common cold and fever; as a diuretic, laxative, liver tonic, refrigerant, stomachic, restorative, alterative, antipyretic,

13

anti-inflammatory, hair tonic; to prevent peptic ulcer and dyspepsia, and as a digestive. Preclinical studies have shown that Amla
possesses antipyretic, analgesic, antitussive, antiatherogenic, adaptogenic, cardioprotective, gastroprotective, antianemia,
antihypercholesterolemia, wound healing, antidiarrheal, antiatherosclerotic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and neuroprotective
properties. In addition, experimental studies have shown that Amla and some of its phytochemicals such as gallic acid, ellagic acid,
pyrogallol, some norsesquiterpenoids, corilagin, geraniin, elaeocarpusin, and prodelphinidins B1 and B2 also possess antineoplastic
effects. Amla is also reported to possess radiomodulatory, chemomodulatory, chemopreventive effects, free radical scavenging,
antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and immunomodulatory activities, properties that are efficacious in the treatment and
prevention of cancer. This review for the first time summarizes the results related to these properties and also emphasizes the aspects
that warrant future research to establish its activity and utility as a cancer preventive and therapeutic drug in humans.

Baliga MS. Triphala, Ayurvedic formulation for treating and preventing Cancer: a . J Altern Complement Med. 2010;16(12):1301-8.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
BACKGROUND:
Triphala (Sanskrit tri=three and phala=fruits), composed of the three medicinal fruits Phyllanthus emblica L. or Emblica officinalis
Gaertn.Terminalia chebula Retz.and Terminalia belerica Retz. is an important herbal preparation in the traditional Indian system of
medicine, Ayurveda. Triphala is an antioxidant-rich herbal formulation and possesses diverse beneficial properties. It is a widely
prescribed Ayurvedic drug and is used as a colon cleanser, digestive, diuretic, and laxative. Cancer is a major cause of death, and
globally studies are being conducted to prevent cancer or to develop effective nontoxic therapeutic agents. Experimental studies in the
past decade have shown that Triphala is useful in the prevention of cancer and that it also possesses antineoplastic, radioprotective and
chemoprotective effects.
CONCLUSIONS:
This review for the first time summarizes these results, with emphasis on published observations. Furthermore, the possible
mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects and lacunas in the existing knowledge that need to be bridged are also discussed.

Bansal Parveen, Sannd Rajesh, Srikanth N, Lavekar G S. Effect of Neutraceutical RASAYANA Food Supplements on Certain
Physical and Physiological Parameters in First Ayurvedic Clinical Trial at ANTARCTICA. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and
Siddha.
2009;30(1):83-92.http://www.ccras.nic.in/Publications/Periodicals/ResearchinAyurvedaSiddha/JRAS,%20XXX,
%20No.1,%20Jan.-Mar%202009.
Abstract.
Rasayana herbs have been advocated to have tremendous adaptogenic properties. It is also as well known fact that stress generates free
radicals that affect the antioxidant status of the body. Rasayana herbs due to their adaptogenic properties reduce stress caused by
endogenous and exogenous stressors. A single blind clinical trial was conducted at Indian Station Maitri at Antarctica on volunteers
from 2nd Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica to establish the effect of established Rasayana food supplements on selected
physical and physiological parameters. Food supplement was prepared by using Rasayana herbs with established adaptogenic effect
and high-energy dry fruits. So it was pertinent to know its effect on some of important physiological parameters. For this study, 21
subjects were selected in trial group and were given food supplement. It addition 7 volunteers were selected for control group and
were not given food supplement. The subjects were fed with the food supplement daily for a period of 45 days. Assessment was done
at 0 day and at fornightly intervals for various parameters like Lean Body Mass (LBM), Body Mass Index (BMI), Mid Arm
Circumference (MAC), TLC, DLC, blood pressure and pulse rate. From the study it was observed that there was no significant effect
of food supplement on selected physical and physiological parameters. Since this food supplement shown antioxidant, antistress and
adaptogenic effect, so can be used without side effect on body weight, blood pressure and body fat.

14

Bansal Parveen, Sannd Rajesh, Kumar Sanjiv, Bansal Renu, Sharma S, Mishra D K. Medicated Thread Kshara Sutra an example of
novel drug delivery system in ancient para-surgical measures. The Antiseptic. 2008;105(2):90-93
Abstract.
The references of Kshara Sutra are found in the oldest book of surgery The Sushruta Samhita. It is an age old treatment for fistulae
and sinuses that occur in vital parts of the body where conventional surgical procedures are not free from grave side effects. This was
prepared by smearing a strong cotton thread in the latex of Euphorbia nerrifolia (SNOOHI KSHEERA), water extract of the ashes of
Achyranthes aspera (APAMARGA KSHARA) and powder of Curcuma longa (HARIDRA CHURNA). The coatings are repeated for
21 times in a systematic way. This makes it a novel sustained release implant in the body that releases the dose of drugs after
dissolution of each layer for a longer period.

Bansal P, Sannd R, Srikanth N, Lavekar G S. Antioxidant activity of coded neutraceutical Rasayana products in the first clinical trial at
Antarctica. Journal of Tropical Medicinal Plants (Malasia). 2007;8(2):178-183 http://www.tropmedplants.com/Article.php?aid=318
Abstract.:
A Rasayana (compound mixture) was prepared using Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Chlorophytum arundenaceum, Piper
longum, Prunus amygdalus and few other herbs. A study was carried out to look into the effects of this compound in the form of drink
and food supplement to assess the antioxidant effects on the persons tested. Clinical trials were conducted for 45 days on 21 persons
who were members of 23rd Indian Scientific expedition to Antarctica. Various biochemical / clinical tests were conducted and the
results are summarized.
Bapat RD, Acharya BS, Juvekar S, Dahanukar SA. Leech therapy for complicated varicose veins. Indian J Med Res. 1998 ;107:281-4.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Several methods of limb bandaging have been described to reduce the oedema and enhance ulcer healing in complicated varicose
veins, with varying success rates. Leech therapy has never before been tried for the same. We evaluated the effectiveness of medicinal
Leech therapy in producing venous decongestion, reversal of oedema, hyperpigmentation and healing of varicose ulcer(s). Whether
the Leech selectively sucks venous blood was also investigated. Hirudo medicinalis (medicinal Leech) was applied to the area
surrounding the varicose ulcer(s) in 20 patients with varicose veins with complications and the patients were monitored for ulcer
healing, and decrease in hyperpigmentation, oedema and limb girth. The pArtial pressure of O2 (pO2) of 7 patients' arterial and
venous blood was compared to that sucked by the Leech. After Leech therapy all the ulcers showed healing, while 95 per cent of
patients showed a decrease in oedema and limb girth. Seventy five per cent patients demonstrated a decrease in hyperpigmentation.
The mean pO2 of blood sucked by the Leech was 40.05 +/- 7.24 mmHg, which was similar to the mean pO2 of the patients' venous
blood (34.33 +/- 8.4 mmHg). Thus it appears from this study that the medicinal Leech sucks venous blood and aids ulcer healing, and
can probably therefore be used as an effective adjunct in the management of complicated varicose veins. This however requires further
evaluation by controlled trials.

Baruah D, Gupta OP. A comparative study of Prameha Roga from the Brihattrayee. Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad.
2002;32(2):93-107. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.

15

The study of this Prameha Roga reveals the rich knowledge of the Ayurveda developed since the time immemorial. Although
descriptions of this disease are scattered in different classics of Ayurveda but here importance has been given to Brihatrayee. The aim
and object of this paper review the well documented concept of the Ayurveda about the Prameha Roga as the trend of diabetes is
increasing day by day in the society and is very difficult to prevent and manage owing to its complexity. The Ayurvedic concept of this
Roga information on the subject regarding classification, characteristics, features etc. has been also made in this paper. This Article
highlights the wisdom of ancient Indian literature and some historical view of the disease i.e. Prameha Roga or Diabetes Mellitus.

Bhat J, Damle A, Vaishnav PP, Albers R, Joshi M, Banerjee G. In vivo enhancement of natural killer cell activity through tea fortified
with Ayurvedic herbs. Phytother Res. 2010;24(1):129-35. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The effect of a tea fortified with five herbs selected from Indian traditional medicine (Ayurveda) for their putative immunoenhancing
effect (Withania somnifera, Glycyrrhzia glabra, Zingiber officinale, Ocimum sanctum and Elettaria cardamomum) on innate immunity
was investigated. Ex vivo natural killer (NK) cell activity was assessed after consumption of fortified tea compared with regular tea in
two independent double-blind intervention studies. Both studies were conducted in India with healthy volunteers (age >or= 55 years)
selected for a relatively low baseline NK cell activity and a history of recurrent coughs and colds. In a pilot study conducted with 32
volunteers, the consumption of Natural Care tea significantly improved the NK cell activity of the volunteers in comparison with a
population consuming regular tea. These results were validated in an independent crossover study with 110 volunteers. Data from
these two studies indicate that regular consumption of the tea fortified with Ayurvedic herbs enhanced NK cell activity, which is an
important aspect of the (early) innate immune response to infections.

Bhat S, Lavekar GS. Ayurvedic approach to pathya (ideal diet planning)an appraisal. Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad.
2005;35(2):147-56. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Most health problems develop due to the wrong eating habits and cooking methods. Ayurveda deals with the pathya, apathya or pathya
vyavastha (planning of diet- dietetics) in a very scientific and holistic way of Dietetics. The diet planning mentioned in our classical
literature is very rational and based on certain principles. Lot of importance is given to the diet with regard to its processing, quality,
quantity and so on. Due consideration is given to the atmosphere, psychological condition, status of health, digestion etc. of the person
while dealing with this issue. The diet should also be planned according to the age, season, habitat and the preference of the person. In
this paper the fundamental principals of Pathya vyavastha (dietetics) with appropriate references, recommended diet based on the texts
and clinical findings for some important diseases such as diabetes, liver diseases, acid -peptic disorders, cardiac diseases are dealt
with. The proper incorporation of diet not only can prevent many preventable disorders but plays major role in the management of the
Diseases. Ayurveda has very holistic and scientific approach in planning the diet. The fundamental principles like tridosa, Prakrti, the
tastes, processing of food, the quality, quantity, and the rules regarding eating food if considered while incorporating the diet one can
keep away from many diseases of body and mind.

Bhatnagar VK, Hussain SA, Ali M. A brief history of Ayurveda in Hyderabad. Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad. 1994;24(1):6375. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
This Article contains a brief history of Ayurveda in Hyderabad. It can be proudly stated that this system is prevailing here since
foundation of this city in 1590 A.D. As it is said that the physicians of Ayurveda and Unani both were among the staff of the first
general hospital of Hyderabad city 'Darush-shifa' which was constructed in 1595 A.D. After the Qutub Shahi period the rulers of
Asafjahi dynasty also patronised this system. The physicians of this period not only run their clinics but they also teach this system to

16

their pupils privately. Due to the efforts of some eminent Ayurvedic physicians, Ayurveda progressed well. The names and the photos
of these physicians have been given in this Article. Now this system has a good status here with well established college, hospital and
research department etc.

Bhatnagar VK, PRasad PV. Medicinal plants referred in Kautilya's Arthashastra. Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad. 2004;34(1):116. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Kautilya's Arthashastra which was written somewhere in 321-300 B.C. on ancient Indian Polity, holds a unique place in Indian history
and culture. It was discovered at Tanjavore district of Mysore in Karnataka. The Manuscript of Arthashastra (Devanagari script) was
traced by Sri Munisri Jinavijayajee of Patna. Mr. Shyama Sastry had first published the translated text in 1909 as Volume 37 of the
Bibliotheca Sanskrta of Mysore. There are 150 chapters in this work. The author of this work, Kautilya is also known as Visnugupta or
Canakya. The author himself in the concluding verse of the Arthashastra quoted his name as Visnugupta. The later writers on his
works also designated his name as Canakya. It was also translated into German and Russian languages. The plants and herbs having
medicinal value were compiled in the Arthashastra to bring out the knowledge of the period and how the people honored, patronized,
considered their own indigenous system as a part of their life. Same information is being presented in this Article.

Bhatt AD, Dalal DG, Shah SJ, Joshi BA, Gajjar MN, Vaidya RA, Vaidya AB, Antarkar DS. Conceptual and methodologic challenges
of assessing the short-term efficacy of Guggulu in obesity: data emergent from a naturalistic clinical trial. J Postgrad Med. 1995 ;
41(1):5-7. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
An open comparative trial was conducted in 58 adult obese patients (Body Mass Index > or = 25 kg/square metre). Group I (n = 27),
non-drug, was advised diet (1200-1600 cals) and a brisk walk for 30 minutes. Group II, in addition, received Guggulu (Medohar) 1.53 gm/day for 30 days. Mean difference in weight loss between Guggulu and non-drug group was 0.32 kg (ns) on day 15 and 0.58 kg
on day 30 (ns). The mean weight reduction in patients (> 90 kg) was 1.92 kg (ns) and 2.25 kg (ns) higher in Guggulu group. All
patients weighing > 90 kg lost weight in Guggulu group whilst 3 in non-drug group did not lose weight. Guggulu was tolerated well.
The data from this pilot study suggest a synergistic diet-Guggulu interaction over 30 days in patients weighing > 90 kg which needs to
be confirmed in a large placebo controlled study.

Bhatt AD. Clinical research on Ayurvedic therapeutics: myths, realities and challenges. J Assoc Physicians India. 2001;49:558-62.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Globally there is an increasing interest in alternative routes to health such as Ayurveda. There is a need to conduct globally acceptable
clinical research in Ayurvedic therapeutics (AT). Some of the issues in investigating AT in randomized clinical trials (CT) are:
selection of appropriate AT, non-drug and/or drug AT, identification of objective outcomes, devising adequate placebo/positive
controls, difficulties of blinding, guarding against bias, duration of trials, number of patients, dose optimisation, etc. There is also a
need to establish reasonable safety of this therapy in CT. If AT has to complete with new chemical entities and biotechnology
products, clinical research and development of AT should be focussed on unmet medical needs utilising principles and practices of
modern CT approaches.

17

Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A, ChakrabArti A. Adaptogenic activity of Siotone, a polyherbal formulation of Ayurvedic Rasayanas.
Indian J Exp Biol. 2000;38(2):119-28. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Siotone (ST) is a herbal formulation comprising of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Asparagus racemosus, Tribulus terristris
and shilajit, all of which are classified in Ayurveda as Rasayanas which are reputed to promote physical and mental health, improve
defence mechanisms of the body and enhance longevity. These attributes are similar to the modern concept of adaptogenic agents,
which are, known to afford protection of the human physiological system against diverse stressors. The present study was undertaken
to investigate the adaptogenic activity of ST against chronic unpredictable, but mild, footshock stress induced perturbations in
behaviour (depression), glucose Metabolism, suppressed male sexual behaviour, immunosuppression and cognitive dysfunction in CF
strain albino rats. Gastric ulceration, adrenal gland and spleen weights, ascorbic acid and corticosterone concentrations of adrenal
cortex, and plasma corticosterone levels, were used as the stress indices. Panax ginseng (PG) was used as the standard adaptogenic
agent for comparison. Additionally, rat brain levels of tribulin, an endogenous endocoid postulated to be involved in stress, were also
assessed in terms of endogenous monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and MAOB inhibitory activity. Chronic unpredictable footshock
induced marked gastric ulceration, significant increase in adrenal gland weight and plasma corticosterone levels, with concomitant
decreases in spleen weight, and concentrations of adrenal gland ascorbic acid and corticosterone. These effects were attenuated by ST
(50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and PG (100 mg/kg, p.o.), administered once daily over a period of 14 days, the period of stress induction.
Chronic stress also induced glucose intolerance, suppressed male sexual behaviour, induced behavioural depression (Porsolt's swim
despair test and learned helplessness test) and cognitive dysfunction (attenuated retention of learning in active and passive avoidance
tests), and immunosuppression (leucocyte migration inhibition and sheep RBC challenged increase in paw oedema in sensitized rats).
All these chronic stress-induced perturbations were attenuated, dose-dependently by ST (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and PG (100 mg/kg,
p.o.). Chronic stress-induced increase in rat brain tribulin activity was also reversed by these doses of ST and by PG. The results
indicate that ST has significant adaptogenic activity, qualitatively comparable to PG, against a variety of behavioural, biochemical and
physiological perturbations induced by unpredictable stress, which has been proposed to be a better indicator of clinical stress than
acute stress parameters. The likely contribution of the individual constituents of ST in the observed adaptogenic action of the
polyherbal formulation, have been discussed.

Biradar YS, Singh R, Sharma K, Dhalwal K, Bodhankar SL, Khandelwal KR. Evaluation of anti-diarrhoeal property and acute toxicity
of Triphala Mashi, an Ayurvedic formulation. J Herb Pharmacother. 2007;7(3-4):203-12. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The anti-diarrhoeal effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Triphala and Triphala Mashi were studied employing castor oilinduced-diarrhoeal model in rats. The gastrointestinal transit rate was expressed as the percentage of the longest distance travelled by
the charcoal divided by the total length of the small intestine. All the extracts, at various doses 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg displayed
remarkable anti-diarrhoeal activity as evidenced by a significant increase in first defecation time, cumulative fecal weight and
intestinal transit time. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Triphala and Triphala Mashi were considered safe up to a dose of 1750 mg/kg
when evaluated for acute oral toxicity in accordance with the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development)
guidelines. In conclusion, the remarkable anti-diarrhoeal effect of Triphala and Triphala Mashi extracts against castor oil-induced
diarrhoea suggest its potential for application in a wide range of diarrhoeal states.

Biswas TK, Pandit S, Mondal S, Biswas SK, Jana U, Ghosh T, Tripathi PC, Debnath PK, Auddy RG, Auddy B. Clinical evaluation of
spermatogenic activity of processed Shilajit in oligospermia. Andrologia. 2010;42(1):48-56. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The safety and spermatogenic activity of processed Shilajit (PS) were evaluated in oligospermic patients. Initially, 60 infertile male
patients were assessed and those having total sperm counts below 20 million ml(-1) semen were considered oligospermic and enrolled

18

in the study (n = 35). PS capsule (100 mg) was administered twice daily after major meals for 90 days. Total semenogram and serum
testosterone, luteinising hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were estimated before and at the end of the treatment.
Malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker for oxidative stress, content of semen and biochemical parameters for safety were also evaluated.
Twenty-eight patients who completed the treatment showed significant (P < 0.001) improvement in spermia (+37.6%), total sperm
count (+61.4%), motility (12.4-17.4% after different time intervals), normal sperm count (+18.9%) with concomitant decrease in pus
and epithelial cell count compared with baseline value. Significant decrease of semen MDA content (-18.7%) was observed.
Moreover, serum testosterone (+23.5%; P < 0.001) and FSH (+9.4%; P < 0.05) levels significantly increased. HPLC chromatogram
revealed inclusion of PS constituents in semen. Unaltered hepatic and renal profiles of patients indicated that PS was safe at the given
dose. The present findings provide further evidence of the spermatogenic nature of Shilajit, as attributed in Ayurvedic medicine,
Particularly when administered as PS.

Biswas TK, Mukherjee B. Plant medicines of Indian origin for wound healing activity: a . Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2003 ;2(1):2539. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Research on wound healing drugs is a developing area in modern biomedical sciences. Scientists who are trying to develop newer
drugs from natural resources are looking toward the Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine. Several drugs of plant,
mineral, and animal origin are described in the Ayurveda for their wound healing properties under the term Vranaropaka. Most of
these drugs are derived from plant origin. Some of these plants have been screened scientifically for the evaluation of their wound
healing activity in different Pharmacological models and patients, but the potential of most remains unexplored. In a few cases, active
chemical constituents were identified. Some Ayurvedic medicinal plants, namely, Ficus bengalensis, Cynodon dactylon, Symplocos
racemosa, Rubia cordifolia, Pterocarpus santalinus, Ficus racemosa, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Berberis aristata, Curcuma longa, Centella
asiatica,Euphorbia nerifolia, and Aloe vera, were found to be effective in experimental models. This paper presents a limited review of
plants used in Ayurvedic medicine.

Breemen Richard B. van, Li Yi Tao, Wenkui. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in ginger (Zingiber officinale). Fitoterapia.2011;82(1):3843.
Abstract.
Ginger roots have been used to treat inflammation and have been reported to inhibit cyclooxygenase(COX). Ultrafiltration liquid
chromatography mass spectrometry was used to screen achloroform pArtition of a methanol extract of ginger roots for COX-2 ligands,
and 10-gingerol, 12-gingerol, 8-shogaol, 10-shogaol, 6-gingerdione, 8-gingerdione, 10-gingerdione, 6-dehydro-10-gingerol, 6-paradol,
and 8-paradol bound to the enzyme active site. Purified 10-gingerol, 8-shogaol and 10-shogaol inhibited COX-2 with IC50 values of
32 M, 17.5 Mand7.5 M, respectively.No inhibition of COX-1was detected. Therefore, 10-gingerol, 8-shogaol and 10-shogaol
inhibit COX-2 but not COX-1,which can explain, in part, the anti-inflammatory properties of ginger.

Cameron MM. Untouchable healing: a Dalit Ayurvedic doctor from Nepal suffershis country's ills. Med Anthropol. 2009;28(3):23567. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Ayurvedic medicine thrives in Nepal. Even so, barriers of untouchability that have long prevented Dalits from establishing equal
relationships with upper castes have made medical education out of reach for them. Hence, nearly all Ayurvedic practitioners are high
caste men. Forty years ago, an "untouchable" man from the Himalayan foothills with a thirst for knowledge about Ayurveda traveled

19

south into India where he changed his caste and "became" a Brahman for 14 years as he studied the theory and practice of Ayurvedic
medicine in a Haridwar college. Rasaliji's life story, recorded initially in 2000 and continued through 2007-2008, encompasses a
period of rapid modernization that spawned a state health policy promoting biomedicine, a proliferation of pharmaceutical drugs, and
a national election that swept the Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist into power and saw an unprecedented 9 percent Dalits elected to
the Constituent Assembly. This Article presents Rasaliji's current concerns with the state of medicine and social justice in Nepal.

Chacko E. Culture and therapy: complementary strategies for the treatment of type-2 diabetes in an urban setting in Kerala, India. Soc
Sci Med. 2003;56(5):1087-98. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
There is an epidemic rise in diabetes in the developing world, with ensuing concern about the management and control of the disease.
This study investigates the use of complementary therapies to manage Type 2 diabetes in an urban population in Kerala, a state in
Southern India. Using ethnographic methods, it shows that the subjects' experiences of the disease and their health management
decisions are closely linked to their cultural background and the environmental resources of the region. PArticipants in the study relied
on biomedicine for treating diabetes, but frequently used Ayurvedic medicine and folk herbal remedies as supplements. They named
24 local plants and plant products that were employed to lower blood glucose levels. Knowledge of tried and tested local or regional
remedies and their incorporation into individual and community health care practices are evidence of medical knowledge as cultural
capital. Greater attention needs to be paid to the broader systems of the environment and culture

Chanda D, Shanker K, Pal A, Luqman S, Bawankule DU, Mani D, Darokar MP. Safety evaluation of Trikatu, a generic Ayurvedic
medicine in Charles Foster rats. J Toxicol Sci. 2009 ;34(1):99-108. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.com
Abstract.
Chemical characterization and acute and sub-acute toxicity study of Trikatu, a generic herbal formulation of Indian system of
medicine, was carried out in Charles Foster (CF) rats for safety profiling. In acute toxicity experiment, Trikatu at 2,000 mg/kg body
weight once orally was well tolerated by the experimental animals (both male and female) and no changes were observed in mortality,
morbidity, gross pathology, gain in weight, vital organ weight, hematological parameters (total white blood cells (WBC) and red blood
cells (RBC) count), biochemical parameters such as serum creatinine, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum
glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum lipid profile and tissue biochemical parameters such as reduced glutathione and
malonaldehyde content as oxidative stress markers. In sub-acute experiment, Trikatu was administered at 5, 50 and 300 mg/kg body
weight once daily for 28 days in female CF rats, and non-significant changes were found in most of the parameters studied such as
acute experiment except significant increase in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level at 50 and 300 mg/kg body weight,
decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level at 300 mg/kg body weight, increase in SGPT activity at 50 mg/kg body
weight and decrease in WBC count at 300 mg/kg body weight on 28(th) day post treatment.

Charles V, Charles SX. The use and efficacy of Azadirachta indica ADR ('Neem') and Curcuma longa ('Turmeric') in scabies. A pilot
study. Trop Geogr Med. 1992 ;44(1-2):178-81. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
In the Ayurvedha and Sidha system of medicine (Indian system of medicine) Azadirachta indica ADR ('Neem') and Curcuma longa
('Turmeric') has been used for healing chronic ulcers and scabies. The 'Neem' and 'Turmeric' was used as a paste for the treatment of
scabies in 814 people. In 97% of cases cure was obtained within 3 to 15 days of treatment. We find that this is a very cheap, easily
available, effective and acceptable mode of treatment for the villagers in the developing countries. We have noticed no toxic or
adverse reaction so far. However, further research is needed.

20

Chauhan NS, Sharma V, Thakur M, Dixit VK. Curculigo orchioides: the black gold with numerous health benefits.
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2010 ;8(7):613-23. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. (family Amarylladaceae) is an endangered Rasayana herb which is popularly known as "Kali Musli".
The plant is native to India, and holds a special position as a potent adaptogen and aphrodisiac in Ayurvedic system of medicine. It is
an important ingredient of many Ayurvedic preparations and is considered to have aphrodisiac, immunostimulant, hepatoprotective,
antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic activities. Various chemical constituents like mucilage, phenolic glycosides, saponins and
aliphatic compounds from the plant have been reported. The plant is also considered as an important component of various herbal
preparations of the Chinese and Kampo medicine. The present review is an attempt to enumerate various biologically tested activities
and evaluation of different phytochemicals present in this important medicinal plant.

Chopra A, Lavin P, Patwardhan B, Chitre D. Randomized double blind trial of an Ayurvedic plant derived formulation for treatment
of rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2000 ;27(6):1365-72. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate RA-1, a standardized plant extract formulation, traditionally considered a safe, effective antiarthritic in the Asian-Indian
Ayurvedic medicinal system. METHODS: One hundred eighty-two patients with active-on-chronic rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
participated in a 16 week randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel efficacy clinical drug trial in Pune, India. Tenderness,
pain, swelling, and several other efficacy measures were assessed by (1) ACR core set 20% and 50% improvement; (2) ACR 20%
improvement response. An intent-to-treat analysis was performed; p<0.05 considered significant.
RESULTS:
Seventeen patients withdrew (active = 9; placebo = 8); none withdrew due to drug toxicity. An unprecedented placebo response (often
p<0.001 in within-group change) was observed. The active RA-1 group remained numerically superior at all evaluation timepoints.
RA-1 demonstrated few significant differences: (1) increased proportion with 50% reduction in swollen joint count (95% CI
approximately 1.52, 29.90) and swollen joint score (95% CI approximately 0.91, 28.73); (2) reduced rheumatoid factor (95% CI
approximately -303.7, -2.72); 39% in the RA-1 group versus 30% placebo showed ACR 20% improvement (95% CI approximately
-5.48, 24.59). Only minor side effects were seen, with no significant differences by treatment group.
CONCLUSION:
In a trial with sufficient power, RA-1 revealed efficacy that was not significantly superior to the strong placebo response, except for
improvement in joint swelling. Further, the effect on RF and good safety profile led to an open label phase.

Conboy L, Edshteyn I, Garivaltis H. Ayurveda and Panchakarma: measuring the


ScientificWorldJournal. 2009;9:272-80. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

effects of a holistic health intervention.

Abstract.
Ayurveda, the traditional medical system of India, is understudied in western contexts. Using data gathered from an Ayurvedic
treatment program, this study examined the role of psychosocial factors in the process of behavior change and the salutogenic process.
This obserVational study examined associations with pArticipation in the 5-day Ayurvedic cleansing retreat program,
Panchakarma.Quality of life, psychosocial, and behavior change measurements were measured longitudinally on 20 female

21

pArticipants. Measurements were taken before the start of the program, immediately after the program, and 3 months post-program.
The program did not significantly improve quality of life. Significant improvements were found in self-efficacy towards using
Ayurveda to improve health and reported positive health behaviors. In addition, perceived social support and depression showed
significant improvements 3 months postprogram after the subjects had returned to their home context. As a program of behavior
change, our preliminary results suggest that the complex intervention Panchakarma may be effective in assisting one's expected and
reported adherence to new and healthier behavior patterns.

Dev S. Ancient-modern concordance in Ayurvedic plants: some examples. Environ Health Perspect. 1999;107(10):783-9.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Ayurveda is the ancient (before 2500 b.c.) Indian system of health care and longevity. It involves a holistic view of man, his health,
and illness. Ayurvedic treatment of a disease consists of salubrious use of drugs, diets, and certain practices. Medicinal preparations
are invariably complex mixtures, based mostly on plant products. Around 1,250 plants are currently used in various Ayurvedic
preparations. Many Indian medicinal plants have come under scientific scrutiny since the middle of the nineteenth century, although in
a sporadic fashion. The first significant contribution from Ayurvedic materia medica came with the isolation of the hypertensive
alkaloid from the Sarpagandha plant (Rouwolfia serpentina), valued in Ayurveda for the treatment of hypertension, insomnia, and
insanity. This was the first important ancient-modern concordance in Ayurvedic plants. With the gradual coming of age of chemistry
and biology, disciplines central to the study of biologic activities of natural products, many Ayurvedic plants have been reinvestigated.
Our work on Commiphora wightti gum-resin, valued in Ayurveda for correcting lipid disorders, has been described in some detail;
based on these investigations, a modern antihyperlipoproteinemic drug is on the market in India and some other countries. There has
also been concordance for a few other Ayurvedic crude drugs such as Asparagus racemosus, Cedrus deodara, and Psoralea corylifolia.

Dhanasekaran M, Tharakan B, Holcomb LA, Hitt AR, Young KA, Manyam BV. Neuroprotective mechanisms of Ayurvedic
antidementia botanical Bacopa monniera. Phytother Res. 2007;21(10):965-9. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive dementia. Bacopa monniera is described in the
Ayurvedic Materia Medica, as a therapeutically useful herb for the treatment of cognitive impairment, thus supporting its possible
anti-Alzheimer's properties. Our studies have shown that Bacopa monniera reduces beta-amyloid deposits in the brain of an
Alzheimer's disease animal model. The objective of this study was to establish the presence of endogenous substances in Bacopa
monniera extract (BmE) that will impact components of the oxidative stress cascade such as the reduction of divalent metals,
scavenging of reactive oxygen species, alterations of lipoxygenase activity and hydrogen peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation. The
extract contained polyphenols and sulfhydryl contents suggestive of endogenous antioxidant activity. The results demonstrated that
BmE reduced divalent metals, dose-dependently scavenged reactive oxygen species, decreased the formation of lipid peroxides and
inhibited lipoxygenase activity. These data combined with our previous studies that have shown that BmE treatment reduces betaamyloid levels in the brain of an Alzheimer's disease doubly transgenic mouse model of rapid amyloid deposition (PSAPP mice)
suggesting mechanisms of action relevant to thetreatment of Alzheimer's disease.

Elder C, Aickin M, Bauer V, Cairns J, Vuckovic N. Randomized trial of a whole-system Ayurvedic protocol for type 2 diabetes. Altern
Ther Health Med. 2006 ;12(5):24-30. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
CONTEXT:

22

Though complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments are popular, evidence to support their application to diabetes care
is scarce. Previous CAM diabetes research has generally focused on single modalities, but CAM practitioners more commonly
prescribe complex, multimodality interventions.
OBJECTIVES:
The aims of this study were to determine the feasibility and clinical impact of a whole-system, Ayurvedic intervention for newly
diagnosed people with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Patients were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control arm.
SETTING:
Group model health maintenance organization. PArticipants: We recruited 60 adult patients with baseline glycosylated hemoglobin
(HbA1c) values between 6.0 and 8.0.
INTERVENTION:
Treatment for the experimental group included exercise, an Ayurvedic diet, meditation instruction, and an Ayurvedic herb supplement
(MA 471). Control patients attended standard diabetes education classes with primary care clinician follow-up.
MEASUREMENTS:
Clinical outcomes were assessed at 3 and 6 months and included HbA1c, fasting glucose, lipids, blood pressure, and weight.
RESULTS:
Ninety-two percent of randomized patients completed the study, and there were no significant adverse study-related events. Using
analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA), we found no significant differences for clinical outcomes at 6 months between on-study patient
groups, though trends favored the Ayurvedic group. When we included a factor measuring how much baseline HbA1c exceeded the
mean (6.5%), however, we found statistically significant improvements in the Ayurvedic group for HbA1c (P = .006), fasting glucose
(P = .001), total cholesterol (P = .05), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P = .04), and weight (P = .035).
CONCLUSIONS:
These results suggest that the Ayurvedic intervention may benefit patients with higher baseline HbA1c values, warranting further
research.

Elder C. Ayurveda for diabetes mellitus: a review of the biomedical literature. Altern Ther Health Med. 2004;10(1):44-50.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Diabetes mellitus is a condition that is extremely serious from both clinical and public health standpoints. The traditional healthcare
system of India, Ayurveda, offers a balanced and holistic multi-modality approach to treating this disorder.Many Ayurvedic modalities
have been subjected to empirical scientific evaluation, but most such research has been done in India, receiving little attention in North
America. This paper offers a review of the English language literature related to Ayurveda and diabetes care, encompassing herbs, diet,
yoga, and meditation as modalities that are accessible and acceptable to Western clinicians and patients. There is a considerable
amount of data from both animal and human trials suggesting efficacy of Ayurvedic interventions in managing diabetes. However, the
reported human trials generally fall short of contemporary methodological standards. More research is needed in the area of Ayurvedic
treatment of diabetes, assessing both whole practice and individual modalities.

Farag NH, Mills PJ. A randomised-controlled trial of the effects of a traditional herbal supplement on sleep onset insomnia.
Complement Ther Med. 2003;11(4):223-5. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

23

Abstract.
OBJECTIVES:
To study the effectiveness and safety of a traditional herbal supplement used for sleep onset insomnia.
DESIGN:
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study.
SETTING:
A total of 25 healthy volunteers (20-65 years of age) suffering from sleep onset insomnia were recruited from the general population.
INTERVENTION:
A traditional Ayurvedic supplement formulated to reduce sleep onset insomnia.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:
Sleep latency.
RESULTS:
The supplement led to a statistically significant decrease in reported sleep latency of 16.72 min (S.D.=44.8) as compared to placebo
(P=0.003). There were no self-reported side effects. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that traditional herbal supplements may
be of significant benefit to patients suffering from sleep onset insomnia while avoiding the negative side effects of commonly
prescribed hypnotics.

Flammang AM, Erexson GL, Mecchi MS, Murli H. Genotoxicity testing of a Salacia oblonga extract. Food Chem Toxicol.
2006;44(11):1868-74. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Salacia oblonga has been used for thousands of years in Ayurvedic medicine for the oral treatment of diabetes. The root extract has
been shown to inhibit the activity of intestinal alpha-glucosidases, therefore S. oblonga holds potential as a natural method to mitigate
the blood glucose response for people with diabetes. As part of a safety evaluation of novel ingredients for use in blood glucose
control, the potential genotoxicity of a S. oblonga root extract (SOE) was evaluated using the standard battery of tests (reverse
mutation assay; chromosomal aberrations assay; mouse micronucleus assay) recommended by US Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) for food ingredients. SOE was determined not to be genotoxic under the conditions of the reverse mutation assay and mouse
micronucleus assay, and weakly positive for the chromosomal aberrations assay. A reproducible, although weak, positive
chromosomal aberrations response in human lymphocytes is of concern and further toxicity research is recommended. Use of SOE is
presently expected to be safe, as anticipated intake is small compared to the doses administered in the genotoxicity assays and may,
after further toxicity research, may prove be a useful ingredient in foodstuffs.
Galib, Kar AC, Rao MM, Narayana Ala. Concepts of Contraception in Ancient India and Status in Present Scenario.Journal of Indian
Institute of History of Medicine.2008;38(1):79-88.
Abstract.:
Contraception is a way of thinking and living that is adopted voluntarily up on the basis of knowledge, attitude by individuals and
couples in order to promote health ad welfare of a family. Interestingly none of the ancient classics like CharakaSamhita,
SushrutaSamhita or Astangahrdaya touched upon this subject. It is possible that the society in those days had no need for controlling
the population. Later scholars on Ayurveda in the mediaeval period referred to a number of oral/local measures for the purpose of

24

contraception, which was paved the way to the development of different kinds of contraceptive methods prevailing in present scenario.
The present paper discusses with few of the concepts practiced in ancient India and also throws some light on research carried out in
last few decades.

Garg S, Bhutani KK. Chromatographic analysis of Kutajarista--an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation. Phytochem Anal.
2008;19(4):323-8. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Kutajarista is a well known polyherbal preparation of which the main ingredient is the stem bark of Holarrhena antidysenterica. This
Ayurvedic medicine is prescribed to treat amoebic dysentery and other disorders such as fever, indigestion and malabsorption
syndrome. Herbal medicines are very important since, in common with conventional medicines, they contain biologically active
substances that may produce non-trivial side effects when taken in excessive amounts. Very low doses, on the other hand, may have no
therapeutic value. In this paper we report the chemical standardisation of Kutajarista by HPLC analysis based upon the presence of the
biomarker conessine in the formulation. The standardisation method is simple and reliable, and the precision of method has been
tested for repeatability (n = 3) and reproducibility (n = 9). The response of a refractive index detector was linear in the concentration
range of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL. Recovery studies were performed to check the method for accuracy. The recovery was found to be in range
of 99-105%. The developed HPLC method can be used to quantify conessine for quality control of marketed Kutajarista samples.

Garodia P, Ichikawa H, Malani N, Sethi G, Aggarwal BB. From ancient medicine to modern medicine: Ayurvedic concepts of health
and their role in inflammation and cancer. J Soc Integr Oncol. 2007;5(1):25-37. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Recent statistics indicate that the overall cancer incidence in the United States, in spite of billions of dollars spent on research each
year, has not changed significantly in the last half-century. Cancers of the prostate, breast, lung, and colon, although most common in
the Western world, are least common in the Eastern world. Allopathic medicine commonly practiced currently is only 100 years old.
Although traditional medicine has been around for thousands of years, no integration exists between it and allopathic medicine.
Ayurveda, the science of long life and one of the most ancient medical systems still practiced on the Indian subcontinent, can be used
in combination with modern medicine to provide better treatment of cancer. This review focuses on the Ayurvedic concept of the
causes of cancer and its linkage with inflammation, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. How Ayurvedic medicine can be integrated
with allopathic medicine is also discussed in this .

George SK, Rajesh R, Kumar S S, Sulekha B, Balaram P. A polyherbal Ayurvedic drug--Indukantha Ghritha as an adjuvant to cancer
chemotherapy via immunomodulation. Immunobiology.2008;213(8):641-9. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Indukantha Ghritha (IG) is a polyherbal preparation consisting of 17 plant components widely prescribed by Ayurvedic physicians for
various ailments. Though it is a known Ayurvedic drug, no attempt has been made to scientifically validate its mechanism of action.
Preliminary studies in our laboratory showed IG to possess considerable immunomodulatory effects with a Th1 type of immune
response. In this regard, we attempted to elucidate its role as an adjuvant to cancer chemotherapy. BALB/c mice were administered
IG, for a period of 14 days and parameters such as Hb, total and differential WBC count, bone marrow cellularity, lymphocyte
proliferation and function, macrophage phagocytosis and tumor remission were studied. Administration of IG could inhibit tumor
development in mice challenged with Dalton's lymphoma ascites. IG-induced leukopoiesis and enhanced median survival time as well
as life span in tumor bearing animals. Macrophage phagocytic capacity was also elevated. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte
subsets and MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulphophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium salt] assay for
lymphocyte proliferation, yielded promising results which reinforces its use as an adjuvant to cancer chemotherapy. The polyherbal

25

drug could reverse cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression in control tumor bearing animals significantly to values near or
above normal levels. These results demonstrate the potential of IG, especially in several immunosuppressed conditions and patients
suffering from leukopenia as a consequence of cancer chemotherapy.

Govindarajan R, Singh DP, Rawat AK. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantification of phenolics in
'Chyavanprash' a potent Ayurvedic drug. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007;43(2):527-32. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Quantification of bioactive principles through modern analytical tools is essential for establishing the authenticity, credibility,
prescription and usage of Ayurvedic medicines/herbal formulations. 'Chyavanprash' is one of the oldest and most popular Ayurvedic
preparations, used widely as a health promotive and disease preventive 'Rasayana' drug in India and elsewhere. The rejuvenating and
tonic properties of 'Chavanprash' are considered mainly due to their antioxidant principles, which in turn is due to the presence of
phenolic compounds. A simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the separation and quantitative
determination of the major antioxidant compounds from 'Chyavanprash' has been developed. The use of Waters Symmetry column and
an acidic mobile phase enabled the efficient separation of phenolic compounds (catechin, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, syringic acid and
gallic acid) within a 35 min analysis. Validation of the method was done with a view to demonstrate its selectivity, linearity, precision,
accuracy and robustness. In addition optimization of the complete extraction of phenolic compounds were also studied.

Govindarajan R, Vijayakumar M, Pushpangadan P. Antioxidant approach to disease management and the role of 'Rasayana' herbs of
Ayurveda. J EthnoPharmacol. 2005;99(2):165-78. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The disease preventive and health promotive approach of 'Ayurveda', which takes into consideration the whole body, mind and spirit
while dealing with the maintenance of health, promotion of health and treating ailments is holistic and finds increasing acceptability in
many regions of the world. Ancient Ayurvedic physicians had developed certain dietary and therapeutic measures to arrest/delay
ageing and rejuvenating whole functional dynamics of the body system. This revitalization and rejuvenation is known as the 'Rasayan
Chikitsa' (rejuvenation therapy). Traditionally, Rasayana drugs are used against a plethora of seemingly diverse disorders with no
pathophysiological connections according to modern medicine. Though, this group of plants generally possesses strong antioxidant
activity, only a few have been investigated in detail. Over about 100 disorders like rheumatoid arthritis, hemorrhagic shock, CVS
disorders, cystic fibrosis, metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, gastrointestinal ulcerogenesis and AIDS have been reported
as reactive oxygen species mediated. In this review, the role of free radicals in these diseases has been briefly reviewed. 'Rasayana'
plants with potent antioxidant activity have been reviewed for their traditional uses, and mechanism of antioxidant action. Fifteen such
plants have been dealt with in detail and some more plants with less work have also been reviewed briefly.

Grover JK, Yadav S, Vats V. Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential. J EthnoPharmacol. 2002;81(1):81-100.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants
in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to
possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for
diabetes have shown anti-diabetic property. The present paper reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and
crude extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of medicine and have shown experimental or clinical
anti-diabetic activity. Indian plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to diabetes and their
complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus

26

bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Swertia chirayita, Syzigium
cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana,
Mucuna pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have
shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity.

Gupta SK, Kalaiselvan V, Srivastava S, Agrawal SS, Saxena R. Evaluation of anticataract potential of Triphala in selenite-induced
cataract: In vitro and in vivo studies. J Ayurveda Integr Med .2010;1:280-6. http://www.jaim.in.
Abstract.
Triphala (TP) is composed of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia belerica. The present study was undertaken to
evaluate its anticataract potential in vitro and in vivo in a selenite-induced experimental model of cataract. In vitro enucleated rat
lenses were maintained in organ culture containing Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium alone or with the addition of 100M selenite.
These served as the normal and control groups, respectively. In the test group, the medium was supplemented with selenite and
different concentrations of TP aqueous extract. The lenses were incubated for 24 h at 37C. After incubation, the lenses were
processed to estimate reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation product, and antioxidant enzymes. In vivo selenite cataract was
induced in 9-day-old rat pups by subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (25 mole/kg body weight). The test groups received 25,
50, and 75 mg/kg of TP intraperitoneally 4 h before the selenite challenge. At the end of the study period, the rats' eyes were examined
by slit-lamp. TP significantly (P < 0.01) restored GSH and decreased malondialdehyde levels. A significant restoration in the activities
of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (P < 0.05), catalase (P < 0.05), glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.05), and
glutathione-s-transferase (P < 0.005) was observed in the TP-supplemented group compared to controls. In vivo TF 25mg/kg
developed only 20% nuclear cataract as compared to 100% in control. TP prevents or retards experimental selenite-induced cataract.
This effect may be due to antioxidant activity. Further studies are warranted to explore its role in human cataract.

Gupta V, Meena A K, Krishna C M , Rao M M, Sannd R, Singh H, Panda P, Padhi M M and Babu Ramesh. Review of plants used as
Kshar of family Piperaceae. International Journal of Ayurvedic Medicine.2010;1(2):81-88.
Abstract.
Many herbal remedies individually or in combination have been recommended in various medical treatises for the cure of different
diseases. Kshara is a kind of medication described in Ayurveda Texts for the management of various disorders. The genus Piper L. is
estimated to contain over 1000 species which are distributed mainly in tropical regions of the world. This review mainly focuses on
the plants of family Piperaceae that are used in Kshar so that more research work is carried out in the direction of standardization,
therapeutic level determination of Kshar plants.

Hankey A. A test of the systems analysis underlying the scientific theory of Ayurveda's Tridosha. J Altern Complement Med.
2005;11(3):385-90. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
A previous paper hypothesized that the tridosha of Ayurveda--Vata, Pitta, and Kapha--constitute regulatory systems respectively
controlling input/output, turnover, and storage; functions systems analysis identifies as fundamental to all open systems. This would
make them universal properties of all living organisms, as Ayurveda itself maintains. This paper proposes independent scientific
evidence for the proposed identification of the doshas and for the systems analysis on which it is based. In Particular, it points to
coenzyme A, a key component of fatty acid Metabolism. Its universal presence in all cells implies that it is an evolutionary invariant
ant that the biochemical pathway on which it lies must be exceptionally significant. The systems analysis shows that the pathway
connects the cellular functions of energy turnover and energy storage, fundamental to the overall strategy of cell regulation. This,
combined with the requirement for the pathway's close regulation, makes it effectively impossible to replace coenzyme A by a

27

combination of simultaneous mutations or sequence of mutations and it should indeed remain invariant during evolution. The
universality of coenzyme A is therefore consistent with its identified role, and supports the systems analysis identifying the doshas.
Their systems functions survive developmental transformations of evolution with recognizable continuity. By virtue of that, Vata,
Pitta, and Kapha can be identified with them in all species.

Herron RE, Fagan JB. Lipophil-mediated reduction of toxicants in humans: an evaluation of an Ayurvedic detoxification procedure.
Altern Ther Health Med. 2002;8(5):40-51. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
CONTEXT:
Lipophilic toxicants have been associated with hormone disruption, immune system suppression, reproductive disorders, several types
of cancer, and other diseases. Due to environmental persistence and bioaccumulation, body burdens of certain toxicants, such as
dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), appear to be a health risk despite the toxicants'
having been banned for decades.
OBJECTIVE:
To determine whether a safe, standardized, Ayurvedic detoxification procedure can mobilize lipid-soluble toxicants and stimulate their
excretion.DESIGN: Cross-sectionaland longitudinal evaluations.SETTING: Southeastern Iowa.
PARTICIPANTS:
In the cross-sectional study, 48 pArticipants who had undertaken lipophil-mediated detoxification were compared with 40 control
subjects. In the prospective, longitudinal evaluation, serum levels were measured in 15 subjects before and after they underwent the
detoxification procedure. These 15 subjects served as their own controls.
INTERVENTION(S):
Ayurvedic lipophil-mediated detoxification procedure.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Gas chromatographic analysis of 17 serum
toxicant levels (9 PCB congeners and 8 pesticides or metabolites) on a lipid-adjusted and wet-weight basis (ng/g) as parts per
billion.RESULTS: In the cross-sectional study, gas chromatographic analysis of 9 PCB congeners and 8 pesticides revealed that serum
PCB levels were significantly lower in the detoxification subjects than in controls. Trans-nonachlor (TNC), p,p'dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), oxychlordane, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) levels were also markedly lower in the
detoxification group. All subjects had undetectable levels of p,p'-DDT, lindane, and a-hexachlorocyclohexane (a-HCH). Betahexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) levels were significantly higher in detoxification subjects than in controls. In the longitudinal
evaluation, after treatment, mean levels of PCBs (46%) and beta-HCH (58%) declined significantly in the subjects.
CONCLUSIONS:
The higher beta-HCH levels in the subjects in the longitudinal study appear to be an anomaly related to diet. The results of the 2
studies generally suggest that lipophil-mediated detoxification may be effective in reducing body burdens of fat-soluble toxicants. As
numerous people worldwide are at risk from high body burdens of such lipid-soluble agents, further studies to evaluate this procedure
appear warranted.

J Munasinghe TC, Seneviratne CK, Thabrew MI, Abeysekera AM. Antiradical and antilipoperoxidative effects of some plant extracts
used by Sri Lankan traditional medical practitioners for cardioprotection. Phytother Res. 2001;15(6):519-23.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.

28

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in many pathogenic processes including the cardiovascular system. Detoxification of
ROS by antioxidants (AO) therefore affords protection against such diseases. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that
antioxidants contribute to cardioprotection. Therefore, nine plants that are components of Ayurvedic formulations used for the therapy
of cardiovascular diseases were investigated to determine whether antioxidant activity is one of the mechanisms by which these plants
exert cardioprotection. Initially aqueous freeze dried extracts of the plants were prepared and the antioxidant activity was measured (a)
in vitro, by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and deoxyribose damage protection assays, and (b) in vivo, by
effects on lipid peroxidation. Terminalia Arjuna showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity with EC(50) 8.3 +/- 0.3
microg/mL (similar to L-ascorbic acid). The potency of this activity was much lower in Cassia fistula (EC(50) = 59.0 +/- 2.7
microg/mL). The other seven extracts demonstrated no such activity in the concentration range tested. In the deoxyribose damage
protection assay, T. Arjuna> demonstrated no significant effect in the concentration range 0-20 microg/mL, but above -20 microg/mL
concentration (20-125 microg/mL), a pro-oxidant activity was observed (although markedly less than demonstrated by L-ascorbic
acid). A similar trend was observed with Vitex negundo. In contrast, C. fistula afforded a 30% protection against such damage at 125
microg/mL concentration. Other plant extracts did not show any activity in this assay. At a dose of 90 mg/kg (single dose) T. Arjuna,
cardiac lipid peroxidation in male Wistar rats was reduced by 38.8% +/- 2.6% (p<0.05) whereas the reduction was only 11.6% +/3.5% in the case of C. fistula even at a dose of 120 mg/kg. Of all the plants tested, T. Arjuna demonstrated the highest antioxidant
activity. Overall results show that only some plants used in the therapy of cardiovascular disease exert their beneficial effects via
antioxidant activity.

Jadhav
AN,
Bhutani
KK.
Ayurveda
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

and

gynecological

disorders.J

EthnoPharmacol.

2005;97(1):151-9.

Abstract.
The science of life--Ayurveda is practiced in India since time immemorial. Besides being cheap and easily available Ayurvedic drugs
are considered safe. Moreover, there is surge in the interest in Ayurveda due to quest of alternative medicines. Many of the
gynecological disorders being not reported to the physicians, are treated with household remedies in India. The science of Ayurveda
deals with these issues in a systematic manner as evident from the classification of diseases available and the number of plant drugs or
the combinations thereof available for the treatment. In the present Article, Ayurvedic herbal formulations and single plant drugs used
traditionally in treatment of gynecological disorders are described.

Jagtap AG, Shirke SS, Phadke AS. Effect of polyherbal formulation on experimental models of inflammatory bowel diseases. J
EthnoPharmacol. 2004 ;90(2-3):195-204. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
A polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation from an ancient authentic classical text of Ayurveda was evaluated for its activity against
inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The polyherbal formulation contained four different drugs viz.Bilwa (Aegle marmeloes), Dhanyak
(Coriandrum sativum), Musta (Cyperus rotundus) and Vala (Vetiveria zinzanioids). The formulation has been tried before in clinical
practice and was found to be useful in certain number of cases of IBD (ulcerative colitis), so was tried in the same form i.e.decoction
(aqueous extract) in experimental animals to revalidate the claims of the same. The formulation was tried on two different
experimental animal models of inflammatory bowel disease, which are acetic acid-induced colitis in mice and indomethacin-induced
enterocolitis in rats. Prednisolone was used as the standard drug for comparison. The formulation showed significant inhibitory
activity against inflammatory bowel disease induced in these experimental animal models. The activity was comparable with the
standard drug prednisolone. The results obtained established the efficacy of this polyherbal formulation against inflammatory bowel
diseases.

29

Joshi A, Kulkarni A, Chandran S, Jayaraman VK, Kulkarni BD. Nadi Tarangini:a pulse based diagnostic system. Conf Proc IEEE Eng
Med Biol Soc.2007;2007:2207-10. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Ayurveda is a traditional medicine and natural healing system in India. Nadi-Nidan (pulse-based diagnosis) is a prominent method in
Ayurveda, and is known to dictate all the salient features of a human body. In this paper, we provide details of our procedure for
obtaining the complete spectrum of the nadi pulses as a time series. The system Nadi Tarangini1 contains a diaphragm element
equipped with strain gauge, a transmitter cum amplifier, and a digitizer for quantifying analog signal. The system acquires the data
with 16-bit accuracy with practically no external electronic or interfering noise. Prior systems for obtaining the nadi pulses have been
few and far between, when compared to systems such as ECG. The waveforms obtained with our system have been compared with
these other similar equipment developed earlier, and is shown to contain more details. The pulse waveform is also shown to have the
desirable variations with respect to age of patients, and the pressure applied at the sensing element. The system is being evaluated by
Ayurvedic practitioners as a computer-aided diagnostic tool.

Joshi RR. A biostatistical approach to Ayurveda: quantifying the tridosha. J Altern Complement Med. 2004;10(5):879-89.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
OBJECTIVE:
To compute quantitative estimates of the tridosha--the qualitative characterization that constitutes the core of diagnosis and treatment
in Ayurveda--to provide a basis for biostatistical analysis of this ancient Indian science, which is a promising field of alternative
medicine.
SUBJECTS:
The data sources were 280 persons from among the residents and visitors/training students at the Brahmvarchas Research Centre and
Shantikuj, Hardwar, India.
DESIGN/METHODOLOGY:
A quantitative measure of the tridosha level (for Vata, Pitta, and Kapha) is obtained by applying an algorithmic heuristic approach to
the exhaustive list of qualitative features/factors that are commonly used by Ayurvedic doctors. A knowledge-based concept of worth
coefficients and fuzzy multiattribute decision functions are used here for regression modeling.
VALIDATION AND APPLICATIONS:
Statistical validation on a large sample shows the accuracy of this study's estimates with statistical confidence level above 90%. The
estimates are also suited for diagnostic and prognostic applications and systematic drug-response analysis of Ayurvedic (herbal and
Rasayanam) medicines. An application with regard to the former is elucidated, extensions of which might also be of use in
investigating the role of nadis in Ayurvedic healing vis-a-vis acupuncture and acupressure techniques. The importance and scope of
this novel approach are discussed.
CONCLUSIONS:
This pioneering study shows that the concept of tridosha has a sound empirical basis that could be used for the scientific
establishment of Ayurveda in a new light.

30

Jurenka JS. Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcuma longa: a review of preclinical and clinical
research. Altern Med Rev.2009;14(2):141-53. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.
Curcuma longa (turmeric) has a long history of use in Ayurvedic medicine as a treatment for inflammatory conditions. Turmeric
constituents include the three curcuminoids: curcumin (diferuloylmethane; the primary constituent and the one responsible for its
vibrant yellow color), demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, as well as volatile oils (tumerone, atlantone, and
Zingiberone), sugars, proteins, and resins. While numerous Pharmacological activities, including antioxidant and antimicrobial
properties, have been attributed to curcumin, this Article focuses on curcumin's anti-inflammatory properties and its use for
inflammatory conditions. Curcumin's effect on cancer (from an anti-inflammatory perspective) will also be discussed; however, an
exhaustive review of its many anticancer mechanisms is outside the scope of this Article. Research has shown curcumin to be a highly
pleiotropic molecule capable of interacting with numerous molecular targets involved in inflammation. Based on early cell culture and
animal research, clinical trials indicate curcumin may have potential as a therapeutic agent in diseases such as inflammatory bowel
disease, pancreatitis, arthritis, and chronic anterior uveitis, as well as certain types of cancer. Because of curcumin's rapid plasma
clearance and conjugation, its therapeutic usefulness has been somewhat limited, leading researchers to investigate the benefits of
complexing curcumin with other substances to increase systemic bioavailability. Numerous in-progress clinical trials should provide
an even deeper understanding of the mechanisms and therapeutic potential of curcumin.

Kar AC, Maity SK, Rao MM, Mishra AK. AC 4 - An Ayurvedic contraceptive Agent. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha.
2002;23(3-4):76-81.
Abstract.:
A study on AC-4 (Coded drug) was carried out CRI (Ay), Kolkata about the contraceptive effect for which 85 women were included.
The cases were followed up to 36th cycle. Out of 85 cases, 22 cases are taking medicine and 5 cases show pregnancy due to drug
omission. Only 2 cases show side effects and rest cases discontinued due to other reasons.

Kar AC, Rao MM, Devidas KV. Relevance of Proper Collection, Storage and PreserVation of Ayurvedaic Drugs in relation to GMP
of ISM Drugs. B.M.E.B.R,New Delhi. 2000;21( 3-4): 66-70.
Abstract.:
Therapeutic uses of plant products have gained considerable momentum in the world during the past decade and India ID one of the
major produced and supplier of Ayurvedic Drugs. Since the quantum of the production increased and export market opened up, strict
manufacturing practices are to be enforced to keep up quality of these products. This paper explains the quality control of raw drugs
at the stage of its collection, preserVation and storage based on Ayurvedic classics and also the importance of its place of cultivation
agro-ecological and agro climatic conditions etc. which will ultimately relevant to its therapeutic properties.

Kar AC, Rao MM, Devidas KV. Preventive and curative measures of Slipada (Filariasis) on the basis of Kriyakala. Sachitra
Ayurveda.2002;(10): 71-75.
Abstract.:
The disease Slipada , which is described in classical Ayurvedic literature is now well recognized as filariasis as described in modern
medicine. Though this disease is not fatal but has a socio economic and psychological impact on the society. Ayurveda being true to
its fundamental concept of diseases does not describe the causative factor as parasites but attributes the disease to doshic vitiation of

31

Kapha involving mamsa and rakta. The objectives of Ayurveda are not only to cure the disease but also prevention of the same before
its onset. This is only possible if one understands the evolution of disease process. The concept has been developed in relevance to
the fundamental Tridosha theory of Ayurveda and the term satKriyakala has been described in reference to the respective changes n
the three doshas. The approach behind the satKriyakala is the early detection of disease and earliest therapeutic intervention so that
further progress may be checked as the treatment becomes difficult during the advanced stage of a disease.So before treatment it is
more important to know the evolution of disease process. Here in this paper, it has been focused more to undertstand the evolution of
Filariasis on the basis of satKriyakala by incorporating the description of Slipada as available in Ayurvedic texts to be presented
under the heading of Nidan and Samprapti.

Khalsa KP. The practitioner's perspective: introduction to Ayurvedic herbalism. J Herb Pharmacother. 2007;7(3-4):129-42.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Ayurveda, the indigenous holistic healing system of India, is a holistic approach to health and lifestyle management that incorporates
diet, exercise, life activity routines, psychotherapeutic practices, massage and botanical medicine. Ayurveda focuses on prevention,
applying techniques of self-care to restore health balance quickly and effectively. Ayurveda is one of the four large, long-practiced
ethnic herbal medicine systems with large extant literatures (along with Western, Chinese and Unani). It affords valuable clinical
insights in its own right. Acquiring a basis in Ayurveda will enhance access to south Asian herbs and indigenous medicinal
preparations.

Khan S, Balick MJ. Therapeutic plants of Ayurveda: a review of selected clinical and other studies for 166 species. J Altern
Complement Med. 2001;7(5):405-515. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
This paper reports on the results of a literature survey involving 166 different species of plants used in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia,
based on a sampling of the literature available to us. We found a wide range of clinical and other in vivo studies for many of the plantbased therapies utilized in the Ayurvedic system. Of the 166 plants investigated, 72 (43%) had at least one or more human studies and
103 (62%) had one or more animal studies. These results appear to contradict the generally held notion that herbal remedies used in
non-Western systems of botanical medicine have not been evaluated in human or in vivo trials. Some of these studies are not always as
large or methodologically rigorous as clinical studies reported in major medical journals. Indeed, a critical assessment of the research
according to the standards of evidence-based medicine would eliminate many of these studies for lack of rigor according to criteria of
randomization, sample size, adequacy of controls, etc. However, the studies do suggest which species might be appropriate for larger
and better-controlled trials in the future. Accordingly, a synopsis of the plants, their therapeutic applications, and their clinical or
experimental evaluations is presented.

Krishnamurthy MN, Telles S. Assessing depression following two ancient Indian interventions: effects of yoga and Ayurveda on older
adults in a residential home. J Gerontol Nurs.2007;33(2):17-23. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The effects of yoga and Ayurveda on geriatric depression were evaluated in 69 persons older than 60 who were living in a residential
home. PArticipants were stratified by age and gender and randomly allocated to three groups: Yoga, Ayurveda, and Wait-list Control.
The 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale was used to assess depressive symptoms prior to the intervention, and after 3 months and 6
months post-intervention. PArticipation in one of the three groups lasted 24 weeks. The yoga program (7 hours 30 minutes per week)
included physical postures, relaxation techniques, regulated breathing, devotional songs, and lectures. The Ayurveda Group received
an herbal preparation twice daily for the whole period. The depression symptom scores of the Yoga Group at both 3 and 6 months

32

decreased significantly, from a group average baseline of 10.6 to 8.1 and 6.7, respectively (p < 0.001, paired t-test). The other groups
showed no change. Hence, an integrated approach of yoga including the mental and philosophical aspects in addition to the physical
practices was useful for institutionalized older persons.

Kulkarni M, Deopujari JY, Purohit HJ. Synergistic effect of Ayurvedic pearl preparation on enhancing effectiveness of antibiotics.
Indian J Exp Biol. 2002;40(7):831-4. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.
Studies were carried out with Ayurvedic preparations derived from pearl, which include preparations bhasma and pishti. The
synergistic effect to reduce the dose of antibiotic was tested against E. coli the test bacterium with ampicillin antibiotic by bore well
and disks diffusion methods. It was observed that pearl preparations do not show any antibacterial activity but when used at 200
microg/ml concentration with antibiotics, then even at sub-lethal dose, the antibiotic has effectively shown the results with reduced
contact time. The protocol was also tested with the other bacteria like, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Vibrio cholarae, Salmonella typhi,
and Staphylococcus aureus and has shown similar results. The pearl bhasma synergistic effect was also tested with other antibiotics
such as erythromycin, kanamycin, and ampicillin.

Kumar A, Singh G, Kumar N. Ayurvedic heritage of J and K: a review of Sri Ranbira Chikitsa Sudha Sara. Bull Indian Inst Hist Med
Hyderabad. 2001;31(2):133-8. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
This work reviews the contents of an Ayurvedic treatise "Sri Ranbira Chikitsa Sudha Sara" authored by Kaviraj Neel Kanth in the year
1931 of Vikrami, in 'Takari' script, the official script during the reign of his highness Maharaja Ranbir Singh of Jammu and Kashmir. A
copy of the book is presently available with Raghunath Sanskrit Library, Jammu in torn condition. This is a humble effort by the
authors for the exploration of hidden and old Ayurvedic literature of Jammu and Kashmir.

Kumar MS, Kirubanandan S, Sripriya R, Sehgal PK. Triphala promotes healing of infected full-thickness dermal wound. J Surg Res.
2008;144(1):94-101. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
BACKGROUND:
Infection is a major problem in the management of wounds. Even though the development of synthetic antimicrobial agents persists,
drug resistance and toxicity hinder their way. Many plants with multi-potent pharmaceutical activities may offer better treatment
options, and Triphala (dried fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica, and Phyllanthus emblica) are potential formulations
evaluated for healing activity on infected wound as it possesses numerous activities.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Alcoholic extract of Triphala has shown in vitro antimicrobial activity against wound pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Streptococcus pyogenes. An ointment was prepared from the Triphala extract (10% w/w) and assessed
for in vivo wound healing on infected rat model by rate of healing, bacterial count, biochemical analysis, and expression of matrix
metalloproteinases.
RESULTS:

33

The treated group has shown significantly improved wound closure. Assessment of granulation tissue on every fourth day showed
significant reduction in bacterial count with significant level of collagen, hexosamine, uronic acid, and superoxide dismutase in the
treated group (P < 0.01). Reduction of matrix metalloproteinase expression observed in the treated group by gelatin zymography and
immunoblotting confirms our in vivo assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The above results showed the antibacterial, wound healing, and
antioxidant activities of Triphala ointment, necessary for the management of infected wounds. Active principles of the Triphala may be
further evaluated and used as an excellent therapeutic formulation for infected wounds.

Lahorkar P, Ramitha K, Bansal V, Anantha Narayana DB. A comparative evaluation of medicated oils prepared using Ayurvedic and
modified processes.Indian J Pharm Sci.2009;71(6):656-62. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Medicated oils prepared using process as mentioned in Ayurveda are used for external and internal administrations to treat various
disorders. Taila pak vidhi provides detailed description of such processes. Medicated oils are prepared by prolonged cooking of
sesame oil with pasty mass of herbs and decoction of herbs in presence of large quantity of water. We report preliminary findings of
physicochemical and chromatographic profiles of changes brought out by such processes and the role of each component. Changes
observed when the processes were altered to deviate from those prescribed in Ayurveda are also reported.

Lal UR, Tripathi SM, Jachak SM, Bhutani KK, Singh IP. RP-HPLC analysis of Jirakadyarishta and chemical changes during
fermentation. Nat Prod Commun. 2010;5(11):1767-70. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Jirakadyarishta, an Ayurvedic formulation prepared by the fermentation of a decoction of Cuminum cyminum (seeds) is traditionally
used for intestinal disorders. RP-HPLC analysis of the decoction and the final processed formulation revealed that apigenin-7-O[galacturonide (1 --> 4)-O-glucoside] and luteolin-4'-O-glucoside-7-O-galacturonide) were the two major constituents of the decoction
of C. cyminum. Selective hydrolysis of 7-O-glucosides of luteolin and apigenin during fermentation resulted in an increase in the
amount of luteolin and apigenin. The 4'-O-glucoside-7-O-galacturonide of luteolin and galacturonide deriVative of apigenin were not
hydrolyzed during fermentation. Monomeric phenolics, together with 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), were also introduced into
the formulation through the jaggery and other plant materials during fermentation. This communication highlights the importance of
the ancient processing methods used in Ayurveda.

Lal UR, Tripathi SM, Jachak SM, Bhutani KK, Singh IP. Chemical changes during fermentation of Abhayarishta and its
standardization by HPLC-DAD. Nat Prod Commun. 2010;5(4):575-9. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Abhayarishta is an Ayurvedic formulation prepared traditionally by the fermentation of the decoction of Terminalia chebula (pericarp),
Vitis vinifera (fruits), Embelia ribes (fruits) and Madhuca indica (flowers). In the present communication, chemical changes occurring
during fermentation in Abhayarishta have been studied for the purpose of its standardization. An HPLC-DAD method for quantitative
estimation of selected marker constituents in the formulation has been developed and validated. A comparison of decoction and final
processed formulation revealed that major polyphenolics (chebulagic and chebulinic acid) of T. chebula were hydrolyzed to their
respective monomers and, consequently, there was an increase in the amount of chebulic acid, gallic acid, ellagic acid and ethyl gallate
after fermentation. 5-Hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF) was also found in the formulation. Thus, emphasis is laid upon consideration
of processing methods of formulation which has been lacking in the standardization of most of Ayurvedic formulations.

34

Maity SK, Kar AC, Rao MM, Mishra AK. A clinical trial on Vyana vala Vaishamya (Hypertention) by Ayurvedic drugs. Journal of
Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2000; 21 (3-4): 91-97.
Abstract.:
Vyana Bala Vaishamya hypertension is a common health problem occurring in about 2-15% of population in India and many other
countries. So many Ayurvedic physicians are treating this disease successfully. But to give rationales to the effectiveness of Ayurvedic
drugs and to provide statistically viable scientific data in the subject, a blind trial had been conducted during the year 1992-1999 at
CRI, Calcutta as per the direction of CCRAS, New Delhi. Tagaradi and Usheeradi churna were undertaken for this trial and it was
found that Ushiradi Churna was more effective than Tagaradi churna. More than 50% cases showed good response to the treatment.
Very few cases showed poor and no response. Regarding the response of individuals group is concerned Usheradi churana is more
effective than Tagaradi churna.

Manjunath NK, Telles S. Influence of Yoga and Ayurveda on self-rated sleep in a geriatric population. Indian J Med Res.
2005;121(5):683-90. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:
Sleep in older persons is characterized by decreased ability to stay asleep, resulting in fragmented sleep and reduced daytime alertness.
Pharmacological treatment of insomnia in older persons is associated with hazardous side effects. Hence, the present study was
designed to compare the effects of Yoga and Ayurveda on the self rated sleep in a geriatric population.
METHODS:
Of the 120 residents from a home for the aged, 69 were stratified based on age (five year intervals) and randomly allocated to three
groups i.e.Yoga (physical postures, relaxation techniques, voluntarily regulated breathing and lectures on yoga philosophy), Ayurveda
(a herbal preparation), and Wait-list control (no intervention). The groups were evaluated for self-assessment of sleep over a one week
period at baseline, and after three and six months of the respective interventions.
RESULTS:
The Yoga group showed a significant decrease in the time taken to fall asleep (approximate group average decrease: 10 min, P<0.05),
an increase in the total number of hours slept (approximate group average increase: 60 min, P< 0.05) and in the feeling of being rested
in the morning based on a rating scale (P<0.05) after six months. The other groups showed no significant change.
INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION:
Yoga practice improved different aspects of sleep in a geriatric population.

Meena A K, Bansal Parveen, Kumar Sanjiv and Rao M M. Plants Herbal Wealth as Potential source of Ayurvedic Drug .Asian
Journal of Tradition Medicines.2009;4(4):51-69.
Abstract.
Nearly 80 % of the global population still depends upon the herbal drugs for their health care. There has been an increase demand for
the pharmaceutical products of Ayurveda in all over the world because of fact that the allopathic drugs have a side effect. In the
present context the Ayurvedic system of medicine is widely accepted and practiced by peoples no only in India but also in the
developed countries- such as Europe, USA, Japan, China, Canada etc. Plant based therapy are marked due to its low cost, easy
availability based on generation to generation knowledge. However, over commercial exploitation of these plant products and frequent

35

degradation of natural resources are reported to be major threats to medicinal plants in India. The aim of the present review is to
understand the knowledge of plants used for Ayurvedic preparations in relation to their use as therapeutic agents, Pharmacological
properties, medicinal plants being imported; medicinal plant parts being exported, endangered medicinal plants and availability of
medicinal plants in different bio-geographical zones of India so that the data and information of this review could be utilized in
drawing strategies for rational and more scientific use of medicinal plants in a way that can be extended for future scientific
investigation in different aspects. The development of this traditional Indian system of medicines with perspectives of safety, efficacy
and quality will help not only to preserve this traditional heritage but also to rationalize the use of natural products in health care
without side effects.

Meena A K, kaur Ramanjeet, Singh Brijendra, Yadav A K, Uttam Singh, Sachan Ayushy, Pal Bhavana, Rao M M. Review On
Antifungal Activities of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants Drug Invention Today.2010;2(2):146-148.
Abstract.
Infectious diseases represent a critical problem to health and they are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide.
The resistance to antibiotics and with the toxicity during prolonged treatment with several drugs due to this medicinal plants are
widely used by the traditional medical practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. Since ancient times, plants
have been an exemplary source of medicine. During the past several years, there has been an increasing incidence of fungal infections
due to a growth in immune compromised population such as organ transplant recipients, cancer and HIV/AIDS patients. The presented
review summarizes the information concerning the new profile of antifungal drugs obtaining from medicinal plants.

Meena A K, Rao M M, Kandale Ajit, Sannd R, Sharma Kiran , Niranjan U, Yadav A K. Standardisation of Desmodium gangeticum
A Traditional Ayurvedic Plant Drug Invention Today.2010;2(2):182-184 .
Abstract.
Desmodium gangeticum is a traditional Ayurvedic plant used for centuries as an anthelminthic, anti-catarrahal, diuretic, expectorant,
astringent, febrifuge, nervine tonic, anti diarrheal, bronchiodilator, vasopressor, analgesic, antipyretic, cardio tonic, stimulant,
antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. The whole plant, its extract and isolates have been extensively investigated in several
laboratories for their different biological activities. In addition researchers have evaluated the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant,
immunomodulatory and other Pharmacological effects of Desmodium gangeticum preparations/extracts.

Meena A K, Rao M M, Komal Preet, Padhi M M, Singh Arjun, Babu Ramesh. Comparative Study on Family Zingiberaceae Plants
Used In Ayurvedic Drugs. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2010;2(2): 58-60.
Abstract.
The present Article attempts to compare physico-chemical parameters of Zingiber officinalis Roxb.Hedychium spicatum Ham ex
Smith , Curcuma longa Linn belonging to common family Zingiberaceae. Each of them is considered to have huge medicinal value in
Ayurveda, Sidhha and Unani traditional medicines. Since ancient times, these drugs are used according to their medical value.
Investigation of such traditionally used medicinal plants is thus valuable on two levels, firstly, as a source of potential chemo
therapeutic drugs and secondly, as a measure of safety for the continued use of medicinal plants. The present paper attempts to
evaluate the physicochemical parameters like PH, Loss on drying at 105C, Water soluble extract, Alcohol soluble extract, Total Ash,
Acid insoluble ash and Thin layer chromatography. The study revealed specific identities for crude drug taken which will be useful in
identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

36

Meena A K, Rao MM, Rao V Nageswara, Komalpreet, Padhi MM and Babu Ramesh. Comparative Study of Various Plants of
Piperaceae Family Commonly Used in Ayurvedic Formulations. Research Journal Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry.2010; 2(5):
407-410.
Abstract.:
The present Article attempts to compare TLC and physico-chemical parameters of P. nigrum Linn.Piper cubeba Linn.Piper longum
Linn. and Piper chaba Hunter belonging to common family Piperaceae. Each of them is considered to have huge medicinal value in
Ayurveda, Sidhha and Unani traditional medicines. Since ancient times, these drugs are used according to their medical value.
Investigation of such traditionally used medicinal plants
is thus valuable on two levels, firstly, as a source of potential chemo therapeutic drugs and secondly, as a measure of safety for the
continued use of medicinal plants. The present paper attempts to evaluate the physicochemical parameters like pH, Loss on drying at
105C, Water soluble extract, Alcohol soluble extract, Total Ash, Acid insoluble ash and thin layer chromatography. The study
revealed specific identities for crude drug taken which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

Meena A K, Sachan Ayushy, Kaur Ramanjeet, Pal Bhavana, Rao M M, Singh Brijendra and Mishra Santosh Kumar. Quality
Assessment of Different Variants of Yogaraj Guggulu. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance. 2010;2(2):10-12.
Abstract.
Yogaraj -Guggulu is a widely used Ayurvedic formulation. Standardisation of the Ayurvedic medicine, Yogaraj a Guggulu has been
achieved by following modern scientific quality control procedures. It has been shown to have significant anti-inflammatory activity
in formaldehyde-induced arthritis and in croton oil granuloma. For the standardization of this drug physico-chemical parameters were
carried out such as moisture content, ash values, extractability in water and alcohol were carried out. Thin Layer Chromatography
studies were also carried out to ascertain the quality of this drug.

Mohapatra S, Reddy KR, Jha CB. Historical review of Svarna Makshika. Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad. 2007;37(2):153-66.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The old age Ayurvedic claim about the therapeutic importance of metals and mineral bhasmas are time tasted. To make available the
evidence for use of metals and minerals in therapeutics and to provide the knowledge of processing techniques in ancient India it is
very much necessary to look over the history. Rasa shastra is the branch of Ayurvedic science which deals with the pharmaceutical
processings of the metals and minerals. Svarna Makshika is one of the most important materials described in various Rasa literatures
as well as in Sarmhitas and in other Ayurvedic texts. Going through the different literatures its different features, geological
distributions and various processing techniques like Shodhana, marana are found. In Samhita period only the features were described
but during 7th Cen. AD and onwards its processings were found. Now a day Svarrna Maksika is correlated with chalcopyrite by
modern metallurgists. The features of chalcopyrite are also given to assist the more study in this regard. In the current paper it is tried
to collect and compile all the related area about Svarna Makshika from all possible ancient literary resources as well as from possible
modern texts, to facilitate further research.

Mondal S, Mirdha BR, Mahapatra SC. The science behind sacredness of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.). Indian J Physiol Pharmacol.
2009 ;53(4):291-306. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.

37

Medicinal properties of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) are known for thousand years to various civilizations of the world. This
medicinal herb is considered as a sacred plant by the Hindus in the Indian subcontinent. Scientific explorations of traditional belief of
medicinal properties of Tulsi have got momentum mostly after the middle of the 20th century. In the present review, efforts have been
made to sum up different aspects of scientific studies on this medicinal plant. Scientific evidences are available on various medicinal
aspects i.e. antimicrobial, adaptogenic, antidiabetic, hepato-protective, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, radioprotective,
immunomodulatory, neuro-protective, cardio-protective, mosquito repellent etc. to name a few. Most of these evidences are based on
in-vitro, experimental and a few human studies.

Mukherjee PK, Wahile A. Integrated approaches towards drug development from Ayurveda and other Indian system of medicines. J
EthnoPharmacol. 2006;103(1):25-35. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Biodiversity of natural resources has served not only for the primary human needs but also for health care, since time immemorial.
The Indian subcontinent, with the history of one of the oldest civilization, harbors many traditional health care systems. Their
development was supported by the diverse biodiversity in flora and fauna due to variations in geographical landscaping. Ayurveda,
whose history goes back to 5000 b.c.is one of the ancient health care systems. The Ayurveda was developed through daily life
experiences with the mutual relationship between mankind and nature. The ancient text of Ayurveda reports more than 2000 plant
species for their therapeutic potentials. Besides Ayurveda, other traditional and folklore systems of health care were developed in the
different time periods in Indian subcontinent, where more than 7500 plant species were used. According to a WHO estimate, about
80% of the world population relies on traditional systems of medicines for primary health care, where plants form the dominant
component over other natural resources. Renewed interest of developing as well as developed countries in the natural resources has
opened new horizons for the exploration of natural sources with the perspectives of safety and efficacy. The development of these
traditional systems of medicines with the perspectives of safety, efficacy and quality will help not only to preserve this traditional
heritage but also to rationalize the use of natural products in the health care. Until recent past, the nature was considered as a
compendium for templates of new chemical entities (NCEs). The plant species mentioned in the ancient texts of these Ayurveda and
other Indian systems of medicines may be explored with the modern scientific approaches for better leads in the health care.

Murali Krishna C, Gupta V, Bansal P, Kumar S, Sannd R, Narayana A. Review on plants mainly used for the preparation of kshar
sutra. International Journal of Ayurvedic Medicine. 2010;1(1):12-22 http://ijam.co.in/index.php/ijam/Article/view/01011002/2
Abstract.
Many herbal remedies individually or in combination have been recommended in various medical treatises for the cure of different
diseases. Ksharsutra- an Ayurvedic para-surgical measure is used the treatment of Nadi Vrana (sinus), Bhagandara (fistula- in - ano),
arbuda (excision of small benign tumour) etc. by using different medicinal plants. The standard kshar sutra is prepared by using snuhi
ksheera (latex of Euphorbia nerrifolia Linn), apamarg kshar (water extract of ashes of Achyranthus aspera Linn plant) and haridra
powder (powder of Curcuma longa L). This review mainly focuses on the plants that are used in preparation of Ksharsutra so that
more research work is carried out in the direction of standardization, therapeutic level determination of Ksharsutra plants.

Narahari SR, Ryan TJ, Mahadevan PE, Bose KS, PRasanna KS. Integrated management of filarial lymphedema for rural communities.
Lymphology. 2007;40(1):3-13. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.

38

The Global Alliance for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GAELF) has recommended exploring local health traditions of skin
care and a low cost treatment paradigm for rural communities has been proposed by Vaqas and Ryan. Our case study incorporates
these promising treatments for use in treating filariasis in rural communities. Patients having lymphedema of one or both lower limbs
(skin: normal, thickened or with trophic/warty changes) received treatment components from Ayurveda, yoga and biomedicine
simultaneously: including soap wash, phanta soaking, Indian manual lymph drainage (IMLD), pre- and post-IMLD yoga exercises,
and compression using bandages for 194 days, along with diet restrictions and oral herbal medicines indicated for "elephantiasis" in
Ayurveda. Entry points when infected were treated with biomedical drugs. The study was conducted in the reverse Pharmacology
design. 112 patients and 149 lower limbs completed 194 days of treatment during 2003-2006. Significant improvements were
observed in the limb circumference measurements and the frequency of acute dermatolymphangioadenitis, use of preventive
antibiotics, and reduction in the number of entry points were also improved. The objective to obtain significant benefit for a common
problem using locally available, sustainable and affordable means has been achieved. It has not been our purpose to show that the
regimen employed is better than another but the results do pose the question--"Are there components of Ayurvedic medicine that
deserve further study?" It is important to understand that the regimen has been delivered mostly at home and that pArticipants we have
treated, representing a population suffering from a common problem, have not had access to effective conserVative therapy that is
culturally acceptable, safe, and efficacious.

Narahari SR, Ryan TJ, Aggithaya MG, Bose KS, PRasanna KS. Evidence-based approaches for the Ayurvedic traditional herbal
formulations:
toward
an
AyurvedicCONSORT
model.
J
Altern
Complement
Med.
2008;14(6):769-76.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
This paper considers the problem of evaluating multimodal integrative medicine treatments for complex pathologic conditions. The
example is given of evaluation of highly successful treatments of lymphedema using Ayurvedic and Yoga medicine practices together
with modern medicine. For a framework to evaluate such a complex intervention, we base our proposal on Consolidated Standards of
Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines.

Nohr LA, Rasmussen LB, Straand J. Resin from the mukul myrrh tree, guggul, can it be used for treating hypercholesterolemia? A
randomized, controlled study.Complement Ther Med. 2009;17(1):16-22. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.
BACKGROUND: Guggul, herbal extract from resin of the Commiphora mukul tree, is widely used in Asia as a cholesterol-lowering
agent based on Indian Ayurvedic medicine. Its popularity for this use is increasing in the US and Western Europe. Guggulsterones, the
presumed bioactive compounds of guggul, may antagonise two nuclear hormone receptors involved in cholesterol Metabolism, which
is a possible explanation for hypolipidemic effects of these extracts. However, publications of efficacy data on the use of guggul
extracts in Western populations are scarce.
OBJECTIVE:
To study the efficacy of a guggul-based formulation (short: guggul) on blood lipids in healthy adults with moderately increased
cholesterol.
METHODS:
Double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial in Norwegian general practice. 43 women and men, age 27-70, with moderately
increased cholesterol, randomised to use 2160mg guggul (4 capsules) daily, or placebo for 12 weeks.OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean
change in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)

39

and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio compared with baseline. Lipids were analysed at baseline, and at 6 and 12 weeks. In addition,
unexpected events and adverse effects were recorded.RESULTS: Two dropouts, one withdrawal, and incomplete lab results for six
persons left 34 pArticipants to accomplish the trial (18-guggul, 16-placebo) with complete lab test data. After 12 weeks, mean levels
of total cholesterol and HDL-C in the active group were significantly reduced compared with the placebo group. However, the mean
levels of LDL-C, triglycerides, and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio between the two groups did not change significantly. Ten guggul
users (vs. four in the placebo group) reported side effects: mild gastrointestinal discomfort (n=7), possible thyroid problems (n=2), and
generalized skin rash (n=1). The latter resulted in withdrawal from trial.
CONCLUSIONS:
Even if total cholesterol and HDL-C were significantly reduced, the clinical magnitude of this remains obscure. More and larger
studies are needed to establish effects and safety of guggul-based formulations in the treatment for hypercholesterolemia.

Padhi MM, Das B, Audichya KC, Rao MM. Some important Ayurvedic literatures from the manuscripts available at Orissa
(1.Chikitsarnava). Bulletin of Indian Institute of History of Medicine. 2005;35:33-40.
Abstract.:
In the treasure of Ayurvedic literature many texts are missing or pArtially available. Only references or few verses from many such
texts are mentioned in later texts. Unfortunately a large number of Ayurvedic texts are explored till today are likely to exist in palm
leaf manuscripts, which are decaying or undergoing permanent annihilation. As such many unique and valuable informations
contained in these texts are being lost. Though several Institutions have taken up work on literary Research, only few texts have been
published during past decades, The present paper highlights the salient features of the text Chikisarnava authored by Visvanath
Sena of 16th century of Orissa. Though his text on Pathypathya has already been published, which has a got a place in the pages of
history of Ayurveda, a very little is known about this important text on therapeutics. Various aspects of this text and its author have
been discussed to bring it into the knowledge of fraternity of Ayurvedic physicians and Sanskrit scholars.

Padhi MM, Das B, Rao MM. Role of Jalaukacharan (Leech application) in the treatment of Vicharchika (Eczema). Ayurveda Maha
Sammelan Patrika.2007;(94/2): 31-33.
Abstract.:
In Ayurveda specific skin diseases causing long term discoloration and other problems have been grouped as Kustha. Kustha has been
further classified as MahaKustha and Ksudra Kustha comprising of 11 and 7 types of diseases respectively. Vicharchika is one out of
11 Ksudra Ksudrain which all the three basic humors are told to be vitiated. Further there is difference in the description of clinical
features of this disease. The KayaChikitsa group of schools like Charak, Vagbhata have narrated it as SaKandu, (itching), Pidaka
(lesion, macules, pustules etc), Sayba (reddish-black) and Vahusrava or Lasikaddya (with much exudates) while Sushruta and Bhoja
describe it with Kandu (itching), Arti (Pain), Ruksha (rough or dry) and akin to oozing eczema and dry eczema. This disease
entityalso comes under the group of Raktapraqdosaj diseases.Since it is an allergic disorder sometimes one may know the Particular
external factor causing the reaction, but very often some internal factors cannot be detected. Though the disease is not fatal, it poses
serious cosmetic problem and discomfort. Very often it replaces leaving thickness of skin like bark of a tree with
discoloration/disfiguration of the part and formulation of crusts or scales. The oozing tyupe of eczema gets secondary infection with
bacteria, fungus etc. and cause more discomport. In modern system of medicine very often temporary relief is obtained by using
steroidal or non steroidal drugs. In case of Ayurvedic medicines also tough there is a better chance of relief one has to take a number
of medicines for long period.

Padhi MM, Das B, Srinivas P, Kori VK, Nanda GC, Rao MM, Tewari NS, Audichya KC. Efficacy of brahmi yoga in Vyanabala
Vaishamya (Hypertension) A clinical study.Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2009;30(3):65-74.

40

Abstract.:
Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiac vascular mortality which accounts for 20-50% of all deaths. Most of the
allopathic drugs have minor side effects and since multiple drugs have to be taken for a longer period, non compliance is also a major
problem. With an aim to evolve effective herbal preparation a compound namely Brahmi Yoga was tried on 113 patients.
Assessment was done according to changes in measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as according to changes in
severity of related symptoms like Headache, Dizziness, Irritability, Insomnia, Fatigue and weakness. The analysis of results indicated
statistically higher significant effect of the drug. The overall results indicated Good response in 50(44.2%), Fair response in
45(39.8%), Poor response in 17(15.04%) and no response in 01 (0.8%) case. It is suggested to make further study of this formulation
in any extract form.

Padhi MM, Rana DK, Rao MM. Some explorative information regarding JwaratimiRabhaskara and its author Kayastha chamunda.
Bulletin of Indian Institute of History of Medicine. 2005;35(2); 93-99.
Abstract.:
Out of the treasure of Ayurvedic literature, a few texts have come into lime light while some are in dark and available in incomplete
form. But many names of the texts with unknown or known authors have been quoted by different subsequent authors in their texts or
in the explications by their commentators for which complete textare not available at present. Among the texts on specific diseases,
one notable work is JwaratimiRabhaskara written by Jyastha Camunda. Nowhere a detailed account of authors identity, time and
place has been mentioned, while short references are available in some historical books, However manuscripts of this text are
available in many repositories of our country. In this Article an attempt has been made to establish the identity of the author, period of
the text and also to highlight the salient features of this text.

Padhi MM, Rao MM, Sharma MM, Hota NP. A critical study of the manuscripts of Paryaya Muktavali available at Orissa. Bull Indian
Inst Hist Med Hyderabad. 2007;37(1):81-6. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Though the Nidana book of Madhavakara has been very popular among Ayurvedic fraternity his other deeds on Dravyaguna, Chikitsa
etc. could not come to lime light due to lack of sufficient number of manuscripts for comparison and editing. One such text is Paryaya
Muktavali, manuscripts of which are plentily available in the State of Orissa. This modified text redacted by Hari Charana Sena, is a
bright example of scribal error and missing of verses which occur during repeated scribe in palm leaf manuscript. This is a lexicon of
drugs, which is prime necessity of Dravyaguna and Rasashastra. Publication of such text will be an addition to the treasure of
Ayurvedic texts.

Pancabhai TS, Kulkarni UP, Rege NN. Validation of therapeutic claims of Tinospora cordifolia: a review. Phytother Res.
2008;22(4):425-41. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
This review Article attempts to correlate Ayurvedic Pharmacology and therapeutic claims for Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) with the
evidence generated using scientific research methodology. In the present paper, a brief description of Ayurvedic Pharmacology of the
plant is presented. The work carried out by researchers using extracts of Tc in various areas such as diabetes, liver damage, free radical
mediated injury, infections, stress and cancer have been reviewed. Also discussed are the immunomodulatory, diuretic,
antiinflammatory, analgesic, anticholinesterase and gastrointestinal protective effects. An attempt has been made to provide the readers

41

with the array of outcome variables, which can be further worked upon in clinical studies. Finally, this paper puts forth issues that
need to be addressed by researchers in the future.

Panda AK, Debnath SK. Overdose effect of aconite containing Ayurvedic Medicine ('Mahashankha Vati). Int J Ayurveda Res.
2010;1(3):183-6. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
There are chances that the use of larger than recommended dose of Ayurvedic medicines containing aconite can produce drug
reactions. Vatsanabha (Aconitum ferox Wall.) is a very well-known ingredient of Ayurvedic formulations and is prescribed as an
antipyretic, analgesic, anti-rheumatic, appetizer and digestive. The recommended dose of purified Vatsanabha (A. ferox Wall.) root is
15 mg. We present a case of hypotension and bradycardia due to aconite poisoning caused by overdosing of an Ayurvedic medicine
(Mahashankha Vati), which was primarily managed by Ayurvedic treatment.

Panda Purnendu, Meena AK, Rao MM, Sannd R, Reddy Govind, Padhi MM and Babu Ramesh. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of
Singhanada Guggulu and Vatari Guggulu: A Pharmacological Study. Research J. Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics.2011;3(1): 1718.
Abstract.:
Singhanada Guggulu and Vatari Guggulu are well known Ayurvedic Guggulu formulations which have been used since 11th century
AD. for the treatment of disease Amavata (Rheumatoid Arthritis):. Both the trial drugs are contain same ingredients i.e Triphala,
Guggulu, gandhaka and eranda taila, but their method of preparations are different. To evaluate the anti inflammatory activity of the
trial drugs the animal experiment has carried out by Carrageenin induced hind paw oedema test. The trial drug Singhanada Guggulu
found significant suppression while Vatari Guggulu produced only weak suppression in paw oedema of experimental animals.

Pandey MM, Rastogi S, Rawat AK. Saussurea costus: botanical, chemical and Pharmacological review of an Ayurvedic medicinal
plant. J EthnoPharmacol. 2007;110(3):379-90. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.
Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipschitz, syn Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke is a well known and important medicinal plant widely used in
several indigenous systems of medicine for the treatment of various ailments, viz. asthma, inflammatory diseases, ulcer and stomach
problems. Sesquiterpene lactones have been reported as the major phytoconstituents of this species. Different Pharmacological
experiments in a number of in vitro and in vivo models have convincingly demonstrated the ability of Saussurea costus to exhibit antiinflammatory, anti-ulcer, anticancer and hepatoprotective activities, lending support to the rationale behind several of its traditional
uses. Costunolide, dehydrocostus lactone and cynaropicrin, isolated from this plant, have been identified to have potential to be
developed as bioactive Molecules. Due to the remarkable biological activity of Saussurea costus and its constituents it will be
appropriate to develop them as a medicine. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the botany, chemistry,
Pharmacology and traditional and folkloric uses of Saussurea costus.

Patwardhan B, Bodeker G. Ayurvedic genomics: establishing a genetic basis for mind-body typologies. J Altern Complement Med.
2008;14(5):571- 6. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.

42

BACKGROUND:
Ayurveda, India's natural health care tradition, has a unique way of classifying human population based on individual constitution or
Prakriti. Ayurveda's tridosha theory identifies principles of motion (Vata), Metabolism (Pitta), and structure (Kapha) as discrete
phenotypic groupings. Patwardhan et al. (2005) hypothesized in a paper published in this journal that there is a genetic connotation to
Prakriti and as proof of this concept showed a correlation between HLA alleles and Prakriti type, establishing a rationale and
preliminary experimental support for the concept of an association between HLA alleles and the Ayurvedic tridosha theory of
individual Prakriti types. This work is both part of and a catalyst for a wider revolution in the scientific investigation of Ayurveda in
India, referred to as "Ayurvedic biology" and "AyuGenomics." Subsequently, Chen et al. (2007) reported a similar study in this journal
using a classification based on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory.
CONCLUSIONS:
The findings of a genetic basis for both Ayurvedic and TCM classifications indicate a commonality between Asia's great medical
traditions in their diagnostic typologies and a genetic basis for Asian traditional medicine's theory of discrete and discernable
groupings of psycho-physiologic differences. Accordingly, new horizons have opened for collaborative East-East research and for an
individualized approach to disease management and activation of the full range of human potential, as Articulated in Ayurveda and
TCM.

Patwardhan Bhushan, Mashelkar Raghunath Anant. Traditional medicine-inspired approaches to drug discovery: can Ayurveda show
the way forward?. Drug Discovery Today.2009;14(15-16):804-811.
Abstract.
Drug discovery strategies based on natural products and traditional medicines are re-emerging as attractive options. We suggest that
drug discovery and development need not always be confined to new molecular entities. Rationally designed, carefully standardized,
synergistic traditional herbal formulations and botanical drug products with robust scientific evidence can also be alternatives. A
reverse Pharmacology approach, inspired by traditional medicine and Ayurveda, can offer a smart strategy for new drug candidates to
facilitate discovery process and also for the development of rational synergistic botanical formulations.

Patwardhan K, Gehlot S, Singh G, Rathore HC. Global challenges of graduate level Ayurvedic education: A survey. Int J Ayurveda
Res. 2010;1(1):49-54. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
In the present day scenario, Ayurveda is globally being perceived in several contradictory ways. Poor quality of Ayurveda graduates
produced as a result of poorly structured and poorly regulated education system is at least one of the important factors responsible for
this scenario. The present study was carried out to evaluate the 'Global challenges of graduate level Ayurvedic education' and is based
on the responses of Ayurvedic students and Ayurvedic teachers from various educational institutions of India to a methodically
validated questionnaire. As the study indicates, the poor standard of Ayurvedic education in India is definitely a cause of concern. The
curriculum of Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery (BAMS) course of studies is required to be reviewed and restructured. The
syllabi are required to be updated with certain relevant topics like laws governing the intellectual property rights, basic procedures of
standardization of medicinal products, fundamental methods of evaluating the toxicity of the medicinal products, essentials of
healthcare management and the basics of cultivation and marketing of medicinal plants. Furthermore, the study suggests that the
Ayurvedic academicians are required to be trained in standard methods of research and documentation skills, and the educational
institutions are required to be encouraged to contribute their share in building up the evidence base for Ayurveda in the form of quality
education and research.

43

Ponnusankar S, Pandit S, Babu R, Bandyopadhyay A, Mukherjee PK. Cytochrome P450 inhibitory potential of Triphala--a Rasayana
from Ayurveda. J EthnoPharmacol. 2011;133(1):120-5. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: '
Triphala' is one of the age-old, most commonly used polyherbal preparation from Ayurveda as Rasayana drug.
AIM OF THE STUDY:
This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of 'Triphala' on drug modulating enzymes to assess its safety through its potential to
interact with co-administered drugs.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The cytochrome P450 inhibitory effect of 'Triphala' formulation was investigated on rat liver microsomes using CYP450-CO complex
assay and on individual isoform such as CYP3A4 and 2D6 using fluorescence screening. RP-HPLC method was developed to
standardize 'Triphala' and its individual components using gallic acid as analytical marker compound.
RESULTS:
RP-HPLC analysis demonstrated the presence of gallic acid (4.302.09 mg/g) in the formulation. The formulation showed 23%
inhibition of the rat liver microsomes through CYP450-CO complex assay which is comparatively less when compared with the
individual components. Further, the effect of standardized formulation dissolved in ethanol showed CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 inhibitory
activity at the IC(50) values of 119.651.91 g/ml and 105.030.98 g/ml respectively. Gallic acid was also found to inhibit both the
isoforms at the IC(50) valuesof87.241.11 g/ml and 92.030.38 g/ml respectively.
CONCLUSIONS:
Various concentrations of the formulation and its individual components showed significantly less inhibitory activity (p<0.001) on
individual isoforms when compared with the positive control. Assessment on the in vitro effect of 'Triphala' on drug modulating
enzymes has important implications for predicting the likelihood of herb-drug interactions if these are administered concomitantly.

Posmontier B, Teitelbaum M. An Ayurvedic approach to postpartum depression.Holist Nurs Pract. 2009; 23(4):201-14.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Ayurvedic medicine has existed for more than 5000 years but is only recently receiving recognition in current medical literature. The
purpose of this Article is to present an overview of Ayurvedic medicine, describe Ayurvedic treatment of postpartum depression,
discuss concerns about herbal preparations, and discuss implications for nursing practice and research.

Possemiers Sam, Bolca Selin, Verstraete Willy, Heyerick Arne. The intestinal microbiome: A separate organ inside the body with the
metabolic potential to influence the bioactivity of botanicals. Fitoterapia.2011;82(1):53-66.
Abstract.
For many years, it was believed that the main function of the large intestine was the resorption of water and salt and the facilitated
disposal of waste materials. However, this task definition was far from complete, as it did not consider the activity of the microbial
content of the large intestine. Nowadays it is clear that the complex microbial ecosystem in our intestines should be considered as a
separate organ within the body, with a metabolic capacity which exceeds the liver with a factor 100. The intestinal microbiome is

44

therefore closely involved in the first-pass Metabolism of dietary compounds. This is especially true for botanical supplements, which
are now marketed for various health applications. Being of natural origin, their structural building blocks, such as polyphenols, are
often highly recognized by the human and especially the intestinal microbial Metabolism machinery. Intensive Metabolism results in
often low circulating levels of the original products, with the consequence that final health effects of botanicals are often related to
specific active metabolites which are produced in the body rather than being related to the product's original composition.
Understanding how such metabolic processes contribute to the in situ exposure is therefore crucial for the proper interpretation of
biological responses. A multidisciplinary approach, characterizing the food and phytochemical intake as well as the metabolic potency
of the gut microbiota, while measuring biomarkers of both exposure and response in target tissues, is therefore of critical importance.
With polyphenol Metabolism as example, this review describes how the incorporation of microbial Metabolism as an important
variable in the evaluation of the final bioactivity of botanicals strongly increases the relevance and predictive value of the outcome.
Moreover, knowledge about intestinal processes may offer innoVative strategies for targeted product development.

Prakash S, Hernandez GT, Dujaili I, Bhalla V. Lead poisoning from an Ayurvedic herbal medicine in a patient with chronic kidney
disease. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2009;5(5):297-300. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
BACKGROUND:
A 60-year-old man with a history of diabetes and hypertension was referred to a nephrology clinic for investigation of his elevated
serum creatinine level.
INVESTIGATIONS:
Physical examination; laboratory investigations, including measurement of whole-blood lead level, body lead burden and urine
albumin:creatinine ratio; history of lead exposure and use of herbal medical products; and renal ultrasonography.
DIAGNOSIS:
Stage 3 chronic kidney disease that was probably worsened by consumption of lead in the form of an Ayurvedic herbal remedy.
MANAGEMENT:
Cessation of the herbal product, followed by lead-chelation therapy with calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The
patient's whole-body lead burden and blood lead level decreased to acceptable levels and his serum creatinine value was within the
normal range at final follow-up.

Prakash VB, Prakash S, Sharma R, Pal SK. Sustainable effect of Ayurvedic formulations in the treatment of nutritional anemia in
adolescent students. J Altern Complement Med. 2010;16(2):205-11. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
OBJECTIVES:
Anemia is a serious health problem in Indian school children. High prevalence of anemia has been reported in nonpregnant adolescent
girls. An investigation was initiated to study the effect of two non-iron-containing Ayurvedic preparations-Sootshekhar Rasa plus
Sitopaladi Churna-in improving nutritional anemia among adolescent students.DESIGN: This was a single-blinded, randomized,
controlled study.
SETTING:

45

The study setting was Dehradun district, North India.


SUBJECTS:
The subjects comprised a total of 1646 boys and girls, aged 11-18 years, attending school in Dehradun district.
INTERVENTION:
As per World Health Organization guidelines, a total of 1322 adolescent anemic students were randomly divided into 5 groups.
Students of group I (control) received starch. Group II, III, and IV students received Sootshekhar Rasa (SR) plus Sitopaladi Churna
(SC) in various combinations, namely, SR 125 mg + SC 500 mg daily, SR 250 mg + SC 400 mg daily, and SR 250 mg + SC 400 mg
weekly, respectively. Group V student were given iron and folic acid tablet. All the students received treatment for 90 days and were
followed up for the next 180 days.
OUTCOME MEASURE:
The outcome measure was to evaluate the effect of Sootshekhar Rasa plus Sitopaladi Churna in improving nutritional anemia.
RESULTS:
The overall prevalence of anemia was found to be 81.3%. At baseline, the mean hemoglobin (Hb) was 97.4 +/- 13.2 g/L and ranged
from 96.4 +/- 0.8 g/L to 98.3 +/- 0.8 g/L in various groups. At end of follow-up (day 270), a significant increase in Hb levels from
baseline was observed in all treatment groups; however, the Hb gain (6.9 +/- 0.6 g/L) in group III and group V (3.64 +/- 0.56 g/L)
differed significantly from the control group. A total of 155 students dropped out of the study due to various reasons not related to
treatment. No adverse side-effect of Ayurvedic medication was noted in any student.
CONCLUSIONS:
We conclude that a daily dose of Sootshekhar Rasa (250 mg) plus Sitopaladi Churna (400 mg) can produce sustainable improvement
of nutritional anemia in adolescent students.

Prasad GP, Neelima G, Pratap GP, Swamy GK. VksAyurveda of paraaraan ancient treatise on plant science. Bull Indian Inst Hist
Med Hyderabad. 2006;36(1):63-74. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
VksAyurveda of Paraara is a great contribution to the Botany in ancient India. N.N. Sircar and Roma sarkar edited this text with
English translation. Notes with comparative references of modern botany were added. This book can be placed in all probability in
between 1st century B.C to 4th century A.D by its linguistic style. Many scientific branches of Botany including origin of life,
ecology, distribution of forests, morphology, classification, nomenclature, histology and physiology were dealt in this ancient work.
Though it is presumed that this book was written by Paraara to teach Botany to preparatory to Ayurveda studies to ancient Ayurveda
students, it is true to the Ayurveda personals and other disciplines related to Botany of present day as well. Aim of this Article is to
attract the attention of all scholars who are related to Ayurveda and Botany and to feel the depth of the knowledge of ancient Indian
botany.

Prasad GP, Sastri PS, Swamy RK. Bhisaksudharnavam--an unexplored precious Andhrasampradaya Ayurveda Grantha. Bull Indian
Inst Hist Med Hyderabad. 2005;35(1):77-82. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.

46

In India many Ayurvedic books were written in regional languages like Telugu, Bengali, Orissa, Gujarati etc. Though some of them
are very useful, due to lack of maintenance and improper protection many of them became extinct and some of them are on the verge
of extinction. Bhisaksudharnavam is one among such books, which is on the verge of extinction, details of which are presented here.

Prasad PVV, Subhakta PKJ, Narayana Ala, Rao MM. Medico-historical study of Asvattha (Sacred Fig tree).Bulletin of Indian
Institute of History of Medicine. 2006; 36 (1):1-20.
Abstract.:
Asvattha (Ficus religiosa Linn.) is a tree which has got mythological religious and medicinal importance in Indian culture since
ancient times. As per Vedic index Asvattha means horse stand, place or site or an object where or under which horses stand. Asvattha
is also known as Pipal and Bodhidrma. This tree is the oldest depicted tree in India. In Vedic times it was used to make fire by
friction and considered sacred. AtharvaVeda associates with the third heaven. It discusses medicinal properties of Asvattha along
with Soma and Kustha. Asvattha is associated with the triad of Gods-Brahma, Visnu and Siva. Reference to Asvattha is found in
Ramayana, Mahabharata, Bhagavadgita, Buddhistric literature, Arthasatra, Puranas, Upanishds etc. Non medicalliturature also.
According to Ayurveda it has several synonyms. Most of them symbolize its sacredness. Asvattha is useful in various ailments like
consumption, vomiting, ulcers in oral cavity, burns, gynaecological problems etc. Thus its medico-historical importance, regional
nomenclature, morphological features in brief etc. are being presented in this Article with few illustrations.

Prasad PVV, Subhakta PKJP, Narayana Ala, Rao MM. Palasa (Butea monosperma (LAMK.TAUB.) and its medico-historical
study.Bulletin of Indian Institute of History of Medicine. 2006;36 (2): 117-132.
Abstract.:
Palasa {Butea monosperma (Lamk.) Taub} is considered scared both by Hindus and Buddhists. It is known to the Hindus under the
Sanskrit name Palasa as sit possesses valuable medicinal properties. This sacred tree is being called the treasurer of the Gods and of
sacrifice. It grows throughout India except in very arid parts and is a medium sized deciduous tree. Parts used are bark, leaf, flower,
seed and gum. It is mainly useful as anti helminthic appetizer, aphrodisiac, laxative etc. Thus its medico-historical aspects are being
presented in this paper.

Rao MM, Bhattacharya P, Maity SK, Pandey DR, Hazra JR. Community Health Care Programme in rural areas in North 24 Parganas
District of West Bengal A Report of some observations. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2003;24 (3-4): 114-125.
Abstract.
The community Health Care Programme was conducted in 12 villages of District North 24 Parganas of West Bengal, which includes
personal interviews, group discussions, clinical evaluations, gathering information about the folklore etc. The studies were conducted
from 1974 to 2000 in 12 villages within a distance of radius of 15 to 25 km. from Central Research Institute (Ay.) Kolkata. A total
number of 16,143 individuals were studied and the treatment was provided to 6880 patients during the regular intervals. During this
period, it was found that the prevalent diseases in the area were AmlaPitta (15.23%), Atisara (12.22%), Krimi (10.03%).Jwara
(9.38%), Kasa (8.95%), Twak roga (8.05%), Kandu (4.78%), Pravahika (3.11%), Pradara roga (2.56%) and Grahani roga (1.97%).
And it was observed that these diseases are mainly due to mal-nutrition, ignorance and poor hygienic conditions.

Rao M.M, Das B, Nanda GC, Padhi MM. The role of Pichu (Taila) application in the management of Arsha (Haemorrhoids). Journal
of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2006; 27(1-2):41-51.
Abstract.

47

A pilot study was conducted to see the efficacy of Pichu (Taila) application in the treatment Arsha (Haemorrhoids) at Ano-Rectal
Clinic, Central Research Institute (Ay.), Bhubaneswar. This obserVational (Pilot) study was conducted on 25 patients of Arsha as per
the Proforma designed by CCRAS, New Delhi. Out of 25 cases who received the above regimen, 80 percent cases got complete relief,
12 percent got marked relief and 8 percent got moderate relief. Analysis was made to assess the results in relation to various aspects
including improvement in hemoglobin levels. After analyzing the results it is concluded that the above drug regimen is effective in
Arsha management

Rao MM, Deep VC, Padhi MM, Das B, Nanda GC, Sahu DP. Application of Leech therapy in the management of Svitra
(Leukoderma). Aryavaidyan.2006;19( 3):144 147.
Abstract.
The once reviled Leech (Hirudo medicinalis), recently lauded for its potential in preventing repeat heart attacks, 1 various skin
diseases, Osteo-arthritis 2 could also have a role to play in the treatment of Switra (Leukoderma). During the period from Jan 2004 to
Jan 2005 a total number of seven cases of switra was selected and used Leech therapy for a pilot study to see the effect on these
patients. Out of seven cases, one case had developed normal skin colour, three cases developed pigmentation spots in fair number
while remaining three cases only colour change was noticed from deep white to light pink colour. Since the study is an obserVational
type, the authors feel more number of cases are needed to be studied to draw a conclusion.

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhattacharya P. A clinical study on the management of Arsha (haemorrhoids) by Ayurvedic drug regimen.Journal
of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2006;27( 3-4).
Abstract.
In order to evaluate the efficacy of Kravyadi Rasa, Kaseesadi taila vasti and Triphala churna in the management of Arsha
(Haemorrhoids) a single blind clinical trial was conducted at Ano-Rectal Clinic, Central Research Institute (Ay.), Kolkata during the
period from May 1999 to March 2004. This trial was conducted on 230 patients of Arsha as per the protocol designed by CCRAS,
New Delhi. Out of 230 cases who received the above regimen, 37.39 percent cases got complete relief, 26.08 percent got marked
relief, 14.78 percent got moderate relief, 6.52 percent got mild relief, while 15.21 percent of cases were dropped out. Analysis was
made to assess the results in relation to age, duration of illness, Type of Arsha, Type of Haemorrhoids and also in the improvement in
+
530hemoglobin levels. After analyzing the results it is concluded that the above drug regimen is effective in Arsha management.

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhattacharya P.Therapeutic evaluation of compound Ayurvedic formulations in the management of Arsha
(Haemorrhoids) - A Clinical Study. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2006;27( 3-4).
Abstract.
In order to evaluate the efficacy of Kaseesadi taila vasti Kankayana Vati, Kravyadi Rasa, Abhayarishtam and Triphala churna in the
management of Arsha (Haemorrhoids) a single blind clinical trial was conducted at Ano-Rectal Clinic, Central Research Institute
(Ay.), Kolkata during the period from August, 2000 to March 2004. This trial was conducted on 182 patients of Arsha as per the
protocol designed by CCRAS, New Delhi. Out of 182 cases who received the above regimen, 31.31 percent cases got complete relief,
29.12 percent got marked relief, 20.32 percent got moderate relief, 1.09 percent got mild relief, 0.54 percent go No relief while 15.93
percent were dropped out. It is concluded that the above drug regimen is effective in the management of Arsha.

48

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhatacharya P, Maity SK, Pandey DR, Hazra JR. Study of Health Statistics in KHARI BARI Village of West
Bengal under Mobile Clinical Research Programme with Special Reference to PRAKRITI A Report of some observations. Journal
of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha;27 ( 3-4): 30 47.
Abstract.
This paper covers the information regarding the health statistics, collected during the study conducted by the Mobile Clinical Research
Unit of Central Research Institute (Ay.), Kolkata under the Mobile Clinical Research Programme of the Council. The programme was
aimed to study the role of Prakriti in relation to the Socio-economic and Demographic aspects, the relation between the food habits
and the incidence of diseases, the nature and frequency of prevalent diseases, ways and means of prevention of diseases and
maintenance of positive health. In addition to this the unit was given the task of collecting information regarding folklore claims,
medical facilities available, maintaining contact with village vaidyas and providing incidental medical aid to the patients in the village
itself.
Rao MM, Kar AC. Cerebral Palsy Syndrome : Management with Ayurvedic therapy. THE ANTI SEPTIC. 2006; 103 (3): 171-173.
Abstract.
Cerebral Palsy Syndromes, a term used broadly to describe a number of motor disorders characterized by impaired voluntary
movement resulting from prenatal developmental abnormalities or perinatal or postnatal CNS damage occurring before age 5 yr. Many
children with cerebral palsy have other problems that require treatment. These include mental retardation;learning
disabilities;seizures;and vision, hearing and speech problems. An attempt has been made to treat a diagnosed case of 13 years male
child diagnosed with cerebral palsy, which affected at the age of 3 yrs. with Ayurvedic methods of treatment which includes Oral
medication and Panchakarma therapies and these therapies are found to be helpful in treating such cases without any risk.

Rao MM, Kar AC. Effect of Ayurvedic Panchakarma Therapy in improving the condition of Cerebellar Degeneration A Case
Report. THE ANTI SEPTIC. 2007;104(1): 51-52.
Abstract.
The disease of Cerebellar Degeneration is among the disorders that produce Ataxia i.e a disturbance of the accuracy and speed of
voluntary movement, other symptoms can include difficulties with swallowing and slurred speech. Sight and hearing can be affected.
It is a progressive disorder. And, while it is not fatal in itself, it place unbearable stress upon the heart. A male patient of 35 years
diagnosed with Cerebellar degeneration with Ataxia, slurred speech, weakness in both legs and general weakness etc. was treated with
Ayurvedic Panchakarma therapy and after completion of three cycles of therapy the MRI of Brain revealed that the Cerebellum is
normal.

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhattacharya P, Devidas KV. Therapeutic evaluation of non-operative measures in the management of ParikArtika
vis--vis fissure-in-Ano. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2002;23(1-2): 71-80.
Abstract.
A clinical study has been conducted on 50 patients of Fissure-in-ano in the Ano-Rectal Clinic of Central Research Institute (Ay),
Calcutta. The observations and results were recorded under various parameters. A total number of 50 patients have been kept on
conserVative treatment with medicines Kaseesadi taila vasti, hot sitz bath, and Jatyadi ghrita for per rectal application and Triphala
churna as a laxative. The study was carried out on various parameters including the number of days taken to heal the fissure with
alleviation of symptoms like pain etc. Out of 50 cases registered for the study, 31 cases have got complete relief, 13 cases got marked
relief, 3 cases got moderate relief and 3 cases dropped out from the study.

49

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhatacharya P, Devidas KV. A Clinical study on the effect of Kravyadi ras, Kaseesadi taila vasti and Triphala
churna in the management of Arsha (Haemorrhoids).Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2004;25(1-2):1-10.
Abstract.
In order to evaluate the efficacy of Kravyadi Rasa, Kaseesadi taila vasti and Triphala churna in the management of Arsha
(Haemorrhoids) a single blind clinical trial was conducted at Ano-Rectal Clinic, Central Research Institute (Ay.), Kolkata during the
period from May 1999 to March 2004. This trial was conducted on 230 patients of Arsha as per the protocol designed by CCRAS,
New Delhi. Out of 230 cases who received the above regimen, 37.39 percent cases got complete relief, 26.08 percent got marked
relief, 14.78 percent got moderate relief, 6.52 percent got mild relief, while 15.21 percent of cases were dropped out. Analysis was
made to assess the results in relation to age, duration of illness, Type of Arsha, Type of Haemorrhoids and also in the improvement in
haemoglobin levels. After analyzing the results it is concluded that the above drug regimen is effective in Arsha management.

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhatacharya P. A Clinical study on the effect of KankayanaVati,, Kaseesadi taila and Triphala churna in the
management of Arsha (Haemorrhoids). Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2004;25(3-4): 9 21.
Abstract.
A single blind clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of Kankayana Vati, Kaseesadi taila vasti and Triphala churna in the management
of Arsha (Haemorrhoids) was carried out at Ano-Rectal Clinic, Central Research Institute (Ay.), Kolkata during the period from May
1999 to March 2004. This trial was conducted on 247 patients of Arsha as per the proforma designed by CCRAS, New Delhi. Out of
247 cases who received the above regimen, 42.91 percent patients got complete relief, 27.12% patients got marked relief, 10.93%
patients got moderate relief, 4.04% patients got mild relief, 1.61% patients got No relief while 13.36% patients were dropped out. It is
concluded that the above drug regimen is effective in the management of Arsha.

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhatacharya P, Devidas KV. Clinical evaluation of Pippali vardhaman Ksheerapaka + Sameerpannag Rasa in the
management of Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis) .Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2005;26(1-2):1-15.
Abstract.
A single blind clinical trial on Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis) was conducted at Central Research Institute (Ay.), Kolkata during the
period from May 1999 to March 2004. A total number of 157 cases were selected on the basis of criteria of diagnosis laid down by the
American College of Rheumatology (1987-revised) and also as per the protocol designed by C.C.R.A.S,New Delhi. All the patients
were administered Pippali Vardhamana Ksheerapaka + Sameerpannaga Rasa for the period of six weeks The results were assessed in
terms of Clinical recovery, Functional recovery and Recovery in E.S.R. Out of 157 cases, 27 had good response, 50 had fair response,
24 had poor response, 4 had no response while 55 cases were dropped out. After assessing the results it was concluded that the tried
drug regimen is effective.

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhattacharya P, Hazra J. Clinical Evaluation of efficacy of Shunti + Guggulu + Godanti in the management of
Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis). Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2005;26(3-4):80-94.
Abstract.
In order to evaluate the efficacy of Shunti + Guggulu + Gotanti (SGG Yoga) combination in the treatment of Amavata (Rheumatoid
arthritis) a single blind clinical trial was conducted at Central Research Institute (Ay.), Kolkata during the period from May 1999 to
March 2004. A total number of 80 cases were selected on the basis of criteria of diagnosis laid down by the American College of
Rheumatology (1987-revised) and also as per the protocol designed by C.C.R.A.S,New Delhi. All the patients were administered
SGG Yoga for the period of six weeks The results were assessed in terms of Clinical recovery, Functional recovery and Recovery in

50

E.S.R. Out of 80 cases, 18 had good response, 25 had fair response, 17 had poor response, 02 had no response while 18cases were
dropped out. After assessing the results it was concluded that the tried drug regimen is effective.

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhattacharya P, Hazra J. Comparative therapeutic evaluation of the Efficacy of Pippali vardhaman Ksheerapaka +
Sameerapannaga Rasa vs. Shunti + Guggulu + Godanti in the management of Amavata, (Rheumatoid arthritis). 2006;27 (1-2):81-94.
Abstract.
In order to evaluate the efficacy of Pippali vardhaman Ksheerapaka + Sameerapannaga Rasa vs. Shunti + Guggulu+ Godanti in the
treatment of Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis) a randomized, single blind clinical trial was conducted at Central Research Institute (Ay.),
Kolkata during the period from May 1999 to March 2004. A total number of 237 cases were selected on the basis of criteria of
diagnosis laid down by the American College of Rheumatology (1987-revised) and also as per the protocol designed by
C.C.R.A.S,New Delhi. All the patients were selected from the O.P.D. of the hospital section of C.R.I.(Ay.), Kolkata and were divided
in two groups. In group I, the patients were administered Pippali vardhaman Ksheerapaka + Sameerapannaga Rasa and in group II,
Shunti + Guggulu + Godanti combination was administered. The results were assessed in terms of Clinical recovery, Functional
recovery and Recovery in E.S.R. In group I;Out of 157 cases, 15.28 percent had good response, 31.84 percent had fair response,
15.28 percent had poor response, 2.54 percent had no response while 35.03 percent cases were dropped out while in group II;Out of
80 cases, 22.50 percent had good response, 31.25 percent had fair response, 21.25 percent had poor response, 2.5 percent had no
response while 22.5 percent cases were dropped out. After assessing the results it was concluded that the efficacy of the Shunti +
Guggulu + Godanti combination is more effective than that of Pippali vardhaman Ksheerapaka + Sameerapannaga Rasa.

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhattacharya P, Hazra J. Comparative therapeutic evaluation of the Efficacy of Shamana Chikitsa Vs. Shodhana
Chikitsa (Vamana karma) in the management of Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis). Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha.
2008;29(3):1-24.
Abstract.
In order to evaluate the efficacy of different drug combinations in different modes i.e. Shamana and Shodhana with reference to
Vamana karma in the treatment of Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis) a randomized, single blind clinical trial was conducted at Central
Research Institute (Ay.), Kolkata during the period from May 1999 to March 2004. A total number of 478 cases were selected and kept
in four groups (Shamana = 2 (A1, A2) + Shodhana = 2 (B1, B2) on the basis of criteria of diagnosis laid down by the American
College of Rheumatology (1987-revised) and also as per the protocol designed by C.C.R.A.S,New Delhi. In group A1, the patients
were administered Pippali vardhaman Ksheerapaka + Sameera pannaga Rasa;In Group A2, Shunti + Guggulu + Godanti
combination and in Group B1, patients were subjected for Deepana + Pachana + Snehana + Swedana + Vamana karma + Samsarjana
karma while in group B2 patients were subjected for only Snehana + Swedana + Vamana karma + Samsarjana karma i.e without
administration of Deepana-Pachana drugs. The results were assessed in terms of Clinical recovery, Functional recovery and Recovery
in E.S.R. In group A1;Out of 157 cases, 15.28 percent had good response, 31.84 percent had fair response, 15.28 percent had poor
response, 2.54 percent had no response while 35.03 percent cases were dropped out while in group A2;Out of 80 cases, 22.50
percent had good response, 31.25 percent had fair response, 21.25 percent had poor response, 2.5 percent had no response while 22.5
percent cases were dropped out. In group B1; Out of 110 cases, 10 percent had good response, 59.09 percent had fair response, 19.09
percent had poor response, 7.27 percent had no response while 4.54 percent cases were dropped out while in group B2;Out of 131
cases, 13.74 percent had good response, 57.24 percent had fair response, 20.21 percent had poor response, 5.34 percent had no
response while 6.87 percent cases were dropped out. After analyzing the results it was concluded that the Shodhan Chikitsa (Vamana
karma) is more effective than Shamana Chikitsa.

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhattacharya P, Hazra J. Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of Vamana karma in the management of Amavata
(Rheumatoid arthritis). Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2008;29(3): 1-24.

51

Abstract.
In order to evaluate the efficacy of Vamana karma in the treatment of Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis) a single blind clinical trial was
conducted at Central Research Institute (Ay.), Kolkata during the period from May 1999 to March 2004. A total number of 131 cases
was selected on the basis of criteria of diagnosis laid down by the American College of Rheumatology (1987-revised) and also as per
the protocol designed by C.C.R.A.S,New Delhi. All the patients were admitted in the hospital section of C.R.I.(Ay.), Kolkata and were
subjected for Vamana karma. The results were assessed in terms of Clinical recovery, Functional recovery and Recovery in E.S.R. Out
of 131 cases, 18 had good response, 75 had fair response, 22 had poor response, 7 had no response while 9 cases were dropped out.
After assessing the results it was concluded that the Vamana karma is effective in the management of Amavata..

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhattacharya P, Hazra J. Comparative therapeutic evaluation of the Efficacy of Vamana karma Without and with
Deepana - Pachana in the management of Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis). Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2009;30(1):
27-48.
Abstract.
In order to evaluate the efficacy of Vamana karma in different modes i.e. after administration of Deepana Pachana drugs and without
administration of Deepana Pachana drugs in the treatment of Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis) a randomized, single blind clinical trial
was conducted at Central Research Institute (Ay.), Kolkata during the period from May 1999 to March 2004. A total number of 241
cases were selected on the basis of criteria of diagnosis laid down by the American College of Rheumatology (1987-revised) and
also as per the protocol designed by C.C.R.A.S,New Delhi. All the patients were admitted in the hospital section of C.R.I.(Ay.),
Kolkata and were divided in to two groups. In group I, the patients were subjected for Deepana+
Pachana+Snehana+Swedana+Vamana karma+Samsarjana karma and in group II patients were subjected for only
Snehana+Swedana+Vamana karma+Samsarjana karma i.e without administration of Deepana-Pachana drugs. The results were
assessed in terms of Clinical recovery, Functional recovery and recovery in E.S.R. In group I;Out of 110 cases, 10 percent had good
response, 59.09 percent had fair response, 19.09 percent had poor response, 7.27 percent had no response while 4.54 percent cases
were dropped out while in group II;Out of 131 cases, 13.74 percent had good response, 57.24 percent had fair response, 20.21
percent had poor response, 5.34 percent had no response while 6.87 percent cases were dropped out. After assessing the results it was
concluded that the efficacy of the both drug regimens are equally effective in the management of Amavata and the vamana therapy
showed encouraging results even in both groups.

Rao MM, Kar A.C, Bhattacharya P, Hazra J. Therapeutic evaluation of the Efficacy of Panchakarma therapy (Deepana - Pachana +
Snehan + Swedana + Vamana karma + Samsarjana karma) in the management of Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis).Journal of Research
in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2009;30(3):51-64.
Abstract.
In order to evaluate the efficacy of Panchakarma therapy with special reference to Deepana Pachana and Vamana karma in the
treatment of Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis) a single blind clinical trial was conducted at Central Research Institute(Ay.), Kolkata
during the period from May 1999 to March 2004. A total number of 110 cases were selected on the basis of criteria of diagnosis laid
down by the American College of Rheumatology (1987-revised) and also as per the protocol designed by C.C.R.A.S,New Delhi. All
the patients were admitted in the hospital section of C.R.I.(Ay.), Kolkata and were subjected for Deepana+
Pachana+Snehana+Swedana+Vamana karma+Samsarjana karma. The results were assessed in terms of Clinical recovery, Functional
recovery and recovery in E.S.R. Out of 110 cases, 11 had good response, 65 had fair response, 21 had poor response, 8 had no
response while 5 cases were dropped out. After assessing the results it was concluded that the Pancha karma therapy (Vamana karma)
is effective.

52

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhattacharya P, Hazra J. The effect of Ayurvedic drug regimen in the management of Arsha (Haemorrhoids), - A
comparative therapeutic study. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha.2009;30(4):77-92.
Abstract.:
A single blind clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of Kravyadi Rasa, Kaseesadi taila vasti and Triphala Churna in one group (GroupI) and Kankayana Vati, Kravyadi Rasa, Kaseesadi Taila Vatti, Abhayarishtam and Triphala Churna in another group (Group-II) in the
management of Arsha (Hemorrhoids) was carried out at Ano-Rectal Clinic, Central Research Institute (Ay), Kolkata during the period
from May 1999 to March 2004. This trial was conducted on 412 patients of Arsha as per the proforma designed by CCRAS, New
Delhi.Group-I: Out of 230 cases who received the above regimen, 31.31 percent cases got complete relief, 29.12 percent got marked
relief, 20.32 percent got moderate relief, 1.092 percent got mild relief, while 15.21 percent of cases were dropped out.Group-II : Out
of 182 cases who received the above regimen, 37.39 percent cases got complete relief, 26.08 percent got marked relief. 14.78 percent
got moderate relief, 6.52 percent got mild relief, 0.54 percent of cases got no relief while 15.93 percent were dropped out. After
analyzing the results it was observed that even though there was significant improvement in both the groups, there was observed a
higher rate of improvement in Group-I than that of Group-II.

Rao MM, Rai SD, Sharma KR. Role of Teekshnakshara Bhavita Sutra in the management of Bhagandar (Fistulo-in-Ano).Journal of
Research in Ayurveda and Siddha.1999;21 (3-4):130-140.
Abstract.:
A clinical study has been conducted on 100 patients of fistla-in-ano in the Ano Rectal clinic of Shalya Shalakya department, Sir
Sundarlal Hospital, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University. The observations were recorded under various
parameters. The total of 100 patients have been divided into two groups of control (G-1) and treated (G-II) and 50 patients were kept
in each group respectively. In G-1 the Standard Kshara Sutra (Apamarga Kshara +Snuhi Ksheera+ Haridra) was carried out on
various parameters including unit cutting time in days/cm to assess the extract duration of the treatment.There were maximum 71
patients diagnosed as Parisravi Bhagandara. 11 cases were Shatapanak and 18 cases were diagnosedas Ushtravagreeva Bhagandara.
The maximum 65 patients were suffering from low-anal fistula, 26 patients with high-anal fistula, 6 patients were cutaneuous and 3
patients with sub mucuous fistulae were reported. The average unit cutting time in control group was found to be6.6 days/cm, while in
treated groups, the average UCT was just 5.0 days/cm.

Ravishankar B, Shukla VJ. Indian systems of medicine: a brief profile. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2007;4(3):319-37.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Medicinal plants based traditional systems of medicines are playing important role in providing health care to large section of
population, especially in developing countries. Interest in them and utilization of herbal products produced based on them is increasing
in developed countries also. To obtain optimum benefit and to understand the way these systems function, it is necessary to have
minimum basic level information on their different aspects. Indian Systems of Medicine are among the well known global traditional
systems of medicine. In this review, an attempt has been made to provide general information pertaining to different aspects of these
systems. This is being done to enable the readers to appreciate the importance of the conceptual basis of these system in evolving the
material medica. The aspects covered include information about historical background, conceptual basis, different disciplines studied
in the systems, Research and Development aspects, Drug manufacturing aspects and impact of globalization on Ayurveda. In addition,
basic information on Siddha and Unani systems has also been provided.

Samy RP, Pushparaj PN, Gopalakrishnakone P. A compilation of bioactive compounds from Ayurveda. Bioinformation.2008;3(3):10010. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

53

Abstract.
This review deals with the key bioactive compounds and the role of medicinal plants in Ayurvedic systems of medicine in India and
their earlier investigation. There has been an increase in demand for the Phytopharmaceutical products of Ayurveda in Western
countries, because of the fact that the allopathic drugs have more side effects. Many pharmaceutical companies are now concentrating
on manufacturing of Ayurvedic Phytopharmaceutical products. Ayurveda is the Indian traditional system of medicine, which also deals
about pharmaceutical science. Different type of plant parts used for the Ayurvedic formulation; overall out line of those herbal
scenario and its future prospects for the scientific evaluation of medicinal plants used by traditional healers are also discussed. In India
most of them, where Ayurvedic treatment is frequently used, for their ailments and provides instructions to local people how to
prepare medicine from the herbs. As much as possible importance is also given for the taxonomic literature.

Sannd Rajesh, Acharya M V, Clinical Effect of 'BRYT' formula as a supportive therapy along with the Conventional regimen on
Gulma, Arbuda, with special reference to Cancer. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2000;21(3-4):148-158.
Abstract.
Cancer is a large mortality problem all over the world. The conventional treatment such as Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy
are associated with fatal side effects, hence fail to give a comprehensive treatment for Cancer. Aetiopathogenasis of Gulma, arbuda
resemble that of Cancer. Herbo-mineral drugs are advocated to treat these ailments. Out of these, BRYT formula was tried as
independent as well as a supportive therapy to the conventional treatments. The formula consists of Bhallataka (Semecarpus
anacardium Linn.f.), Rohitaka (Aphanamixis polystachia Wall.), YashtiMadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.) and Tamra bhasma.The
study was carried out on 400 patients under 7 groups by Dr. G.C. PRasad et. al. at Institute of Medical Sciences. B.H.U.Varanasi. They
were assessed by their general body health including body weight, Hb. GABA (Gama amino butyric acid) and GAD (glutamate
decarboxylase) estimation and life span of the patient.It was observed that the patients treated with BRYT formula as a supportive
therapy to the conventional therapies lead better and longer life devoid of side effects of the treatment as compare to those received
only either conventional treatment of BRYT formula.

Sannd Rajesh, Bansal Parveen, Kumar Sanjiv, Bikshapathi T. Clinical effect of Arkakit Nasya in the management of Epilepsy A case
study. Scientific Journal of Panchkarma. 2007;8(1):13-14
Abstract.
Apasmara is categorised as a Mansik Roga. This symptomatology resembles with that of Grand mal Epilepsy, now known as Tonic
Clonic Epilepsy. Verbal meaning of epilepsy is tendency of having seizure. A number of medicines are enlisted to treat the disease. But
these drugs are not free from side effects. They have mild to severe side effects depending upon dose and type of medicine used. Most
common side effects are, giddiness, dizziness, nausea, dependency and over reactivity.The present case is a 4 yrs old female child who
was having seizure since birth. She was diagnosed for Myocolonic epilepsy at the age of 3 months. The EEG revealed disturbed
sleep pattern with excessive high potential discharge in the whole brain. The frequency of discharge was from 3 sec. to 9 sec.which
remained for 1.5 to 3 sec. The CT scan and MRI of brain showed no anatomical abnormality. The medicine used to treat the case was
Ark Keet. The reference is found in MEGH VINOD, a book written by Muni Megh Raj (461/48). The old plants of Calotropis procera
were uprooted and the insects were collected from there. These were placed in a box. After few days they died and turned into a
pungent smelling powder. The powder was given as Nasya in the morning for 40 days. No other medicine was given during the
treatment. There is a seizure threshold of brain. When this seizure threshold is lowered these become visible. . The pungent smelling
powder, which is an animal product, might be having some effect that could reduce the electrical discharges from the brain cells as
evident from the EEG after the treatment, or might have increased the seizure threshold and the patient did not suffer the seizure.

Saper RB, Phillips RS, Sehgal A, Khouri N, Davis RB, Paquin J, Thuppil V, Kales SN. Lead, mercury, and arsenic in US- and Indianmanufactured Ayurvedic medicines sold via the Internet. JAMA. 2008 Aug 27;300(8):915-23. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

54

Abstract.
CONTEXT:
Lead, mercury, and arsenic have been detected in a substantial proportion of Indian-manufactured traditional Ayurvedic medicines.
Metals may be present due to the practice of Rasa shastra (combining herbs with metals, minerals, and gems). Whether toxic metals
are present in both US- and Indian-manufactured Ayurvedic medicines is unknown.
OBJECTIVES:
To determine the prevalence of Ayurvedic medicines available via the Internet containing detectable lead, mercury, or arsenic and to
compare the prevalence of toxic metals in US- vs Indian-manufactured medicines and between Rasa shastra and non-Rasa shastra
medicines.
DESIGN:
A search using 5 Internet search engines and the search terms Ayurveda and Ayurvedic medicine identified 25 Web sites offering
traditional Ayurvedic herbs, formulas, or ingredients commonly used in Ayurveda, indicated for oral use, and available for sale. From
673 identified products, 230 Ayurvedic medicines were randomly selected for purchase in August-October 2005. Country of
manufacturer/Web site supplier, Rasa shastra status, and claims of Good Manufacturing Practices were recorded. Metal concentrations
were measured using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Prevalence of medicines with detectable toxic metals in the entire sample and stratified by country of manufacture and Rasa shastra
status.
RESULTS:
One hundred ninety-three of the 230 requested medicines were received and analyzed. The prevalence of metal-containing products
was 20.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.2%-27.1%). The prevalence of metals in US-manufactured products was 21.7% (95%
CI, 14.6%-30.4%) compared with 19.5% (95% CI, 11.3%-30.1%) in Indian products (P = 0.86). Rasa shastra compared with non-Rasa
shastra medicines had a greater prevalence of metals (40.6% vs 17.1%; P = .007) and higher median concentrations of lead (11.5
microg/g vs 7.0 microg/g; P = .03) and mercury (20,800 microg/g vs 34.5 microg/g; P = .04). Among the metal-containing products,
95% were sold by US Web sites and 75% claimed Good Manufacturing Practices. All metal-containing products exceeded 1 or more
standards for acceptable daily intake of toxic metals.CONCLUSION: One-fifth of both US-manufactured and Indian-manufactured
Ayurvedic medicines purchased via the Internet contain detectable lead, mercury, or arsenic.

Sharma H, Chandola HM, Singh G, Basisht G. Utilization of Ayurveda in health care: an approach for prevention, health promotion,
and treatment of disease. Part 1--Ayurveda, the science of life. J Altern Complement Med.2007;13(9):1011-9.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Ayurveda is a natural health care system that originated in India more than 5000 years ago. Its main objective is to achieve optimal
health and well-being through a comprehensive approach that addresses mind, body, behavior, and environment. Ayurveda emphasizes
prevention and health promotion, and provides treatment for disease. It considers the development of consciousness to be essential for
optimal health and meditation as the main technique for achieving this. Treatment of disease is highly individualized and depends on
the psychophysiologic constitution of the patient. There are different dietary and lifestyle recommendations for each season of the
year. Common spices are utilized in treatment, as well as herbs and herbal mixtures, and special preparations known as Rasayanas are
used for rejuvenation, promotion of longevity, and slowing of the aging process. A group of purification procedures known as
Panchakarma removes toxins from the physiology. Whereas Western allopathic medicine is excellent in handling acute medical crises,

55

Ayurveda demonstrates an ability to manage chronic disorders that Western medicine has been unable to. It may be projected from
Ayurveda's comprehensive approach, emphasis on prevention, and ability to manage chronic disorders that its widespread use would
improve the health status of the world's population.

Sharma H, Chandola HM, Singh G, Basisht G. Utilization of Ayurveda in health care: an approach for prevention, health promotion,
and treatment of disease.Part 2--Ayurveda in primary health care. J Altern Complement Med. 2007;13(10):1135- 50.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Ayurveda is a comprehensive natural health care system that originated in India more than 5000 years ago. It is still widely used in
India as a system of primary health care, and interest in it is growing worldwide as well. Ayurveda has unique concepts and
methodologies to address health care throughout the course of life, from pregnancy and infant care to geriatric disorders. Common
spices are utilized, as well as herbs, herbal mixtures, and special preparations known as Rasayanas. Purification procedures known as
Panchakarma remove toxins from the physiology. Research has been conducted worldwide on Ayurveda. There are encouraging
results for its effectiveness in treating various ailments, including chronic disorders associated with the aging process. Pilot studies
presented in this paper were conducted on depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, Parkinson's disease,
and Alzheimer's disease. These preliminary studies yielded positive results and provide a basis for conducting larger, more rigorous
clinical trials. Conducting research that compares Ayurveda's comprehensive treatment approach, Western allopathic treatment, and an
integrated approach combining the Ayurvedic and allopathic treatments would shed light on which treatment approach is the most
effective for the benefit of the patient.

Shi Y, Sahu RP, Srivastava SK. Triphala inhibits both in vitro and in vivo xenograft growth of pancreatic tumor cells by inducing
apoptosis. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:294-7. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
BACKGROUND:
Triphala is commonly used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat variety of diseases; however its mechanism of action remains unexplored.
This study elucidates the molecular mechanism of Triphala against human pancreatic cancer in the cellular and in vivo model.
METHODS:
Growth-inhibitory effects of Triphala were evaluated in Capan-2, BxPC-3 and HPDE-6 cells by Sulphoradamine-B assay. Apoptosis
was determined by cell death assay and western blotting. Triphala was administered orally to nude mice implanted with Capan-2
xenograft. Tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting.
RESULTS:
Exposure of Capan-2 cells to the aqueous extract of Triphala for 24 h resulted in the significant decrease in the survival of cells in a
dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of about 50 microg/ml. Triphala-mediated reduced cell survival correlated with induction of
apoptosis, which was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Triphala-induced apoptosis was linked with
phosphorylation of p53 at Ser-15 and ERK at Thr-202/Tyr-204 in Capan-2 cells. Above mentioned effects were significantly blocked
when the cells were pretreated with an antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), suggesting the involvement of ROS generation.
Pretreatment of cells with pifithrin-alpha or U0126, specific inhibitors of p53 or MEK-1/2, significantly attenuated Triphala-induced
apoptosis. Moreover, NAC or U0126 pretreatment significantly attenuated Triphala-induced p53 transcriptional activity. Similarly,
Triphala induced apoptosis in another pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3 by actiVating ERK. On the other hand, Triphala failed to
induce apoptosis or activate ERK or p53 in normal human pancreatic ductal epithelial (HPDE-6) cells. Further, oral administration of
50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg Triphala in PBS, 5 days/week significantly suppressed the growth of Capan-2 pancreatic tumor-xenograft.

56

Reduced tumor-growth in Triphala fed mice was due to increased apoptosis in the tumors cells, which was associated with increased
activation of p53 and ERK.
CONCLUSION:
Our preclinical studies demonstrate that Triphala is effective in inhibiting the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells in both cellular
and in vivo model. Our data also suggests that the growth inhibitory effects of Triphala is mediated by the activation of ERK and p53
and shows potential for the treatment and/or prevention of human pancreatic cancer.

Singh OP, Padhi MM, Das B, Deep VC, Rao MM. Rationality of using different oils and fats for human body. Arya Vaidyan.
2004;18(1): 51-53.
Abstract.:
The significance of the use of oils is very far above the ground in Ayurveda. Most of the Ayurvedic preparations are based on soils
and oil itself is considered as a medicine in Ayurveda. In this paper the authors attempt to standardize oils obtained from different
sources with the support of contemporary knowledge.

Singh OP, Padhi MM, Das B, Deep VC, Hazra J, Alam MM, Rao MM. Clinical evaluation of Arogyavardhini Vati, Kaishore Guggulu
and Chakarmardakera taila in the management of kitibha (Psoriasis).Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha.2007;28(No. 1-2):61
71.
Abstract.:
Psoriasis is a chronic recurrent intractable disease with worldwide distribution. It consists of almost 10% of all skin disorders. The
illusion of treating Psoriasis continuous and limitations of conventional modalities and disillusionment with systemic modalities like
lever scare of methatrexate. Mutugenic potential of PUVA skeletal toxicity of retinoid and local systematic side/ toxic effects of
corticoSteroids necessitate search for newer and safer drugs. Preliminary clinical trials with Kaishore Guggulu, Arogyavardhini and
Mimbudin were conducted by peripheral Institutes. Functioning under CCRAS and results were encouraging . The present study with
Arogyvardhini Vatti, Kaishore Guggulu and Chakarmardakera Tail a revealed 13 cases having good response, 23 cases having fair
response, 12 having poor response, only 02 having no response and 07 cases were dropped out.

Singh OP, Padhi MM, Das B, Deep VC, Hazra J, Alam MM, Tewari NS, Rao MM. Clinical evaluation of Kanchanar Guggulu and
gokshuradi Guggulu in the management of manifested case of Slipada (Filariasis). Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha.
2008;29(2): 39 47.
Abstract.:
Slipada (Filariasis) is mosquito borne disease which initially either remains latent or presents ambiguous features whn manifested.
The pitting oedema or progressive hardened swelling becomes irreversible in proportion to duration of the disease. As such in chronic
manifested stage, very few medicines are likely to bring about complete recovery or to prevent the episodes. So the drugs likely to act
in chronic dormant stage are supposed to have anti tumour, anti inflammatory and diuretic effect. N this series, Kanchnar Guggulu
and Goksuradi Guggulu were put to clinical trial in 50 patients of chronic manifested Slipada (Filariasis). Considering prognosis of
the disease the result seems encouraging since only with a 4 weeks course of treatment 32% of patients had good response, 44%
patients had Fair rspsonse. 16% had poor response, 2% had no response and 6% were dropped out.

57

Srikanth N, Mangal AK, Lavekar GS. An Insight on Indigenous Ophthalmic Medicinal Flora: An Ayurvedic Pharmacological Basis.
Bull. Med. Ethno Bot. Research. 2005; 26(3-4):65-74.
Abstract.
This contribution highlights hidden knowledge about various ophthalmic plant drugs scattered elsewhere in various corners of ancient
literatures of Ayurveda and provides the basic knowledge concerning ophthalmic drugs found in medical classics of ancient and
medieval period, which forms a base for further research and validation. An attempt has also made to classify the Ayurvedic
ophthalmic plants drugs based on their mode of action with Ayurvedic Pharmacological basis.

Srikanth N, Mangal AK, Lavekar GS. Scientific exposition of medicinal plants in painful ophthalmic conditions: An Ayurvedic
Pharmacological perspective. Bull. Med. Ethno Bot. Research. 2007; 28(3-4): 25-40.
Abstract.
Antiquity of ophthalmic use of medicinal plants goes back to the period of (1000 B.C.). A mention of different analgesic ophthalmic
drugs is found in Garudapurana. The present work aims at exposition of hidden knowledge about single ophthalmic plant drugs
indicated in ocular pain scattered elsewhere in ancient and medieval Ayurvedic literature and to impart the basic knowledge
concerning these drugs which forms a base for further research and revalidation. A special edition has also been made to analyse these
drugs based on Pharmacodynamic/kinetic principles mentioned in Ayurvedic Pharmacology, to arrive rational conclusions concerning
the probable mode of action of these agents and creating possible basis for formulation of strategy for developing appropriate topical
drops and oral dosage forms to achieve ocular analgesia without adverse effects.

Srikanth N, Venkateswarlu B, Singh Rajesh.Jirinkalgikar Nikhil, Rao MM, Haripriya N, Sharma MM, Sharma BS, Narayana Ala.
Reflective note on Aroamatic plants cited in Sarvaushadhi Guna Kalpakam : A Telugu compendium on Ayurveda Materia
Medica.Journal of Indian Institute of History of Medicine. 2008;38 (1): 41-54.
Abstract.:
The antiquity of use of medicinal and aromatic plants, poly herbal, mineral based formulations for therapeutic and cosmetic purpose
goes back to the Vedic period (6000 BC) Ayurvedic classics further detail about varied applications of aroma in environmental and
public health, pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. The scope and therapeutic utility of Aromatic Plants further expanded at a large as a
result of continuous additions from experimental research outcome, experimental knowledge and documented as codified texts.
Sarvausadhi Guna Kalpakam adds to such works of modern period on medicinal and aromatic plants. A special chapter entitled
Sugandhi Dravyaguna Manjari is dedicated to describe details of aromatic plants, animal products and minerals. Here an attempt
has been made to place a note on aromatic medicinal plants described in Sarvausadhi Guna Kalpakam that could serve as a basic
document to scientists, scholars and physicians for their ready reference and further utility in research, clinical practice, etc.

Srikanth N, Venkateswarlu B, Rao MM, Haripriya. An insightful Exposition on Sarvaushadhi Guna Kalpakam: A less familiar
compendium on Ayurvedic Materia Medica. . 2008;38(2):171-178.
Abstract.:
The plants, metals, minerals and animal products have been in vogue since centuries for the prevention, management and cure of
illness of human kind. Nighantu have added much to the indigenous pharmacopeia in addition to the inherent knowledge of Vedic and
Samhita periods. Moreover eminent scholars of modern era have significantly contributed to the enrichment of Ayurvedic
Pharmacopeia through systematic documentation and presentation of information in user friendly manner for easy browsing.
Sarvausadi Guna Kalpakam is one such unique contribution of modern period on Ayurvedic Materia Medica available in Telugu Scrip.

58

An attempt has been made to place a brief account on the methodology and contents of the text that would facilitate the scientists,
physicians and research scholars for proper utilization of this knowledge.

Varanasi Subhose, Narayana Ala, Bhatnagar VK, Rao MM. Biography of Sodhala and his contribution to Ayurveda. Bulletin of Indian
Institute of History of Medicine. 2005;35 (1):43-62.
Abstract.:
Sodhala was a scholar of Ayurveda as well as Sahitya Jyotisya, Vyakarna and also a good poet who belongs to Gujarate. Sodhala
contributed two important works to Ayurveda literature namely 1. Sodhala Nighantu, 2 Godanigraha.Sodhala Nighantu consists of
two parts and contains about 2.050(790+1,260) verses. Te section on synonyms, the Namasangraha, and the other one is on properties
and actions of drugs, the Gunasangraha. The arrangement of the material constitutes an unprecedented innoVation in the literature of
Nighantu (Ayurveda drugs lexicons or dictionaries). The Gadanigraha is composed of two district parts and contains about 10,054
(2700+7354) versus. The first part is a collection of formulae arranged according to the several types of pharmaceutical preparations
and the second one is a comprehensive text dealing with both Nidana and Chikitsa arranged as for the Astangas (8 major divisions) of
Ayurveda. The work seems to be later than SodhalaNighantu because most of the drugs mentioned in this work are not found in the
SodhalaNighantu. The diseases are arranged in systematically which is a new feature and their order is differ from MadhavaNidana.
From the available evidences we can assume that Sodhala might be belongs to 1200 AD The contributions of Sodhala are noteworthy
and they are important landmark works in history of Ayurveda.

Varanasi Subhose, Saket Ram T, Bhatnagar VK, Narayana Ala, Rao MM.
A Review of Brahmavaivarta purana (BVP) with
Reference to Ayurveda. Bulletin of Indian Institute of History of Medicine. 2007; 37 (1).
Abstract.:
Brahmavaivaartapurana is one of the important Mahapurana, which is considered as a Vaisnavapurana. The text is divided into four
parts called Khanda i.e. Brahmha, Prakrti, Ganapati and SrikrsnajanmaKhanda. The total number of chapters are 276 and comprising
about 20,500 verses. Brahmavaivartapurana comprises both ancient and medieval materials. It considers Ayurveda as Pancama Veda
and devoted 16th chapter of Brahmakhanda which describes the origin of Ayurveda its propagators headed by Bhaskara (sun God) and
his 16 students and they corresponding books in detail. An account of the Jvara (fever) and other diseases, Dinacarya (daily routine),
Ritucharya (seasonal regimen), Tridosa (three humours), their Prakopa (Vitiation and prashamana (Pilliation) etc. are described in this
book. BVP deals with the dos and donts of food intake, sleep and sexual indulgence in detail which are deemed to be
Trayopasthamba (three sub pillars of health). The book provides an account of Plant Tulsis origin and its spiritual importance Prakriti
(Natures) origins, Paricamahabhuta nature of the body are described in PrakritiKhanda. At the flag end of the book there is a legend
describing the origin of Lord Dhanvantari and describes his scholarship in the field of Veda and Sastra. On the whole purana provides
glimpse of the life style of a Vaisnava devoutee and the people of the time when it was compiled. It serves the purpose of a practical
manual to lead a healthy life and ensure spiritual growth in the life of any individual who believes in the precepts of this book.

Venkateswarlu B,Vasanth P, Srikanth N,Rao MM, Padhi MM. Musali - A Medico-Historical Review. Journal of Indian Institute of
History of Medicine.2008;38(1): 55-70.
Abstract.:
Musali is a Sukrala dravya (Aphrodisiac drug) and number of formulations mentioned in the classics with Musali as one of the
ingredients. There are two varieties of Musali are mentioned in BhavaprakasaNighantu viz. Sapheda Musali and Kali Musali. Various
botanical sources for both Sapheda and Kali Musali have been described in the literature. The actual botanical source of Sapheda
Musali is tuberous roots of Asparagus adscendens Roxb. Tuberous roots of different Chlorophytum species are also sold under the
name of Sapheda Musali, as the description of Sapheda Musali in the classics can also be attributed to Cholorophytum species.

59

Botanical source of Kali Musali is tuberous roots of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. A detailed account Musali covering multiple aspects.
viz. synonyms, properties, actions and indications of Musali, reasons for different botanical sources of Musali has been made which
would help academicians, scholars, scientists pharmaceutical industries etc. for further exhaustive review comprising medicohistorical etymological, botanical, Pharmacological aspects from ancient and contemporary literatures would provide a clarity in
identification of the plant.

AYURVEDA and YOGA


Manjunath NK, Telles S. Influence of Yoga and Ayurveda on self-rated sleep in a geriatric population. Indian J Med Res.
2005;121(5):683-90. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:
Sleep in older persons is characterized by decreased ability to stay asleep, resulting in fragmented sleep and reduced daytime alertness.
Pharmacological treatment of insomnia in older persons is associated with hazardous side effects. Hence, the present study was
designed to compare the effects of Yoga and Ayurveda on the self rated sleep in a geriatric population.
METHODS:
Of the 120 residents from a home for the aged, 69 were stratified based on age (five year intervals) and randomly allocated to three
groups i.e.Yoga (physical postures, relaxation techniques, voluntarily regulated breathing and lectures on yoga philosophy), Ayurveda
(a herbal preparation), and Wait-list control (no intervention). The groups were evaluated for self-assessment of sleep over a one week
period at baseline, and after three and six months of the respective interventions.
RESULTS:
The Yoga group showed a significant decrease in the time taken to fall asleep (approximate group average decrease: 10 min, P<0.05),
an increase in the total number of hours slept (approximate group average increase: 60 min, P< 0.05) and in the feeling of being rested
in the morning based on a rating scale (P<0.05) after six months. The other groups showed no significant change.
INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION:
Yoga practice improved different aspects of sleep in a geriatric population.

BOTANY
Gupta V, Bansal P, Garg A, Meena A K. Pharmacopoeial Standardisation of Hibiscuss rosasinensis. Linn. International Journal of
Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research;200;1(3):124-126.
Abstract.
The present communication attempts to investigate pharmacognostical and phytochemical details of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Linn.
(Malvaceae):. Results of microscopic studies of leaf show chained midrib of leaf, small and numerous epidermal cells, calcium oxalate
crystals and absence of trichomes on both upper and lower surface. The Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed presence of

60

carbohydrates, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, proteins and amino acids in chloroform and alcoholic extract out of six extraction
solvents used for these studies. HPTLC studies reveal that alcoholic extract gives 8 spots and chloroform extract depicts 5 spots on the
TLC plate. Powdered drug analysis after treatment with 17 different reagents emitted various colour radiations under UV and visible
light which may provide a lead in identification of the drug in powder form. The study revealed specific identities for Hibiscus rosasinensis, Linn which may play a key role in identification of plant and can be useful in standardization of the herbal drugs.

Khatoon S, Rai V, Rawat AK, Mehrotra S. Comparative pharmacognostic studies of three Phyllanthus species. J EthnoPharmacol.
2006;104(1-2):79-86. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Different species of Phyllanthus are considered to be very effective hepatoprotective agents in the Indian indigenous systems of
medicine and are considered bitter, astringent, stomachic, diuretic, febrifuge, deobstruant and antiseptic. Still Ayurvedic practitioners
prescribed fresh juice of 'Bhuiamlki' for jaundice. Various species of Phyllanthus are being sold in India under the trade name
'Bhuiamlki'. During market surveillance of herbal drug, it was observed that almost all the commercial samples, either comprise of
Phyllanthus amarus Schum and Thonn. or Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn. or mixture of Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus fraternus
Webster. and Phyllanthus maderaspatensis. Therefore, in this context the detailed pharmacognostical evaluation of all the three species
has been carried out with the aim to establish the identification markers of this important hepatoprotective agent (effective in hepatitis
B too). The study conclude that all the three species can be differentiated on the basis of macro and microscopic characters, physicochemical values, HPTLC fingerprint profile, and detection of phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin as marker components. Besides, an
interesting conclusion can also be drawn that phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin said to protect hepatocytes against carbon tetrachloride
and galactosamine induced toxicity, may not be exclusively responsible for hepatoprotective activity as these are present only in
Phyllanthus amarus while Phyllanthus fraternus and Phyllanthus maderaspatensis also possess significant hepatoprotective activity.

Lobo R, Prabhu KS, Shirwaikar A, Shirwaikar A. Curcuma zedoaria Rosc. (whiteturmeric): a review of its chemical, Pharmacological
and ethnomedicinal properties. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2009;61(1):13-21. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
OBJECTIVES:
Curcuma zedoaria Rosc is a perennial herb found in tropical countries, such as India, Japan and Thailand. Various parts of this plant
are used in Ayurveda and other folk medicines for the treatment of different ailments such as diarrhoea, cancer, flatulence and
dyspepsia. This study is an attempt to compile an up-to-date and comprehensive review of C. zedoaria that covers its traditional and
folk medicinal uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology.KEY FINDINGS: Research carried out using different in-vitro and in-vivo
techniques of biological evaluation supports most of the claims. SUMMARY: This review presents the botany, chemistry, traditional
uses and Pharmacological data of the plant.

Mangal AK, Das MN. Comparative powdered drug analysis of aerial and underground roots of Ficus rumphii (Ashmantaka). Bull.
Med. Ethno Bot. Research. 2001; 22(1-4):99-106.
Abstract.
Ficus rumphii Blume. (Ashmantaka), a moderate size tree occurs throughout India. Root of this tree is considered as emetic and
anthelmintic and used in asthma and snake-bite. This paper describes microscopic and fluorescence characters of aerial and
underground roots of Ficus rumphii, along with their ash and extractive values. This study will help to identify and differentiates both
type of the roots (Aerial and Underground) from each other.

61

From the foregoing observations it is possible to distinguish the powder drug of aerial and underground materials. The diagnostic
characters of the two powder materials are shown below:
(I)

Parenchyma cells are thick and rectangular in aerial roots and thin and rounded in underground roots.

(II)

The cork cells of aerial roots are longer as compared with underground roots.

(III)

The pitted cells are present in aerial roots and absent in underground roots.

(IV)

Fibres are present in both types of root powder, but, varying in size. The pitted fibres are present only in aerial roots.

(V)

Pitted scalariform, pitted reticulate vessels are present in underground roots.

(VI)

Selereids are present in both types of powder drugs. Pitted selereids are absent in underground roots.

(VII)

Prismatic calcium oxalate crystals are present in both types, but longer in aerial roots.

(VIII)

80% ethanol extracts of both the root powder show maximum fluorescence and under long U.V. radiations.

(IX)
Ash values (Total and acid insoluble) are more in underground roots but the extractive values (Water soluble and ethanol
soluble) are more in aerial roots.

Mangal AK, Das MN. Pharmacognostic Studies of Melaleuca leucodendron Linn. Bull. Med. Ethno Bot. Research. 2002; 23(1-4):1119.
Abstract.
Cajuput (Melaleuca leucodendron Linn.) is an important plant drug of Ayurveda. The drugs consist of leaves and seeds. The present
communication deals with morphological, microscopical characters and their quantitative data, cell contents, powdered drug analysis
of authentic samples of Melaleuca leucodendron authentication of the commercial sample used in the Indian system of medicine.Leaf
may easily be identified by thick walled cuticularised epidermis, parenchymatous ground tissue having collateral vascular bundle
surrounded by fibrous bundle sheath having scalariform and thickened vessels. Mesophyll region is often invested with large
parenchyma cells containing lemon yellow oil droplets. Stomata are of anomocytic type on both the surfaces differing in their size and
frequency. Clustered and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate are present in the mesophyll region.Seeds are characterized by seedcoat consisting of thick-walled pitted selereids varying in shape and size, vascular supply through spirally thickened vessels. Solitary
tetragonal crystals of calcium oxalate are also present.

Meena A K, Rao M M, Komal Preet, Padhi M M, Singh Arjun, Babu Ramesh. Comparative Study on Family Zingiberaceae Plants
Used In Ayurvedic Drugs. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2010;2(2): 58-60.
Abstract.
The present Article attempts to compare physico-chemical parameters of Zingiber officinalis Roxb.Hedychium spicatum Ham ex
Smith , Curcuma longa Linn belonging to common family Zingiberaceae. Each of them is considered to have huge medicinal value in
Ayurveda, Sidhha and Unani traditional medicines. Since ancient times, these drugs are used according to their medical value.
Investigation of such traditionally used medicinal plants is thus valuable on two levels, firstly, as a source of potential chemo
therapeutic drugs and secondly, as a measure of safety for the continued use of medicinal plants. The present paper attempts to
evaluate the physicochemical parameters like pH, Loss on drying at 105C, Water soluble extract, Alcohol soluble extract, Total Ash,
Acid insoluble ash and Thin layer chromatography. The study revealed specific identities for crude drug taken which will be useful in
identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

62

Meena A K, Rao M M, Krishna C M, Komalpreet, Sunil K N, Padhi M M,


Babu Ramesh. Evaluation of Phamacognostic and
Physicochemical parameters of Picrorrhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. International Journal of Ayurvedic Medicine.2010;1(1):41-47.
Abstract.
Picrorrhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth is commonly known as Kutki belonging to family Scrophulariaceae. It is useful as a laxative, liverstimulant, improving lactation, appetite stimulant, fabrifuge and as beneficial in bronchial asthma. This plant is native to the
Himalayan region and is part of Ayurvedic medicine as a treatment for various diseases. The leaf, bark and the underground parts of
the plant, mainly rhizomes are widely used in the traditional Indian (Ayurvedic): systems of medicine since ancient times. Rhizomes
of Picrorrhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth plant material was subjected to microscopic characterization and physico-chemical studies. TLC
has also been studied to fix the quality standards of this drug. The experiment has revealed a set of diagnostic characters essential for
its standardization. Photomicrography and TLC profile were employed to fix standards. In this Article attempt has been made to
standardize the Picrorrhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth obtained from reliable source for its physico-chemical parameters like loss on
drying, total ash value, acid insoluble ash, water soluble extract, alcohol soluble extract, pH etc.

Meena A K, Sachan Ayushy, Kaur Ramanajeet, Pal Bhavana, Singh Brijendra. Moringa oleifera A review Journal of Pharmacy
Research. 2010;3 (4):840-842.
Abstract.
Moringa oleifera, or the horseradish tree, is a pan-tropical species that is known by such regional names as benzolive, drumstick tree,
kelor, marango, mlonge, mulangay, nbday, saijhan, and sajna. Over the past two decades, many reports have appeared in mainstream
scientific journals describing its nutritional and medicinal properties. As with many reports of the nutritional or medicinal value of a
natural product, there are an alarming number of purveyors of healthful food who are now promoting M. oleifera. Over the past two
decades, many reports have prepared in mainstream scientific journals describing its nutritional and medicinal properties.M. oleifera is
a tropical tree whose numerous economic
applications and facility of propagation are arousing growing international interest.

Meena A K, Saraswathy A, Shakila R, Sunil Kumar KN, Ariyanathan S, Pharmacognostic studies on Alangium salvifolium
(Linn.f.): Wang. root bark. Journal of pharmacognocy. 2010;2(11):374-380.
Abstract.
Root bark of Alangium salvifolium (Linn.f.): Wang. (Family Alangiaceae): is a reputed drug mentioned in the ancient books of
Ayurveda and Siddha for the treatment of epilepsy, jaundice, hepatitis etc. Root bark of the plant was subjected to macro-microscopic,
photomicrographic, physico-chemical, fluorescence, preliminary phytochemical, TLC and HPTLC to fix quality standards for this
drug. Microscopic studies have shown stratified phellem, rhytidome, cluster crystals of calcium oxalate and uni- to triseriate medullary
rays in the root bark. Chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol extracts and alkaloid fraction revealed characteristic chromatographic patterns
with presence of alkaloids in varying concentrations. This study would be useful in the identification and authentication of the raw
drug.

Meena A K, Singh Brijendra, Kaur Ramanjeet ,Ayush, Pal Bhavana, Niranjan Uttam S, Yadav AK and Nagariya AK.
Pharmacognostic and Physicochemical Studies on Plumbago zeylanica Linn. Root. Drug Invention Today.2010;2(4):217-219.
Abstract.

63

Plumbago zeylanica L.(family: Plumbaginaceae): is an important medicinal plant indigenous to Southeast Asia. Roots of this plant are
the most frequently used plant parts which have traditionally been used for the treatment of various ailments, such as dyspepsia, piles,
diarrhoea, skin diseases, leprosy and rheumatism. Roots are also reported to posses antibacterial, antifungal, abortifacient. Root of
plant material was subjected to macro-microscopic, physico-chemical, preliminary phytochemical, TLC to fix the quality standards of
this drug. The experiment has resulted a set of diagnostic characters essential for its standardization. Photomicrography, TLC. The
experiments yielded a set of diagnostic characters like cork cell, stone cell, parenchyma. This study would be useful for
standardization of this raw drug derived from root of Plumbago zeylanica L.

Meena A. K.Yadav Ajay, Singh Uttam, Singh Brijendra, Sandeep, Kiran, Rao M. M.. Evaluation of physicochemical parameters on the
fruit of Terminalia bellirica roxb. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.2010;2 (2):97-99.
Abstract.
The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the fruit of Terminalia
bellirica Roxb.Combretaceae family. Bibhitaka is a large tree, up to 40m height. Leaves petiolate, broadly elliptic, clustered towards
the end of branches, Flowers greenish yellow, in solitary, simple, axillaries spikes, Fruits globular;1.52.5 cm in diam.obscurely 5
angled when dry. It is found in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of India, but not in the arid regions, in areas of Upper
Gangtic Plain, Chota Nagpur, Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal, Chittagong, Konkan, Deccan, S.M. country and most of the part of South
India. The mostly part used Fruit, Seed and Bark. The bark is mildly diuretic and is useful in anaemia and leucoderma. Fruits are
astringent, acrid, sweet, thermogenic use as antiinflammatory digestive, anthelmintic, expectorant and antipyretic, antiemetic. They
are useful in cough asthma, bronchitis, ophthalmic disorders, skin diseases, ulcers. The oil obtained from seeds is trichogenous and is
useful in dyspepsia, skin diseases, leucoderma and greyness of hair. As there is no detailed standardization work
reported on fruit, the physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical constants, toxic heavy metals, pesticide residue and
aflatoxin analysis are carried out. The study revealed specific identities for the Particular crude drug which will be useful in
identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

Newmaster G Steven, Murugesan Maruthakkutti, Ragupathy Subramanyam, Nallasamy Nagarajan, Balasrbramaniam


Velusamy.Ethnobotany genomics study reveals three new species of the genyus Biophytum DC. (Oxalidaceae-Geraniales) friom
Velliangiri hills in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats, India.Etnobotany.2009;21:1-10.
Abstract.
Our research utilized Traditional Tribal Knowledge (TK) and Scientific Knowledge (SK) to explore the relationship between scientific
and trible system of botanical classification and the corresponding valorisation(s) of biological diversity in the western Ghats of
southern India. We worked with two tribal communities, namely, Irulas and Malasars of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve with an
objective of evaluating the ability of different Knowledge system (SK and TK) to distinguish species belonging to the genus
Biophytum. We discovered that the tribal informats identified three ethnotaxa representing three new species, namely, Biophytum
velliangirianum, B. tamilnadense, which we confirmed using quantitative morphometric analysis of the taxomic evidence including
comparisons with several closely related taxa: Biophytum insignis Gamble, B. longipedunculatum Govind. And Biophytum
proliferum (Arn.) Wight. The recognition of these taxa has several consequences for conservation of plant diversity in the Nilgiri
Biosphere and possible applications to society-at- large given the ethnobiological importance of these new taxa to the local tribals.

Toh May Fern, Burdette Joanna E. Identifying botanical mechanisms of action. Fitoterapia.2011;82(1):67-70.
Abstract.

64

The biological mechanism of action for any botanical extract is a necessary part of discovery to determine Pharmacological use and
safety. Interestingly, many activities that are governed by endogenous compounds are not fully understood making the characterization
of mechanisms elusive. For example, phytoestrogens are being consumed for menopausal symptoms while the biological action of
estradiol are still being investigated. Therefore, long term efficacy and safety issues are a challenge in the field. As new activities are
associated with new biological pathways, an important component of therapeutic discovery will need to be the re-evaluation of
negative or less active natural products to determine their relative use as medicines.

CHEMISTRY
Achenbach H, Hubner H, Brandt W, Reiter M. Cardioactive steroid saponins and other constituents from the aerial parts of Tribulus
cistoides. Phytochemistry.2009;35(6):1527-43. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
From the petrol extract of the aerial parts of Tribulus cistoides three steroid sapogenins and two N-acyltyramines were isolated,
whereas the methanolic extract gave nine steroid saponins, among them the cardioactive cistocardin, saponin-3, saponin-4 and
saponin-7. Furthermore, a furostanol diglycoside was isolated besides 5'-(hydroxysulphonyloxy) jasmonic acid, D-(+)-pinitol and
sucrose. The structures were established by spectroscopic investigations of the isolated compounds and their hydrolysis products. 5'(Hydroxysulphonyloxy) jasmonic acid has been prepared by pArtial synthesis.

Ahmed R, Ali Z, Wu Y, Kulkarni S, Avery MA, Choudhary MI, Khan IA. Chemical Characterization of a Commercial Commiphora
wightii Resin Sample and Chemical Profiling to Assess for Authenticity. Planta Med. 2011. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The gum resin of COMMIPHORA WIGHTII [(Hook. ex Stocks) Engl.] is an Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of arthritis,
inflammation, obesity, lipid disorders, and cardiovascular diseases and is known as guggul. Morphologically, it is not easy to
distinguish guggul from closely related gum resins of other plants. Reliability of the commercially available guggul is critical due to
the high risk of adulteration. To check authenticity, a commercial guggul sample was investigated for its chemical markers and 17
metabolites were identified, including three new, 20( S),21-epoxy-3-oxocholest-4-ene ( 1), 8 -hydroxy-3,20-dioxopregn-4,6-diene
( 2), and 5-(13' Z-nonadecenyl)resorcinol ( 17) from the ethyl acetate soluble part. During the current study, compounds 14- 17 were
identified as constituents of MANGIFERA INDICA gum, as an adulterant in the commercial guggul sample. This discovery
highlighted the common malpractices in the trade of medicinal raw material in the developing world. The structures of the compounds
were deduced by the spectroscopic technique and chemical methods, as well as by comparison with the reported data. The structure of
20( S),21-epoxy-3-oxocholest-4-ene ( 1) was also unambiguously deduced by single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique.

Anandjiwala S, Kalola J, Rajani M. Quantification of eugenol, luteolin,ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid in black (Krishna Tulsi) and
green (Sri Tulsi)varieties of Ocimum sanctum Linn. using high performance thin-layer chromatography. J AOAC Int.
2006;89(6):1467-74. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Ocimum sanctum (family Lamiaceae) is a reputed drug of Ayurveda, commonly known as Tulsi. In the present work, we quantified 4
marker compounds, viz.eugenol, luteolin, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid, from the leaf of green and black varieties of O. sanctum
using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with densitometry. The methods were found to be precise, with relative
standard deviation (RSD) values for intraday analyses in the range of 0.52 to 0.91%, 0.77 to 1.29%, 0.11 to 0.16%, and 0.34 to 0.42%
and for interday analyses in the range of 0.73 to 0.96%, 1.02 to 2.08%, 0.11 to 0.12%, and 0.39 to 0.64% for different concentrations
of eugenol, luteolin, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid, respectively. Instrumental RSD values were 0.24, 0.39, 0.21, and 0.18% for

65

eugenol, luteolin, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid, respectively. Accuracy of the methods was checked by conducting a recovery study
at 3 different levels for the 4 compounds, and the average recoveries were found to be 99.73, 99.3, 100.58, and 100.57%, respectively.
Eugenol content ranged from 0.175 to 0.362% (w/w) and luteolin from 0.019 to 0.046% (w/w) in the samples analyzed. Green variety
was found to contain higher amounts of ursolic acid [0.478 and 0.348% (w/w), from Sources 1 and 2, respectively] than the black
variety [0.252 and 0.264% (w/w) from Sources 1 and 2, respectively]. Black variety had 0.174 and 0.218% (w/w) of oleanolic acid
from Sources 1 and 2, respectively, while it was not detected in the green variety. Ursolic acid and oleanolic acid ran at the same Rf
value and could not be resolved in several solvent systems tried. However, we observed that only ursolic acid gave yellow
fluorescence under 366 nm ultraviolet light after deriVatization with anisaldehyde-sulfuric acid reagent. The HPTLC-densitometry
methods for the quantification of the 4 markers in O. sanctum leaf will have the applicability in quality control.

Arif T, Bhosale JD, Kumar N, Mandal TK, Bendre RS, Lavekar GS, Dabur R.Natural products--antifungal agents derived from plants.
J Asian Nat Prod Res.2009;11(7):621-38. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
A new spectrum of human fungal infections is increasing due to increased cancer, AIDS, and immunocompromised patients. The
increased use of antifungal agents also resulted in the development of resistance to the present drugs. It makes necessary to discover
new classes of antifungal compounds to cure fungal infections. Plants are rich source of bioactive secondary metabolites of wide
variety such as tannins, terpenoids, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, and other compounds, reported to have in vitro antifungal
properties. Since the plant kingdom provides a useful source of lead compounds of novel structure, a wide-scale investigation of
species from the tropics has been considered. Therefore, the research on natural products and compounds derived from natural
products has accelerated in recent years due to their importance in drug discovery. A series of Molecules with antifungal activity
against different strains of fungus have been found in plants, which are of great importance to humans. These Molecules may be used
directly or considered as a precursor for developing better Molecules. This review attempts to summarize the current status of
important antifungal compounds from plants.

Balakrishna K, Kundu AB, Patra A. Roxburghiadiol A and roxburghiadiol B, two 14 alpha-methylsterols from Aglaia roxburghiana. J
Nat Prod. 1990;53(2):523-6. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Two new 14 alpha-methylsterols, roxburghiadiol A and roxburghiadiol B, were isolated from the leaves and fruits of Aglaia
roxburghiana. Previously their structures were tentatively assigned as 4-bisnormethyl-24-methylene-cycloarta-3 beta, 7 alpha-diol and
4-bisnormethyl-24-methylene-cycloarta-3 beta, 6 alpha-diol, respectively. A reinvestigation using 2D-nmr technique has confirmed the
structure 2 for roxburghiadiol B as previously reported, and roxburghiadiol A is now found to be the corresponding 6 beta epimer 1.

Betz Joseph M, Brown Paula N, Roman Mark C. Accuracy, precision, and reliability of chemical measurements in natural products
research. Fitoterapia.2011;82(1):44-52.
Abstract.
Natural products chemistry is the discipline that lies at the heart of modern pharmacognosy. The field encompasses qualitative and
quantitative analytical tools that range from spectroscopy and spectrometry to chromatography. Among other things, modern research
on crude botanicals is engaged in the discovery of the phytochemical constituents necessary for therapeutic efficacy, including the
synergistic effects of components of complex mixtures in the botanical matrix. In the phytomedicine field, these botanicals and their
contained mixtures are considered the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and pharmacognosists are increasingly called upon to
supplement their molecular discovery work by assisting in the development and utilization of analytical tools for assessing the quality
and safety of these products. Unlike single-chemical entity APIs, botanical raw materials and their derived products are highly variable

66

because their chemistry and morphology depend on the genotypic and phenotypic variation, geographical origin and weather
exposure, harvesting practices, and processing conditions of the source material. Unless controlled, this inherent variability in the raw
material stream can result in inconsistent finished products that are under-potent, over-potent, and/or contaminated. Over the decades,
natural product chemists have routinely developed quantitative analytical methods for phytochemicals of interest. Quantitative
methods for the determination of product quality bear the weight of regulatory scrutiny. These methods must be accurate, precise, and
reproducible. Accordingly, this review discusses the principles of accuracy (relationship between experimental and true value),
precision (distribution of data values), and reliability in the quantitation of phytochemicals in natural products.

ChakrabortySuchandra, Chattopadhyay Gautam ,Saha Chandan. Montmorillonite-KSF induced Fischer indole cyclization under
microwave towards a facile entry to 1-keto-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazoles. Indian Journal of Chemistry.2011;50B(2):201-206.
Abstract.
Fischer indole cyclization of substituted cyclohexane-1,2-dione-1-phenylhydrazones 1 having either electron donating or electron
withdrawing group on the phenyl moiety of substituted 1-keto-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazoles 2 are efficiently carried out by microwave
irradiationandnbsp; in presence of montmorillonite-KSF under solvent free condition.

Chintalwar G, Jain A, Sipahimalani A, Banerji A, Sumariwalla P, Ramakrishnan R, Sainis K. An immunologically active


arabinogalactan from Tinospora cordifolia. Phytochemistry. 1999 ;52(6):1089-93. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
An arabinogalactan of mean M(r) 2.2 x 10(6) has been isolated from the dried stems of Tinospora cordifolia and examined by
methylation analysis, pArtial hydrolysis and carboxyl reduction. Purified polysaccharide showed polyclonal mitogenic activity against
B-cells, their proliferation did not require
macrophages.

Das PC, Patra A, Mandal S, Mallick B, Das A, Chatterjee A. Cleogynol, a novel dammarane triterpenoid from Cleome gynandra. J Nat
Prod. 1999;62(4):616-8. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Chemical examination of Cleome gynandra (whole plant excluding seeds) led to the isolation and identification of a novel (20S, 24S)epoxy-19,25-dihydroxydammarane-3-one hemiketal (1). The structure of the new compound, designated cleogynol, was determined
using spectral and chemical
methods.

De Senjuti, Chowdhury Shubhamoy , Drew Michael G B, Datta Dipankar. Effect of an ancillary ligand on single helix-double helix
interconversion in copper complexes. Copper(I)-water bond. Indian Journal of Chemistry.2011;50A: 171-175.
Abstract.
Reaction of Cu(ClO4)2.6H2O with the 1:2 condensate of benzildihydrazone and 2-acetylpyridine, in methanol in equimolar ratio
yields a green compound which upon recrystallisation from 1:1 CH2Cl2-C6H6 mixture affords [CuL(H2O)](ClO4)2.C6H6. The
complex crystallises in the space group P-1 with a = 8.028(11) , b = 12.316(17) , c = 18.14(3) , a = 97.191(10)o, b = 94.657(10)o

67

and g = 108.039(10)o. It is single helical with the metal having a distorted trigonal bipyramidal N4O coordination sphere. The acid
dissociation constant of the Cu(I) complex in CH3CN is 3.34 0.19. The X band EPR spectrum of the compound is rhombic with g1
= 2.43, g2 = 2.10, g3 = 2.02 and A1 = 79.3 x 10-4 cm-1. The Cu(II/I) potential of the complex in CH2Cl2 at a glassy carbon electrode
is 0.43 V vs SCE. It is argued that the copper-water bond persists in the corresponding copper(I) species. Its implications on the single
helix-double helix interconversion in copper helicates are discussed. DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-311G** level shows that the
binding energy of water in the single helical five-coordinate copper(I) species [CuL(H2O)]+ is ~ 40 kJ mol-1.

Francis JA, Raja SN, Nair MG. Bioactive terpenoids and GugguluSteroids from Commiphora mukul gum resin of potential antiinflammatory interest. Chem Biodivers. 2004;1(11):1842-53. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Guggulu, the gum resin from Commiphora mukul, is one of the components of various formulations of traditional Ayurvedic medicine
to treat inflammation, obesity, and lipid disorders. In most preparations of Ayurvedic medicine in India, Guggulu is boiled prior to its
use. Therefore, Guggulu was boiled with H2O prior to extractions in our study. Bioassay-guided isolation of compounds from the
hexane-soluble portion of the MeOH extract of Guggulu yielded cembrenoids, 1-6, a bicyclic diterpene, 7, Guggulusterone
deriVatives, 8-11, myrrhanone deriVatives, 12, myrrhanol deriVative, 13, and a lignan, 14. The structures of these compounds were
confirmed by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 5, 6, 7, 10, and 12-14 are novel. These compounds were assayed for lipid
peroxidation and cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme inhibitory activities. At 100 ppm, compounds 3, 6, and 14 inhibited the lipid
peroxidation by 79, 57, and 58%, respectively, and the rest of isolated compounds showed 20-40% inhibitory activity with respect to
the controls. In COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme inhibitory assays, compound 3 showed 79 and 83%, and compound 8 gave 67 and 54% of
inhibition, respectively, at 100 ppm. All fourteen compounds inhibited COX-1 enzyme at 100 ppm. The lipid peroxidation and COX
enzyme inhibitory activities exhibited by compounds isolated from C. mukul may substantiate its use in traditional medicine.

Ganzera M, Choudhary MI, Khan IA. Quantitative HPLC analysis of withanolides in Withania somnifera. Fitoterapia.2003;74(12):68-76. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
One of the most widely used herbs in Ayurvedic medicine is Ashwaghanda, Withania somnifera, a shrub commonly found on the
Indian subcontinent. As this plant is increasingly becoming a popular adaptogenic in the western world, analytical methods for its
identification and quality control are in demand. Thus, a HPLC method for the determination of withaferin A and withanolide D was
developed. The system was successfully used to investigate the presence of the markers in different W. somnifera plant parts as well as
to analyze their content in market products.

Garg S, Bhutani KK. Chromatographic analysis of Kutajarista--an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation. Phytochem Anal.
2008;19(4):323-8. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Kutajarista is a well known polyherbal preparation of which the main ingredient is the stem bark of Holarrhena antidysenterica. This
Ayurvedic medicine is prescribed to treat amoebic dysentery and other disorders such as fever, indigestion and malabsorption
syndrome. Herbal medicines are very important since, in common with conventional medicines, they contain biologically active
substances that may produce non-trivial side effects when taken in excessive amounts. Very low doses, on the other hand, may have no
therapeutic value. In this paper we report the chemical standardisation of Kutajarista by HPLC analysis based upon the presence of the
biomarker conessine in the formulation. The standardisation method is simple and reliable, and the precision of method has been
tested for repeatability (n = 3) and reproducibility (n = 9). The response of a refractive index detector was linear in the concentration

68

range of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL. Recovery studies were performed to check the method for accuracy. The recovery was found to be in range
of 99-105%. The developed HPLC method can be used to quantify conessine for quality control of marketed Kutajarista samples.

Goel Jyotsna, Kadervelu K, Garg V K, Meena A K, Chopra R, Rawat A, Kumar S, Mishra G K and Chitra. A pilot scale evaluation for
adsorptive removal of Lead (II): using treated Granular Activated Carbon (GAC):. Journal of Environmental Technology;2005;26:489
499.
Abstract.
Wastewaters discharged from the defence serviceable industries pose a serious environmental hazard due to their heavy metal load.
The present study focused on optimizing the operational variables viz, hydraulic loading rate, bed height and feed concentration
through bench scale study and using that for assessing the efficiency of pilot scale system with sulphur loaded carbon (AC-S): as the
adsorbent in the removal of Pb (II):. Static mode adsorption studies were also carried out for Pb (II): removal using treated (AC-S):
and untreated carbon (AC):. AC-S shows about 35 percent increase in maximum adsorption capacity over that on AC. The maximum
adsorption capacity in the column mode for Pb (II): at the optimized conditions: bed height of 0.4 m, hydraulic loading rate of 7.5
m3h-1m-2 and the feed concentration of 6 mg l-1 for achieving 50 % breakthrough concentration was found to be 2.89 mg g-1.
Adsorption mechanism involved during Pb (II): in the column has also been explored. Bohart - Adams model was used for modeling
the bench scale data and predicting the adsorption behavior at pilot scale level.

Gupta P, Akanksha, Siripurapu KB, Ahmad A, Palit G, Arora A, Maurya R. Anti-stress constituents of Evolvulus alsinoides: an
Ayurvedic crude drug. ChemPharm Bull (Tokyo).2007;55(5):771-5. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Bioactivity-guided purification of n-BuOH soluble fraction from the ethanol extract of Evolvulus alsinoides resulted in the isolation of
two new compounds, 2,3,4-trihydroxy-3-methylbutyl 3-[3-hydroxy-4-(2,3,4-trihydroxy-2-methylbutoxy)-phenyl]-2-propenoate (1)
and 1,3-di-O-caffeoyl quinic acid methyl ester (2) along with six known compounds, caffeic acid (3), 6-methoxy-7-O-betaglucopyranoside coumarin (4), 2-C-methylerythritol (5), kaempferol-7-O-beta-glucopyranoside (6), kaempferol-3-O-beta
glucopyranoside (7) and quecetine-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (8). The structure of new compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by
spectroscopic analysis, while known compounds were confirmed by direct comparison of their NMR data with those reported in
literature. This is the first report of the presence of phenolic constituents in Evolvulus alsinoides. The isolated compounds 1-5 and 8
were screened for anti-stress activity in acute stress induced biochemical changes in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Stress exposure
has resulted in significant increase of plasma glucose, adrenal gland weight, plasma creatine kinase (CK), and corticosterone levels.
Compound 1 displayed most promising antistress effect by normalizing hyperglycemia, plasma corticosterone, CK and adrenal
hypertrophy, while compounds 2 and 3 were also effective in normalizing most of these stress parameters, however compounds 4, 5
and 8 were ineffective in normalizing these parameters.

Gupta V, Meena A K, Krishna C M , Rao M M, Sannd R, Singh H, Panda P, Padhi M M and Babu Ramesh. Review of plants used as
Kshar of family Piperaceae. International Journal of Ayurvedic Medicine.2010;1(2):81-88.
Abstract.
Many herbal remedies individually or in combination have been recommended in various medical treatises for the cure of different
diseases. Kshara is a kind of medication described in Ayurveda Texts for the management of various disorders. The genus Piper L. is
estimated to contain over 1000 species which are distributed mainly in tropical regions of the world. This review mainly focuses on
the plants of family Piperaceae that are used in Kshar so that more research work is carried out in the direction of standardization,
therapeutic level determination of Kshar plants.

69

Hemalatha T, Pulavendran S, Balachandran C, Manohar BM, Puvanakrishnan R.Arjunolic acid: a novel Phytomedicine with
multifunctional therapeutic applications. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010;48(3):238 47. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Herbal plants with antioxidant activities are widely used in Ayurvedic medicine for cardiac and other problems. Arjunolic acid is one
such novel Phytomedicine with multifunctional therapeutic applications. It is a triterpenoid saponin, isolated earlier from Terminalia
Arjuna and later from Combretum nelsonii, Leandra chaeton etc. Arjunolic acid is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger. The
scientific basis for the use of arjunolic acid as cardiotonic in Ayurvedic medicine is proven by its vibrant functions such as prevention
of myocardial necrosis, platelet aggregation and coagulation and lowering of blood pressure, heart rate and cholesterol levels. Its
antioxidant property combined with metal chelating property protects organs from metal and drug induced toxicity. It also plays an
effective role in exerting protection against both type I and type II diabetes and also ameliorates diabetic renal dysfunctions. Its
therapeutic multifunctionality is shown by its wound healing, antimutagenic and antimicrobial activity. The mechanism of
cytoprotection conferred by arjunolic acid can be explained by its property to reduce the oxidative stress by enhancing the antioxidant
levels. Apart from its pathophysiological functions, it possesses dynamic insecticidal property and it is used as a structural molecular
framework in supramolecular chemistry and nanoscience. Esters of ajunolic acid function as gelators of a wide variety of organic
liquids. Experimental studies demonstrate the versatile effects of arjunolic acid, but still, further investigations are necessary to
identify the functional groups responsible for its multivarious effects and to study the molecular mechanisms as well as the probable
side effects/toxicity owing to its long-term use. Though the beneficial role of this triterpenoid has been assessed from various angles, a
comprehensive review of its effects on biochemistry and organ pathophysiology is lacking and this forms the rationale of this .

Islam MT, Islam SA, Latif SA. Detection of arsenic in water, herbal and soil samples by neutron activation analysis technique. Bull
Environ Contam Toxicol. 2007;79(3):327-30.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Arsenic contamination of ground water is well understood while other environmental systems are rarely considered to be
contaminated by arsenic. A vital issue is whether or not appreciable arsenic transmits through the food chain. Reportedly, Ayurvedic
herbal medicine products (AHMPs) manufactured in Asia were found to be contaminated by harmful level of Arsenic. This study was
aimed to quantify the arsenic levels in water, herbal and soil samples collected from the same origin using highly accurate neutron
activation analysis (NAA) technique. Harmful level of arsenic was detected in most of the water and soil samples. Moreover, a
considerably harmful level of Arsenic was detected in herbal samples collected from the same origin. As a result, AHMPs
manufactured in Asia might be contaminated by arsenic through arsenic contaminated herb plants.

Kandale Ajit, Meena, A K, Rao M M, Panda P, Mangal AK, Reddy G and Babu Ramesh. Marine algae: An Introduction, Food value
and Medicinal uses. Journal of Pharmacy Research.2011;4(1):219-221.
Abstract.
Seaweeds offer a wide range of therapeutic possibilities both internally and externally. The term seaweeds refer only to macrophytic
marine algae, both wild and cultivated, growing in saltwater. Botanically, seaweeds are classified as green, brown, or red. A Particular
seaweeds placement in one of these groups is determined first by its photosynthetic pigments, then its reproductive mode, then its
micro and macro morphologies, and finally by its phycopolymers. In the last three decades the discovery of metabolites with
biological activities from macroalgae has increased significantly. However, despite the intense research effort by academic and
corporate institutions, very few products with real potential have been identified or developed. Substances that currently receive most
attention from pharmaceutical companies for use in drug development or from researchers in the field of medicine-related research
include: sulphated polysaccharides as antiviral substances, halogenated furanones from Delisea pulchra as antifouling compounds, and
kahalalide F from a species of Bryopsis as a possible treatment of lung cancer, tumours and AIDS. Other substances such as

70

macroalgal lectins, fucoidans, kainoids and aplysiatoxins are routinely used in biomedical research and a multitude of other substances
have known biological activities. Fucus vesiculosus is a brown seaweed that grows on the northern coasts of the Atlantic and Pacific
oceans and the North and Baltic seas. This species is often included in kelp preparations along with other types of seaweed. As an
herbal medicine, seaweed has been used for traditional cosmetics, treatments for cough, asthma, hemorrhoid, boils, goiters, stomach
ailments, and urinary diseases, and for reducing the incidence of tumors, ulcers, and headaches.

Karunakaran C , Dhanalakshmi R, Manikandan G, Gomathisankar P. Photodegradation of carboxylic acids on Al2O3 and SiO2
nanopArticles. Indian Journal of Chemistry.2011;50A: 163-170.
Abstract.
Al2O3 and SiO2 nanopArticles effect photodegradation of carboxylic acids, and their photonic efficiencies are comparable to those of
TiO2 P25 Degussa, TiO2 Hombikat, TiO2 anatase, TiO2 rutile, ZnO, SnO2, and ZrO2 nanosemiconductors. All the nanopArticles
show sustainable photoactivity and the degradation rates increase linearly with oxalic acid-concentration and photon flux. The
photonic efficiencies of degradation are in the order: formic acid > oxalic acid > acetic acid > citric acid. The mechanism of
photodegradation is discussed.

Kaur P, Sharma M, Mathur S, Tiwari M, Divekar HM, Kumar R, Srivastava KK, Chandra R. Effect of 1-oxo-5beta, 6beta-epoxywitha-2-ene-27-ethoxy-olide isolated from the roots of Withania somnifera on stress indices in Wistar rats. J Altern Complement Med.
2003;9(6):897-907. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
OBJECTIVE:
Isolation of biologically active fractions and compounds from the roots of Withania somnifera, a plant used extensively as a
constituent of Rasayana, in Ayurveda and to test their adaptogenic activity on stress indices using the cold-hypoxia-restraint (C-H-R)
model.
DESIGN:
Bioactivity-guided fractionation of an aqueous extract of the roots of Withania somnifera led to the isolation of a new species of
withanolide 1-oxo-5beta, 6beta-epoxy-witha-2-ene-27-ethoxy-olide. Structure elucidation, was carried out using proton nuclear
magnetic resonance, infrared (IR), ultraviolet (UV), and mass spectroscopic analysis. Stress-related indices were evaluated, namely
serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activity, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, serum corticosterone levels, and serum
lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels.
RESULTS:
There was a significant decrease in a serum CPK, LDH, and LPO levels in animals pretreated with (1) fraction-I (20 mg/kg body
weight), (2) 1-oxo-5beta, 6beta-epoxy-witha-2-ene-27-ethoxy-olide (2.5 mg/kg body weight) in comparison to control when subjected
to C-H-R stress.
CONCLUSIONS:
The results show that the a new species of withanolide, 1-oxo-5beta, 6beta-epoxy-witha-2-ene-27-ethoxy-olide (compound-1) could
prove to be an effective agent to counteract C-H-R stress.

71

Khan MT, Ather A, Thompson KD, Gambari R. Extracts and Molecules from medicinal plants against herpes simplex viruses.
Antiviral Res. 2005;67(2):107-19. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and -2) are important pathogens for humans, especially in the case of highly susceptible adults.
Moreover, HSV-2 has been reported to be a high risk factor for HIV infection. Therefore, the discovery of novel anti-HSV drugs
deserves great efforts. In this paper, we review anti-HSV substances from natural sources, including both extracts and pure compounds
from herbal medicines, reported in studies from several laboratories. The role of traditional medicine for the development of anti-HSV
compounds is also discussed. Interestingly, it was found that traditional medicines, like Ayurvedic, traditional Chinese (TCM),
Chakma medicines, are good and potential sources for promising anti-HSV drugs. A second objective of this review is to discuss
several anti-HSV compounds with respect to their structure-activity relationship (SAR). A large number of small Molecules, like
phenolics, polyphenols, terpenes (e.g.mono-, di-, tri-), flavonoids, sugar-containing compounds, were found to be promising antiherpetic agents. Our major conclusion is that natural products from medicinal plant extracts are very important source of anti-HSV
agents.

Kidwai Mazaahir, Bura Nisha, Mishra Neeraj Kumar. Niobium(V) pentachloride-catalyzed efficient and highly rapid synthesis of
bis(indolyl)-methanes under mild conditions. Indian Journal of Chemistry.2011;50B(2): 229-232.
Abstract.
Niobium(V) pentachloride has been found to be an extremely efficient catalyst for electrophilic substitution reaction of indole using
various aromatic aldehydes at room temperature, to afford the corresponding bis(indolyl)methanes in good yields. The remarkable
feature of this new protocol is high conversion in shorter reaction time with simple experimental and workup procedure

Kumar A, Nair AG, Reddy AV, Garg AN. Bhasmas: unique Ayurvedic metallic-herbal preparations, chemical characterization. Biol
Trace Elem Res.2006;109(3):231-54. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Bhasmas are unique Ayurvedic metallic preparations with herbal juices/fruits, known in the Indian subcontinent since the seventh
century BC and widely recommended for treatment of a variety of chronic ailments. Twenty bhasmas based on calcium, iron, zinc,
mercury, silver, potassium, arsenic, copper, tin, and gemstones were analyzed for up to 18 elements by instrumental neutron activation
analysis, including their C, H, N, and S contents. In addition to the major constituent element found at % level, several other essential
elements such as Na, K, Ca, Mg, V, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn have also been found in microg/g amounts and ultratrace (ng/g) amounts of
Au and Co. These seem to remain chelated with organic ligands derived from medicinal herbs. The bhasmas are biologically produced
nanopArticles and are taken along with milk, butter, honey, or ghee (a preparation from milk); thus, this makes these elements easily
assimilable, eliminating their harmful effects and enhancing their biocompatibility. Siddha Makaradhwaja, a mercury preparation is
found to be stoichiometrically HgS without any traces of any other element. Similarly, Sweta Parpati is stoichiometrically KNO3 but
is found to have Mn, Cu, Zn, Na, P, and Cl as well. An attempt has been made to correlate the metallic contents with their medicinal
importance. Na and K, the two electrolytic elements, seem to be well correlated, although K/Na varies in a wide range from 0.06 to
95, with specifically low values for Ca-, Fe-, and Zn-based bhasmas. K/P also varies in a wide range from 0.23 to 12, although for
most bhasmas (n = 12), it is 2.3 +/- 1.2. Further, Fe/Mn is linearly correlated (r = 0.96) with Fe in nine noniron bhasmas.

Lal UR, Tripathi SM, Jachak SM, Bhutani KK, Singh IP. RP-HPLC analysis of Jirakadyarishta and chemical changes during
fermentation. Nat Prod Commun. 2010;5(11):1767-70. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.

72

Jirakadyarishta, an Ayurvedic formulation prepared by the fermentation of a decoction of Cuminum cyminum (seeds) is traditionally
used for intestinal disorders. RP-HPLC analysis of the decoction and the final processed formulation revealed that apigenin-7-O[galacturonide (1 --> 4)-O-glucoside] and luteolin-4'-O-glucoside-7-O-galacturonide) were the two major constituents of the decoction
of C. cyminum. Selective hydrolysis of 7-O-glucosides of luteolin and apigenin during fermentation resulted in an increase in the
amount of luteolin and apigenin. The 4'-O-glucoside-7-O-galacturonide of luteolin and galacturonide deriVative of apigenin were not
hydrolyzed during fermentation. Monomeric phenolics, together with 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), were also introduced into
the formulation through the jaggery and other plant materials during fermentation. This communication highlights the importance of
the ancient processing methods used in Ayurveda.

Lal UR, Tripathi SM, Jachak SM, Bhutani KK, Singh IP. Chemical changes during fermentation of Abhayarishta and its
standardization by HPLC-DAD. Nat Prod Commun. 2010;5(4):575-9. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Abhayarishta is an Ayurvedic formulation prepared traditionally by the fermentation of the decoction of Terminalia chebula (pericarp),
Vitis vinifera (fruits), Embelia ribes (fruits) and Madhuca indica (flowers). In the present communication, chemical changes occurring
during fermentation in Abhayarishta have been studied for the purpose of its standardization. An HPLC-DAD method for quantitative
estimation of selected marker constituents in the formulation has been developed and validated. A comparison of decoction and final
processed formulation revealed that major polyphenolics (chebulagic and chebulinic acid) of T. chebula were hydrolyzed to their
respective monomers and, consequently, there was an increase in the amount of chebulic acid, gallic acid, ellagic acid and ethyl gallate
after fermentation. 5-Hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF) was also found in the formulation. Thus, emphasis is laid upon consideration
of processing methods of formulation which has been lacking in the standardization of most of Ayurvedic formulations.

Mallavadhani UV, Narasimhan K, Sudhakar AV, Mahapatra A, Li W, van Breemen RB. Three new pentacyclic triterpenes and some
flavonoids from the fruits of an Indian Ayurvedic plant Dendrophthoe falcata and their estrogen receptor binding activity. Chem Pharm
Bull (Tokyo). 2006;54(5):740-4. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Extensive chromatographic screening of extracts of the fruits of the Indian Ayurvedic plant, Dendrophthoe falcata, resulted in the
isolation of three new triterpenes, 3beta-acetoxy-1beta-(2-hydroxy-2-propoxy)-11alpha-hydroxy-olean-12-ene (1), 3beta-acetoxy11alpha-ethoxy-1beta-hydroxy-olean-12-ene (2) and 3beta-acetoxy-1beta-hydroxy-11alpha-methoxy-olean-12-ene (3) along with nine
known compounds, 3beta-acetoxy-1beta,11alpha-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene (4), 3beta-acetoxy-1beta,11alpha-dihydroxy-urs-12-ene (5),
3beta-acetoxy-urs-12-ene-11-one (6), 3beta-acetoxy-lup-20(29)-ene (7), 30-nor-lup-3beta-acetoxy-20-one (8),(20S)-3beta-acetoxylupan-29-oic acid (9), kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside(10),quercetin-3-O-alpha-L rhamnopyranoside (11), and gallic acid
(12). The structures of these compounds were determined using 1D and 2D NMR and high resolution electrospray mass spectrometry.
These compounds were assayed for binding to estrogen receptors-alpha and beta and kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (10)
was found to be a ligand for both receptors with greater affinity for beta. The triterpenes (1-9) are reported for the first time in the
genus Dendrophthoe and assumes taxonomic significance.

Mangal AK, Das MN. Comparative powdered drug analysis of aerial and underground roots of Ficus rumphii (Ashmantaka). Bull.
Med. Ethno Bot. Research. 2001; 22(1-4):99-106.
Abstract.
Ficus rumphii Blume. (Ashmantaka), a moderate size tree occurs throughout India. Root of this tree is considered as emetic and
anthelmintic and used in asthma and snake-bite. This paper describes microscopic and fluorescence characters of aerial and

73

underground roots of Ficus rumphii, along with their ash and extractive values. This study will help to identify and differentiates both
type of the roots (Aerial and Underground) from each other.
From the foregoing observations it is possible to distinguish the powder drug of aerial and underground materials. The diagnostic
characters of the two powder materials are shown below:
(X)

Parenchyma cells are thick and rectangular in aerial roots and thin and rounded in underground roots.

(XI)

The cork cells of aerial roots are longer as compared with underground roots.

(XII)

The pitted cells are present in aerial roots and absent in underground roots.

(XIII)

Fibres are present in both types of root powder, but, varying in size. The pitted fibres are present only in aerial roots.

(XIV)

Pitted scalariform, pitted reticulate vessels are present in underground roots.

(XV)

Selereids are present in both types of powder drugs. Pitted selereids are absent in underground roots.

(XVI)

Prismatic calcium oxalate crystals are present in both types, but longer in aerial roots.

(XVII) 80% ethanol extracts of both the root powder show maximum fluorescence and under long U.V. radiations.
(XVIII) Ash values (Total and acid insoluble) are more in underground roots but the extractive values (Water soluble and ethanol
soluble) are more in aerial roots.

Maruthikumar T Venkata, Rao G V Panakala, Reddy V Prabhakar, Rao P Hanumantha. Synthesis of 4-(substituted benzyl)-1H,3Hbenzo[f]1,3,5-triazepin-2-ones. Indian Journal of Chemistry.2011;50B(2): 242-244.
Abstract.
This paper presents the synthesis of 4-(substituted benzyl)-1H,3H-benzo[f]1,3,5-triazepin-2-ones 3 from o-phenylenedi- amines 1 and
4-(arylmethylene)-6-phenyl-3H-1,3,5-oxadiazin-2-ones 2.

Maurya R. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Withania coagulans: an Ayurvedic remedy. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2010;62(2):153-60.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
OBJECTIVES:
The use of Withania coagulans, a member of the solanaceae family, has been highlighted in Ayurveda. We have reviewed the chemical
constituents and Pharmacological properties of W. coagulans, as well as its morphology. This has included therapeutic effects of the
whole plant and its extracts, fractions and isolated withanolides. The hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycaemic,
hypolipidaemic, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial, cardiovascular, central nervous system depressant, immunomodulating,
antitumour and cytotoxic activities of W. coagulans have been described. KEY FINDINGS: Research carried out using different
biological testing in-vitro and in-vivo techniques supported the claims.
SUMMARY:
This review has covered the morphology, chemistry and Pharmacology of the plant. It has described 37 compounds containing 46
references.

74

Meena AK, Ajay Kumar Yadav, A Gaurav, R Singh, Kiran Sharma, Uttam Singh, B Singh, M M Rao Comparative Study of Quality
Assessment Of Calotropis Procera Linn. Root at Selected Regions .International Journal of chemical And Analytical Science.2010;
3(4):831-832.
Abstract.
The herbal drug Alarka is botanically called as Calotropis procera Linn. In the recent past tremendous attempts are being made to
evaluate the scientific standards for traditional system of medicines, Particularly in Ayurvedic system of medicine. The use of the
plants, plant extracts, and pure compounds isolated from natural sources has always provided a foundation for modern pharmaceutical
compounds. Calotropis procera Linn is small, erect and compact shrubs, which is used in several traditional medicines to cure various
diseases. This shrub has been known to posses Analgesic, Antitumor, Antihelmintic, Antioxidant, Hepatoprotective, Inflammatory,
Antidiarrhoeal, Anticonvulsant, Antimicrobial, Oestrogenic, Antinociceptive, and Antimalarial activity. A wide range of chemical
compounds including- Benzoyllineolone, benzoylisolinelone and -amyrin. The root bark contains the calotropoleanyl ester,
proceroleanenol A and proceroleanenol B. The latex contains the calactin, calotropin, uscharin, sitosterol, and calotoxin. The thin layer
chromatographic studies of alcohol extract was also carried out to ascertain the quality of this drug. For the evaluation of
Pharmacopoeial standards phytochemical parameters are adopted. These studies suggested that the observed physiochemical
parameters are of great value in quality control and formulation development of Calotropis procera.

Meena A K, Bansal Parveen, Kumar Sanjiv, Rao M M and Garg V K. Estimation of heavy metals in commonly used medicinal plants:
a market basket survey. Environ. Monit. Assess. (2010):.
Abstract.
Popularity of herbal drugs is increasing all over the world because of lesser side effects as compared to synthetic drugs besides it cost
effectiveness and easy availability to poor people Particularly in developing countries. Keeping in view the increased market demand
of herbal drugs, it is essential to ensure their chemical quality prior to use. Raw drugs and herbs are usually collected from different
places, which might be contaminated with various contaminants. It is pertinent to estimate the levels of heavy metals and other
micronutrients, which could be affected by their presence in the surrounding environments.
Heavy metals are known to pose a potential threat to terrestrial and aquatic biota. Keeping this in view, samples of ten plants or plant
parts used in drug making were collected from local markets of Punjab for heavy metal and micronutrient estimation. It was found that
the samples were contaminated having cadmium, lead, chromium, iron, manganese, and zinc. The highest mean level.

Meena AK, Garg Nitika, Nain Jaspreet, Meena RP and Rao M M. Review on Ethnobotany, phytochemical and Pharmacological
profile of Alstonia Scholaris. International Research Journal of Pharmacy.2011;2(1):49-54.
Abstract.
Alstonia scholaris Linn.which is popularly known as the Saptaparni or the Devil tree, which are used as a well known remedy for
the treatment of various types of disorders in the Ayurvedic, Homoeopathic and Folklore system of medicine in India. Alstonia
scholaris mainly used for the treatment of diarrhoea and malaria, as a tonic, febrifuge, emmenagogue, anticholeric and vulnerary.
Over the past two decades, many reports have appeared in mainstream scientific journals describing its nutritional and medicinal
properties. Alstonia scholaris mainly contain ditamine, echitamine and echitenine. As with many reports of the nutritional or medicinal
value of a natural product, there are an alarming number of purveyors of healthful food who are now promoting Alstonis scholaris.
This paper explains the evidence-based information regarding the Pharmacological activities of this plant. It has many ethnobotanical
uses and is medicinally used in the traditional Ayurvedic system.

75

Meena A K, Kandale A, Rao MM, Panda P, Kaur KP. A Review on Leishmaniasis and treatment with natural drugs, International
Journal of Contemporary Research and Review. 2010;1 (2).
Abstract.
Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites that belong to the genus Leishmania and is transmitted by the bite of certain
species of sand fly (subfamily Phlebotominae):. Most forms of the disease are transmissible only from animals (zoonosis):but some
can be spread between humans. Human infection is caused by about 21 of 30 species that infect mammals. These include the L. donovani complex with three species (L. donovani, L. infantum, and L. chagasi): the L. mexicana complex with 3 main species (L. mexicana, L. amazonensis, and L. venezuelensis): L. tropica; L. major; L. aethiopica; and the subgenus Viannia with four main species (L.
[V.] braziliensis, L. [V.] guyanensis, L. [V.] panamensis, and L. [V.] eruviana):. The different species are morphologically indistinguishable, but they can be differentiated by isoenzyme analysis, DNA sequence analysis, or monoclonal antibodies. Leishmaniasis
may be divided into the different types depending upon the organ system it affects as Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, Visceral leishmaniasis, Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis and Viscerotropic leishmaniasis. The present chemotherapy for
this disease includes treatment with the antimonial drugs and amphotericin B and some natural alkaloids. Because of certain disadvantages, the present research is diverted towards different alternative systems of medicines like Ayurveda.

Meena A K, Kandale A, Rao MM, Panda P, Kaur KP. A Review on Leishmaniasis and treatment with natural drugs, International
Journal of Contemporary Research and Review. 2010;1 (2).
Abstract.
Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites that belong to the genus Leishmania and is transmitted by the bite of certain
species of sand fly (subfamily Phlebotominae):. Most forms of the disease are transmissible only from animals (zoonosis):but some
can be spread between humans. Human infection is caused by about 21 of 30 species that infect mammals. These include the L. donovani complex with three species (L. donovani, L. infantum, and L. chagasi): the L. mexicana complex with 3 main species (L. mexicana, L. amazonensis, and L. venezuelensis): L. tropica; L. major; L. aethiopica; and the subgenus Viannia with four main species (L.
[V.] braziliensis, L. [V.] guyanensis, L. [V.] panamensis, and L. [V.] eruviana):. The different species are morphologically indistinguishable, but they can be differentiated by isoenzyme analysis, DNA sequence analysis, or monoclonal antibodies. Leishmaniasis
may be divided into the different types depending upon the organ system it affects as Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, Visceral leishmaniasis, Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis and Viscerotropic leishmaniasis. The present chemotherapy for
this disease includes treatment with the antimonial drugs and amphotericin B and some natural alkaloids. Because of certain disadvantages, the present research is diverted towards different alternative systems of medicines like Ayurveda.

Meena A K, Kandale Ajit, Nigam Sukriti, Panda P, Singh Brijendra, Rao M M. Review On Marine Organisms with Antileishmanial
Activity Journal of Pharmacy Research.2010; 3 (4):818 - 821.
Abstract.
Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites that belong to the genus Leishmania and is transmitted by the bite of certain
species of sand fly (subfamily Phlebotominae):. Most forms of the disease are transmissible only from animals (zoonosis):but some
can be spread between humans. Human infection is caused by about 21 of 30 species that infect mammals. These include the L.
donovani complex with three species (L. donovani, L. infantum, and L. chagasi): the L. mexicana complex with 3 main species (L.
mexicana, L. amazonensis, and L. venezuelensis): L. tropica; L. major; L. aethiopica; and the subgenus Viannia with four main species
(L. (V.): braziliensis, L. (V.): guyanensis, L. (V.): panamensis, and L. (V.): peruviana):. The different species are morphologically
indistinguishable, but they can be differentiated by isoenzyme analysis, DNA sequence analysis, or monoclonal antibodies.
Leishmaniasis may be divided into the different types depending upon the organ system it affects as Cutaneous leishmaniasis,
Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, Visceral leishmaniasis, Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis and Viscerotropic leishmaniasis.The

76

present chemotherapy for this disease includes treatment with the antimonial drugs and amphotericin B and some natural alkaloids.
Because of certain disadvantages, the present research is diverted towards different sources like Ayurvedic and marine drugs.

Meena A K, Kandale Ajit, Panda P, Rao M M and Reddy Govind. Review on Citron- Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and medicinal
Uses. International Research Journal of Pharmacy.2011;2(1):14-19.
Abstract.
The citron is a fragrant fruit with the botanical name Citrus medica, which applies to both the Swingle and Tanaka systems. It is a
prominent member in the genus Citrus, belonging to the Rutaceae or Rue family, sub-family Aurantioideae. The citron is unlike the
more common citrus species like the lemon or orange. While the most popular fruits are peeled to consume their pulpy and juicy
segments, the citron's pulp is very dry, containing only little insipid juice. Moreover, the main content of a citron is the thick white
rind, which is very adherent to the segments, and cannot be separated from them easily. Thus, from ancient through medieval times,
the citron was used mainly for medical purposes: to combat sea sickness, pulmonary troubles, intestinal ailments, and other disorders.
The essential oil of the flavedo (the outermost, pigmented layer of rind): was also regarded as an antibiotic. Citron juice with honey
was considered an effective antidote to poison. In India, the peel is a remedy for dysentery and is eaten to overcome halitosis. The
distilled juice is given as a sedative. The candied peel is sold in China as a stomachic, stimulant, expectorant and tonic. In West
Tropical Africa, the citron is used only as a medicine, Particularly against rheumatism. The flowers are used medicinally by the
Chinese. In Malaya, a decoction of the fruit is taken to drive off evil spirits. A decoction of the shoots of wild plants is administered to
improve appetite, relieve stomachache and expel intestinal worms. The leaf juice, combined with that of Polygonum and Indigofera is
taken after childbirth. A leaf infusion is given as an antispasmodic. In Southeast Asia, citron seeds are given as a vennifuge. In
Panama, they are ground up and combined with other ingredients and given as an antidote for poison. The essential oil of the peel is
regarded as an antibiotic.The citron fruit is usually ovate or oblong, narrowing towards the stylar end. However, the citron's fruit shape
is highly variable, due to the large quantity of albedo, which forms independently according to the fruits' position on the tree, twig
orientation, and many other factors. This could also be the reason for its being protuberant, forming a "v" shape after the end of the
segments towards the stylar end. The rind is leathery, furrowed, and adherent. The inner portion thick, white and fleshy the outer
uniformly thin, and very fragrant. The pulp is usually acidic, but also sweet and even pulps less variety are found.Most citron varieties
contain a large number of seeds. The monoembryonic seeds are white colored; with dark inner coat and red-purplish chalazal spot for
the acidic varieties, and colorless for the sweet ones. Some citron varieties are also distinct with their persistent style.The extract of
peel of Citrus medica showed the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential. Ethyl acetate extract of Citrus medica peel
showed maximum 1;1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH): and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity. Further, antiinflammatory and analgesic activities have been carried out. Analgesic activity has been evaluated for its central and peripheral
Pharmacological actions. Therefore, the Citrus medica peel extract may be used as a future antioxidant for the treatment of
inflammation and pain.

Meena A. K.Kaur Ramanjeet, Pal Bhavana, Sachan Ayushy, Singh Brijendra, Singh Uttam, Kiran, Singh R. Review On Muco
adhesive Buccal film And Its Importance International Journal of chemical And Analytical Science.2010;1 (4):64-67.
Abstract.
For many decades, treatment of an acute disease or a chronic illness has been mostly accomplished by delivering drugs using various
pharmaceutical dosage forms including tablets, capsules, pills, suppositories, creams, ointments, liquids, aerosols, and injectables as
carriers. However, this route presents some problems for a few drugs. The enzymes in the GI fluids, GIT-pH conditions, and the
enzymes bound to GIT membranes are a few factors responsible for the bioavailability problems. During past few years, increasing
interest has arisen in the use of bioadhesive formulations for the development of novel drug delivery systems. Bioadhesive
formulations have a wide scope of applications, for both systemic and local effects.

77

Meena A K, Mishra G K, Rajagopal Chitra and Nagar P N. Adsorption of cadmium (II): ions from aqueous solution using different
adsorbents, Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 2004;63:410 416.
Abstract.:
A comparative study on the adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solutions on a few low cost and locally available untreated and
chemically treated adsorbents is carried out. Mustard husk, carbon aerogel and treated GAC are found to be most effective adsorbents
in addition to treated GAC for the removal of cadmium from the aqueous solution at varing process parameters such as , pH(2-12):
adsorbent dose (0.5-1;2g/100mL):contact time (24-72 h): and initial cadmium concentration (1-5mg/L):. Treated GAC carbon aerogel,
and mustard husk show 100, 87 and 72 mg/L cadmum aqueous solutions in 48 h. The adsorption parameters are determent using both
Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Surface complexation and ion exchange are the major removal mechanisms involved.
The adsorption isotherm studies
indicate that the adsorption process is a monolayer coverage of cadmium on surface of treated GAC and fits into the Langmuir model.
The adsorptive behaviour of cadmium on untreated mustard husk and carbon aerogel satisfies not only the Langmuir assumptions but
also the Freundlich assumptions, i.e.multilayer formation of the surface of the adsorbent with an exponential distribution of the site
energy. The results of the experimental studies as well as the model parameters are presented.

Meena A K, Mishra G K, Rajagopal Chitra and Nagar PN. Comparative studies on adsorptive removal of lead from contaminated
water using different adsorbents. Indian Journal of Environmental Protection .2002;22 (11): 1257 1266.
Lead is one of the heavy metals with specific toxicity and cumulative effects. Lead poisoning causesdamage to liver, kidney and
reduction in haemoglobin formation, mental retardation and abnormalities in fertility and pregnancy. The chief sources of lead in
water are the effluents of leadprocessing industries and manufacturing industries, like storage batteries, insecticides, food
andbeverages. Lead accumulation in the environment causes serious ecological problems and thisrequires the application of cheap and
effective methods for its removal from the contaminatedaqueous streams. The adsorption studies on the removal of lead from aqueous
solution usinglow cost adsorbents was carried out under varying experimental conditions. On the basis of screening studies on the
selected adsorbents, treated GAC, mustard husk and treated sawdusthad shown maximum adsorption efficiency for the removal of
lead. The adsorption parameters were determined using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms models. The paper presents the
results of the experimental studies as well as the model parameters.

Meena A K, Mishra G K, Rajagopal Chitra and Nagar P N. Adsorption of Ni (II): and Zn (II): from aqueous solution by various
adsorbents, Indian Journal of Environmental Protectio.2005;25(1): 8-21.
Abstract.
The adsorption studies on the removal of Ni (II): and Zn (II): from aqueous solution using treated GAC and carbon aerogel were
carried out under varying experimental conditions. The maximum adsorption was observed to be a function of solution pH, contact
time, initial concentration of Ni (II): and Zn (II): ions and adsorbent dose. Experimental results support the hypothesis that ionexchange is probably one of the major adsorption mechanisms for the binding of Ni (II): and Zn (II): ions on the surface of treated
GAC and carbon aerogel. The Langmuir model was found to be in good agreement with experimental data on the adsorptive
behaviour of Ni (II): and Zn (II): on treated GAC and carbon aerogel. On the basis of experimental results and the model parameters,
it can be inferred that the treated GAC and carbon aerogel may be useful in developing an adsorptive technology for the removal of Ni
(II): and Zn (II): from contaminated industrial effluents. The applicability of Lagergren kinetic model has also been investigated.
Thermodynamic constant (Kad ):standard free energy ( GO):enthalpy (dHO): and entropy (dSO): were calculated for predicting the
nature of adsorption. The results indicate the potential application of this method for effluent treatment in industries and also provide
strong evidence to support the adsorption mechanism proposed.

78

Meena A K, Mishra GK, Rajagopal Chitra and Gupta M D. The removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by adsorption on
weathered coal. Indian journal of Environmental Protection. 2009;29(3):193-202.
Abstract.
The ability of weathered coal to remove Cr(VI):Hg(II):Cu(II):and Fe(II): from aqueous solution by adsorption was studied. In this
work, adsorption of heavy metals on weathered coal has been studied by using batch techniques. The adsorption experiments were
performed under various conditions such as different initial concentrations of metal ions, pH of the solution, contact time, temperature
and adsorbent dosage. The adsorption was in the order of Cr(VI): > Hg(II): > Cu(II): and Fe(II):. The equilibrium adsorption capacity
of weathered coal for heavy metals was obtained by using linear Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Surface complexation and ion
exchange are the major removal mechanisms involved. The adsorption follows first -order kinetics. The process is endothermic
showing monolayer adsorption of heavy metals. The results indicate the potential application of this method for effluent treatment in
industries and also provide strong evidence to support the adsorption mechanism proposed.On the basis of experimental results as well
as the model parameters, it can be inferred that the adsorbent weathered coal may be useful in developing an adsorptive technology for
the removal of heavy metals from contaminated plant effluents.

Meena AK, Mishra G K, Satish, Rajagopal Chitra and Nagar P N. Low cost adsorbent for the removal of mercury (II): from aqueous
solution A comparative study. Journal of Defence Science. 2004;54(4):537- 548.
Abstract.
The establishments of the Ministry of Defence, specifically ordnance factories and public sector undertakings (like Bharat Electronics
Ltd):carry out operations like electroplating, metal surface finishing, solid-state wafer processing, and initiatory manufacturing (lead
azide, mercury fulminate):which generate waste water contaminated with hazardous heavy metals. Mercury and its compounds are
known to be highly toxic, both for the living organisms and the environment. To protect public health, a regulatory discharge standard
of mercury, as low as 0.01 mg/l, has been imposed and is expected to be even stricter in the future. A promising method for effective
mercury discharge control is to employ suitable adsorbents for the removal of mercury from the contaminated aqueous stream. This
paper describes the effectiveness of low cost and locally available, untreated and chemically-treated adsorbents for the removal of
mercury from the aqueous solution. Their effectiveness has been compared with that of chemically-treated granular activated carbon.
Treated sawdust and untreated weathered coal were found to be the most suitable low-cost adsorbents in addition to treated granular
activated carbon for the removal of mercury from aqueous solution. Under the optimised conditions, ie, adsorbent dose 10 g/l, pH 6,
contact time 48 h, and initial concentration of mercury 3 mg/l, the removal of mercury was found to be 99.8 per cent, 99.8 per cent,
and 99.7per cent, using treated granular activated carbon, treated sawdust, and untreated weathered coal, respectively.The adsorption
parameters were determined using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Surface complexation and ion exchange were the
major removal mechanisms involved. The adsorption isotherm studies clearly indicated that the Langmuir model is in good
agreement , with the experimental data on the adsorptive behaviour of mercury on treated granular activated carbon, whereas, the
experimental data on adsorptive behaviour of mercury on weathered coal and treated sawdust follow both Langmuir and Freundlich
isotherm models. The paper presents the results of the experimental studies as well as the model parameters.

Meena A K, Mishra G K, Rajagopal Chitra and Nagar P N. Adsorptive Removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using
treated sawdust as an adsorbent. Journal of Hazardous Materials.2008;150, 604-611.
Abstract.
The removal of Cr(VI):Pb(II):Hg(II): and Cu(II):by treated sawdust has been found to be concentration, pH, contact time, adsorbent
dose and temperature dependent. The adsorption parameters were determined using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models.
Adsorption capacity for treated sawdust, i.e. Cr(VI): (111.61 mg/g):Pb(II): (52.38 mg/g):Hg(II): (20.62 mg/g):and Cu(II): (5.64
mg/g):respectively. Surface complexation and ion exchange are the major removal mechanisms involved. The adsorption isotherm
studies clearly indicated that the adsorptive behaviour of metal ions on treated sawdust satisfies not only the Langmuir assumptions

79

but also the Freundlich assumptions. The applicability of Lagergren kinetic model has also been investigated. The adsorption follows
first-order kinetics. Thermodynamic constant (kad):standard free energy (_G):enthalpy (_H): and entropy (_S): were calculated for
predicting the nature of adsorption. The percentage adsorption increases with pH to attain a maximum at pH 6 and thereafter it
decreases with further increase in pH. The results indicate the potential application of this method for effluent treatment in industries
and also provide strong evidence to support the adsorption mechanism proposed.

Meena A K, Mishra G K, Rajagopal Chitra and Nagar P N. Adsorption of Pb (II): and Cd(II): metal ions from aqueous solutions by
mustard husk. Journal of Hazardous Materials.2008;150:619-625.
Abstract.
The adsorption of Pb(II): and Cd(II): metal ions on mustard husk has been found to be concentration, pH, contact time, adsorbent dose
and temperature dependent. The adsorption parameters were determined using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The
adsorption isotherm studies clearly indicated that the adsorptive behavior of Pb(II): and Cd(II): metal ions on mustard husk satisfies
not only the Langmuir assumptions but also the Freundlich assumptions, i.e. multilayer formation on the surface of the adsorbent with
an exponential distribution of site energy. Ion exchange and surface complexation are the major adsorption mechanisms involved. The
applicability of Lagergren kinetic model has also been investigated. Thermodynamic constant (kad):free energy change (_G):enthalpy
change (_H): and entropy change (_S): were calculated for predicting the nature of adsorption. The results indicate the potential
application of this method for effluent treatment in industries and also provide strong evidence to support the adsorption mechanism
proposed.

Meena A K, Mishra G K, Rai P K, Rajagopal Chitra and Nagar P N. Removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using
carbon aerogel as an adsorbent. Journal of Hazardous Materials.2005;122:161 170.
Abstract.
The removal of Cd(II):Pb(II):Hg(II):Cu(II):Ni(II):Mn(II): and Zn(II): by carbon aerogel has been found to be concentration, pH,
contact time, adsorbent dose and temperature dependent. The adsorption parameters were determined using both Langmuir and
Freundlich isotherm models. Surface complexation and ion exchange are the major removal mechanisms involved. The adsorption
isotherm studies clearly indicated that the adsorptive behaviour of metal ions on carbon aerogel satisfies not only the Langmuir
assumptions but also the Freundlich assumptions, i.e. multilayer formation on the surface of the adsorbent with an exponential
distribution of site energy. The applicability of the Lagergren kinetic model has also been investigated. Thermodynamic constant
(Kad):standard free energy (_G0): enthalpy (_H0): and entropy (_S0): were calculated for predicting the nature of adsorption. The
results indicate the potential application of this method for effluent treatment in industries and also provide strong evidence to support
the adsorption mechanism proposed.

Meena AK, Mishra G K, Rajagopal Chitra and Nagar P N. Removal of copper (II): from aqueous solution by different adsorbents.
Indian Journal of Environmental Protection; 2004;24 (5): 361 - 370.
Abstract.
The adsorption studies on the removal of copper from aqueous solution using carbon aerogel as well as locally available weathered
coal and sawdust (treated): was carried out under varying experimental conditions. The maximum adsorption was observed to be a
function of the solution pH, contact time, initial concentration of copper ions and adsorbent dose. Carbon aerogel, weathered coal and
treated sawdust showed 92.3%, 92.4% and 97.6% adsorptive removal of copper respectively under optimised conditions of pH 6 and
dosage 1 gm/100 ml for 3 mg/l copper aqueous solutions in 48 hrs contact time. Ion exchange is probably one of the major adsorption
mechanisms for the binding of Cu (II): ions on the surface of treated sawdust, weathered coal and carbon aerogel. The experimental
results strongly support this hypothesis. The adsorption capacity of adsorbent for copper was obtained by using linear Freundlich and

80

Langmuir isotherms. The Langmuir model is in good agreement with experimental data on the adsorptive behaviour of copper on
carbon aerogel, whereas, the experimental data on adsorptive behaviour of copper on weathered coal and treated sawdust follow both
Freundlich model and Langmuir models. On the basis of experimental results as well as the model parameters, it can be inferred that
the adsorbent, like treated sawdust, weathered coal and carbon aerogel may be useful in developing an adsorptive technology for the
removal of copper from contaminated plant effluents.

Meena A K, Nain Jaspreet, Garg Nitika and Rao MM. Review on Ethnobotany and PhytoPharmacology of Bombax ceiba. Research J.
Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry.2011; 3(2): 57-61.
Abstract.:
Bombax ceiba or the silk cotton tree, this tropical tree has a straight tall trunk and its leaves are deciduous in winter. Red flower with 5
petals appear in the spring before the new foliage. The whole plant of Bombax ceiba used as traditional folk medicines for the
treatment of antidysentric, antidiahorreal and antipyretic effects. Bombax ceiba contains glycosides, tannins, flavanoid, b-sitosterol
and lupeol. New sesquiterpenoids Bombalones A-D, bombamalside have also been isolated. This paper explains the evidencebased
information regarding the Pharmacological activity of this plant. It has many ethnobotanical uses and is medicinally used in the
traditional Ayurvedic system.

Meena A K, Niranjan Uttam S, Yadav AK, Ajit K, Singh Brijendra, Kiran, Rao M M. A quality assessment of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn.
International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. 2010;2(1): 25-28.
Abstract.
The present study deals with the investigation of standardized and phytochemically evaluated aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of
the plant Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. The whole plants of Boerhaavia diffusa L. (Nyctaginaceae): are reported to have good medicinal
values in traditional system of medicines. The present study deals with pharmacognostical examination of morphological and
microscopical characters and phytochemical investigations of Boerhaavia diffusa plants including determination of loss on drying, ash
values, TLC and extractive values. The preliminary phytochemical screening of powdered drug was also carried out. The qualitative
chemical examinations revealed the presence of various phytoconstituents like carbohydrates, saponins, phenolic compounds and
mucilages in the extracts.

Meena A. K.Pal Bhavana, Panda P, Sannd R and Rao MM. A review on Rubia cordifolia: Its phyto constituents and therapeutic uses.
Drug Invention Today.2010;2(5):244-246.
Abstract.
Rubia cordifolia (Rubiaceae): is also known as, Manjishtha, Indian madder known to contain substantial amounts of anthraquinones,
especially in the roots which is responsible for anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, urinary disorders, antistress antimicrobial,
hepatoprotective, radio protective, and anticancer, antimicrobial, antifungal, hypotensive, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant,
antileukemic and mutagenic functions, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. The plant contains substantial
amounts of anthraquinones, especially in the roots, which is responsible for its Pharmacological activity. The presented review
summarizes the information concerning the Pharmacological, phytochemistry, biological activity of the Rubia cordifolia.

Meena A K, Rajagopal Chitra, Bansal Parveen and Nagar P N. Investigation on Water Quality Characteristics in Selected Areas of
Pali District, Rajasthan, Indian Journal of Environmental Protection.2009;29 (11): 1011-1116.
Abstract.

81

Water is undoubtedly the most precious natural resource that exists on our planet. Ground water is the principle source of fresh water
in most of the rural and urban areas of Rajasthan. The demand of ground water has significantly increased in recent years due to
population growth and is expected to continue in the future. Drinking water is one of the basic needs of mankind. However, due to the
non-uniform nature of its distribution in India as well as the poor quality of the water in many areas, effective treatment processes are
required to meet the drinking water needs of the population. This problem is prevalent in most of the areas of Rajasthan and is further
compounded by the release of effluents enriched with heavy metals like iron, chromium and lead which contaminate the groundwater
over a period of time.The present study deals with the impact assessment of industrial pollution on selected area with reference to
physico- chemical and biological parameters. The factors such as Colour, Odour, Turbidity, Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids,
Salinity, Acidity, Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Chloride, Fluoride, Cyanide, Sulphate, Nitrate, Total Organic Carbon, Chemical Oxygen
Demand, Biological Oxygen Demand, Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni affect the chemistry of water and also altered the
biological characteristics of the environment to a great extent because of industrial effluents. In the present study, samples of ground
and waste water were collected from Pali, Rajasthan and analysed for relevant parameters. The results of the analysis of ground and
waste water showed the high range of toxic heavy metals and other parameters in the ground used for potable purposes. The levels of
these heavy metals were higher than permissible levels specified for drinking water in the Indian standards. Therefore it was
concluded that a few water samples were unsuitable for drinking and irrigation purpose.

Meena A K, Rajagopal C and Meena P D, Purification of Lead and Cadmium affected water by mustard Straw. Basanti - Agriculture
research Journal.2007;3(1): 31 -35.
Abstract.
Mustard straw was used as a promising adsorbent for remove of the heavy metals from waste water and effects of various experiments
were studied. 10 gm mustard straw was contacted with one liter waste water of 3 gm concentratiun for 48 hrs at pH 4 and 6 which
absorve 78'X, Ci1dmillm and 99.9% lead respectively. Results could be useful for industries involved in devcloping lt1i1chine for
removi1j of hcavy metals from waste water.

Meena A K, Rajagopal Chitra and Nagar P N. Rremoval of Iron from aqueous solution by adsorption on weathered coal. Indian
Journal of Environmental Protection.2006;26 (9):776 787.
Abstract.
The adsorption studies on the removal of iron from aqueous solution using weathered coal as well as locally available was carried out
under varying experimental conditions. The maximum adsorption was observed to be a function of the solution pH, contact time,
initial concentration of ions, temperature and adsorbent dose. Weathered coal showed 92.6% adsorptive removal of iron under
optimised conditions of pH 8 and dosage 1 gm/100 ml for 3 mg/L iron aqueous solutions in 48 h contact time. Ion exchange is
probably one of the major adsorption mechanisms for the binding of Fe (II): ions on the surface of weathered coal. The experimental
results strongly support this hypothesis.The adsorption capacity of adsorbent for iron was obtained by using linear Freundlich and
Langmuir isotherms. The Langmuir model is in good agreement with experimental data on the adsorptive behaviour of iron on
weathered coal. Adsorption capacity as indicated by value of 'Qo' is 520.06 mg/g for weathered coal an adsorption capacities. The
energies of adsorption, as indicated by 'b' are 0.58 L/mg for weathered coal. On the basis of experimental results as well as the model
parameters, it can be inferred that the adsorbent weathered coal may be useful in developing an adsorptive technology for the removal
of iron from contaminated plant effluents.

82

Meena A K and Rajagopal Chitra. Comparative studies on adsorptive removal of chromium from contaminated water using different
adsorbents. Indian Journal Chemical Technology. 2003;10:72-78.
Abstract.:
Chromium, especially the hexavalent form, is toxic to humans. Industries like chrome ptaung, texme electroplating discharge Cr(VI):
in their effluents. Wastes containging chromium are environmentally persistent and toxic and cannot be degraded or detoxified
biologically. Various techniques developed for the removal of heavy metals include chemical precipitation, ion exchange and
absorption. Activated carbon adsorption systems though widely used are very expensive and the regeneration cost is also very high.
Therefore, their use in waste water treatment may not be economically feasible. There is, therefore a need to identify and study
adsorptive characterstics of low cost alternatives. The present investigation was therefore, undertaken to select suitable locally and
commercially available adsorbents such as activated alumina, ion exchange resin, with special attention to low costadsorbents like saw
dust treated saw dust and sand, and to carry out a comparative study of their applicability to heavy metal removal. The results of these
studies are presented in this paper.

Meena A K, Rao M M. Folk Herbal Medicine Used By Meena Community In Rajasthan .Asian Journal of Traditional
Medicine.2010; 5 (1):51- 63.
Abstract.
A floristic survey of ethno medicinal plants occurring in the tribal area of Rajasthan was conducted to assess the potential of plant
resources for use as modern treatments. The Aravalli hills of Rajasthan are inhabited by many tribes, Meena, Bhil, Grasia, Damor and
Kathodia being the main ones. These tribes use the plants for various purposes in their daily life. Health, vitality and longevity enjoyed
by the tribals peoples have been attributed by them to the use of these wild plants. However, because of environmental changes and a
lack of plant conservation, many of them have become rare, threatened and endangered. The purpose of this communication is to
provide a detailed listing of plant species along with their plant parts used and the mode of administration reported for the effective
control of a variety of ailments as used by the Meena community of Rajasthan.

Meena A. K. , Rao M M, Kandale Ajit, Sharma Kiran, Singh Uttam, Yadav Ajay. Evaluation Of Physico-Chemical And
Standardisation Parameters of Solanum Xanthocarpum Schrad. and Wendl. International Journal of chemical And Analytical
Science.2010;1(3):47-49.
Abstract.
The medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medical practitioners for curing various diseases. In traditional systems of
medicine, different parts like leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and even whole plant of plant Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. and
Wendl. (Solanaceae): are used. It is commonly known as Yellow Berried Nightshade (syn: kantakari):. It is a prickly diffuse bright
green perennial herb, woody at the base and 23 m in height. It is found throughout India mostly in dry places as a weed on roadsides
and waste lands. The fruit is used as anti-asthmatic, hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-tussive, antifeedant,
antipyretic, antispasmodic, anti-histaminic, hypotensive, antianaphylactic and cytotoxic activity. Till today there is no detailed
standardisation work reported for the Solanum xanthocarpum. Physicochemical parameters like preliminary characteristics, toxic
heavy metals, pesticide residue, aflatoxin and microbial contamination analysis were carried out. The study revealed different
parameters of the crude drug which will be useful in identification and control of adulterations.

Meena A K, Rao M M, Komal Preet, Padhi M M, Singh Arjun, Babu Ramesh. Comparative Study on Family Zingiberaceae Plants
Used In Ayurvedic Drugs. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2010;2(2): 58-60.
Abstract.

83

The present Article attempts to compare physico-chemical parameters of Zingiber officinalis Roxb.Hedychium spicatum Ham ex
Smith , Curcuma longa Linn belonging to common family Zingiberaceae. Each of them is considered to have huge medicinal value in
Ayurveda, Sidhha and Unani traditional medicines. Since ancient times, these drugs are used according to their medical value.
Investigation of such traditionally used medicinal plants is thus valuable on two levels, firstly, as a source of potential chemo
therapeutic drugs and secondly, as a measure of safety for the continued use of medicinal plants. The present paper attempts to
evaluate the physicochemical parameters like pH, Loss on drying at 105C, Water soluble extract, Alcohol soluble extract, Total Ash,
Acid insoluble ash and Thin layer chromatography. The study revealed specific identities for crude drug taken which will be useful in
identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

Meena A. K.Rao M M, Kaur Komalpreet and Panda P. Comparative evaluation of standardisation parameters between Wedelia genus
species, International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research.2010;1(3):207-210.
Abstract.
Genus Wedelia belonging to family Asteraceae has great importance in Ayurvedic, Sidhha and Unani etc. traditional medicinal
systems. In the recent past, number of attempts has been made to compare and evaluate the different species of plants belonging to the
same genus. The use of the plants, plant extracts and pure compounds isolated from natural sources has always provided a foundation
for modern pharmaceutical research. In present Article comparative study between Wedelia biflora and Wedelia chinesis has been
made for parameters like ash content, soluble extracts, moisture content, pH, toxic heavy metals, pesticide residue and microbial load
etc.

Meena A K, Rao M M, Krishna C M, Komalpreet, Sunil K N, Padhi M M,Babu Ramesh. Evaluation of Phamacognostic and
Physicochemical parameters of Picrorrhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. International Journal of Ayurvedic Medicine.2010;1(1):41-47.
Abstract.
Picrorrhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth is commonly known as Kutki belonging to family Scrophulariaceae. It is useful as a laxative, liverstimulant, improving lactation, appetite stimulant, fabrifuge and as beneficial in bronchial asthma. This plant is native to the
Himalayan region and is part of Ayurvedic medicine as a treatment for various diseases. The leaf, bark and the underground parts of
the plant, mainly rhizomes are widely used in the traditional Indian (Ayurvedic): systems of medicine since ancient times. Rhizomes
of Picrorrhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth plant material was subjected to microscopic characterization and physico-chemical studies. TLC
has also been studied to fix the quality standards of this drug. The experiment has revealed a set of diagnostic characters essential for
its standardization. Photomicrography and TLC profile were employed to fix standards. In this Article attempt has been made to
standardize the Picrorrhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth obtained from reliable source for its physico-chemical parameters like loss on
drying, total ash value, acid insoluble ash, water soluble extract, alcohol soluble extract, pH etc.

Meena A K, Rao M M, Panda P, Kiran, Yadav Ajay, Singh Uttam, Singh B. Standardisation of Ayurvedic Polyherbal Formulation,
Pancasama Churna. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. 2010;2 (1):11-14.
Abstract
Ayurvedic medicine, Panchasama Churna known to be effective mainly on gastrointestinal tract (GIT):has been standardized by
following modern scientific quality control procedures both for the raw material and the finished product. Pancasama Churna was
subjected to macro-microscopic, Physico-chemical, preliminary phytochemical, TLC and HPTLC to fix the quality standards of this
drug. This study results a set of diagnostic characters essential for its standardisation. TLC and HPTLC fingerprinting were employed
to fix standards. The values obtained after physicochemical parameters study showed that these values should be helpful to develop
new pharmacopoeial standards. This will be helpful to overcome batch to batch variations in traditional preparation of Pancasama

84

churna. The physicochemical constituents found to be present in raw material used for the preparation of Pancasama churna possibly
facilitate the desirable therapeutic efficacy of the medicinal formulation.

Meena Ajay Kumar, Rao M.M.Panda P. Padhi M.M. and Babu Ramesh, Evaluation and Expression of Uncertainty in the Measurement
of Iodine Value in Mustard Oil. International Journal of Chemical and Analytical Science.2010;1(7):136-140.
Abstract.
The significance of uncertainty must be known as the performer of the test to eliminate any error which carrying out testing as it is a
part of measurement. The uncertainty of measurement defines the rate of lowest possible deviation from the true value and it is also
defines the level of confidence. Quality of analysis has assumed great significance in view of the fact that measurement provides the
very basis of all control actions. The analysis process is at best an estimate of or approximation to the true value. The uncertainty of
measurement is a right tool, associated with the result of a measurement that characterizes the dispersion of the true value which could
reasonably be attributed to the measurand.

Meena A K, Rao MM, Sannd R, Mangal AK, Reddy GR, Padhi MM and Babu Ramesh Comparative Studies on Quality Assessment
of Trachyspermum Ammi Linn. Seeds Collected from Different locations of Punjab State. Research J. Pharmacognosy and
Phytochemistry 2011; 3(1): 41-44.
Abstract.
Ayurveda, the science of life, deals with the holistic view of healthy living. It emphasizes on prevention as well as treatment of various
disease conditions through holistic approach. Since ancient times, several diseases have been treated by administration of plant
material based on traditional method and approaches. Investigation of traditionally used medicinal plants is thus valuable on two
levels, firstly, as a source of potential chemotherapeutic drugs, and secondly, as a measure of safety for the continued use of medicinal
plants. The seeds of Trachyspermum ammi Linn. are being used in traditional folk medicines for the treatment of various gastrointestinal and inflammatory disorders. It is a bitter, aromatic, thyme like aroma warming herb, and possesses tonic, diuretic, and
expectorant properties. It relaxes spasms, improves digestion, increases perspiration and is a strong antiseptic.Physicochemical studies
on various parameters like total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, ethanol soluble extractive value, water soluble extractive
value, loss on drying, pH, TLC reveal specific identities for the crude drug which will be useful in identification and help in
controlling adulterations.

Meena A K, Rao MM, Rao V Nageswara, Komalpreet, Padhi MM and Babu Ramesh. Comparative Study of Various Plants of
Piperaceae Family Commonly Used in Ayurvedic Formulations. Research Journal Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry.2010; 2(5):
407-410.
Abstract.:
The present Article attempts to compare TLC and physico-chemical parameters of P. nigrum Linn.Piper cubeba Linn.Piper longum
Linn. and Piper chaba Hunter belonging to common family Piperaceae. Each of them is considered to have huge medicinal value in
Ayurveda, Sidhha and Unani traditional medicines. Since ancient times, these drugs are used according to their medical value.
Investigation of such traditionally used medicinal plants is thus valuable on two levels, firstly, as a source of potential chemo
therapeutic drugs and secondly, as a measure of safety for the continued use of medicinal plants. The present paper attempts to
evaluate the physicochemical parameters like pH, Loss on drying at 105C, Water soluble extract, Alcohol soluble extract, Total Ash,
Acid insoluble ash and thin layer chromatography. The study revealed specific identities for crude drug taken which will be useful in
identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

85

Meena AK, Rao MM, Sharma Kiran, Yadav Ajay, Singh Uttam and Amit. Physicochemical and Preliminary Phytochemical Studies on
the Fruit of Terminalia chebula Retz. Asian J. Research Chem. 2010;3(4): 1-4.
Abstract.:
The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the fruit of Terminalia
chebula Retz. Combretaceae family. Haritaki is semi-deciduous tree grows up to 24 meter in height. Terminalia chebula is found
throughout India chiefly in deciduous forests, on dry slopes up to 900m especially in Tamil Nadu, widely distributed through the
greater parts of India, from Ravi eastwards to West Bengal and Assam, Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Deccan, West coast and
Western Ghats. The plant is also reported in Sri Lanka, Nepal and Burma. Terminalia chebula is traditionally used in the formulation
for anti-diabetic, antimicrobial, laxative, antiinflammatory, laxative, anti-fungal, cardiotonic, diuretic, hyperlipidemic activity. As there
is no detailed standardisation work reported on fruit, the physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical constants, toxic
heavy metals, pesticide residue, and aflatoxin analysis are carried out. The study revealed specific identities for the Particular crude
drug which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

Meena A K, Rao M M, Singh Arjun, Kumari Suman, Physico-chemical And Preliminary Phytochemical Studies on The Rhizome of
Acorus calamus Linn. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.2010;2(2):130-131.
Abstract.
The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the rhizome of
Acorus calamus Linn. Araceae family. Acorus calamus is a perennial, semiaquatic and smelly plant, found in both temperate and sub
temperate zones. It is up to 6 feet tall, aromatic, swordshaped leaves and small, yellow/green flowers with branched rhizome. It is
widely distributed throughout India and Ceylon, in marshes, wild or cultivated, ascending the Himalayas up to 6000 feet in Sikkim,
plentiful in the marshy tracts of Kashmir and Sirmoor in Manipur and Naga Hills. The rhizomes are considered to possess anti
spasmodic, carminative and anthelmintic, aromatic, expectorant, nauseant, nervine, sedative, stimulant and properties and also used
for the treatment of epilepsy, mental ailments, chronic diarrhea, dysentery, bronchial catarrh, intermittent fevers and glandular and
abdominal tumors. In AyrVedic system of medicine the powder of this drug is being used to produce therapeutic emesis i.e. Vamana,
one of the Panchakarma specialized therapeutic procedures of Ayurveda. As there is no detailed standardisation work reported on
rhizome, the physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical constants, toxic heavy metals, pesticide residue, aflatoxin and
microbial contamination analysis are carried out. The study revealed specific identities for the Particular crude drug which will be
useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

Meena A K, Sachan Ayushy, Kaur Ramanajeet, Pal Bhavana, Singh Brijendra. Moringa oleifera A review Journal of Pharmacy
Research. 2010;3 (4):840-842.
Abstract.
Moringa oleifera, or the horseradish tree, is a pan-tropical species that is known by such regional names as benzolive, drumstick tree,
kelor, marango, mlonge, mulangay, nbday, saijhan, and sajna. Over the past two decades, many reports have appeared in mainstream
scientific journals describing its nutritional and medicinal properties. As with many reports of the nutritional or medicinal value of a
natural product, there are an alarming number of purveyors of healthful food who are now promoting M. oleifera. Over the past two
decades, many reports have prepared in mainstream scientific journals describing its nutritional and medicinal properties.M. oleifera is
a tropical tree whose numerous economic applications and facility of propagation are arousing growing international interest.

Meena A K, Sachan Ayushy, Kaur Ramanjeet, Pal Bhavana, Rao M M, Singh Brijendra and Mishra Santosh Kumar. Quality
Assessment of Different Variants of Yogaraj Guggulu. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance. 2010;2(2):10-12.

86

Abstract.
Yogaraj -Guggulu is a widely used Ayurvedic formulation. Standardisation of the Ayurvedic medicine, Yogaraj a Guggulu has been
achieved by following modern scientific quality control procedures. It has been shown to have significant anti-inflammatory activity
in formaldehyde-induced arthritis and in croton oil granuloma. For the standardization of this drug physico-chemical parameters were
carried out such as moisture content, ash values, extractability in water and alcohol were carried out. Thin Layer Chromatography
studies were also carried out to ascertain the quality of this drug.

Meena A K, Saraswathy A, Shakila R, Sunil Kumar KN, Ariyanathan S, Pharmacognostic studies on Alangium salvifolium
(Linn.f.): Wang. root bark. Journal of pharmacognocy. 2010;2(11):374-380.
Abstract.
Root bark of Alangium salvifolium (Linn.f.): Wang. (Family Alangiaceae): is a reputed drug mentioned in the ancient books of
Ayurveda and Siddha for the treatment of epilepsy, jaundice, hepatitis etc. Root bark of the plant was subjected to macro-microscopic,
photomicrographic, physico-chemical, fluorescence, preliminary phytochemical, TLC and HPTLC to fix quality standards for this
drug. Microscopic studies have shown stratified phellem, rhytidome, cluster crystals of calcium oxalate and uni- to triseriate medullary
rays in the root bark. Chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol extracts and alkaloid fraction revealed characteristic chromatographic patterns
with presence of alkaloids in varying concentrations. This study would be useful in the identification and authentication of the raw
drug.

Meena A K, Sharma Kiran, Jain Vikas, Pal Bhavana, Ajit K, Singh Uttam, Singh R and Rao MM. Physicochemical and Preliminary
Phytochemical Studies on the Fruit of Tribulus terrestries Linn. Research Journal of Science and Technology. 2010;2(2):31- 33.
Abstract.
The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the fruit of Tribulus
terrestries Linn. Zygophyllaceae family. Tribulus terrestries is an annual or perennial, prostrate herb with many slender, spreading
branches and silky-villous young parts. The plant grows wild throughout India, the shrub thrives in well irrigated black soil upto
attitudes of 3000m. Tribulus terrestries is traditionally used in the formulation for antiurolithiatic activity, anthelmintic activity, antiinflammatory activity, cardiac activity, aphrodisiac activity etc. As there is no detailed standardisation work reported on fruit, the
physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical constants, toxic heavy metals, pesticide residue, and aflatoxin analysis are
carried out. The study revealed specific identities for the Particular crude drug which will be useful in identification and control to
adulterations of the raw drug.

Meena A K, Singh Arjun, Panda P, Mishra Sudip, Rao MM. Tinospora cordifolia : Its bioactivities and evaluation of physicochemical
properties. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. 2010;2(2).
Abstract.
The medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medical practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. In
traditional systems of medicine, different parts (leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and even whole plant): of tinospora cardifolia
(Menispermaceae):commonly known as Guduchi are used. T. cordifolia is a glabrous, succulent, climbing shrub native to India. The
plant is well known for several medicinal uses like immunostimulant, anti-bacterial, analgesic, antipyretic and also for the treatment of
jaundice, skin diseases, diabetes, anemia etc. As there is no detailed on the standardisation work reported on stem, the
physicochemical parameters, brief study on Pharmacological activities and microbial contamination analysis are carried out. The study
revealed specific identities for the Particular crude drug which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw
drug.

87

Meena A K, Singh Arjun, Rao MM. Evaluation of physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the fruit of Emblica
officinalis gaertn. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research.2010; 3(3): 242-243.
Abstract.
The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the fruit of Emblica
officinalis Gaertn, Euphorbiaceae family. Amla is one of the most celebrated herbs in the Indian traditional medicine system,
Ayurveda. Amla traditional uses include as a laxative, eye wash, appetite stimulant, restorative tonic, and to treat anorexia, indigestion,
diarrhea, anemia, and jaundice. Amla is becoming increasingly well known for its unusually high levels of Vitamin C, which is
resistant to storage and heat damage due to cooking. It is found natively in India. Indian gooseberry has been used as valuable
ingredient of various medicines in India and abroad. As there is no detailed standardisation work reported on fruit, the
physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical constants, toxic heavy metals, pesticide residue, and aflatoxin analysis are
carried out. The study revealed specific identities for the Particular crude drug which will be useful in identification and control to
adulterations of the raw drug.

Meena AK, Singh Arjun, Sharma Kiran, Kumari Suman, Rao M M. Physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the
rhizomes of glycyrrhiza glabra linn. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.2010;2(2):48-50.
Abstract.
The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the roots of
Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn Leguminosae family. Glycyrrhiza glabra is a hardly herb or undershurb of pea family, found in subtropical
and warm temperate regions. It is up to four or five feet, Glycyrrhiza glabra is widely distributed in Mediterranean countries, South
Europe, Asia Minor, Egypt, Turkistan, Iran and in India, it is reported to be cultivated in Baramulla, Srinagar, Jammu, Dehradun, Delhi
and South India. The rhizomes are considered to possess an expectorant and carminative, flavouring agent, depressant, antimicrobial,
hypolipidemic, antianthersclerotic, antiviral, hypotensive, heptoprotective, spasmolytic, antidiuretic, antimutagenic, antipyretic, anti
inflammatory. As there is no detailed standardisation work reported on rhizome, the physicochemical parameters, preliminary
phytochemical constants, toxic heavy metals, pesticide residue, aflatoxin and microbial contamination analysis are carried out. The
study revealed specific identities for the Particular crude drug which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the
raw drug.

Meena, A K Singh Arjun, Rao M M and Kumari Suman. Evaluation of preliminary phytochemical and physicochemical studies on the
fruit of Randia dumetorum Lam. Asian Journal of Traditional Medicines.2010;5(2):75-78.
Abstract.
The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the fruit of Randia
dumetorum (Rubiaceae):. It is found in waste places and jungles all over India. Different parts of this plant are used in curing different
types of diseases. It is efficacous in skin diseases, aphrodisiac, emetic, purgative, carminative, antipyretic. It cures abscess, ulcers,
inflammation, wounds, tumors, and have antibacterial activity. As there are no detailed standardisation studies of the fruit of this plant,
therefore, the present paper attempts to evaluate the physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical, heavy metals, pesticide
residue and aflatoxin analysis of the fruit for identification of the drug in dry form and control the adulteration of raw drugs.

Meena A K, Singh Brijendra, Kaur Ramanjeet ,Ayush, Pal Bhavana, Niranjan Uttam S, Yadav AK and Nagariya AK.
Pharmacognostic and Physicochemical Studies on Plumbago zeylanica Linn. Root. Drug Invention Today.2010;2(4):217-219.

88

Abstract.
Plumbago zeylanica L.(family: Plumbaginaceae): is an important medicinal plant indigenous to Southeast Asia. Roots of this plant are
the most frequently used plant parts which have traditionally been used for the treatment of various ailments, such as dyspepsia, piles,
diarrhoea, skin diseases, leprosy and rheumatism. Roots are also reported to posses antibacterial, antifungal, abortifacient. Root of
plant material was subjected to macro-microscopic, physico-chemical, preliminary phytochemical, TLC to fix the quality standards of
this drug. The experiment has resulted a set of diagnostic characters essential for its standardization. Photomicrography, TLC. The
experiments yielded a set of diagnostic characters like cork cell, stone cell, parenchyma. This study would be useful for
standardization of this raw drug derived from root of Plumbago zeylanica L.

Meena A. K.Singh Brijendra, Yadav A K, Singh Uttam , Kaur Ramanjeet, Sachan Ayushy, Kiran, Gautam Vertika, Pal Bhavana. A
Review On Medicinal Properties And Bioactive Constituents Of Herbal Spices Commonly Used In India .Journal of Pharmacy
Research.2010;3(4):866-868.
Abstract.
Synthetic preserVatives have been used in foods for decades; however, an increasing perception by consumers that synthetic
compounds may lead to negative health consequences has led to a reduced acceptance for their use in foods. Plant derived spices are
generally used
in foods for flavoring and medicinal purposes. Spices have been shown to possess medicinal value, such as antimicrobial activity,
antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory activity etc. Several spices Particularly garlic, ajowain, black pepper, clove, ginger, cumin
and caraway are used extensively in the Indian diet and in Indian medicine. Garlic with its antibacterial properties is widely used for a
number of infectious diseases. The presented review summarizes the information concerning the medicinal properties of herbal spices.

Meena A. K.Singh Uttam, Yadav A K, Singh B, Rao M M. Pharmacological And Phytochemical Evidences For the extract from The
Genus Vitex A Review .International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2010;2(1): 01-09.
Abstract.
The scientific basis for the statement that plants and their active constituents play an important role in the prevention diseases is
continuously advancing. In fact, the origin of many therapeutic substances from the genus Vitex. The genus Vitex contains 270 species
distributed around the world. It is an interesting source of potential bioactive Molecules, as iridoids compounds, flavonoids,
diterpenoids deriVatives, phytoSteroids, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, Hepatoprotective activity , analgesic and
antihistamine ,Anti-implantation, antiasthmatic activities. This work reviews the Pharmacological evidence of extracts of plants from
the genus Vitex, giving an overview of the most studied biological effects and the known phytochemical composition. Although more
studies are necessary, Vitex exhibits proven potential to become of important Pharmacological interest.

Meena A K, Yadav Ajay Kumar, Singh Uttam, Singh Brijendra, Nagariya Amit K , Sharma Kiran, Gaurav Anand, Sharma Surabhi,
Rao M M. A Review on Calotropis Procera. Linn And Its Ethanobotany Phytochemical, Pharmacological Profile.Drug Invention
Today. 2010;2(2):185-190.
Abstract.
Calotropis procera Linn is small, erect and compact shrubs, which is used in several traditional medicines to cure various diseases.
This shrub has been known to posses Analgesic, Antitumor, Antihelmintic, Antioxidant, Hepatoprotective, Inflammatory,
Antidiarrhoeal, Anticonvulsant, Antimicrobial, Oestrogenic, Antinociceptive, and Antimalarial activity. A wide range of chemical
compounds including- Benzoyllineolone, benzoylisolinelone and -amyrin. The root bark contains the calotropoleanyl ester,

89

proceroleanenol A and proceroleanenol B. The latex contains the calactin, calotropin, uscharin, sitosterol, and calotoxin. The presented
review summarizes the information concerning the ethnobotany, Pharmacological, phytochemistry, biological activity and toxicity of
the calotropis procera shrubs.

Meena A. K.Yadav Ajay, Singh Uttam, Singh Brijendra, Sandeep, Kiran, Rao M. M.. Evaluation of physicochemical parameters on the
fruit of Terminalia bellirica roxb. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.2010;2 (2):97-99.
Abstract.
The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the fruit of Terminalia
bellirica Roxb.Combretaceae family. Bibhitaka is a large tree, up to 40m height. Leaves petiolate, broadly elliptic, clustered towards
the end of branches, Flowers greenish yellow, in solitary, simple, axillaries spikes, Fruits globular;1.52.5 cm in diam.obscurely 5
angled when dry. It is found in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of India, but not in the arid regions, in areas of Upper
Gangtic Plain, Chota Nagpur, Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal, Chittagong, Konkan, Deccan, S.M. country and most of the part of South
India. The mostly part used Fruit, Seed and Bark. The bark is mildly diuretic and is useful in anaemia and leucoderma. Fruits are
astringent, acrid, sweet, thermogenic use as antiinflammatory digestive, anthelmintic, expectorant and antipyretic, antiemetic. They
are useful in cough asthma, bronchitis, ophthalmic disorders, skin diseases, ulcers. The oil obtained from seeds is trichogenous and is
useful in dyspepsia, skin diseases, leucoderma and greyness of hair. As there is no detailed standardization work
reported on fruit, the physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical constants, toxic heavy metals, pesticide residue and
aflatoxin analysis are carried out. The study revealed specific identities for the Particular crude drug which will be useful in
identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

Meena R P, Meena A K, Khan SA, Mageshwari S. Standardisation of Unani Poly Herbal Drug- Jawarish-e-Darchini. Journal of
Pharmacy Research.2010;3(7):1673-1676.
Abstract.
In the various ancient cultures of the Chinese, Indians, Malays and in many of other societies around Asia, traditional system of
medicines such as Chinese herbal medicine, Ayurvedic, Unani, Siddha, Malay, Indonesian, Jamu and Tibetan are all plant based and
they continue to play a significant role in healthcare needs. Traditional medicine took a set back in the 1900 when modern drugs
produced by pharmaceutical companies were developed an introduced. They accused the traditional medicine being inconsistent,
inefficient, labor intensive in preparation and most importantly, not readily available due to scarcity of the raw materials. Quality
control (standardization): is an important aspect for maintaining and assessing the quality and safety of an herbal product. Before a
product can be registered, it must meet the necessary requirements such as, the product should not contain herbal components that are
prohibited are adverse effect, it should not contain more than accepted limits of heavy metals. It should free from any type of growth
of bacteria and fungi. The product should be produced in a GMP compliant/ premise. As the Unani poly herbal drug Jawarish-eDarchini therapeutically used in stomachic, amnesia and halitosis ailments, it was felt to standardize this product to meet the quality
standards in global market.

Meena Rampratap, Meena Ajay Kumar, Khan Shamshad Ahmed and Mageswari S. Evaluation of a Unani compound formulation Majoon-e-Sandal. International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research.2010;1(5):238-242.
Abstract.
Traditional healing through herbs have been the practiced of many countries since ages, as they were generally believed to be non
toxic natural products. According to World Health Organization, the usage of herbal drugs exceeds 2-3 times than Allopathic. Modern
medicine is more concern for the cure of diseases but remains indifferent to health preserVation. There is an urgent need to combine

90

the best elements of traditional medicine and modern medicine to improve the health care system of human kind. An ideal team for the
evaluation of traditional medicine will include scientists from Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and tribal medicine. The world Health
Organization (WHO): has estimated 80 % of the World population relies on traditional medicine for primary health care. India is one
of the richest sources of medicinal and aromatic plants. Because of the rapid progress of the herbal drug industry in India for the last
quarter century, an increasing need is felt to standardize the herbal products. It is necessary to develop the scientific protocols such as
SOP and harmacopoeial standards of the poly herbal drug Majoon-e-Sandal. The drug is used in the ailments of stomachic,
antibilious, psychoneurosis, vomiting and nausea. Study revealed that microbial load and heavy metals such as lead, cadmium,
mercury and arsenic were not detected in the drug. Pesticide residues and aflatoxin were also absent in the drug. The data evolved in
the present work will aid in identifying the raw drugs used in finished product and will help to fix the scientific standards for Majoone-Sandal.

Meena R, Meena A K, Mageswari S, Ramaswamy D and Ahmed Khan S. Evaluation of Pharmacopoeial Standards With Reference To
Aftimoon- Whole Plant (Cuscuta Reflexa Roxb.): International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2010;1(11): 139144.
Abstract.
The herbal single drug Aftimoon is botanically called as Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (whole plant):. In the recent past tremendous attempts
are being made to evaluate the scientific standards for Traditional System of Medicine, Particularly in Unani System of Medicine. The
Physician of Unani System of Medicine has considered this drug as one of the important single drugs and this drug has been used
extensively in the preparation of Unani Compound Formulations such as Itrifal-e-Aftimoon, Itrifal-e-Ustukhudus, Itrifal-e-Deedan,
Itrifal-e-Ghudadi, Itrifal-e-Mushil, Majoon-e-Ushba and Sufoof-e-Chobchini etc.This drug is therapeutically useful in the treatment of
insanity, melancholia, melanous, epilepsy, numpness, paralysis, facial palsy, arthritis, worm infestation, jaundice and in the weakness
of liver, stomach and spleen. As per the action the drug is very effective in cathArtic to black bile and phlegm, demulcent, resolvent,
carminative and antihelmintic. In order to authenticate and to develop its pharmacopoeial standards WHO guidelines were followed
provided by CCRUM, New Delhi. For the Evaluation of Pharmacopoeial standards Pharmacognostical and Phyto-chemical parameters
were adopted. The Thin Layer Chromatographic studies of petroleum ether (60 - 80):chloroform and alcohol extract was also carried
out to ascertain the quality of this drug.

Mehndiratta Sameer, Kumar Sunil, Meena Ajay Kumar, Koul Surrinder, Suri O P and Dhar Kanaya Lal. A Review on Plants a useful
source of anti-cancer drugs. Journal of Pharmacy Research.2011;4(1):264-271.
Abstract.
Plant-derived compounds have played very crucial role in the field of anti-cancer drugs. Various important anti-cancer agents like
vincristine, vinblastin, camptothecin, paclitaxel and podophyllotoxin have been isolated from the various plant source. Most of the
anticancer drugs act on tubulin site. Beauty of these drugs is planar structure because space between a and -subunit of tubulin is very
less and planar compounds can fit in the gap and bind to -Subunit. Several new agents have been found against cancer including
combretastatin A4 phosphate, aliphatic esters and lignans. The basic aim of this review is to explore the potential of newly discovered
anticancer compounds, from natural resourses, as a lead for anticancer drug development.

Mirjalili MH, Moyano E, Bonfill M, Cusido RM, Palazn J. Steroidal lactones from Withania somnifera, an ancient plant for novel
medicine. Molecules. 2009;14(7):2373-93. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Withania somnifera, commonly known as Ashwagandha, is an important medicinal plant that has been used in Ayurvedic and
indigenous medicine for over 3,000 years. In view of its varied therapeutic potential, it has also been the subject of considerable

91

modern scientific attention. The major chemical constituents of the Withania genus, the withanolides, are a group of naturally
occurring C28-steroidal lactone triterpenoids built on an intact or rearranged ergostane framework, in which C-22 and C-26 are
appropriately oxidized to form a six-membered lactone ring. In recent years, numerous Pharmacological investigations have been
carried out into the components of W. somnifera extracts. We present here an overview of the chemical structures of triterpenoid
components and their biological activity, focusing on two novel activities, tumor inhibition and antiangiogenic properties of withaferin
A and the effects of withanolide A on Alzheimer's disease. The most recent attempts in biotechnological production of withanolides
are also discussed.

Mohd Amir, Iftikhar Ahsan, Akhter Wasim, Khan S A, Ali Israr. Design and synthesis of some azole deriVatives containing 2,4,5triphenyl imidazole moiety as anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agents. Indian Journal of Chemistry.2011;50B(2):207-213.
Abstract.
A series of azole deriVatives (5a-d, 6a-d and 7a-d) have been synthesized from (2,4,5-triphenyl-imidazole-1-yl)-acetic acid hydrazide
under various reaction conditions. Elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR and mass spectral data confirmed the structure of the newly
synthesized compounds. All the synthesized azole deriVatives have been investigated for their anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and
antifungal activity and showed moderate to good activity

Mohan S, Pinto BM. Towards the elusive structure of kotalanol, a naturally occurring glucosidase inhibitor. Nat Prod Rep.
2010;27(4):481-8. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
This Highlight describes the detailed approach used to determine the absolute stereochemistry of the stereogenic centers in the acyclic
side chain of kotalanol, a naturally occurring glucosidase inhibitor isolated from the plant Salacia reticulata. The plant extract itself is
used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. We highlight the syntheses of proposed candidates based on
structure-activity relationships, the total synthesis of kotalanol, and crystallographic studies of kotalanol and its de-O-sulfonated
deriVative complexed with recombinant human maltase glucoamylase (MGA), a critical intestinal glucosidase involved in the
breakdown of glucose oligomers into glucose.

Mruthyumjaya Meda Rao , Ajay Kumar Meena, Galib. Detection of toxic heavy metals and pesticide residue in herbal plants which
are commonly used in the herbal formulations. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2011.
Abstract.
Herbal formulations are getting popular throughout the world and commercialized extensively for various medicinal properties. WHO
has emphasized the need for quality assurance of herbal products, including testing of heavy metals and pesticides residues. In view of
WHO guidelines, single herbal drugs used in herbal formulations were collected from local market, for testing heavy metals and
persistent pesticides residue. Therefore, in the present case, we have examined few local samples of certain herbs viz. Emblica of f
icinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, and Withania somnifera. The present studies were selected for estimation of four
heavy metals namely Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury. Apart from these, pesticide residue Viz. Organochlorine pesticides,
Organophosphorus pesticides, and Pyrethroids were analyzed in the four samples of single crude drugs. Heavy metals and pesticide
residue were found below detection limits in all the samples.

Mukherjee PK, Maiti K, Mukherjee K, Houghton PJ. Leads from Indian medicinal plants with hypoglycemic potentials. J
EthnoPharmacol. 2006;106(1):1-28. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

92

Abstract.
Diabetes mellitus is caused due to deficiency in production of insulin by the pancreas, or by the ineffectiveness of the insulin
produced. It is a global problem and number of those affected is increasing day by day. The plants provide a potential source of
hypoglycemic drugs because many plants and plant derived compounds have been used in the treatment of diabetes. Several medicinal
plants have found potential use as hypoglycemic in the Indian system of medicines, including Ayurveda. Many Indian plants have
been investigated for their beneficial use in different types of diabetes and reports occur in numerous scientific journals. This Article
aims to provide a comprehensive review on various plant species from Indian biosphere and their constituents, which have been
shown to display potent hypoglycemic activity. The use of herbs as hypoglycemic is a major avenue in Indian perspectives Particularly
for treating diabetes, which require to be explored more effectively as there are so many literatures available on these aspects. This
paper describes the chemistry, activity and usage of the constituents isolated from these plants from India for the treatment of diabetes.

Mukherjee Pulok K, Venkatesh M,Gantait Arunava. Ayurveda in Modern Medicine: Development and Modification of Bioactivity.
Comprehensive Natural Products II Chemistry and Biology.2010;3:479-507.
Abstract.
Natural products play an important role in the development of several therapeutic leads. Ayurveda, one of the oldest systems of Indian
medicine, has a great traditional importance in therapeutics. Recent advances in analytical and biological sciences along with
innoVations in genomics and proteomics can play an important role in validation of this age old system of medicine. This Article
highlights various aspects of Ayurveda, their development, and the modern tools for enhancement of their bioactivity.

Nagariya A K, Meena A K, Kumar S, Singh R, Yadav A K, Niranjan U S Microwave Assisted Efficient Synthesis of Toluidine
DeriVative 2-Chloro-n-p-tolylacetamide Journal of Pharmacy Research.2010;3(3):575-580.
Abstract.
Microwave assisted organic reaction enhancement (MORE): has emerged as a new lead in organic synthesis. The technique offers
simple, clean, fast, efficient, and economic and environment friendly method for the synthesis of a large number of organic Molecules.
During our studies the conventional synthesis of 2-Chloro-N-p-tolylacetamide required time (5-6 h): hence application of
microwave technique for synthesis of the title compound with an objective to reduce reaction time, less use of solvent. Using
microwave irradiation all the reaction could be completed in very short duration (5-10min): with measurable yield (50-80%):.

Nagariya A K, Meena A K, Sharma Kiran, Yadav A K, Niranjan U S, Pathak A K , Singh B, Rao M M. Microwave Assisted Organic
Reactions as A New Tool In Organic Synthesis .Journal of Pharmacy Research.2010;3(3):451-453.
Abstract.
Microwave assisted organic synthesis (MAOS): has emerged as a new lead in organic synthesis. The technique offers simple, clean,
fast, efficient, and economic for the synthesis of a large number of organic Molecules. In the recent year microwave assisted organic
reaction has emerged as new tool in organic synthesis. Important advantage of this technology include highly accelerated rate of the
reaction, Reduction in reaction time with an improvement in the yield and quality of the product. Now days technique is considered
as an important approach toward green chemistry, because this technique is more environmentally
friendly. This technology is still under-used in the laboratory and has the potential to have a large impact on the fields of screening,
combinatorial chemistry, medicinal chemistry and drug development. Conventional method of organic synthesis usually need longer
heating time, tedious apparatus setup, which result in higher cost of process and the excessive use of solvents/ reagents lead to
environmental pollution. This growth of green chemistry holds Significant potential for a reduction of the by product, a reduction in

93

waste production and a lowering of the energy costs. Due to its ability to couple directly with the reaction molecule and by passing
thermal conductivity leading to a rapid rise in the temperature, microwave irradiation has been used to improve many organic
syntheses.

Pandey MM, Rastogi S, Rawat AK. Saussurea costus: botanical, chemical and Pharmacological review of an Ayurvedic medicinal
plant. J EthnoPharmacol. 2007;110(3):379-90. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipschitz, syn Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke is a well known and important medicinal plant widely used in
several indigenous systems of medicine for the treatment of various ailments, viz. asthma, inflammatory diseases, ulcer and stomach
problems. Sesquiterpene lactones have been reported as the major phytoconstituents of this species. Different Pharmacological
experiments in a number of in vitro and in vivo models have convincingly demonstrated the ability of Saussurea costus to exhibit antiinflammatory, anti-ulcer, anticancer and hepatoprotective activities, lending support to the rationale behind several of its traditional
uses. Costunolide, dehydrocostus lactone and cynaropicrin, isolated from this plant, have been identified to have potential to be
developed as bioactive Molecules. Due to the remarkable biological activity of Saussurea costus and its constituents it will be
appropriate to develop them as a medicine. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the botany, chemistry,
Pharmacology and traditional and folkloric uses of Saussurea costus.

Nagariya A. K.Meena A. K.Jain Dipika, Yadav A. K.Singh B. K.Panda P, Sannd R, Pal Bhavana and Sharma Kiran. Potential of
natural polymer in the gastro retentive floating drug delivery system : A review. Journal of Pharmacy Research.2010;3(5): 916-922.
Abstract.
In recent years scientific and technological advancements have been made in the research and development of rate-controlled oral
drug delivery systems by overcoming physiological adversities, such as short gastric residence times (GRT): and unpredictable gastric
emptying times (GET):. Several approaches are currently utilized in the prolongation of the GRT, including floating drug delivery
systems (FDDS):Gastro retentive floating drug delivery systems (GFDDS): are the systems which are retained in the stomach for a
longer period of time and thereby improve the bioavailability of drugs. Natural polymers have a number of advantages like
Biocompatibility, Natural in origin, biodegradable to normal body constituents, safe and non-toxic. Natural gums are among the most
popular hydrophilic polymers because of their cost-effectiveness and regulatory acceptance. In this paper we have tried to give a brief
overview to the potential of natural polymer in the development of gastro retentive floating drug delivery system.

Patwardhan Bhushan, Mashelkar Raghunath Anant. Traditional medicine-inspired approaches to drug discovery: can Ayurveda show
the way forward?. Drug Discovery Today.2009;14(15-16):804-811.
Abstract.
Drug discovery strategies based on natural products and traditional medicines are re-emerging as attractive options. We suggest that
drug discovery and development need not always be confined to new molecular entities. Rationally designed, carefully standardized,
synergistic traditional herbal formulations and botanical drug products with robust scientific evidence can also be alternatives. A
reverse Pharmacology approach, inspired by traditional medicine and Ayurveda, can offer a smart strategy for new drug candidates to
facilitate discovery process and also for the development of rational synergistic botanical formulations

94

Rajanarendar E, Raju S, Reddy M, Reddy Nagi, Govardhan K. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of 1-(5-methyl-3-isoxazolyl)-3,6diaryl-4-thioxo-1,3,5-triazinan-2-ones. Indian Journal of Chemistry.2011;50B(2):223-228.
Abstract.
Treatment of 3-benzalamino-5-methylisoxazoles 1 with ammonium thiocyanate in hot acetic acid affords the corresponding Nisothiocyanato(phenyl)methyl-N-(5-methyl-3-isoxazolyl)amines 2a-j in excellent yields. N-Isoxazolyl--aminoisothiocyanates 2a-j on
reaction with aryl isocyanates undergoes cyclization to give the corresponding isoxazolyl-4-thioxo-1,3,5-triazinan-2-ones 3a-l in good
yields. The compounds 2a-j and 3a-l have been screened for their antimicrobial activity.

Rajanarendar E, Reddy M Nagi, Shaik Firoz Pasha. An efficient one-pot three component synthesis of new isoxazolyl
polyhydroacridine-1,8-diones in an ionic liquid medium. Indian Journal of Chemistry.2011;50B(2): 245-252.
Abstract.
A facile and convenient protocol has been developed for the fast and high yielding one-pot three component synthesis of isoxazolyl
polyhydroacridine-1,8-diones from dimedone, aromatic aldehyde and isoxazolyl amine in the presence of ionic liquid [bmim]+BF4- as
an efficient recyclable medium.

Raj K Joseph Antony, Viswanathan B. Synthesis of nickel nanopArticles with fcc and hcp crystal structures. Indian Journal of
Chemistry.2011;50A: 176-179.
Abstract.
Nickel nanopArticles have been synthesized using nickel nitrate, vegetable oil and sucrose. Ethanol has been used as a solvent since
the heat of reaction shows the destabilization of nickel pArticles if water is present in the synthesis mixture. Nickel with fcc phase is
obtained by reduction with sucrose followed by stabilization using vegetable oil. Nickel or possibly nickel carbide with hcp structure
is obtained by treatment with a mixture of oleylamine and methanol. The fcc and hcp crystal structures have been characterized by
XRD. The calcination of nickel nanopArticles at 450 C results in the sintering of nickel nanopArticles, thereby increasing the
crystallite size. The scanning electron micrograph reveals that the pArticle size is in the range of 5 58 nm for fcc-Ni nanopArticles
calcined at 450 C for 10 min

Reddy Ch Sanjeeva, Rao D Chandrashekar, Yakub V, Nagaraj A. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of bis-[2-imino-3-[5-(3methylbenzo[b]furan-7-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl]-5-(arylidene)-1,3-thiazolan-4-one]methanes.
Indian Journal of Chemistry.2011;50B(2): 253-259.
Abstract.
A series of novel bis-[2-imino-3-[5-(3-methylbenzo[b]furan-7-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl]-5-(arylidene)-1,3-thiazolan-4-one]methanes 6a-j have been prepared and their structures confirmed by IR, NMR, MS and elemental analyses. All the synthesized compounds
have been tested for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi. Among the synthesized
compounds, 6c, 6e, 6f and 6g are found to be the most active against Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus sphaericus, Staphylococcus aureus,
Klebsiella aerogenes and Chromobacterium violaceum. Similarly, these compounds show potent antifungal effect against Candida
albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

95

Sahare KN, Anandhraman V, Meshram VG, Meshram SU, Reddy MV, Tumane PM,Goswami K. Anti-microfilarial activity of
methanolic extract of Vitex negundo and Aegle marmelos and their phytochemical analysis. Indian J Exp Biol. 2008;46(2):128-31.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
In the present study, methanolic extracts of roots of Vitex negundo L. and extracts of leaves of Vitex negundo L.Ricinus communis L.
and Aegle marmelos Corr. were explored for possible antifilarial effect against Brugia malayi microfilariae. It was observed that
among the herbal extracts, root extract of Vitex negundo L. and leaves extract of Aegle marmelos Corr. at 100 ng/ml concentration
showed complete loss of motility of microfilariae after 48 hr of incubation. Thin layer chromatography of the extracts revealed the
presence of alkaloids, saponin and flavonoids in the roots of Vitex negundo L. and coumarin in the leaves of Aegle marmelos Corr

Sahoo S, Satpati AK, Reddy AV. Voltammetric determination of trace levels of Hg in Ayurvedic medicine and in cobalt-containing
samples using a carbon pasteelectrode. Anal Sci. 2010;26(12):1309-12. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
An analytical method has been described for the determination of mercury using a carbon paste electrode. Conditions for the
preparation of the carbon paste electrode were optimized for low background current in order to use it for the determination of ultra
trace levels of mercury. The carbon paste electrode was found to be a good electrode material for the determination of mercury. The
optimized pH for the determination was in the range of 2.5 to 3.5. The three sigma detection limit of mercury was obtained as 0.095
g L(-1). Method has been modified for determination of mercury in cobalt sulfate samples.

Shailaja M, Manjula A, Rao B Vittal. Synthesis of novel 3, 5-disubstituted-4,5 dihydroisoxazoles and 3,4,5-trisubstituted isoxazoles
and their biological activity. Indian Journal of Chemistry.2011;50B(2):214-222.
Abstract.
1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of nitrile oxide generated from substituted pyridinyloxy benzaldoximes with styrene or , -unsaturated
ketones produces a series of 3,5-disubstituted-4,5-dihydroisoxazoles and 3,4,5-trisubstituted isoxazoles. On the other hand, Cchlorooxime reacts with , -unsaturated ketones yielding 3,4,5-trisubstituted isoxazoles. All the compounds are evaluated for their
antimicrobial and antifungal activity and action on isolated frog heart. Aldoxime deriVatives 2e, 2f have been found to show good
inhibitiory activity where as compounds 4g, 4h show better inhibition of sodium calcium exchange ion on isolated frog heart studies.

Singh Krishna K, Joshi Subhash C, Mathela Chandra S. Synthesis and in vitro antibacterial activity of N-alkyl and N-aryl piperazine
deriVatives.Indian Journal of Chemistry.2011;50B(2):196-200.
Abstract.
A series of N-alkyl and N-aryl substituted piperazine deriVatives have been synthesized in order to evaluate their antibacterial activity
against four Gram-positive (Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121,
Staphylococcus epidermidis MTCC 435) and one Gram-negative (Escherichia coli MTCC 723) bacteria by disc diffusion and
microbroth dilution methods. These compounds have been characterized by their MS, IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data. The benzyl
piperazine deriVatives 2-(4-benzylpiperazin-1-yl)-1-p-tolylethanone and 2-(4-benzylpiperazin-1-yl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethanone
show remarkable antibacterial activity even at low concentration against S. epidermidis, S. mutans and B. subtilis bacterial strains and
are even close to the standard antibiotic, ampicillin. Furthermore, benzyl substitution increases antibacterial activity as compared to
methyl and phenyl substituents under identical conditions.

96

Tahermansouri Hasan, Moradi Shahram, Sayyadi Robabeh. Heteroatom effect on intramolecular double proton transfer of 3,6diiminocyclohexa-1,4-diene-1,4-diamine: A theoretical study. Indian Journal of Chemistry.2011;50A: 180-184.
Abstract.
The process of intramolecular proton transfer in 3,6-diiminocyclohexa-1,4-diene-1,4-diamine and some hetero deriVatives has been
investigated at HF and DFT (B3LYP) levels of theory in two states, concerted and stepwise. In 3,6-diiminocyclohexa-1,4-diene-1,4diamine, the energy barrier for the proton transfer through concerted and stepwise mechanism is found to be ~ 27 and 17 kcal/mol,
respectively. When replacing two CH groups by two boron atoms in the ring (3,6-dihydro-3,6-diimino-1,4-diborinine-2,5-diamine),
the obtained energy barriers are ~ 48 and 26 kcal/mol, respectively. The values obtained on replacing the CH groups by two atoms of
nitrogen, silicon and phosphor are ~30 and 18 kcal/mol (3,6-dihydro-3,6-diiminopyrazine-2,5-diamine), 86 and 45 kcal/mol (3,6dihydro-3,6-diimino-1,4-disiline-2,5-diamine) and 84 and 45 kcal/mol (3,6-dihydro-3,6-iimino-1,4-diphosphinine-2,5-iamine)
respectively. The displacement pathway and the resonance forms that are produced in the conversion processes have been investigated.
The nucleus-independent chemical shift methodology has been applied to study the charge distributions in the ring.

Singh Smita, Yadav Ajay, Meena A K, Singh Uttam, Singh B, Gaurav A, Rao M M, Panda P and Singh R.Pharmacological action and
SAR of Phthalazine deriVatives - A Review. International Journal of Chemical and Analytical Science.2010;1(5):79-87.
Abstract.
The chemistry of phthalazine (2;3 benzodiazine): is very well known. These systems are widely used in organic chemistry as
intermediates for the synthesis of numerous compounds. On the other hand; phthalazine deriVatives were extensively studied as
bioactive compounds. They possess remarkable biological activity, such as anticonvulsant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory,
antifungal, antibacterial and vasorelaxant activity among others. Recently, the research and development in the medicinal chemistry of
phthalazine produced hybrid compounds in which phthalazine moiety together with classical drug moieties are present in a single
molecule. So, new anticonvulsant drugs, PDE4 inhibitor and Topoisomerase II inhibitors were developed. These review paper recent
developments in the medicinal chemistry of phthalazine will be reviewed.

Tanwar Pooja, Yadav Gyan Chand, Jaitley U K, Kaushik Naveen, Sahal Dinkar. Synthesis and antimalarial activity of novel N-{2-[2(2-aminoethoxy) ethoxy] ethyl}-7-chloroquinolin-4-amine and its deriVatives. Indian Journal of Chemistry.2011;50B(2): 233-241.
Abstract.
A number of N-{2-[2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethoxy]ethyl}-7-chloroquinolin-4-amine deriVatives have been prepared by condensation of N{2-[2-(2-aminoethoxy) ethoxy] ethyl}-7-chloroquinolin-4-amine with substituted aldehyde. The newly synthesized compounds have
been characterized by IR, H and C NMR, and mass spectral data. These compounds have been screened for in vitro antimalarial
activity using the Sybr Green assay of P. falciparum in culture and the heme detoxification based Heme-HRP assay. Among these,
compounds 7-chloro-N-[2-(2-{2-[(2, 4-difluorobenzyl) amino] ethoxy} ethoxy) ethyl] quinolin-4-amine is found to be the most
effective with IC50 value 60 M (in Heme-HRP assay) and 48 nM (in P. falciparum culture assay). These values compare well with the
potency of chloroquine in the respective assays

Wadud Abdul, PRasad PVV, Rao M.M, Narayana Ala. Evolution of Drug-A historical perspective. Bulletin of Indian Institute of
History of Medicine. 2007;37(1).
Abstract.:
To trace out the first person who discovered the first medicine is extremely difficult. Perhaps the origin of medicine and drug and its
early history has been lost in myths. The use of medicinal plants dates back not only to human civilization but to ancient people also.

97

Plants have been crucial in sustaining human health and well being of mankind. The word Drug, taken from French word Drogue
which means Dry Herb, strongly suggests that earliest drugs were taken out from plant sources. Earliest people used to treat disease
by some unconventional methods, using plants, animal products and minerals, of them plants were given priority. Worlds ancient
systems of medicine e.g. Chinese medicine, Ayurveda and Greek Medicine, despite, having wider differences in their principles of
treatment agree upon the point, that disease is due to balance with the constituents of the body and that the arm of treatment is to
restore the balance with the help of herbs. So herbs played vital role in the development of Pharmacology and Pharmacy. The
splendid architect of todays advanced Pharmacology was not built in a day, but its foundation stone has been laid on old base.
Pharmacology from its very beginning to the age of chemotherapy and on words has traversed long voyage. In this Article travelogue
of the Pharmacology has been discussed briefly.

CHROMATOGRAPHY
Chitlange SS, Kulkarni PS, Patil D, Patwardhan B, Nanda RK. High-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint for quality
control of Terminalia Arjuna containing Ayurvedic churna formulation. J AOAC Int. 2009;92(4):1016-20.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Because Ayurvedic herbal preparations contain a myriad of compounds in complex matrixes, it is difficult to establish quality control
standards for raw materials and to standardize finished Ayurvedic drugs. A novel, accurate, and valid fingerprint method was
developed using HPLC for quality control of a traditional Ayurvedic Arjuna churna formulation, which is used as a cardiotonic drug.
Comprehensive comparison of chromatograms of standardized formulation of Arjuna churna and marketed formulations revealed
eight characteristic peaks in chromatograms, which unambiguously confirmed the presence of authentic raw material used in the
formulation on the basis of their retention time values and UV data. An HPLC fingerprint was also developed for total sapogenins
present in Terminalia Arjuna. The six common peaks observed in chromatograms of isolated sapogenins, standardized formulations,
and marketed formulations can serve as a quality control tool for qualitative estimation of total saponin glycosides
present in an Arjuna churna formulation.

Choudhury RP, Kumar A, Garg AN. Elemental characterization of trifala powders and tablets by instrumental neutron activation
analysis, thermal analysis and spectral studies of gallic acid. J Herb Pharmacother. 2007;7(2):15-29.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Trifala is one of the most popular herbal formulations, marketed either as powder or a tablet and is used in all parts of India. It is an
effective laxative, antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic agent, and is used to refresh the eyes. In order to understand the therapeutic
uses of trifala, the powder and tablet forms from Zandu Pharmaceuticals, Mumbai, were analyzed for six minor (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cl
and P) and 23 trace (Al, Ba, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Eu, Hf, Hg, La, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Th, V and Zn) elements. The
elements were determined by employing instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry
(AAS). A comparison of the elemental contents in the powder and tablets showed wide variations. The powder was rich in Cr, Fe, Se
and Zn, whereas the tablet contained a four-fold higher Mn compared to the powder. Column and thin layer chromatography (TLC) in
ethyl acetate/methanol (7:3) were used for the separation of gallic acid in ethanolic extract. It was further
confirmed by elemental analysis and spectral methods and quantitatively estimated to the extent of approximately 2%.
Thermogravimetric decomposition studies show a three stage process, first a slow process with approximately 20% wt loss at
temperatures up to 200 degrees C followed by a fast process losing another 30-35% wt at approximately 300 degrees C for both the
powder and tablets. At 700 degrees C metal oxide residue of 7.5 and approximately 16% were left for powder and tablets, respectively.

98

Das T, Sa G, Saha B, Das K. Multifocal signal modulation therapy of cancer: ancient weapon, modern targets. Mol Cell Biochem.
2010;336(1-2):85-95. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Although safe in most cases, ancient treatments are ignored because neither their active components nor their molecular targets are
well defined. This is not the case, however, with curcumin, a yellow-pigment substance and component of turmeric (Curcuma longa),
which was identified more than a century ago. Recently, extensive research has addressed the chemotherapeutic potential of this
relatively nontoxic-plant-derived polyphenol. Because most cancers are caused by deregulation of as many as 500 different genes,
agents that target multiple gene products are needed for prevention and treatment of cancer. In this regard, curcumin has been reported
to have immense potentiality for being used in cancer chemotherapy because of its control over the machineries of cell survival,
proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. The mechanisms implicated are diverse and appear to involve a combination of cell
signaling pathways at multiple levels. This review seeks to summarize the unique multifocal signal modulatory properties of the
"ancient weapon," curcumin, which may be exploited for successful clinical cancer prevention.

Govindarajan R, Singh DP, Rawat AK. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantification of phenolics in
'Chyavanprash' a potent Ayurvedic drug. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007;43(2):527-32. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Quantification of bioactive principles through modern analytical tools is essential for establishing the authenticity, credibility,
prescription and usage of Ayurvedic medicines/herbal formulations. 'Chyavanprash' is one of the oldest and most popular Ayurvedic
preparations, used widely as a health promotive and disease preventive 'Rasayana' drug in India and elsewhere. The rejuvenating and
tonic properties of 'Chavanprash' are considered mainly due to their antioxidant principles, which in turn is due to the presence of
phenolic compounds. A simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the separation and quantitative
determination of the major antioxidant compounds from 'Chyavanprash' has been developed. The use of Waters Symmetry column and
an acidic mobile phase enabled the efficient separation of phenolic compounds (catechin, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, syringic acid and
gallic acid) within a 35 min analysis. Validation of the method was done with a view to demonstrate its selectivity, linearity, precision,
accuracy and robustness. In addition optimization of the complete extraction of phenolic compounds were also studied.

Pakade YB, Kumari A, Singh S, Sharma R, Tewary DK. Metals in herbal drugs from Himalayan region. Bull Environ Contam
Toxicol.2011;86(1):133-6. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Various herbal products from Himalayan region may provide a huge source of supply in the domestic and international markets. In this
study, the heavy metal load in various herbal drugs of the region was investigated. The studied toxic elements were present in the
herbal drugs (0.2-8.34 mg/kg As, 0.11-0.48 mg/kg Cd, 2.5-6.0 mg/kg Pb). Zinc was found in the range 7-32 mg/kg and all the samples
were free from mercury contamination.

CLINICAL STUDIES

99

Berman Josh. Clinical development of dietary supplements: The perils of stArting at Phase III.Fitoterapia.2011;82(1):80-84.
Abstract.
Dietary supplements are in worldwide use Particularly for diseases for which conventional agents are ineffective. Many of the diseases
have subjective endpoints and variable natural histories which lead to large placebo effects. Phase III studies with their large resource
requirements should not be undertaken until the commonly used dose of the dietary supplement has been evaluated vs placebo, and if
necessary raised until specific efficacy is demonstrated, in phase II testing. If phase II tests precede phase III evaluation, a product
destined to fail will not consume important resources, and the optimum dose of products destined to succeed can be identified.

Marks William H. Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. versus Sulfasalazine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: A well-designed
clinical trial of a botanical demonstrating effectiveness. Fitoterapia.2011;82(1):85-87.
Abstract.
Claims that Traditional/Alternative medicine (TM/AM) remedies are effective are routinely ignored by Western Medicine. However,
the results of a clinical trial that demonstrated the clinical efficacy of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. (TW), a TMused as an antiinflammatory, were recently published in the Annals of Internal Medicine. Why this Article was published in a peer reviewed
Allopathic medical journal is an important question that begs examination and may lay the future promise of TM/AM therapeutic
interventions.

Shulman Lee P, Banuvar Suzanne, Fong Harry H.S, Farnsworth Norman R. Discussion of a well designed clinical trial which did not
demonstrate effectiveness: UIC center for botanical dietary supplements research study of black cohosh and red clover.
Fitoterapia.2011;82(1):88-91.
Abstract.
The performance of a clinical trial for pharmaceutical agents is usually undertaken only after there is likely benefit demonstrated from
the use of the putative agent. The consideration of botanical products as pharmaceutical agents must similarly go through a rigorous
evaluation process. The present work reviews the recently published phase II study evaluating the effectiveness of black cohosh and
red clover in a randomized trial with conjugated equine estradiol/medroxyprogesterone acetate and placebo for the treatment of
menopausal symptoms. We analyze the possible reasons why this study failed to show benefit for either botanical product in reducing
menopause-related vasomotor symptoms.

ETHNOBOTANY

Jadhav Dinesh.Ethnobotanical plants used in leaf therapy in Ratlam district(Madhya Pradesh). Ethnobotany.2009;21:84-90.
Abstract.
Leaf therapy is an old practice among the tribals in Ratlam district of Madhya Pradesh. In this therapy, locally available plant species
are used for the prevention and cure of disease. The tribals in the area were contacted and information on 70 species belongings to 64
genera under 39 families from different pockets was documented. This knowledge has not been recorded earlier from the reported site.

100

Joshi Kunjani.Indegenous uses of wetland plant diversity of two valleys (Kathmandu and Pokhara) in Nepal.Ethnobotany.2009;21:1117.
Abstract.
The paper enumerates traditional uses of 54 plant species belonging to 46 genera representing 36 families used by local communities
of wetland in two valleys of Nepal (Kathmandu and Pokhara) for the treatment of diseases and other uses. Some of the useful species
are under serious threat due to unsustainable activities and changing land- use patterns.In this paper, some recommandations have
been made to integrate conversation measures for the habital preserVation and documentation and sustainable management of the
useful wetland plants with indigenous ethnic-Knowledge and practices before some of these are endangered.

Meena A K, Yadav Ajay Kumar, Singh Uttam, Singh Brijendra, Nagariya Amit K , Sharma Kiran, Gaurav Anand, Sharma Surabhi,
Rao M M. A Review on Calotropis Procera. Linn And Its Ethanobotany Phytochemical, Pharmacological Profile.Drug Invention
Today. 2010;2(2):185-190.
Abstract.
Calotropis procera Linn is small, erect and compact shrubs, which is used in several traditional medicines to cure various diseases.
This shrub has been known to posses Analgesic, Antitumor, Antihelmintic, Antioxidant, Hepatoprotective, Inflammatory,
Antidiarrhoeal, Anticonvulsant, Antimicrobial, Oestrogenic, Antinociceptive, and Antimalarial activity. A wide range of chemical
compounds including- Benzoyllineolone, benzoylisolinelone and -amyrin. The root bark contains the calotropoleanyl ester,
proceroleanenol A and proceroleanenol B. The latex contains the calactin, calotropin, uscharin, sitosterol, and calotoxin. The presented
review summarizes the information concerning the ethnobotany, Pharmacological, phytochemistry, biological activity and toxicity of
the calotropis procera shrubs.

Mukherjee PK, Wahile A. Integrated approaches towards drug development from Ayurveda and other Indian system of medicines. J
EthnoPharmacol. 2006;103(1):25-35. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Biodiversity of natural resources has served not only for the primary human needs but also for health care, since time immemorial.
The Indian subcontinent, with the history of one of the oldest civilization, harbors many traditional health care systems. Their
development was supported by the diverse biodiversity in flora and fauna due to variations in geographical landscaping. Ayurveda,
whose history goes back to 5000 b.c.is one of the ancient health care systems. The Ayurveda was developed through daily life
experiences with the mutual relationship between mankind and nature. The ancient text of Ayurveda reports more than 2000 plant
species for their therapeutic potentials. Besides Ayurveda, other traditional and folklore systems of health care were developed in the
different time periods in Indian subcontinent, where more than 7500 plant species were used. According to a WHO estimate, about
80% of the world population relies on traditional systems of medicines for primary health care, where plants form the dominant
component over other natural resources. Renewed interest of developing as well as developed countries in the natural resources has
opened new horizons for the exploration of natural sources with the perspectives of safety and efficacy. The development of these
traditional systems of medicines with the perspectives of safety, efficacy and quality will help not only to preserve this traditional
heritage but also to rationalize the use of natural products in the health care. Until recent past, the nature was considered as a
compendium for templates of new chemical entities (NCEs). The plant species mentioned in the ancient texts of these Ayurveda and
other Indian systems of medicines may be explored with the modern scientific approaches for better leads in the health care.

Muthu C, Ayyanar M, Raja N, Ignacimuthu S. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu,
India. J EthnobiolEthnomed. 2006;2:43. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

101

Abstract.
An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in
Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu during October 2003 to April 2004. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and
the native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips.The
investigation revealed that, the traditional healers used 85 species of plants distributed in 76 genera belonging to 41 families to treat
various diseases. The documented medicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, poison bites, stomachache and nervous
disorders. In this study the most dominant family was Euphorbiaceae and leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of
diseases.This study showed that many people in the studied parts of Kancheepuram district still continue to depend on medicinal
plants at least for the treatment of primary healthcare. The traditional healers are dwindling in number and there is a grave danger of
traditional knowledge disappearing soon since the younger generation is not interested to carry on this tradition.

Newmaster G Steven, Murugesan Maruthakkutti, Ragupathy Subramanyam, Nallasamy Nagarajan, Balasrbramaniam


Velusamy.Ethnobotany genomics study reveals three new species of the genyus Biophytum DC. (Oxalidaceae-Geraniales) friom
Velliangiri hills in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats, India.Etnobotany.2009;21:1-10.
Abstract.
Our research utilized Traditional Tribal Knowledge (TK) and Scientific Knowledge (SK) to explore the relationship between scientific
and trible system of botanical classification and the corresponding valorisation(s) of biological diversity in the western Ghats of
southern India. We worked with two tribal communities, namely, Irulas and Malasars of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve with an
objective of evaluating the ability of different Knowledge system (SK and TK) to distinguish species belonging to the genus
Biophytum. We discovered that the tribal informats identified three ethnotaxa representing three new species, namely, Biophytum
velliangirianum, B. tamilnadense, which we confirmed using quantitative morphometric analysis of the taxomic evidence including
comparisons with several closely related taxa: Biophytum insignis Gamble, B. longipedunculatum Govind. And Biophytum
proliferum (Arn.) Wight. The recognition of these taxa has several consequences for conservation of plant diversity in the Nilgiri
Biosphere and possible applications to society-at- large given the ethnobiological importance of these new taxa to the local tribals.

Ragupathy S, Steven NG, Maruthakkutti M, Velusamy B, Ul-Huda MM. Consensus of the 'Malasars' traditional aboriginal knowledge
of medicinal plants in the Velliangiri holy hills, India. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2008;4:8-10. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
There are many vanishing cultures that possess a wealth of knowledge on the medicinal utility of plants. The Malasars of Dravidian
Tamils are an indigenous society occupying the forests of the Western Ghats, South India. They are known to be exceptional healers
and keepers of traditional aboriginal knowledge (TAK) of the flora in the Velliangiri holy hills. In fact, their expertise is well known
throughout India as evidenced by the thousands of pilgrims that go to the Velliangiri holy hills for healing every year. Our research is
the first detailed study of medicinal plants in India that considers variation in TAK among informants using a quantitative consensus
analysis. A total of 95 species belonging to 50 families were identified for medicinal and general health purposes. For each species the
botanical name, family, local name, parts used, summary of mode of preparation, administration and curing are provided. The
consensus analysis revealed a high level of agreement among the informants usage of a Particular plant at a local scale. The average
consensus index value of an informant was FIC > 0.71, and over 0.80 for some ailments such as respiratory and jaundice. Some of the
more common problems faced by the Malasars were gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory illness, dermatological problems and simple
illness such as fever, cough, cold, wounds and bites from poisonous animals. We also discovered several new ethnotaxa that have
considerable medicinal utility. This study supports claims that the Malasars possess a rich TAK of medicinal plants and that many
aboriginals and mainstream people (pilgrims) utilize medicinal plants of the Velliangiri holy hills. Unfortunately, the younger
generation of Malasars are not embracing TAK as they tend to migrate towards lucrative jobs in more developed urban areas. Our
research sheds some light on a traditional culture that believes that a healthy lifestyle is founded on a healthy environment and we
suggest that TAK such as that of the Malasars may serve toward a global lifestyle of health and environmental sustainability.

102

Rout SD, Panda T, Mishra N. Ethnobotanical studies of Similipal Tiger Reserve, Orissa. Ethnobotany.2009;21:80-83.
Abstract.
This ethnobotanical study was conducted in Similipal Bioshphere Reserve of Mayurbhanj district. The dominant tribes involved in
using plants as medicines in the district are Santhal, Kol, Bhumija, Bhuiyan,Mahalis, Sounti and Saharas. This paper deals with the
ethnobotanical information on fifteen plant species obtained through field surveys and taxonomic identification of plants.

Sahu SC, Dhal NK, Mohanty RC. Ethnobotanical study of Deogarh district (Orrissa) with respect to plants used for treating skin
diseases.Etnnobotany. 2009;21:46-50.
Abstract.
The present ethnobotanical study was carried out in diffirent forest pockets of Deogarh district of Orrissa.The paper reports 21 plant
species belonging to 17 families usesd in treatment of 11 ailments related to the skin diseases.

MICROBIOLOGY

Aqil F, Zahin M, Ahmad I. Antimutagenic activity of methanolic extracts of four Ayurvedic medicinal plants. Indian J Exp Biol.
200;46(9):668-72. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Methanolic extracts of Acorus calamus (Rhizome), Hemidesmus indicus (Stem), Holarrhena antidysenterica (Bark) and Plumbago
zeylanica (Root), were tested for their antimutagenic potential. These extracts, at tested concentrations, showed no sign of
mutagenicity to Salmonella typhimurium tester strains. The extracts of the plants exhibited varying level of antimutagenicity. At a
dose of 100 microg/plate, the extracts exhibited the inhibition of His+ revertants from 18.51% to 82.66% against direct acting
mutagens, methyl methanesulphonate (MMS) and sodium azide (NaN3) induced mutagenicity in Salmonella tester strains TA 97a, TA
100, TA 102 and TA 104. However, at lower concentrations (25 and 50 mcirog/plate) of the plant extracts, a decrease in antimutagenic
activity was recorded. Dose dependent antimutagenic activity of the extracts is also evident from linear regression analysis of the data.
The over all antimutagenic potential of above four extracts was found to be in order of A. calamus > H. indicus > H. antidysenterica >
P. zeylanica. Further, total phenolic content of these extracts did not correlate with its antimutagenic activity in A. calamus and P.
zeylanica.

Sharma U, Velpandian T, Sharma P, Singh S. Evaluation of anti-leishmanial activity of selected Indian plants known to have
antimicrobial properties.Parasitol Res. 2009;105(5):1287-93. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The severe toxicity, exorbitant cost and the emerging resistance of Leishmania spp. against most of the currently used drugs led to the
urgent need for exploiting our traditional Ayurvedic knowledge to treat visceral leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate
the in vitro anti-leishmanial activity of various extracts from ten traditionally used Indian medicinal plants. The methanolic extract
from only two plants, Withania somnifera Dunal (ashwagandha) and Allium sativum Linn. (garlic), showed appreciable activity

103

against Leishmania donovani. Further active compounds from these two plants were isolated and purified based on bioactivity-guided
fractionation. HPLC-purified fraction A6 of ashwagandha and G3 of garlic showed consistently high activity with 50% inhibitory
concentration (IC(50)) of 12.5 +/- 4 and 18.6 +/- 3 microg/ml against promastigotes whereas IC(50) of 9.5 +/- 3 and 13.5 +/- 2
microg/ml against amastigote form, respectively. The fraction A6 of ashwagandha was identified as withaferin A while fraction G3 of
garlic is yet to be identified, and the work is in progress. Cytotoxic effects of the promising fractions and compounds were further
evaluated in the murine macrophage (J774G8) model and were found to be safe. These compounds showed negligible cytotoxicity
against J774G8 macrophages. The results indicate that fraction A6 of ashwagandha and fraction G3 of garlic might be potential
sources of new anti-leishmanial compounds. The in vivo efficacy study and further optimization of these active compounds are in
progress.

PHARMACOLOGY

Adil MD, Kaiser P, Satti NK, Zargar AM, Vishwakarma RA, Tasduq SA. Effect of Emblica officinalis (fruit) against UVB-induced
photo-aging in human skin fibroblasts. J EthnoPharmacol.2010;132(1):109-14. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:
Emblica officinalis fruit (EO), commonly known as Amla is a reputed traditional medicine and functional food used in Indian
subcontinent. It has long been used in Indian folk medicine to treat liver diseases, stomach ulcers, inflammatory diseases, metabolic
disorders, geriatric complaints, skin disorders and beauty care.
AIM OF THE STUDY:
Recently, it has been shown to promote pro-collagen content and inhibit matrix metalloproteinase levels in skin fibroblast. The aim of
the present study was to investigate the efficacy of EO to inhibit UVB-induced photo-aging in human skin fibroblasts.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Mitochondrial activity of human skin fibroblasts was measured by MTT-assay. Quantifications of pro-collagen 1 and matrix
metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) release were performed by immunoassay techniques. Hyaluronidase inhibition assay was studied in
vitro using bovine testicular hyaluronidase and human umbilical cord hyaluronic acid. Cell cycle analysis was performed by
flowcytometry using propidium iodide. RESULTS: EO stimulated, the otherwise UVB inhibited cellular proliferation and protected
pro-collagen 1 against UVB-induced depletion via inhibition of UVB-induced MMP-1 in skin fibroblasts (10-40 g/mL, p>0.001). EO
exhibited inhibitory activity of hyaluronidase (10-40 g/mL, p>0.001). Treatment with EO also prevented UVB disturbed cell cycle to
normal phase.
CONCLUSION:
The results of the present study suggests that EO effectively inhibits UVB-induced photo-aging in human skin fibroblast via its strong
ROS scavenging ability and its therapeutic and cosmetic applications remain to be explored.

104

Agarwal AK, Singh M, Gupta N, Saxena R, Puri A, Verma AK, Saxena RP, Dubey CB, Saxena KC. Management of giardiasis by an
immuno-modulatory herbal drug Pippali Rasayana. J EthnoPharmacol.2009;44(3):143-6. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Pippali Rasayana (PR), an Ayurvedic herbal medicine, prepared from Piper longum (Pippali) and Butea monosperma (Palash), and
prescribed for the treatment of chronic dysentery and worm infestations was tested for anti-giardial and immuno-stimulatory activity
in mice, infected with Giardia lamblia trophozoites. It produced up to 98% recovery from the infection. The Rasayana had no killing
effect on the parasite in vitro. It induced significant activation of macrophages as evidenced by increased macrophage migration index
(MMI) and phagocytic activity. Enhancement of host resistance could be one of the possible mechanisms contributing towards the
recovery of animals from the giardial infection.

Agarwal AK, Tripathi DM, Sahai R, Gupta N, Saxena RP, Puri A, Singh M, Misra RN, Dubey CB, Saxena KC. Management of
giardiasis
by
a
herbal
drug
'Pippali
Rasayana':
a
clinical
study.
J
EthnoPharmacol.2004;56(3):233-6.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Pippali Rasayana (PR), an Indian Ayurvedic drug prepared from Palash (Butea monosperma (Lamk) Kuntze; Leguminaceae) and
Pippali (Piper longum L.; Piperaceae), was administered at a dose of 1 g p.o. three times daily for a period of 15 days to patients (25
treated, 25 placebo controls) suffering from giardiasis with clinical signs and symptoms, and stools positive for trophozoites/cysts of
Giardia lamblia. After 15 days of drug treatment there was a complete disappearance of G. lamblia (trophozoites/cysts) from the stools
of 23 out of 25 patients. General signs and symptoms of ill health and abdominal discomfort, presence of mucus, pus cells and RBCs
were significantly reduced. There was a marked improvement in the clinical and haematological profile of the patients. Spontaneous
recovery in 20% cases was recorded in placebo controls.

Aggarwal BB, Ichikawa H, Garodia P, Weerasinghe P, Sethi G, Bhatt ID, Pandey MK, Shishodia S, Nair MG. From traditional
Ayurvedic medicine to modern medicine:identification of therapeutic targets for suppression of inflammation and cancer.Expert Opin
Ther Targets. 2006;10(1):87-118 . Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Cancer is a hyperproliferative disorder that involves transformation, dysregulation of apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis
and metastasis. Extensive research during the last 30 years has revealed much about the biology of cancer. Drugs used to treat most
cancers are those that can block cell signalling, including growth factor signalling (e.g.epidermal growth factor); prostaglandin
production (e.g.COX-2); inflammation (e.g.inflammatory cytokines: NF-kappaB, TNF, IL-1, IL-6, chemokines); drug resistance gene
products (e.g.multi-drug resistance); cell cycle proteins (e.g.cyclin D1 and cyclin E); angiogenesis (e.g.vascular endothelial growth
factor); invasion (e.g.matrix metalloproteinases); antiapoptosis (e.g.bcl-2, bcl-X(L), XIAP, survivin, FLIP); and cellular proliferation
(e.g.c-myc, AP-1, growth factors). Numerous reports have suggested that Ayurvedic plants and their components mediate their effects
by modulating several of these recently identified therapeutic targets. However, Ayurvedic medicine requires rediscovery in light of
our current knowledge of allopathic (modern) medicine. The focus of this review is to elucidate the Ayurvedic concept of cancer,
including its classification, causes, pathogenesis and prevention; surgical removal of tumours; herbal remedies; dietary modifications;
and spiritual treatments.

Aggarwal BB, Ichikawa H, Garodia P, Weerasinghe P, Sethi G, Bhatt ID, Pandey MK, Shishodia S, Nair MG. From traditional
Ayurvedic medicine to modern medicine:identification of therapeutic targets for suppression of inflammation and cancer.Expert Opin
Ther Targets. 2006 ;10(1):87-118. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

105

Abstract.
Cancer is a hyperproliferative disorder that involves transformation, dysregulation of apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis
and metastasis. Extensive research during the last 30 years has revealed much about the biology of cancer. Drugs used to treat most
cancers are those that can block cell signalling, including growth factor signalling (e.g.epidermal growth factor); prostaglandin
production (e.g.COX-2); inflammation (e.g.inflammatory cytokines: NF-kappaB, TNF, IL-1, IL-6, chemokines); drug resistance gene
products (e.g.multi-drug resistance); cell cycle proteins (e.g.cyclin D1 and cyclin E); angiogenesis (e.g.vascular endothelial growth
factor); invasion (e.g.matrix metalloproteinases); antiapoptosis (e.g.bcl-2, bcl-X(L), XIAP, survivin, FLIP); and cellular proliferation
(e.g.c-myc, AP-1, growth factors). Numerous reports have suggested that Ayurvedic plants and their components mediate their effects
by modulating several of these recently identified therapeutic targets. However, Ayurvedic medicine requires rediscovery in light of
our current knowledge of allopathic (modern) medicine. The focus of this review is to elucidate the Ayurvedic concept of cancer,
including its classification, causes, pathogenesis and prevention; surgical removal of tumours; herbal remedies; dietary modifications;
and spiritual treatments.

Akase T, Shimada T, HaRasawa Y, Akase T, Ikeya Y, Nagai E, Iizuka S, Nakagami G, Iizaka S, Sanada H, Aburada M. Preventive
Effects of Salacia reticulata on Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in TSOD Mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med.2009.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The extracts of Salacia reticulata (Salacia extract), a plant that has been used for the treatment of early diabetes, rheumatism and
gonorrhea in Ayurveda, have been shown to have an anti-obesity effect and suppress hyperglycemia. In this study, the effects of
Salacia extract on various symptoms of metabolic disorder were investigated and compared using these TSOD mice and non-obese
TSNO mice. Body weight, food intake, plasma biochemistry, visceral and subcutaneous fat (X-ray and CT), glucose tolerance, blood
pressure and pain tolerance were measured, and histopathological examination of the liver was carried out. A significant dosedependent decline in the gain in body weight, accumulation of visceral and subcutaneous fat and an improvement of abnormal glucose
tolerance, hypertension and peripheral neuropathy were noticed in TSOD mice. In addition, hepatocellular swelling, fatty degeneration
of hepatocytes, inflammatory cell infiltration and single-cell necrosis were observed on histopathological examination of the liver in
TSOD mice. Salacia extract markedly improved these symptoms upon treatment. Based on the above results, it is concluded that
Salacia extract has remarkable potential to prevent obesity and associated metabolic disorders including the development of metabolic
syndrome.

Alam M, Susan T, Joy S, Kundu AB. Antiinflammatory and antipyretic activity of vicolides of Vicoa indica DC. Indian J Exp Biol.
1992;30(1):38-41. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Vicolides A,B, C and D, the sesquiterpene lactones isolated from V. indica exhibited antiinflammatory activity against cotton pellet
granuloma in rats at dose level of 10 mg/kg body weight, sc. Highly significant activity was observed with vicolides C and D. They
reduced the protein content, acid and alkaline phosphatase, glutamate-pyruvate transaminase and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase
activities in liver and serum. Significant reduction in ascorbic acid content in adrenals was also observed in treated animals. The
highly significant antiinflammatory activity of vicolides C and D can be attributed to their chemical structures. Vicolide D has an
epoxy angeloyl group while vicolide C has 3,4 epoxy group and an ester moiety in the molecule. Vicolide D possesses antipyretic
activity at 250 mg/kg body weight, po dose. It may be due to the presence of epoxy angeloyl group in the molecule.

Ali BH, Blunden G, Tanira MO, Nemmar A. Some phytochemical, Pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger (Zingiber
officinale Roscoe): a review of recent research. Food Chem Toxicol.2008;46(2):409-20. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

106

Abstract.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberacae) is a medicinal plant that has been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic and TibbUnani herbal medicines all over the world, since antiquity, for a wide array of unrelated ailments that include arthritis, rheumatism,
sprains, muscular aches, pains, sore throats, cramps, constipation, indigestion, vomiting, hypertension, dementia, fever, infectious
diseases and helminthiasis. Currently, there is a renewed interest in ginger, and several scientific investigations aimed at isolation and
identification of active constituents of ginger, scientific verification of its Pharmacological actions and of its constituents, and
verification of the basis of the use of ginger in some of several diseases and conditions. This Article aims at reviewing the most salient
recent reports on these investigations. The main Pharmacological actions of ginger and compounds isolated therefrom include
immuno-modulatory, anti-tumorigenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-lipidemic and anti-emetic actions.
Ginger is a strong anti-oxidant substance and may either mitigate or prevent generation of free radicals. It is considered a safe herbal
medicine with only few and insignificant adverse/side effects. More studies are required in animals and humans on the kinetics of
ginger and its constituents and on the effects of their consumption over a long period of time.

Amit A, Saxena VS, Pratibha N, D'Souza P, Bagchi M, Bagchi D, Stohs SJ. Mastcell stabilization, lipoxygenase inhibition,
hyaluronidase inhibition,antihistaminic and antispasmodic activities of Aller-7, a novel botanical formulation for allergic rhinitis.
Drugs Exp Clin Res.2003;29(3):107-15. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, rose fever or summer catarrh, is a major challenge to health professionals. A large number
of the world's population, including approximately 40 million Americans, suffers from allergic rhinitis. A novel, botanical formulation
(Aller-7) has been developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants,
including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, T. bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and P. longum,
which have a proven history of efficacy and health benefits. The clinical manifestations of allergy are due to a number of mediators
that are released from mast cells. The effect of Aller-7 on rat mesenteric mast cell degranulation was studied by incubating different
concentrations of Aller-7 and challenging them with a degranulating agent, compound 48/80. The inhibitory activity of Aller-7 was
determined against lipoxygenase and hyaluronidase, the key enzymes involved in the initiation and maintenance of inflammatory
responses. Furthermore, most of these manifestations are due to histamine, which causes vasodilatation, increasing capillary
permeability and leading to bronchoconstriction. Hence, the antihistaminic activity of Aller-7 was determined is isolated guinea pig
ileum substrate using cetirizine as a positive control. The antispasmodic effect of Aller-7 on contractions of guinea pig tracheal chain
was determined using papaverine and cetirizine as controls. Aller-7 exhibited potent activity in all these in vitro models tested, thus
demonstrating the novel anti-allergic potential of Aller-7.

Anand KK, Singh B, Saxena AK, Chandan BK, Gupta VN, Bhardwaj V. 3,4,5-Trihydroxy benzoic acid (gallic acid), the
hepatoprotective principle in the fruits of Terminalia belerica-bioassay guided activity. Pharmacol Res. 1997;36(4):315-21.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Compound I isolated from fraction TB5 of Terminalia belerica and finally identified as 3,4,5-trihydroxy benzoic acid (gallic acid) was
evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced physiological and biochemical alterations in the
liver. The main parameters studied were hexobarbitone-induced sleep, zoxazolamine induced paralysis, serum levels of transaminases
and bilirubin. The hepatic markers assessed were lipid peroxidation, drug metabolising enzymes, glucose-6-phosphatase and
triglycerides. Administration of Compound I led to significant reversal of majority of the altered parameters. Our results confirm the
presence of hepatoprotective activity in altered parameters. Our results confirm the presence of hepatoprotective activity in Compound
I.

107

Anand R, Patnaik GK, Kulshreshtha DK, Dhawan BN. Activity of certain fractions of Tribulus terrestris fruits against experimentally
induced urolithiasis in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 1994;32(8):548-52. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
An ethanolic extract of the fruits of T. terrestris showed significant dose dependent protection against uroliths induced by glass bead
implantation in albino rats. On subsequent fractionation of the ethanol extract, maximum activity was localised in the 10% aqueous
methanol fraction. It provided significant protection against deposition of calculogenic material around the glass bead. It also
protected leucocytosis and elevation in serum urea levels. Further, fractionation lead to decreased activity. This could be either due to
loss of active compounds during fractionation, or the antiurolithiatic activity of T. terrestris being a combined effect of several
constituents present in the methanolic fraction.

Anilakumar KR, Saritha V, Khanum F, Bawa AS. Ameliorative effect of ajwain extract on hexachlorocyclohexane-induced lipid
peroxidation in rat liver. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47(2):279-82. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Effect of ajwain extract on hexachlorocyclohexane-induced oxidative stress and toxicity in rats were investigated. Six groups of rats
were maintained for 12 weeks as (1) Control; (2) HCH (300 mg/kg body weight) injected (3) 1% ajwain extract incorporated diet
(4)1% ajwain extract incorporated diet+HCH (5) 2% ajwain extract incorporated diet and (6) 2% ajwain extract incorporated
diet+HCH. Results revealed that HCH administration lead to an increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation associated with reduction in,
levels of glutathione (GSH), activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Prefeeding of
ajwain extract resulted in decreased hepatic levels of lipid peroxides and increased GSH, GSH-peroxidase, G-6-PDH, SOD, catalase
and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities. At the same time there was a significant reduction in hepatic levels of HCH-induced
raise in lipid peroxides as a result of the prefeeding the extract. Prefeeding of ajwain extract at 1% level to rats injected with HCH
reverted the significant changes in catalase, G-6-PDH, GST and -glutamyl transpeptidase. HCH-induced formation of micronuclei in
femur bone marrow was also reduced significantly. It was concluded that HCH administration resulted in hepatic free radical stress,
causing toxicity, which could be reduced by the dietary ajwain extract.

Arif T, Bhosale JD, Kumar N, Mandal TK, Bendre RS, Lavekar GS, Dabur R.Natural products- antifungal agents derived from plants.
J Asian Nat Prod Res.2009;11(7):621-38. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
A new spectrum of human fungal infections is increasing due to increased cancer, AIDS, and immunocompromised patients. The
increased use of antifungal agents also resulted in the development of resistance to the present drugs. It makes necessary to discover
new classes of antifungal compounds to cure fungal infections. Plants are rich source of bioactive secondary metabolites of wide
variety such as tannins, terpenoids, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, and other compounds, reported to have in vitro antifungal
properties. Since the plant kingdom provides a useful source of lead compounds of novel structure, a wide-scale investigation of
species from the tropics has been considered. Therefore, the research on natural products and compounds derived from natural
products has accelerated in recent years due to their importance in drug discovery. A series of Molecules with antifungal activity
against different strains of fungus have been found in plants, which are of great importance to humans. These Molecules may be used
directly or considered as a precursor for developing better Molecules. This review attempts to summarize the current status of
important antifungal compounds from plants.

Arif T, Mandal TK, Kumar N, Bhosale JD, Hole A, Sharma GL, Padhi MM, Lavekar GS, Dabur R. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial
activities of seeds of Caesalpinia bonduc (Lin.) Roxb. J EthnoPharmacol. 2009;123(1):177-80. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

108

Abstract.
AIM OF THE STUDY:
Caesalpinia bonduc (Lin.) Roxb. is a known drug in Ayurveda to treat various diseases specifically tumors, cysts and cystic fibrosis
(CF). The aim of this study was to assess in vitro as well as in vivo antimicrobial activity of Caesalpinia bonduc seeds.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The in vitro antimicrobial activities of seed coat and seed kernel extracts were investigated by microbroth dilution assay. In vivo
activities of hydro-alcoholic extracts were investigated in rat models of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia mimicking that
in patients with cystic fibrosis.
RESULTS:
Various extracts of plant seeds exhibited in vitro antimicrobial activities in a range of 22-350 microg/ml. The extracts also showed
activity against methicillin resistant (MR) Staphylococcus aureus and ampicillin resistant (AR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa as in the
sensitive strains. In rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia, hydro-alcoholic extracts of Caesalpinia bonduc seed
kernel (CBSK) and Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat (CBSC) were injected subcutaneously in the test groups of animals. The control
groups were treated with cortisone and saline. Two weeks after challenge with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the CBSK treated animals
showed a significant bacterial clearance from the lungs (P<0.04) and less severe incidence of lung abscess (P<0.05).
CONCLUSION:
showed that Caesalpinia bonduc may have the potential to be promising natural medicine, with other forms of treatments, for CF
patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections.

Arseculeratne SN, Gunatilaka AA, Panabokke RG. Studies of medicinal plants of Sri Lanka. Part 14: Toxicity of some traditional
medicinal herbs. J EthnoPharmacol. 1985;13(3):323-35. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Seventy five medicinal plants of the traditional Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of Sri Lanka have been screened chemically for alkaloids
and pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Of these, Crotolaria juncea L. was found to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids with biological effects
consistent with pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity. Feeding trials in rats with three plants lacking pyrrolizidine alkaloids, namely Aegle
marmelos (L.) Corr.Hemidesmus indicus (L.) Ait. F. and Terminalia chebula Retz. produced hepatic lesions which included central
vein abnormalities while Terminalia chebula and Withania somnifera (L.) dunal produced marked renal lesions.

Arulkumaran S, RampRasath VR, Shanthi P, Sachdanandam P. Alteration of DMBA-induced oxidative stress by additive action of a
modified indigenous preparation--Kalpaamruthaa. Chem Biol Interact.2007;167(2):99-106. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The present study investigated the protective efficacy of the novel preparation named as Kalpaamruthaa (KA, includes Semecarpus
anacardium Linn nut milk extract (SA), dried powder of Phyllanthus emblica fruit and honey) on the peroxidative damage and
abnormal antioxidant levels in the hepatic mitochondrial fraction of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary
carcinoma rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats of weight 180+/-10 g were categorized into six groups. Three groups were administered
DMBA (25 mg/rat dissolved in olive oil, orally) to induce mammary carcinoma. One of these groups received KA treatment (300
mg/kg b.wt.orally) and other group received SA (200 mg/kg b.wt.orally) for 14 days after 90 days of DMBA induction. Vehicle-treated
control and drug control groups were also included. The hepatic mitochondrial fraction of untreated DMBA rats showed 2.96-fold
increase in MDA content when compared to control rats and abnormal changes in the activities/levels of mitochondrial enzymic

109

(superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) and non-enzymic (glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E)
antioxidants were observed. DMBA-treated rats also showed decline in the activities of mitochondrial enzymes such as succinate
dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase. In contrast, rats treated with
SA and KA showed normal lipid peroxidation antioxidant defenses and mitochondrial enzymes, thereby showing the protection
rendered by SA and KA. Although, KA treatment exhibited more profound effect in inhibiting DMBA-induced oxidative stress than
sole SA treatment. Results of the study indicate that the anticarcinogenic activity of KA during DMBA-initiated mammary
Carcinogenesis is mediated through alteration of hepatic antioxidant status as well as modulation of TCA cycle enzymes. On the basis
of the observed results, KA can be considered as a readily accessible, promising and novel cancer chemopreventive agent.

Arulmozhi DK, Sridhar N, Veeranjaneyulu A, Arora SK. Preliminary mechanistic studies on the smooth muscle relaxant effect of
hydroalcoholic extract of Curcuma caesia. J Herb Pharmacother.2006;6(3-4):117 24. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
Curcuma caesia (family Zingiberaceae) is widely used in India as both an anti-inflammatory and anti-asthmatic in Ayurvedic
medicine. However, there are no published Pharmacological data on Curcuma caesia on its potential anti-asthmatic activity. Hence, the
objective of the present investigation is to study the mechanisms by which the hydroalcoholic extract of Curcuma caesia relaxes the
smooth muscle in the bronchioles and vasculature of the respiratory tract.
METHODS:
The hydroalcoholic extract of Curcuma caesia (CC extract) was tested for its per se relaxant effect in guinea pig trachea and also in the
presence of various receptor antagonists and enzyme inhibitors namely propranalol, 2', 5'-dideoxyadenosine, methylene blue,
glibenclamide, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) and alpha-chymotrypsin. Furthermore, the possible role of hydroalcoholic extract
in calcium channel modulation was investigated in depolarized rabbit aorta.
RESULTS:
The CC extract concentration dependently relaxed the carbachol (1 microM)-induced pre-contractions; the IC50 value was found to be
239.36 microg/ml and the incubation of either receptor antagonists or enzyme inhibitors did not exhibit any effect on the relaxation. In
the isotonic Ca2+-free high-K+ (60 mM) depolarized aorta, CC extract (30 microg/ml) inhibited concentration-response curves of
cumulative Ca2+ (0.1-30 mM) and the PD'2 value was found to be 4.11 microg/ml.
INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION:
The extract showed a dose-dependent, non-specific relaxation of pre-contracted isolated guinea pig trachea. The non-specific relaxant
effect of the extract may be due to its ability to modulate calcium activity.

Arun N, Nalini N. Efficacy of turmeric on blood sugar and polyol pathway in diabetic albino rats. Plant Foods Hum Nutr.
2002;57(1):41-52. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
In the traditional system of medicine, Ayurveda, several spices and herbs are thought to possess medicinal properties. Among the
spices, turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa. Linn.) are used as flavoring and coloring agents in the Indian diet everyday. In this
research, we studied the effect of turmeric and its active principle, curcumin, on diabetes mellitus in a rat model. Alloxan was used to
induce diabetes. Administration of turmeric or curcumin to diabetic rats reduced the blood sugar, Hb and glycosylated hemoglobin
levels significantly. Turmeric and curcumin supplementation also reduced the oxidative stress encountered by the diabetic rats. This
was demonstrated by the lower levels of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), which may have been due to the decreased

110

influx of glucose into the polyol pathway leading to an increased NADPH/NADP ratio and elevated activity of the potent antioxdiant
enzyme GPx. Moreover, the activity of SDH (sorbitol dehydrogenase), which catalyzes the conversion of sorbitol to fructose, was
lowered significantly on treatment with turmeric or curcumin. These results also appeared to reveal that curcumin was more effective
in attenuating diabetes mellitus related changes than turmeric.

Auddy B, Ferreira M, Blasina F, Lafon L, Arredondo F, Dajas F, Tripathi PC,Seal T, Mukherjee B. Screening of antioxidant activity of
three Indian medicinal plants, traditionally used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases. J EthnoPharmacol. 2003 ;84(23):131-8. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
A number of Indian medicinal plants have been used for thousands of years in the traditional system of medicine (Ayurveda). Amongst
these are plants used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, loss of memory,
degeneration of nerves and other neuronal disorders by the Ayurvedic practitioners. Though the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases
remains enigmatic, there is evidence, which indicates that defective energy Metabolism, excitotoxicity and oxidative damage may be
crucial factors (Ann. Neurol. 38 (3) (1995) 357). The part of the Ayurvedic system that provides an approach to prevention and
treatment of degenerative diseases is known as Rasayana, and plants used for this purpose are classed as rejuvenators. This group of
plants generally possesses strong antioxidant activity (Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 43 (1992) 1175), but only a few have been
investigated in detail. In the present study, three such Rasayana plants were tested for the first time for their toxicity and free radical
scavenging activity both in vitro and ex vivo. All the three plant infusions (up to 1 mg/ml) showed no toxic effects on the viability of
PC12 cell line as judged by MTT-test. Both ethanolic extracts and water infusions of the plants were tested for their antioxidant
activity in the 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS*(+)) radical cation decolorization assay; inhibition of lipid
peroxidation by plant infusions was carried out using spontaneous lipid peroxidation of rat brain homogenate, and IC50 values were
determined. The results from the ABTS assay showed that the ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia was found to be most potent (IC50
16.07 microg/ml), followed by Evolvulus alsinoides (IC50 33.39 microg/ml) and Cynodon dactylon (IC50 78.62 microg/ml). The
relative antioxidant capacity for the water infusions was observed in the following order: E. alsinoides (IC50 172.25 microg/ml)>C.
dactylon (IC50 273.64 microg/ml)>S. cordifolia (IC50 342.82 microg/ml). The results of water infusions of the plants on lipid
peroxidation were as follows: E. alsinoides (IC50 89.23 microg/ml)>S. cordifolia) (IC50 126.78 microg/ml)>C. dactylon (IC50 608.31
microg/ml).

Babu TD, Kuttan G, Padikkala J. Cytotoxic and anti-tumour properties of certain taxa of Umbelliferae with special reference to
Centella asiatica (L.)Urban. J EthnoPharmacol. 1995;48(1):53-7. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (Umbelliferae) is commonly used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat various diseases. The
present study examines the anti-tumour effect of the crude extract (CE) of Centella asiatica as well as its pArtially purified fractions
(AF) from chromatographic procedures by both in vitro short and long term chemosensitivity and in vivo tumour model test systems.
AF dose dependently inhibited the proliferation of the transformed cell lines significantly more than did the CE and other solvent
fractions. Fifty percent effective doses on hour 3 exposure to AF were 17 and 22 micrograms/ml for Ehrlich ascites tumour cells
(EAC) and Dalton's lymphoma ascites tumour cells (DLA), respectively. However, practically no toxic effects were detected in normal
human lymphocytes. AF also significiantly suppressed the multiplication of mouse lung fibroblast (L-929) cells at a concentration of 8
micrograms/ml in long term culture. Oral administration of the extracts (CE and AF) retarded the development of solid and ascites
tumours and increased the life span of these tumour bearing mice. Tritiated thymidine, uridine and leucine incorporation assay suggest
that the fraction acts directly on DNA synthesis.

111

Bafna P, Bodhankar S. Gastrointestinal effects of Mebarid, an Ayurvedic formulation, in experimental animals. J EthnoPharmacol.
2003 ;86(2-3):173-6. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Mebarid, an Ayurvedic formulation, was tested for its anti-diarrhoeal, anti-ulcer and anti-motility activities in animals. Mebarid was
investigated at four dose levels of 125, 250, 500 mg/kg BW and 1g/kg BW The methods of castor oil-induced diarrhoea and pylorusligation-induced ulcers in rats were used to evaluate the anti-diarrhoeal and anti-ulcer activity, respectively, while charcoal meal test in
mice was the method used for testing its anti-motility effect. Mebarid was found to have significant activity in all the three models.
Thus, it can be concluded that Mebarid possesses anti-diarrhoeal, anti-motility and anti-ulcer activities and can prove beneficial in the
treatment of above gastrointestinal disorders.

Bafna PA, Balaraman R. Anti-ulcer and anti-oxidant activity of pepticare, a herbomineral formulation. Phytomedicine.
2005;12(4):264-70. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Pepticare, a herbomineral formulation of the Ayurveda medicine consisting of the herbal drugs: Glycyrrhiza glabra, Emblica officinalis
and Tinospora cordifolia, was tested for its anti-ulcer and anti-oxidant activity in rats. Effects of various doses (125, 250, 500 and
1000mg/kg, p.o.) of Pepticare were studied on gastric secretion and gastric ulcers in pylorus-ligation and on ethanol-induced gastric
mucosal injury in rats. The reduction in ulcer index in both the models along with the reduction in volume and total acidity, and an
increase in the pH of gastric fluid in pylorus-ligated rats proved the anti-ulcer activity of Pepticare. It was also found that Pepticare
was more potent than G. glabra alone in protecting against pylorus-ligation and ethanol-induced ulcers. The increase in the levels of
superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione and membrane bound enzymes like Ca2+ ATPase, Mg2+ ATPase and Na+ K+
ATPase and decrease in lipid peroxidation in both the models proved the anti-oxidant activity of the formulation. Thus it can be
concluded that Pepticare possesses anti-ulcer activity, which can be attributed to its anti-oxidant mechanism of action.

Bafna PA, Balaraman R. Anti-ulcer and antioxidant activity of DHC-1, a herbal formulation. J EthnoPharmacol. 2004 ;90(1):123-7.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
DHC-1, a herbal formulation, was tested for its anti-ulcer and antioxidant activity in rats. Effect of various doses (125, 250, 500, and
1000 mg/kg, p.o.) of DHC-1 was studied on gastric secretion and gastric ulcers in pylorus-ligation and on ethanol-induced gastric
mucosal injury in rats. The reduction in ulcer index in both the models along with the reduction in volume and total acidity, and an
increase in the pH of gastric fluid in pylorus-ligated rats proved the anti-ulcer activity of DHC-1. The increase in the levels of
superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and membrane bound enzymes like Ca(2+)ATPase,
Mg(2+)ATPase, and Na(+)K(+)ATPase and decrease in lipid peroxidation (MDA) in both the models showed the antioxidant activity
of the formulation. Thus, it can be concluded that DHC-1 possesses anti-ulcer activity, which can be attributed to its antioxidant
mechanism of action.

Bagul MS, Kanaki NS, Rajani M. Evaluation of free radical scavenging properties of two classical polyherbal formulations.
Indian J Exp Biol.2005;43(8):732-6. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Two polyherbal formulations of Ayurveda viz.Chandraprabha Vati and Maha Yogaraj a Guggulu were evaluated for their free radical
scavenging properties. Methanolic extracts of the formulations were studied in four different in vitro and ex vivo models. Total

112

phenolic content of Chandraprabha Vati and Maha Yogaraj a Guggulu was found to be 5.24% and 10.74% respectively. Methanolic
extracts of the formulations were good scavengers of all the radicals but there was a difference in the activity of the two formulations
in different models. Chandraprabha Vati was a good scavenger of superoxide radical and Maha Yogaraj a Guggulu was efficient in
scavenging nitric oxide (NO), while both inhibited lipid peroxidation efficiently. Free radical scavenging activity of the different
extracts can be attributed to the presence of various chemical components including phenolics.

Bajaj S, Vohora SB. Analgesic activity of gold preparations used in Ayurveda and Unani-Tibb. Indian J Med Res. 1998 ;108:104-11.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Calcined gold preparations, Ayurvedic Swarna Bhasma (SB) and Unani Kushta Tila Kalan (KTK) were investigated for analgesic
effects in rats and mice using four types of noxious stimuli. Auranofin (AN) used in modern medicine was also studied for
comparisons. The test drugs SB and KTK (25-50 mg/kg, p.o.) and AN (2.5-5.0 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited analgesic activity against
chemical (acetic acid induced writhing), electrical (pododolorimeter), thermal (Eddy's hot plate and analgesiometer) and mechanical
(tail clip) test. While the analgesic effects of SB and KTK could be partly blocked by pretreatment with naloxone (1-5 mg/kg, i.p.,--15
min), such antagonism was not discernible with AN at the doses used. Involvement of opioidergic mechanism is suggested for the
observed analgesic activity.

Balachandran P, Govindarajan R.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Cancer--an

Ayurvedic

perspective.

Pharmacol

Res.

2005

;51(1):19-30.

Abstract.
An integrated approach is needed to manage cancer using the growing body of knowledge gained through scientific developments.
Thousands of herbal and traditional compounds are being screened worldwide to validate their use as anti-cancerous drugs. The
science of Ayurveda is supposed to add a step on to the curative aspects of cancers that have resemblance with clinical entities of
arbuda and granthi mentioned in Sushruta Samhita. Hence, an attempt is made in this review to discuss about the pathology and
therapeutic management of various cancers described in Ayurveda. of literature on anticancer drugs of plant origin revealed
identification of newer Ayurvedic drugs that are not mentioned in the ancient texts. These new findings add up to Ayurvedic science
that has been developed through ages. In addition, details of experimental and clinical studies conducted on single and compound
Ayurvedic preparations for their anticancer efficacy strongly emphasize Ayurvedic therapy as a scientifically driven one and not
simply unconventional.

Baliga MS, Jagetia GC, Ulloor JN, Baliga MP, Venkatesh P, Reddy R, Rao KV,Baliga BS, Devi S, Raju SK, Veeresh V, Reddy TK,
Bairy KL. The evaluation of the acute toxicity and long term safety of hydroalcoholic extract of Sapthaparna (Alstonia scholaris) in
mice and rats. Toxicol Lett. 2004;151(2):317-26. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The acute and sub-acute toxic effects of various doses of hydroalcoholic extract of Alstonia scholaris (ASE) was studied in mice and
rats. The acute toxicity in mice depended on the season of collection of plant. The highest acute toxicity was observed in the ASE
prepared from the summer collection followed by winter. The least toxicity was observed in the extract prepared from the bark of A.
scholaris collected in the monsoon season. The administration of different doses of ASE showed a dose dependent increase in the
toxicity in all species of mice. The Swiss albino mice were found to be the most sensitive followed by the DBA and C(57)BL. The
crossbred mice were resistant when compared to the pure inbred strains. The oral administration of ASE was non-toxic up to a dose of
2000 mg/kg b. wt.while maximum number of animals succumbed to death after administration of 1100 mg/kg ASE by intraperitoneal
route. The rats were more sensitive than the mice as the LD(50) dose of ASE was lesser for the former than the latter. The sub-acute

113

toxicity in the rats was carried out with 120 and 240 mg/kg b. wt. ASE (1/10th and 1/5th of the LD(50) dose of ASE). The 240 mg was
observed to be more toxic than 120 mg/kg ASE since it caused mortality and deformity in various organs of the recipient animals. The
various biochemical parameters like AST, ALT, ACP, ALP, CK, LDH, creatinine, urea, ammonia, glucose and LPx were higher at 240
mg/kg ASE when compared with the 120 mg and the non-drug treated animals. In contrast, the total protein, albumin, DNA, RNA,
cholesterol, glucose, glutathione, total thiols declined in the 240 mg/kg ASE treated animals when compared with non-drug treated
controls. The hematological analysis showed a dose dependent decrease in the RBC, WBC, hemoglobin, neutrophils and monocytes,
while a significant increase in the lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils was observed. The observed toxic effect of ASE may be due
to the presence of echitamine. Our studies shows that at high doses, A. scholaris exhibited marked damage to all the major organs of
the body.

Bansal P, Sannd R, Srikanth N, Lavekar G S. Effect of traditionally designed nutraceutical on stress induced immunoglobulin changes
at
Antarctica.
African
Journal
of
Biochemistry
Research.
2009;3(4):084-088
http://www.academicjournals.org/ajbr/PDF/Pdf2009/April/Bansal%20et%20al.pdf
Abstract.
This study was conducted to establish the effect of a traditionally designed nutraceutical on stress related changes in selected
immunoglobulin levels in the body. The nutraceutical was prepared from different potent herbs described in Ayurveda using standard
operative procedures and were tested for heavy metal and microbial load. Initially, 21 subjects were selected in addition to 7
volunteers for control group who did not consume nutraceutical. Sampling was done at zero days and at fortnightly intervals. The
levels of selected immunoglobulin IgG, IgA and IgM were estimated with turbidity metric immunoassay at different time intervals.
The concentration of immunoglobulin IgA was 14615.96 at zero day stage. The levels of these immunoglobulins were lower at all
stages as compared to the concentration at zero day in trial group subjects whereas the concentration was significantly higher (t stat.>t
critic. at p<0.05) in control group subjects. The concentration of IgG was very high to the tune of 3091705 at zero day stage. The
level of IgG was lower in trial subjects as compared to control subjects at all stages except at the 6th week stage where it was higher in
trial subjects. Concentration of immunoglobulin IgM was 80.7530.39 (t stat.>t critic. at p<0.05) at zero day followed by a decrease in
both groups at the 2nd week, however the concentration was almost 1/3 rd in trial drug subjects as compared to the levels in control
subjects followed by an abrupt increase at the 4th week. The levels increased to 1068.94 at the 4th week stage and 1159.35 at the
6th week stage in control subjects (even higher than at zero day) whereas the values were 46.1511.39 and 55.3815.34 (t stat.>t
critic. at p<0.05) at respective stages in trial drug subjects. On the whole the pattern of fall and rise in levels of IgM were similar in the
control as well as treatment group subjects at all stages. Studies revealed that the components of the nutraceutical tended to exert
significant (t stat.>t critic. at p<0.05) anti-stress effect against stress related changes in immunoglobulin in the body due to the battery
of stresses encountered at Antarctica.

Bansal P, Sannd R, Srikanth N, Lavekar G S. Antioxidant activity of coded neutraceutical Rasayana products in the first clinical trial at
Antarctica. Journal of Tropical Medicinal Plants (Malasia). 2007;8(2):178-183 http://www.tropmedplants.com/Article.php?aid=318
Abstract.:
A Rasayana (compound mixture) was prepared using Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Chlorophytum arundenaceum, Piper
longum, Prunus amygdalus and few other herbs. A study was carried out to look into the effects of this compound in the form of drink
and food supplement to assess the antioxidant effects on the persons tested. Clinical trials were conducted for 45 days on 21 persons
who were members of 23rd Indian Scientific expedition to Antarctica. Various biochemical / clinical tests were conducted and the
results are summarized.

Bansal Parveen, Sannd Rajesh, Srikanth N, Lavekar G S. Effect of Neutraceutical RASAYANA Food Supplements on Certain
Physical and Physiological Parameters in First Ayurvedic Clinical Trial at ANTARCTICA.
Journal

114

of
Research
in
Ayurveda
and
Siddha.
2009;30(1):83-92.
http://www.ccras.nic.in/Publications/Periodicals/ResearchinAyurvedaSiddha/JRAS,%20XXX,%20No.1,%20Jan.-Mar%202009.pdf
Abstract.
Rasayana herbs have been advocated to have tremendous adaptogenic properties. It is also as well known fact that stress generates free
radicals that affect the antioxidant status of the body. Rasayana herbs due to their adaptogenic properties reduce stress caused by
endogenous an exogenous stressors. A single blind clinical trial was conducted at Indian Station Maitri at Antarctica on volunteers
from 2nd Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica to establish the effect of established Rasayana food supplements on selected
physical and physiological parameters. Food supplement was prepared by using Rasayana herbs with established adaptogenic effect
and high-energy dry fruits. So it was pertinent to know its effect on some of important physiological parameters. For this study, 21
subjects were selected in trial group and were given food supplement. It addition 7 volunteers were selected for control group and
were not given food supplement. The subjects were fed with the food supplement daily for a period of 45 days. Assessment was done
at 0 day and at fornightly intervals for various parameters like Lean Body Mass (LBM), Mass Index (BMI), Mid Arm Circumference
(MAC), TLC, DLC, blood pressure and pulse rate. From the study it was observed that there was no significant effect of food
supplement on selected physical and physiological parameters. Since this food supplement shown antioxidant, antistress and
adaptogenic effect, so can be used without side effect on body weight, blood pressure and body fat.

Bao W, Li K, Rong S, Yao P, Hao L, Ying C, Zhang X, Nussler A, Liu L.Curcumin alleviates ethanol-induced hepatocytes oxidative
damage
involving
heme
oxygenase-1
induction.
J
EthnoPharmacol.
2010
Mar
24;128(2):549-53.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:
Curcumin is the main bioactive constituent derived from the rhizome of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.), which has been used
traditionally as hepatoprotective agents in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine for centuries.
AIM OF THE STUDY:
The present study was carried out to demonstrate the potential protective effect of curcumin pretreatment against ethanol-induced
hepatocytes oxidative damage, with emphasis on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Rat primary hepatocytes were isolated and treated with ethanol (100mM) and diverse doses of curcumin (0-50 microM), which was
pretreated at various time points (0-5h) before ethanol administration. Hepatic enzyme releases in the culture medium and redox status
including HO-1 enzyme activity were detected.
RESULTS:
Ethanol exposure resulted in a sustained malondialdehyde (MDA) elevation, glutathione (GSH) depletion and evident release of
cellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), which was significantly ameliorated by curcumin
pretreatment. In addition, dose- and time-dependent induction of HO-1 was involved in such hepatoprotective effects by curcumin.
CONCLUSIONS:
Curcumin exerts hepatoprotective properties against ethanol involving HO-1 induction, which provide new insights into the
Pharmacological targets of curcumin in the prevention of alcoholic liver disease.

115

Bavarva JH, Narasimhacharya AV. Leucas cephalotes regulates carbohydrate and lipid Metabolism and improves antioxidant status in
IDDM and NIDDM rats. J EthnoPharmacol. 2010;127(1):98-102. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:
Leucas cephalotes (Roth.) Spreng. (Laminaceae) is an Ayurvedic traditional medicinal plant used in India, Nepal and Pakistan to treat
several ailments including diabetes.
AIM OF THE STUDY:
The aim of the present study is to investigate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipaemic and antioxidant activities of Leucas cephalotes for its
purported use in diabetes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The ethanol extract of leaves of Leucas cephalotes was administered (150, 300 and 450 mg kg(-1)bw) to diabetes induced (IDDM and
NIDDM) rats and carbohydrate, lipid, antioxidant, urea and creatinine profiles wereassessed.
RESULTS:
All the three doses of extract decreased plasma glucose and lipid profiles and, improved the antioxidant status of both types of diabetic
rats. The extract administration improved hepatic glycogen content and hexokinase activity, decreased glucose-6-phosphatase activity,
blood urea, creatinine contents and decreased lipid peroxidation in diabetic rats. Of the three doses used, 450 mg kg(-1)bw dose was
found to be more potent in its effects comparable to those of glibenclamide and metformin.
CONCLUSION:
Leucas cephalotes regulates both carbohydrate and lipid Metabolism and, improves body antioxidant defense systems in both types of
diabetes.

Bhandari U, Jain N, Ansari MN, Pillai KK. Beneficial effect of Embelia ribes ethanolic extract on blood pressure and glycosylated
hemoglobin instreptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Fitoterapia.2008;79(5):351-5. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Embelia ribes (common name, Vidanga) is extensively used in traditional system of medicine for treatment of various disorders. It is
described in Ayurveda, as a powerful anthelmintic, antifertility and antihyperlipidemic agent. The present study was undertaken to
investigate modulatory effect of 6 weeks' chronic oral administration of E. ribes ethanolic extract on diabetes mellitus induced by a
diabetogen, streptozotocin (STZ) with special reference to changes in glucose levels, glycated haemoglobin status and cardiac toxicity.
STZ treatment (40 mg/kg iv) resulted in significant increase in blood glucose levels, glycated haemoglobin levels, heart rate (HR) and
systolic blood pressure (SBP). Oral administration of E. ribes ethanolic extract in dose of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg significantly
reduced the levels of blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin, heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in animals when
compared with diabetic rats.

Bhargava SK. Estrogenic and postcoital anticonceptive activity in rats of butin isolated from Butea monosperma seed.
J EthnoPharmacol. 1986 ;18(1):95-101. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.

116

Butin isolated from the seeds of Butea monosperma and administered orally to adult female rats at the doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/rat
from day 1 to day 5 of pregnancy showed anti-implantation activity in 40%, 70% and 90% of the treated animals, respectively. At
lower doses, there was a dose-dependent termination of pregnancy and reduction in the number of implantation sites. In
ovariectomized young female rats, the butin exhibited estrogenic activity at comparable anticonceptive doses, but was devoid of antiestrogenic activity. Butin is a weak estrogen in that a significant uterotrophic effect was discerned even at 1/20th the anticonceptive
dose.

Bhargava Sushil, Bhargava Paridhi, Saraf Surendra, Pandey Ravindra.Evaluation of Antipyretic of Sudarshan Churna: An Ayurvedic
Formulation. The Journal of Research and Education in Indian Medicine.2008;14(2):11-4.
Abstract..
Sudarshan churna is very potent Ayurvedic preparation, which is used traditionally as antimaterial and antipyretic formulation. Swertia
Chirata is key ingredient in Sudarshan churna. The purpose of study was to evaluate antipyretic activity of Sudarshan churna. Aqueous
extracts of Sudarshan churna was evaluated for antipyretic activity using two models including hyperpyrexia-induced in rats by
brewers yeast and another one hyperpyrexia induced in rabbits by Typhoid-Paratyphoid A,B vaccine. Like Paracetamol (100
mg/kg,p.o), Sudarshan churna, showed significant reduction in elevated body temperature at 200mg/kg, p.o. on the basis of study, it
was concluded that aqueous extract of Sudarshan churna has shown significant antipyretic activity.

Bhatt AD, Dalal DG, Shah SJ, Joshi BA, Gajjar MN, Vaidya RA, Vaidya AB, Antarkar DS. Conceptual and methodologic challenges
of assessing the short-term efficacy of Guggulu in obesity: data emergent from a naturalistic clinical trial. J Postgrad Med. 1995 ;
41(1):5-7. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
An open comparative trial was conducted in 58 adult obese patients (Body Mass Index > or = 25 kg/square metre). Group I (n = 27),
non-drug, was advised diet (1200-1600 cals) and a brisk walk for 30 minutes. Group II, in addition, received Guggulu (Medohar) 1.53 gms/day for 30 days. Mean difference in weight loss between Guggulu and non-drug group was 0.32 kg (ns) on day 15 and 0.58 kg
on day 30 (ns). The mean weight reduction in patients (> 90 kgs) was 1.92 kg (ns) and 2.25 kg (ns) higher in Guggulu group. All
patients weighing > 90 kg lost weight in Guggulu group whilst 3 in non-drug group did not lose weight. Guggulu was tolerated well.
The data from this pilot study suggest a synergistic diet-Guggulu interaction over 30 days in patients weighing > 90 kgs which needs
to be confirmed in a large placebo controlled study.

Bhatt AD. Clinical research on Ayurvedic therapeutics: myths, realities and challenges. J Assoc Physicians India. 2001;49:558-62.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Globally there is an increasing interest in alternative routes to health such as Ayurveda. There is a need to conduct globally acceptable
clinical research in Ayurvedic therapeutics (AT). Some of the issues in investigating AT in randomized clinical trials (CT) are:
selection of appropriate AT, non-drug and/or drug AT, identification of objective outcomes, devising adequate placebo/positive
controls, difficulties of blinding, guarding against bias, duration of trials, number of patients, dose optimisation, etc. There is also a
need to establish reasonable safety of this therapy in CT. If AT has to complete with new chemical entities and biotechnology
products, clinical research and development of AT should be focussed on unmet medical needs utilising principles and practices of
modern CT approaches.

117

Bhattacharya A, Ramanathan M, Ghosal S, Bhattacharya SK. Effect of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides on iron-induced
hepatotoxicity in rats. Phytother Res. 2000;14(7):568-70. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Glycowithanolides, consisting of equimolar concentrations of sitoindosides VII-X and withaferin A, isolated from the roots of
Withania somnifera Dunal, have been reported to have an antioxidant effect in the rat brain frontal cortex and striatum. In the present
study, the effect of 10 days of oral administration of these active principles, in graded doses (10, 20 and 50 mg/kg), was noted on iron
overload (FeSo(4), 30 mg/kg, i.p.) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Apart from hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO), the serum enzymes,
alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, were assessed as indices of hepatotoxicity. Silymarin
(20 mg/kg, p.o.) was used for comparison. Iron overload induced marked increase in hepatic LPO and serum levels of the enzymes,
which was attenuated by WSG in a dose-related manner, and by silymarin. The results indicate that the reported use of WS in
Ayurveda for hepatoprotection against heavy metals and other environmental toxins, may be due the antioxidant action of WSG.

Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A, ChakrabArti A. Adaptogenic activity of Siotone, a polyherbal formulation of Ayurvedic Rasayanas.
Indian J Exp Biol. 2000;38(2):119-28. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Siotone (ST) is a herbal formulation comprising of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Asparagus racemosus, Tribulus terristris
and Shilajit, all of which are classified in Ayurveda as Rasayanas which are reputed to promote physical and mental health, improve
defence mechanisms of the body and enhance longevity. These attributes are similar to the modern concept of adaptogenic agents,
which are, known to afford protection of the human physiological system against diverse stressors. The present study was undertaken
to investigate the adaptogenic activity of ST against chronic unpredictable, but mild, footshock stress induced perturbations in
behaviour (depression), glucose Metabolism, suppressed male sexual behaviour, immunosuppression and cognitive dysfunction in CF
strain albino rats. Gastric ulceration, adrenal gland and spleen weights, ascorbic acid and corticosterone concentrations of adrenal
cortex, and plasma corticosterone levels, were used as the stress indices. Panax ginseng (PG) was used as the standard adaptogenic
agent for comparison. Additionally, rat brain levels of tribulin, an endogenous endocoid postulated to be involved in stress, were also
assessed in terms of endogenous monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and (MAO) B inhibitory activity. Chronic unpredictable footshock
induced marked gastric ulceration, significant increase in adrenal gland weight and plasma corticosterone levels,with concomitant
decreases in spleen weight, and concentrations of adrenal gland ascorbic acid and corticosterone. These effects were attenuated by ST
(50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and PG (100 mg/kg, p.o.), administered once daily over a period of 14 days, the period of stress induction.
Chronic stress also induced glucose intolerance, suppressed male sexual behaviour, induced behavioural depression(Porsolt's swim
despair test and learned helplessness test) and cognitive dysfunction (attenuated retention of learning in active and passive avoidance
tests), and immunosuppression (leucocyte migration inhibition and sheep RBC challenged increase in paw oedema in sensitized rats).
All these chronic stress-induced perturbations were attenuated, dose-dependently by ST (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and PG (100 mg/kg,
p.o.). Chronic stress-induced increase in rat brain tribulin activity was also reversed by these doses of ST and by PG. The results
indicate that ST has significant adaptogenic activity, qualitatively comparable to PG, against a variety of behavioural, biochemical and
physiological perturbations induced by unpredictable stress, which has been proposed to be a better indicator of clinical stress than
acute stress parameters. The likely contribution of the individual constituents of ST in the observed adaptogenic action of the
polyherbal formulation, have been discussed.

Bhattacharya SK, Muruganandam AV. Adaptogenic activity of Withania somnifera: an experimental study using a rat model of chronic
stress. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003;75(3):547-55. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Withania somnifera (WS) Dunal is classified in Ayurveda, the ancient Hindu system of medicine, as a Rasayana, a group of plantderived drugs reputed to promote physical and mental health, augment resistance of the body against disease and diverse adverse

118

environmental factors, revitalise the body in debilitated conditions and increase longevity. These attributes are remarkably similar to
the properties ascribed to adaptogens like Panax ginseng (PG) in contemporary medicine. As such, the adaptogenic activity of a
standardised extract of WS roots was investigated against a rat model of chronic stress (CS). The stress procedure was mild,
unpredictable footshock, administered once daily for 21 days to adult
male Wistar rats. CS induced significant hyperglycaemia, glucose intolerance, increase in plasma corticosterone levels, gastric
ulcerations, male sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficits, immunosuppression and mental depression. These CS induced perturbations
were attenuated by WS (25 and 50 mg/kg po) and by PG (100 mg/kg po), administered 1 h before footshock for 21 days. The results
indicate that WS, like PG, has significant antistress adaptogenic activity, confirming the clinical use of the plant in Ayurveda.

Bhattacharya SK, Satyan KS, ChakrabArti A. Effect of Trasina, an Ayurvedic herbal formulation, on pancreatic islet superoxide
dismutase activity in hyperglycaemic rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 1997;35(3):297-9. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Diabetes mellitus was induced in male CF strain rats by streptozotocin (STZ) and hyperglycaemia and superoxide dismutase (SOD)
activity of pancreatic islet cells was assessed on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. STZ induced significant hyperglycaemia and a concomitant
decrease in islet cell SOD activity. Transina (TR), an Ayurvedic herbal formulation comprising of Withania somnifera, Tinospora
cordifolia, Eclipta alba, Ocimum sanctum, Picrorrhiza kurroa and Shilajit, had little per se effect on blood sugar concentrations and
islet SOD activity in euglycaemic rats, in the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. administered once daily for 28 days. However, these
doses of TR induced a dose- related decrease in STZ hyperglycaemia and attenuation of STZ induced decrease in islet SOD activity.
The results indicate that the earlier reported anti-hyperglycaemic effect of TR may be due to pancreatic islet free radical scavenging
activity, the hyperglycaemic activity of STZ being the consequence of decrease in islet SOD activity leading to theaccumulation of
degenerative oxidative free radicals in islet beta-cells.

Bhattamisra SK, Khanna VK, Agrawal AK, Singh PN, Singh SK. Antidepressant activity of standardised extract of Marsilea minuta
Linn. J EthnoPharmacol. 2008;117(1):51-7. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
AIM OF THE STUDY:
Marsilea minuta Linn. (Marsileaceae) has been referred in Indian traditional medicine system (Ayurveda) for the treatment of
insomnia and other mental disorders. Marsiline isolated from Marsilea minuta was reported to have sedative and anticonvulsant
property. The ethanol extract of Marsilea minuta was standardised for marsiline (1.15%, w/w) and studied for its antidepressant
activity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Antidepressant activity was studied using forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), learned helplessness test (LHT) and
5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) induced head twitches response in rodents. Standardised extract of Marsilea minuta in doses of 100,
200 and 400 mg/kg/day were administered orally for three consecutive days and evaluated on day 3, 1h after the last dose treatment.
Imipramine (15 mg/kg/day, i.p.) was used as the standard drug. Neurochemical mechanism of antidepressant activity was elucidated
by using radioligand receptor binding assays for 5-HT2A and benzodiazepine receptors in rat frontal cortex.
RESULTS:
Immobility time in FST and TST was significantly (P<0.05) reduced by ethanol extract of Marsilea minuta treated animals. A decrease
in number of escape failures in LHT was also observed in Marsilea minuta treated rats. Head twitch response induced by 5-HTP was
significantly attenuated by Marsilea minuta (400 mg/kg, p.o.) and imipramine showing the involvement of serotonergic system. This

119

effect was corroborated with radioligand receptor binding study where Marsilea minuta (400 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (P<0.05) down
regulated 5-HT2A receptor in frontal cortex, whereas, no marked effect was observed for benzodiazepine receptor.
CONCLUSION:
The antidepressant effect exhibited by Marsilea minuta extract may be due to its effect on 5-HT2A density in rat frontal cortex.

Bhatt Urvi D,Jain BK.Ethnomedicinal uses of some important plants recorded from forest areas of Shoolpaneshwar Wildlife
Sanctuary, Narmada district (Gujarat). Ethnobotany.2009;21:70-74.
Abstract.
The present paper deals with 22 plant species being used traditionally by Tadvi, Vasava and Rathwa tribal communities for the
treatment of various diseases in the Shooplaneshwar Wildlife Sanctuary (SWLS). The sanctuary is surrounded by the reserved forest,
which comprises five ranges, viz.Fulsar,Dediapada, Sagai, Gora and piplod.

Bhutani KK, Gohil VM. Natural products drug discovery research in India: status and appraisal. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010;48(3):199207. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Discovery of a new drug is time consuming and laborious process. Natural products have long been a thriving source for the discovery
of new drugs due to their chemical diversity and ability to act on various biological targets. The phytochemical exploration of
indigeneous flora has contributed to some extent in this race for the discovery of new drugs. The traditional Indian systems of
medicine has been a part of our lifestyle since ages and the classical texts like Ayurveda and Charak Samhita have served as materia
medica for this purpose. This review focuses on the contributions made from India in the drug discovery and development process
and provides future directions in the area.

Bhutani KK, Jadhav AN, Kalia V. Effect of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. On gonadotropin release in immature female rats and ovarian
histology. J EthnoPharmacol. 2004 ;94(1):197-200. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
In the present study we are reporting in vivo effect of aqueous extracts of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (Fam. Symplocaceae) on serum
FSH and LH levels in immature female Sprague-Dawley rats under basal conditions. Symplocos racemosa is used in Indian System of
Medicine (ISM) for various female disorders. Aqueous extract on oral administration significantly stimulated serum FSH level (P
<0.016) along with the rise in serum LH level (P < 0.001). Moreover, histopathological studies revealed enhanced folliculogenesis,
presence of mature follicles and detached oocytes, which are result of increased FSH and LH levels. Further, an increase in the ovary
weight of treated animals was found due to observed FSH surge. These results are in concordance with the traditional use of the drug
for female disorders

Bidasee KR, Maxwell A, Reynolds WF, Patel V, Besch HR Jr. Tectoridins modulate skeletal and cardiac muscle sarcoplasmic
reticulum calcium-release channels. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000;293(3):1074-83. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.

120

The isoflavones tectoridin (TTR) and 3'-hydroxy TTR (3'-TTR) were isolated from an Ayurvedic herbal preparation Vacha and
evaluated for their affinity and effect on ryanodine receptors (RyR) using junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles (JSRVs). In
[(3)H]ryanodine displacement binding affinity assays, TTR and 3'-TTR exhibited IC(50) values of 17.3 +/- 1.3 microM (K(d) = 6.7
+/- 0.4 microM) and 6.6 +/- 1.4 microM (K(d) = 2.4 +/- 0.2 microM), respectively, for fast skeletal muscle RyR (RyR1) compared
with an IC(50) value for ryanodine of 6.2 +/- 0.4 nM (K(d) = 2.4 nM). TTR demonstrated a 3-fold higher affinity for cardiac RyR
(RyR2) [IC(50) value of 5.2 +/- 0.6 microM (K(d) = 0.95 +/- 0.3 microM)] than for RyR1. The displacement isotherms for both TTRs
paralleled that for ryanodine,consistent with the notion that all three are likely binding to similar site(s) on the receptors. Calcium
efflux from and calcium influx into JSRVs were used to measure function effects of TTRs on binding to RyR. In calcium efflux
assays, TTR (up to 1 mM) enhanced the release of (45)Ca(2+) from JSRVs in aconcentration-dependent manner (EC(50act) of 750
microM). Higher concentrations deactivated (pArtially closed) RyR1. 3'-TTR had similar effects, but was approximately 2-fold more
potent, exhibiting an EC(50act) value of 480 microM. Using passive calcium influx assays, TTR activated and deactivated RyR1 in a
time- and concentration-dependent manner. The aglycone tectorigenin also was effective in displacing [(3)H]ryanodine from RyR1 but
not from RyR2. These results demonstrate that TTRs are capable of interacting at ryanodine binding sites to differentially modulate
fast skeletal and cardiac calcium-release channels.

Biswas S, Sahu DK, Dhal NK, Brahman.M.Indigenous phytotherapies among Koya of Malkangiri district, Orissa.
Ethnobotany.2009;21:99-102.
Abstract.
Ethnobotanical survey on koya tribe of Malkangiri district in Orissa was conducted during 2007-2008. This paper highlights 20 plants
and their ethnic uses, which appear to be interesting and unreported so far. Botanical names, families, vernacular names, localities,
voucher specimen numbers, diseases treated and mode of drug administration, etc.are enumerated. The new claims offer enormous
scope for clinical trials and Pharmacological evaluation in the pursuit of new drug.

Biradar YS, Singh R, Sharma K, Dhalwal K, Bodhankar SL, Khandelwal KR. Evaluation of anti-diarrhoeal property and acute toxicity
of Triphala Mashi, an Ayurvedic formulation. J Herb Pharmacother. 2007;7(3-4):203-12. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The anti-diarrhoeal effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Triphala and Triphala Mashi were studied employing castor oilinduced-diarrhoeal model in rats. The gastrointestinal transit rate was expressed as the percentage of the longest distance travelled by
the charcoal divided by the total length of the small intestine. All the extracts, at various doses 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg displayed
remarkable anti-diarrhoeal activity as evidenced by a significant increase in first defecation time, cumulative fecal weight and
intestinal transit time. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Triphala and Triphala Mashi were considered safe up to a dose of 1750 mg/kg
when evaluated for acute oral toxicity in accordance with the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development)
guidelines. In conclusion, the remarkable anti-diarrhoeal effect of Triphala and Triphala Mashi extracts against castor oil-induced
diarrhoea suggest its potential for application in a wide range of diarrhoeal states.

Blessia TF, Rapheal VS, Sharmila DJ. Molecular Dynamics of Sialic Acid Analogues and their Interaction with Influenza
Hemagglutinin. Indian J Pharm Sci.2010;72(4):449-57.Http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/
Abstract.
Synthetic sialic acid analogues with multiple modifications at different positions(C-1/C-2/C-4/C-8/C-9) are investigated by molecular
mechanics and molecular dynamics to determine their conformational preferences and structural stability to interact with their natural
receptors. Sialic acids with multiple modifications are soaked in a periodic box of water as solvent. Molecular mechanics and a 2
nanosecond molecular dynamics are done using amber force fields with 30 picosecond equilibrium. Direct and water mediated

121

hydrogen bonds existing in the sialic acid analogues, aiding for their structural stabilization are identified in this study. The accessible
conformations of side chain linkages of sialic acid analogues holding multiple substituents are determined from molecular dynamics
trajectory at every 1ps interval. Transitions between different minimum energy regions in conformational maps are also noticed in C1, C-2, C-4, C-8 and C-9 substituents. Docking studies were done to find the binding mode of the sialic acid analogues with Influenza
hemagglutinin. This finding provides stereo chemical explanation and conformational preference of sialic acid analogues which may
be crucial for the design of sialic acid analogues as inhibitors for different sialic acid specific pathogenic proteins such as influenza
toxins and neuraminidases

Bopana N, Saxena S. Asparagus racemosus--ethnoPharmacological evaluation and


2007;110(1):1-15.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

conservation needs. J EthnoPharmacol.

Abstract.
Asparagus racemosus Willd. (Asparagaceae) is an important medicinal plant of tropical and subtropical India. Its medicinal usage has
been reported in the Indian and British Pharmacopoeias and in traditional systems of medicine such as Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha.
Asparagus racemosus is mainly known for its phytoestrogenic properties. With an increasing realization that hormone replacement
therapy with synthetic oestrogens is neither as safe nor as effective as previously envisaged, the interest in plant-derived oestrogens
has increased tremendously making Asparagus racemosus Particularly important. The plant has been shown to aid in the treatment of
neurodegenerative disorders and in alcohol abstinence-induced withdrawal symptoms. In Ayurveda, Asparagus racemosus has been
described as a Rasayana herb and has been used extensively as an adaptogen to increase the non-specific resistance of organisms
against a variety of stresses. Besides use in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery, the plant also has potent antioxidant,
immunostimulant, anti-dyspepsia and antitussive effects. Due to its multiple uses, the demand for Asparagus racemosus is constantly
on the rise; however, the supply is rather erratic and inadequate. Destructive harvesting, combined with habitat destruction in the form
of deforestation has aggravated the problem. The plant is now considered 'endangered' in its natural habitat. Therefore, the need for
conservation of this plant is crucial. This Article aims to evaluate the biological activities, Pharmacological applications and clinical
studies of Asparagus racemosus in an attempt to provide a direction for further research. Keeping in mind the fact that it is the active
principle that imparts medicinal value to a plant; consistency in quality and quantity needs to be maintained to ensure uniform drug
efficacy. Also, deliberate or inadvertent adulteration needs to be dealt with at an early stage. To overcome these prevalent problems,
the availability of genetically superior and uniform planting material is essential. This can be obtained by a combination of various
biotechnological tools involving chemoprofiling, tissue culture and use of molecular markers. Along with the application of these
methods, proper agro-techniques and adequate marketing opportunities would encourage cultivation of Asparagus racemosus and
thereby contribute to its conservation. There are also several gaps in the existing literature with regard to the Pharmacological actions
of Asparagus racemosus. These include an incomplete understanding about the interaction/synergy between Asparagus racemosus and
other plant constituents in polyherbal formulations; lack of information regarding the mode of action of the various constituents of
Asparagus racemosus, etc. Consequently, we have suggested a 'systems biology' approach that includes metabolite profiling, metabolic
fingerprinting, metabolite target analysis and metabonomics to enable further research.

Borah S, Das A.K, Boruah AM, Borah J. Ethnomedicinal plants used by Mishing communities for analgesic and anti- inflammatory
properties in India. Ethnobotany.2009;21:66-69.
Abstract.
The paper presents ethnomedicinal remedies for rhumatic pain practised by the mishing community inhabiting the Gohpur area
Assam. This community using some locally available plants and mixing them properly in approperiate doses has formulated an antirheumatic pain plaster. All the necessary plants are available in their neighbourhood. The paste made out of mixing the specific plants
is continously applied to the affected part for some days to relieve pain. The skin of the affected part, if dammaged due to continous
use of paste, can also be cured by anothor preparation of plant materials. A detailed note on the method of preparation of afeective
dose. Application on the affected part, etc.is given.

122

Bradwejn J, Zhou Y, Koszycki D, Shlik J. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effects of Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica) on
acoustic startle response in healthy subjects. J Clin PsychoPharmacol. 2000;20(6):680-4. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Investigations of the Pharmacologic profile of medicinal plants have revealed that a number of plants with purported anxiolytic
activity bind to cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors. This finding is intriguing in view of the proposed involvement of CCK in the
pathophysiology of fear and anxiety. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study was undertaken to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of
Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica) in healthy subjects. Gotu Kola has been used for centuries in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine
to alleviate symptoms of depression and anxiety. Recent studies in the rat have shown that long-term pretreatment with Gotu Kola
decreases locomotor activity, enhance elevated-plus maze performance, and attenuate the acoustic startle response (ASR). In this
study, the authors evaluated the effects of Gotu Kola on the ASR in humans. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either a
single 12-g orally administered dose of Gotu Kola (N = 20) or placebo (N = 20). The results revealed That compared with placebo,
Gotu Kola significantly attenuated the peak ASR amplitude 30 and 60 minutes after treatment. Gotu Kola had no significant effect on
self-rated mood, heart rate, or blood pressure. These preliminary findings suggest that Gotu Kola has anxiolytic activity in humans as
revealed by the ASR. It remains to be seen whether this herb has therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of anxiety syndromes.

Broom A, Wijewardena K, Sibbritt D, Adams J, Nayar KR. The use of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine in Sri
Lankan cancer care: results from a survey of 500 cancer patients. Public Health. 2010;124(4):232-7.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
OBJECTIVES:
While the introduction of biomedicine within the Sri Lankan healthcare system has resulted in reduced reliance on traditional,
complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) over the last century in Sri Lanka, treatment modalities such as Ayurveda, Sinhala
and traditional religious practices still receive considerable public support. Cancer is an increasing burden in Sri Lanka, and whilst Sri
Lankans are known to use TCAM for everyday ailments, there has been no research examining the role of TCAM in the context of
cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and patterns of TCAM use by cancer patients. STUDY DESIGN: Crosssectional survey.
METHODS:
Data were obtained from two Sri Lankan hospitals using a consecutive convenience sample of 500 cancer patients currently receiving
biomedical treatment, over a 10-week period in 2008.
RESULTS: Analyses showed that 67.4% of those surveyed used one or more TCAM in conjunction with biomedicine for cancer
treatment. The most common were Sinhala, Ayurveda and traditional religious practices. Of those patients who used TCAM, 95.0%
gave the main reason for usage as 'they thought it would cure their cancer'. The strongest reason for not using TCAM was on advice
from their doctor (80.5%).
CONCLUSIONS:
The high use of TCAM amongst cancer patients in Sri Lanka raises numerous important issues, including those related to patient
safety, potential benefit, interactions with biomedical cancer treatments, and delays in seeking biomedical cancer care. Further
research is needed to explore the decision-making processes of cancer patients, including the perceived benefits/limitations of key
processes in biomedical and TCAM care.

123

Burns JJ, Zhao L, Taylor EW, Spelman K. The influence of traditional herbal
2010;278(1):140-59. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

formulas on cytokine activity. Toxicology.

Abstract.
Many of the botanical "immunomodulators", a class of herbal medicines widely recognized in traditional medical systems such as
Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurvedic Medicine, alter immune function and may offer clinically relevant therapeutics or leads to
therapeutics. Many of these traditional remedies are prepared from combinations of medicinal plants which may influence numerous
molecular pathways. These effects may differ from the sum of effects from the individual plants and therefore, research demonstrating
the effects of the formula is crucial for insights into the effects of traditional remedies. In this review we surveyed the primary
literature for research that focused on combinations of medicinal plants and effects on cytokine activity. The results demonstrate that
many extracts of herb mixtures have effects on at least one cytokine. The most commonly studies cytokines were IL-4, IL-6, IL-10,
TNF and IFN-. The majority of the formulas researched derived from TCM. The following formulas had activity on at least three
cytokines; Chizukit N, CKBM, Daeganghwal-tang, Food Allergy Formula, Gamcho-Sasim-Tang, Hachimi-jio-gan, Herbkines,
Hochuekki, Immune System Formula, Jeo-Dang-Tang, Juzen-taiho-to, Kakkon-to, Kan jang, Mao-Bushi-Saishin-to, MSSM-002,
Ninjin-youei-to, PG201, Protec, Qing-huo-bai-du-yin, Qingfu Guanjieshu, Sambucol Active Defense, Seng-fu-tang, Shin-Xiao-Xiang,
Tien Hsien, Thuja formula, Unkei-to, Vigconic, Wheeze-relief-formula, Xia-Bai-San, Yangyuk-Sanhwa-Tang, Yi-fey Ruenn-hou, and
Yuldahansotang. Of the western based combinations, formulas with Echinacea spp.were common and showed multiple activities.
Numerous formulas demonstrated activity on both gene and protein expression. The research demonstrates that the reviewed botanical
formulas modulate cytokine activity, although the bulk of the research is in vitro. Therapeutic success using these formulas may be
pArtially due to their effects on cytokines. Further study of phytotherapy on cytokine related diseases/syndromes is necessary.

Chainani-Wu N. Safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin: a component of tumeric (Curcuma longa). J Altern Complement
Med. 2003;9(1):161-8. . Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
INTRODUCTION:
Tumeric is a spice that comes from the root Curcuma longa, a member of the ginger family, Zingaberaceae. In Ayurveda (Indian
traditional medicine), tumeric has been used for its medicinal properties for various indications and through different routes of
administration, including topically, orally, and by inhalation. Curcuminoids are components of tumeric, which include mainly
curcumin (diferuloyl methane), demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcmin.
OBJECTIVES:
The goal of this systematic review of the literature was to summarize the literature on the safety and anti-inflammatory activity of
curcumin.
METHODS:
A search of the computerized database MEDLINE (1966 to January 2002), a manual search of bibliographies of papers identified
through MEDLINE, and an Internet search using multiple search engines for references on this topic was conducted. The PDR for
Herbal Medicines, and four textbooks on herbal medicine and their bibliographies were also searched.
RESULTS:
A large number of studies on curcumin were identified. These included studies on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and
antifungal properties of curcuminoids. Studies on the toxicity and anti-inflammatoryproperties of curcumin have included in vitro,
animal, and human studies. A phase 1 human trial with 25 subjects using up to 8000 mg of curcumin per day for 3 months found no
toxicity from curcumin. Five other human trials using 1125-2500 mg of curcumin per day have also found it to be safe. These human
studies have found some evidence of anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin. The laboratory studies have identified a number of

124

different Molecules involved in inflammation that are inhibited by curcumin including phospholipase, lipooxygenase, cyclooxygenase
2, leukotrienes, thromboxane, prostaglandins, nitric oxide, collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1
(MCP-1), interferon-inducible protein, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interleukin-12 (IL-12).
CONCLUSIONS:
Curcumin has been demonstrated to be safe in six human trials and has demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. It may exert its antiinflammatory activity by inhibition of a number of different Molecules that play a role in inflammation.

Chainani-Wu N, Silverman S Jr, Reingold A, Bostrom A, Mc Culloch C, Lozada-Nur F, Weintraub J. A randomized, placebocontrolled, double-blind clinical trial of curcuminoids in oral lichen planus. Phytomedicine. 2007 ;14(7-8):437-46.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
We studied the efficacy of curcuminoids in the treatment of oral lichen planus (OLP), a chronic, mucocutaneous, immunological
disease. Curcuminoids are components of turmeric (Curcuma longa) that have anti-inflammatory activity. Turmeric has been used in
Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine) for centuries. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted. In all, 100
consecutive, eligible patients with OLP presenting to the oral medicine clinic at the University of California, San Francisco, were to be
selected. Two interim analyses were to be conducted during the trial. The trial was conducted between February 2003 and September
2004. The first interim analysis was conducted in October 2004 using data from the first 33 subjects. Study subjects were randomized
to receive either placebo or curcuminoids at 2000 mg/day for 7 weeks. In addition, all subjects received prednisone at 60 mg/day for
the first 1 week. The primary outcome was a change in symptoms from baseline. Secondary outcomes were changes in clinical signs
and occurrence of side effects. The first interim analysis did not show a significant difference between the placebo and curcuminoids
groups. Conditional power calculations suggested a less than 2% chance that the curcuminoids group would have a significantly better
outcome as compared with the placebo group if the trial were continued to completion. Therefore, the study was ended early for
futility. Reaching a conclusion regarding the efficacy of curcuminoids based on the results of this study is not possible as it was ended
early for futility. Curcuminoids at this dose were well tolerated and the results suggest that for future studies a larger sample size, a
higher dose and/or longer duration of curcuminoids administration should be considered; however, for the next step, an RCT of a
shorter duration, using a higher dose of curcuminoids, and without an initial course of prednisone, should be considered.

Chakraborty A, Brantner AH. Study of alkaloids from Adhatoda vasica Nees on their antiinflammatory activity. Phytother Res.
2001;15(6):532-4. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Adhatoda vasica Nees is a shrub widespread throughout the tropical regions of southeast Asia. It possesses a wide spectrum of
medicinal properties including positive effects on inflammatory diseases. The antiinflammatory activity of the methanol extract, the
non-alkaloid fraction, the saponins and the alkaloids was evaluated by the modified hen's egg chorioallantoic membrane test. The
alkaloid fraction showed potent activity at a dose of 50 microg/pellet equivalent to that of hydrocortisone while the MeOH extract and
the other fractions showed less activity.

125

Chamundeeswari D, Vasantha J, Gopalakrishnan S, Sukumar E. Free radical scavenging activity of the alcoholic extract of Trewia
polycarpa roots in arthritic rats. J EthnoPharmacol. 2003;88(1):51-6. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The alcoholic extract of Trewia polycarpa roots (TPE), which exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity, was evaluated for the
possible mode of action by studying its antioxidant potential in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. The biological defence system
constituting the superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, ascorbic acid showed a significant increase while the lipid peroxide
content was found to decrease to a large extent on TPE treatment thereby indicating the extracts free radical scavenging property.
Histopathological studies too supported anti-arthritic potential of the roots of Trewia polycarpa.

Chanda D, Shanker K, Pal A, Luqman S, Bawankule DU, Mani D, Darokar MP. Safety evaluation of Trikatu, a generic Ayurvedic
medicine in Charles Foster rats. J Toxicol Sci. 2009;34(1):99-108. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.com
Abstract.
Chemical characterization and acute and sub-acute toxicity study of Trikatu, a generic herbal formulation of Indian system of
medicine, was carried out in Charles Foster (CF) rats for safety profiling. In acute toxicity experiment, Trikatu at 2,000 mg/kg body
weight once orally was well tolerated by the experimental animals (both male and female) and no changes were observed in mortality,
morbidity, gross pathology, gain in weight, vital organ weight, hematological (total white blood cells (WBC) and red blood cells
(RBC) count), biochemical parameters such as serum creatinine, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum
glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum lipid profile and tissue biochemical parameters such as reduced glutathione and
malonaldehyde content as oxidative stress markers. In sub-acute experiment, Trikatu was administered at 5, 50 and 300 mg/kg body
weight once daily for 28 days in female CF rats, and non-significant changes were found in most of the parameters studied such as
acute experiment except significant increase in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level at 50 and 300 mg/kg body weight,
decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level at 300 mg/kg body weight, increase in SGPT activity at 50 mg/kg body
weight and decrease in WBC count at 300 mg/kg body weight on 28(th) day post treatment.

Chattopadhyay P, Chaudhury P, Wahi AK. Bcl-2 expression alters the mitochondrial tri carboxyl Acid pathway in hepatic ischemic and
reperfusion induced necrosis and apoptosis in rat liver. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2010;72(4):437-41. Http://
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/
Abstract.
Ischemic and reperfusion injury leads to necrosis and apoptosis. Mitochondrial enzymes and antiapoptotic gene plays an important
role in necrosis and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Bcl-2 expression in alternations in mitochondrial
energy regulation during hepatic ischemia and reperfusion and role in necrosis and apoptosis. Total 12 Wistar rats were divided into
sham-operated control group (I) and ischemia and reperfusion group (II). Mitochondrial tri carboxylic acid cycles marker enzymes,
respiratory marker enzymes, apoptotic cells, necrotic cells and Bcl-2 expression was measured. Number of necrotic and apoptotic cells
were increased in ischemic and reperfusion group with reducing tri carboxylic acid cycles marker enzymes, respiratory marker
enzymes and decreasing of Bcl-2 expression. On the basis of our findings it may be concluded that suppression of Bcl-2 gene,
inhibition of tri carboxylic acid cycles and respiration rate, adenosine tri phosphate production in mitochondria is a pathophysiological
consequences which provides a clue for necrosis and apoptosis in hepatic ischemic and reperfusion injury.

Chattopadhyay RR.Effect of Azadirachta indica hydroalcoholic leaf extract on the cardiovascular system.Gen Pharmacol. 199 ;
28(3):449-51. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.

126

The effect of Azadirachta indica hydroalcoholic leaf extract on the cardiovascular system was studied. 2. The leaf extract was found to
reduce a dose-dependent hypotensive effect without altering the amplitude or rate of respiration. 3. In isolated frog heart, there was no
noticeable change in amplitude of contraction or rate of the heart at lower doses of leaf extract. However, at higher doses, there was
temporary cardiac arrest in diastole. 4. The results are discussed.

Chaudhury MR, Chandrasekaran R, Mishra S. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity studies of an Ayurvedic contraceptive--Pippalyadi
Vati. J EthnoPharmacol. 2001;74(2):189-93. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
An Ayurvedic contraceptive--Pippalyadi Vati, containing equal parts of powdered seeds or fruit berries of Embelia ribes, fruit of Piper
longum and borax powder was fed orally to two groups of pregnant rats: 2.5 times to one and five times to the other; the
recommended dose for humans. The foetuses of mothers fed with Pippalyadi had low birth weights and were smaller in length. The
mothers gained less weight during gestation. Developmental defects of soft tissues and skeletons were analyzed. There were instances
of herniation of the intestines into the umbilical cord in foetuses of mothers who were administered Pippalyadi. The control and the
gum acacia groups did not show such herniation.

Chaurasia JK, Mishra A, Tripathi YB. Immunomodulation property of hexane fraction of leaves of Cinnamomum tamala Linn. in rats.
Cell Biochem Funct. 2010;28(6):454-60. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The leaves of Cinnamomum tamala Linn. (CT) (Lauraceae) clinically used in Ayurveda as antidiabetic and diuretic, but no reports are
available towards immunomodulating property. Its hexane fraction (CTH) was orally given to rats for 10 days and delayed type of
hypersensitivity (DTH), antibody production against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs), mitotic index in bone marrow cells and
concanavalin A (Con A) mediated proliferation of lymphocytes were assessed. Further on 30 days treatment, change in body weight
(BW), spleen weight, thymus weight, bone marrow cellularity and hematological changes were observed. It inhibited significantly the
DTH response (IC(50) 1475 +/- 57.19 mg kg(-1) BW), antibody production, suppressed mitotic index in bone marrow cells along with
the suppression of lymphocyte proliferation against Con A (IC(50) 63.33 +/- 1.95 microg mL(-1)). In all experiments,
cyclophasphamide and dexamethasone had been used as reference drug for in vivo and in vitro studies, respectively. On 30 days
treatment, the CTH (800 mg kg(-1) BW and above) significantly suppressed growth rate, increase of spleen and thymus weight and
low bone marrow cellularity. In hematological examination, it inhibited total white blood cell and lymphocytes count and increased
per cent of polymorphs. Thus, it could be suggested that the fraction possesses immunosuppressive property at doses, higher than 800
mg kg(-1)BW in rats.

Chaurasia JK, Pandey N, Tripathi YB. Effect of hexane fraction of leaves of Cinnamomum tamala Linn on macrophage functions.
InflammoPharmacology. 2010;18(3):147-54. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The leaves of Cinnamomum tamala Linn (Lauraceae), component of Indian spices are associated with hypoglycemic property in
Ayurveda; however, no report is available towards its immunomodulation property, which has been explored here. The dried powder
of CT leaves was extracted with hexane and solvent free extract (CTH) was given orally to rats for 10 days, in various doses. Its effect
was studied on peritoneal macrophage functions, and was compared with ascorbic acid (1,000 mg/kg, immune-stimulant) and
cyclophosphamide (10 mg/kg, immune-suppressant). CTH significantly suppressed phagocytosis activity (EC(50) 2,355 +/- 52.45
mg/kg), reduced production of superoxide (EC(50) 275.91 +/- 10.21microg/ml) and cellular NADPH (EC(50) 384.959 +/- 4.85
microg/ml) content in concentration dependent manner. It also inhibited LPS induced production of nitric oxide (EC(50) 143.75 +/-

127

3.40 microg/ml) and iNOS protein expression (EC(50) 183.132 microg/ml). Thus, it could be suggested that non-polar hexane fraction
of leaves of C. tamala possesses immunosuppressive property, which ismediated through modulation of innate immunity.

Choedon T, Shukla SK, Kumar V. Chemopreventive and anti-cancer properties of the aqueous extract of flowers of Butea
monosperma. J EthnoPharmacol. 2010;129(2):208-13. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Butea monosperma
(Lam.) (Fabaceae) popularly known as 'flame of the forest' has been widely used in the traditional Indian medical system of
'Ayurveda' for the treatment of a variety of ailments including liver disorders.
AIM OF THE STUDY:
To evaluate the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and anti-cancer activities of the aqueous extract of Butea
monosperma flowers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Dried flowers of Butea monosperma were extracted with water. The extract was tested for its anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and anticarcinogenic effects in hepatoma cell lines. The chemopreventive and anti-angiogenic effects of the extract were evaluated by its daily
oral administration in a HBV-related X15-myc mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
RESULTS:
Treatment with the aqueous extract inhibited cell proliferation and accumulation of cells in G1 phase. This was accompanied by a
marked reduction in the levels of activated Erk1/2 and SAPK/JNK and induction of apoptotic cell death. Oral administration of the
extract in transgenic mice conferredhepatoprotection as is evident from normal serum ALT levels and improved liver histopathology
and lowered serum VEGF level.
CONCLUSIONS:
The ability of aqueous extract of Butea monosperma flowers to impose growth arrest and trigger pro-apoptotic death in cell culture
strongly correlated with its strong chemopreventive effect in vivo when given orally.

Choudhary D, Kale RK. Antioxidant and non-toxic properties of Piper betle leaf extract: in vitro and in vivo studies. Phytother Res.
2002;16(5):461-6. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Piper betle leaves are used in folk medicine for the treatment of various disorders and is commonly chewed among Asians. The
present study investigates the protective efficacy of P. betle leaf extract. The presence of the extract inhibited the radiation induced
lipid peroxidation process effectively. This could be attributed to its ability to scavenge free radicals involved in initiation and
propagation steps. Oral supplementation with extract (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg) was administered daily for 2 weeks to Swiss albino mice
and the hepatic antioxidant status was analysed. The GSH content was enhanced and no appreciable change was found in the levels of
oxidative damage in terms of lipid peroxidation. Also, the specific activity of SOD increased in a dose dependent manner. These
factors indicate the elevation of antioxidant status in the animals. The effect on the glyoxalase system which is considered to be
activated under stress conditions was also investigated. Our findings did not observe any significant change in gly I and gly II
activities, implying a non-stress condition after oral treatment of the extract. The present study indicates the antioxidant activity of P.
betle leaf extract and its potential to elevate the antioxidant status.

128

Cibin TR, Devi DG, Abraham A. Chemoprevention of skin cancer by the flavonoid fraction of Saraca asoka.
Phytother Res.2010;24(5):666-72. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Saraca asoka (Family - Caesalpiniaceae) has been widely used in the Ayurvedic (traditional Indian) system of medicine especially due
to its wound healing property. The present study investigated the chemopreventive property of flavonoids from the flowers of Saraca
asoka on 7,12 dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced skin cancer in mice models. A single topical application of DMBA (100
microg/50 microL of acetone) followed after 2 weeks by three times a week treatment with croton oil (1% in acetone), for 20 weeks
resulted in tumor induction. The topical application of the flavonoid fraction of S. asoka (FF S. asoka), 30 min prior to the application
of croton oil thrice weekly for 20 weeks, caused a significant reduction in the number of tumors per mouse and the percentage of
tumor-bearing mice. Also the latency period for the appearance of the first tumor was delayed by S. asoka pretreatment. In the
flavonoid fraction (5 mg and 10 mg/kg body weight) treated animals, the levels of biochemical markers - rhodanese, myeloperoxidase,
beta-D-glucuronidase, sialic acid, hexokinase and caspase 3 were significantly restored to near normal levels. These findings suggest
the chemopreventive activity of flavonoids from S. asoka on two stage skin Carcinogenesis. Histological data also support the
chemopreventive potential of S. asoka.

Cullen WJ, Dulchavsky SA, Devasagayam TP, Venkataraman BV, Dutta S. Effect of Maharishi AK-4 on H2O2-induced oxidative
stress in isolated rat hearts. J EthnoPharmacol. 1997;56(3):215-22. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Oxidative damage to crucial bioMolecules due to excess generation of reactive oxygen species has been implicated as a major cause of
organ damage and hence compounds capable of negating such damage have potential benefits. Using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a
model pro-oxidant to induce oxidative stress, we have examined the ability of natural food supplement Maharishi Amrit Kalash
(MAK-4) to decrease oxidative damage in potassium-arrested isolated rat hearts. The protocol was that hearts isolated from male
Sprague-Dawley rats were retrograde-perfused with Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) solution for 30 min for equilibration. After this period, the
hearts were subjected to cardioplegia with high potassium (26-30 mM), followed by reperfusion with K-H solution in the presence or
absence of 200 microM H2O2. As expected, H2O2 treatment following cardioplegia induced a high degree of oxidative stress as
assessed by release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, a marker of plasma membrane damage) and total glutathione (GSH + GSSG).
H2O2 also impaired the ability of heart to regain developed tension during the testing period. However, addition of MAK-4 in the
perfusate containing H2O2 decreased oxidative stress in terms of release of LDH and glutathione. In parallel with these biochemical
studies, in a few experiments the cardiac function was assessed by measuring developed contractile tension. These preliminary studies
also showed that in the presence of MAK-4 the H2O2-treated hearts were able to regain better developed tension. Further in vitro
studies to examine the possible mechanisms of MAK-4 action reveal that this formulation contains H2O2 binding activity which
resulted in the decreased availability of H2O2 itself. Our studies hence reveal that the Ayurvedic food supplement MAK-4 may have
potential benefits in reducing oxidative stress.

Das Sanjita, Sarkar PK, Sengupta A, Chattopadhyay A.A Clinical Study of Aragvadha (Cassia fistula Linn) on Vicharchica (Eczema).
The Journal of Research and Education in Indian Medicine.2008;14(2):27-32.
Abstract.
Vicharchika (eczema) is a chronic skin disease with no permanent cure in modern medicine. Raised serum IgE level is the commonest
immunological marker for eczema. Aragvadha (Cassia fistula linn) is a well known, commonly used plant in various anti-iching and
Kusthaghna anti- leprotic properties. In the present study Aragvadha fruit pulp has been evaluated for its Kusthaghna activety on the
patients of Vicharchika (eczema). The results of this study are suggestive of significant efficacy of Aragvadha on the patients of
Vicharchika (eczema).

129

Dang GK, Parekar RR, Kamat SK, Scindia AM, Rege NN. Antiinflammatory activity of Phyllanthus emblica, Plumbago zeylanica and
Cyperus rotundus in acute models of inflammation. Phytother Res. 2010.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Experimental studies conducted earlier have proved that Phyllanthus emblica (Pe), Plumbago zeylanica (Pz) and Cyperus rotundus
(Cr), plants from the medohara group of Ayurveda possess antiatherosclerotic activity. As inflammation is also one of the
pathophysiological factors, it was of interest to evaluate whether these drugs exhibit any antiinflammatory activity. Two models of
acute inflammation, namely carrageenan induced rat paw edema and acetic acid induced peritonitis in mice were used. In the model of
carrageenan induced paw edema Pe, Pz and Cr showed a trend to reduce the edema while the combination of Pe + Pz (PI: 20.64%)
showed results comparable to aspirin (23.74%). Whereas in a model of acetic acid induced peritonitis, all the plant drugs i.e. Pe, Pz,
Cr and a combination of Pe + Pz showed a significant decrease in the protein content of the peritoneal exudates compared with the
disease control group (p < 0.05), however, only Pe + Pz exhibited activity comparable to aspirin. Copyright 2010 John Wiley and
Sons, Ltd.

Datta GK, Sairam K, Priyambada S, Debnath PK, Goel RK. Antiulcerogenic activity of Satavari mandur--an Ayurvedic herbo-mineral
preparation. Indian J Exp Biol. 2002;40(10):1173-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
Abstract.
Satavari mandur (SM) is a herbo-mineral preparation containing Asparagus racemosus, which finds mention in ancient Indian texts for
treatment of gastric ulcers. The ulcer protective effect of SM, 125-500 mg/kg given orally, twice daily for three, five and seven days,
was studied on cold restraint stress-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The effective regimen was found to be 250 mg/kg given for five days
and hence was used for further experiments. SM showed significant protection against acute gastric ulcers induced by pyloric ligation
but was ineffective against aspirin- and ethanol-induced ulcers. Further, gastric juice studies showed that, SM significantly increased
the mucosal defensive factors like mucus secretion, but had little or no effect on offensive factors like acid and pepsin secretion.

D'cruz SC, Mathur PP. Effect of piperine on the epididymis of adult male rats. Asian J Androl. 2005;7(4):363-8.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
METHODS:
Adult male rats were orally administered piperine at doses of 1 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight each day for 30
consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, the rats were weighed and killed with ether and the epididymis was
dissected from the bodies. Sperm collected from the cauda region of the epididymis was used for the assessment of its count, motility
and viability. Caput, corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis were separated and homogenized separately to obtain 10 %
homogenates. The supernatants were used for the assays of sialic acid, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase,
glutathione reductase, lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide generation.
RESULTS:
Body weight of the piperine-treated rats remained unchanged. The weights of the caput, corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis
significantly decreased at dose of 100 mg/kg. Epididymal sperm count and motility decreased at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, and sperm
viability decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg. Sialic acid levels in the epididymis decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg while
significant decrease in the cauda region alone was observed at 10 mg/kg. A significant decline in the activities of superoxide

130

dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, along with an increase in hydrogen peroxide generation and
lipid peroxidation were observed at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg.
CONCLUSION:
Piperine caused a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and sialic acid levels in the epididymis and thereby increased
reactive oxygen species levels that could damage the epididymal environment and sperm function.

Deep G, Dhiman M, Rao AR, Kale RK. Chemopreventive potential of Triphala (a composite Indian drug) on benzo (a)pyrene induced
forestomach tumorigenesis in murine tumor model system. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2005;24(4):555-63.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The present work is probably the first report on cancer chemopreventive potential of Triphala, a combination of fruit powder of three
different plants namely Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis. Triphala is a popular formulation of the
Ayurvedic system of medicine. Our findings have shown that Triphala in diet has significantly reduced the benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]
induced forestomach papillomagenesis in mice. In the short term treatment groups, the tumor incidences were lowered to 77.77% by
both doses of Triphala mixed diet. In the case of long-term treatment the tumor incidences were reduced to 66.66% and 62.50%
respectively by 2.5% and 5% Triphala containing diet. Tumor burden was 7.27 +/- 1.16 in the B(a)P treated control group, whereas it
reduced to 3.00 +/- 0.82 (p < 0.005) by 2.5% dose and 2.33 +/- 1.03 (p < 0.001) by 5% dose of Triphala. In long-term studies the
tumor burden was reduced to 2.17 +/- 0.75 (p < 0.001) and 2.00 +/- 0.71 (p < 0.001) by 2.5% and 5% diet of Triphala, respectively. It
was important to observe that Triphala was more effective in reducing tumor incidences compared to its individual constituents.
Triphala also significantly increased the antioxidant status of animals which might have contributed to the chemoprevention. It was
inferred that the concomitant use of multiple agents seemed to have a high degree of chemoprevention potential.

Deokota Rajeev, Chhetri RB. Traditional medication in Bhedetar of district Sunsari(Nepal). Ethnobotany.2009;21:112-115.
Abstract.
Present study communicates the documentation of thirty-eight medicinal plants for indigenous medication by the Magar, Tamang, Rai,
and Limbu tribes of Bhedetar in Sunsari district of Nepal. These plants are used to cure different ailmates like wounds, fever, cough,
muscle pain, skin diseases, dysentery, diarrhea, jaundice and stomach pain on the advice and with the help of the local healers in dayto-day life of these ethnic groups.

Desai VR, Ramkrishnan R, Chintalwar GJ, Sainis KB. G1-4A, an immunomodulatory polysaccharide from Tinospora cordifolia,
modulates macrophage responses and protects mice against lipopolysaccharide induced endotoxic shock. Int ImmunoPharmacol.
2007;7(10):1375-86. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Pro-inflammatory cytokines are known to be the mediators of endotoxic shock and several immunomodulatory herbs can modulate the
expression of these cytokines. Therefore we have investigated the possibility of using an arabinogalactan polysaccharide, G1-4A, from
the stem of Tinospora cordifolia, for protection against endotoxin induced sepsis. There was 100% protection against
lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced mortality in mice pretreated with G1-4A. To elucidate the mechanism of action, its effect on
macrophages, the primary source of these pro-inflammatory Molecules was evaluated. G1-4A was shown to bind to the murine
macrophages leading to their activation and reciprocally inhibited binding of LPS to macrophages. Following treatment with G1-4A,
there was a small increase in serum TNF-alpha and IL-1beta levels. However, challenge with LPS elicited significantly reduced levels

131

of TNF-alpha in G1-4A pretreated mice as compared to the controls while the level of soluble TNFR was enhanced. An increase in
serum IL-1beta, IL-6, IFN-gamma levels and decrease in that of IL-10 was observed following challenge with LPS in mice pretreated
with G1-4A as compared to the controls. In addition, G1-4A also modulated the release of nitric oxide by murine macrophages.
Similar phenomenon was observed in a human monocytic cell line, U937. Thus G1-4A appeared to induce tolerance against endotoxic
shock by modulation of cytokines and nitric oxide.

Devi KP, Sreepriya M, Balakrishna K, Devaki T. Protective effect of Premna tomentosa extract (L. verbanacae) on acetaminopheninduced mitochondrial dysfunction in rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2005 ;272(1-2):171-7. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Allurement of herbs as health beneficial foods (physiologically functional foods) and as a source material for the development of new
drugs, has led to greater furtherance in the study of herbal medicines during recent years. Plant extracts are being utilized to treat a
wide variety of diseases like hepatotoxicity. Premna tomentosa is one such medicinal plant used widely in Indian Ayurvedic medicine
for the treatment of liver disorders. This study appraised the effectiveness of P. tomentosa leaf extract in protecting the liver against
mitochondrial damage induced by acetaminophen, since mitochondrial injury hasbeen investigated as a potential initiator of
hepatotoxicity. Normal Wistar strain rats were pre-treated with P. tomentosa extract (750 mg/kg, orally) for 15 days and then
intoxicated with acetaminophen (640 mg/kg, orally). Mitochondria were isolated from liver of experimental animals and assessed for
the levels of lipid peroxide products, GSH and mitochondrial enzymes (isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-keto glutarate dehydrogenase,
succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome-C-oxidase). The levels of Lipid
peroxidation products were increased and the levels of the other assessed parameters were significantly decreased in hepatotoxicity
induced animals. Whereas, the levels were brought back to normal in P. tomentosa pre-treated rats, which shows the protective effect
of the extract against mitochondrial damage. Presence of anti-oxidant compound D-limonene (58%) in P. tomentosa leaves, which is
known to enhance conjugation of toxic metabolites by maintaining liver GSH concentrations may explain the hepatoprotective
property of the extract.

Dhanasekaran M, Holcomb LA, Hitt AR, Tharakan B, Porter JW, Young KA, Manyam BV. Centella asiatica extract selectively
decreases amyloid beta levels in hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease animal model. Phytother Res. 2009;23(1):14-9.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
PSAPP mice expressing the 'Swedish' amyloid precursor protein and the M146L presenilin 1 mutations are a well-characterized model
for spontaneous amyloid beta plaque formation. Centella asiatica has a long history of use in India as a memory enhancing drug in
Ayurvedic literature. The study investigated whether Centella asiatica extract (CaE) can alter the amyloid pathology in PSAPP mice by
administering CaE (2.5 or 5.0 g/kg/day) stArting at 2 months of age prior to the onset of detectable amyloid deposition and continued
for either 2 months or 8 months. A significant decrease in amyloid beta 1-40 and 1-42 was detectable by ELISA following an 8 month
treatment with 2.5 mg/kg of CaE. A reduction in Congo Red stained fibrillar amyloid plaques was detected with the 5.0 mg/kg CaE
dose and long-term treatment regimen. It was also confirmed that CaE functions as an antioxidant in vitro, scavenging free radicals,
reducing lipid peroxidation and protecting against DNA damage. The data indicate that CaE can impact the amyloid cascade altering
amyloid beta pathology in the brains of PSAPP mice and modulating components of the oxidative stress response that has been
implicated in the neurodegenerative changes that occur with Alzheimer's disease

Dhanasekaran M, Tharakan B, Holcomb LA, Hitt AR, Young KA, Manyam BV. Neuroprotective mechanisms of Ayurvedic
antidementia botanical Bacopa monniera. Phytother Res. 2007;21(10):965-9. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.

132

Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive dementia. Bacopa monniera is described in the
Ayurvedic Materia Medica, as a therapeutically useful herb for the treatment of cognitive impairment, thus supporting its possible
anti-Alzheimer's properties. Our studies have shown that Bacopa monniera reduces beta-amyloid deposits in the brain of an
Alzheimer's disease animal model. The objective of this study was to establish the presence of endogenous substances in Bacopa
monniera extract (BmE) that will impact components of the oxidative stress cascade such as the reduction of divalent metals,
scavenging of reactive oxygen species, alterations of lipoxygenase activity and hydrogen peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation. The
extract contained polyphenols and sulfhydryl contents suggestive of endogenous antioxidant activity. The results demonstrated that
BmE reduced divalent metals, dose-dependently scavenged reactive oxygen species, decreased the formation of lipid peroxides and
inhibited lipoxygenase activity. These data combined with our previous studies that have shown that BmE treatment reduces betaamyloid levels in the brain of an Alzheimer's disease doubly transgenic mouse model of rapid amyloid deposition (PSAPP mice)
suggesting mechanisms of action relevant to thetreatment of Alzheimer's disease.

Dhanasekaran M, Tharakan B, Manyam BV. Antiparkinson drug--Mucuna pruriens shows antioxidant and metal chelating activity.
Phytother Res. 2008;22(1):6-11. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder for which no neurorestorative therapeutic treatment is currently available.
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. The ancient Indian medical system, Ayurveda,
traditionally uses Mucuna pruriens to treat Parkinson's disease. In our earlier studies, Mucuna pruriens has been shown to possess
antiparkinson and neuroprotective effects in animal models of Parkinson's disease. The antioxidant activity of Mucuna pruriens was
demonstrated by its ability to scavenge DPPH radicals, ABTS radicals and reactive oxygen species. Mucuna pruriens significantly
inhibited the oxidation of lipids and deoxyribose sugar. Mucuna pruriens exhibited divalent iron chelating activity and did not show
any genotoxic/mutagenic effect on the plasmid DNA. These results suggest that the neuroprotective and neurorestorative effect of
Mucuna pruriens may be related to its antioxidant activity independent of the symptomatic effect. In addition, the drug appears to be
therapeutically safe in the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease

Dhuley JN. Nootropic-like effect of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L.) in mice. Phytother Res. 2001;15(6):524-8. Retraction in:
Williamson EM. Phytother Res. 2008;22(10):1416. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L.) root extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg; orally) improved retention of a passive avoidance task in
a step-down paradigm in mice. Ashwagandha (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg; orally) also reversed the scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg)-induced
disruption of acquisition and retention and attenuated the amnesia produced by acute treatment with electroconvulsive shock (ECS),
immediately after training. Chronic treatment with ECS, for 6 successive days at 24 h intervals, disrupted memory consolidation on
day 7. Daily administration of ashwagandha for 6 days significantly improved memory consolidation in mice receiving chronic ECS
treatment. Ashwagandha, administered on day 7, also attenuated the disruption of memory consolidation produced by chronic
treatment with ECS. On the elevated plus-maze, ashwagandha reversed the scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg)-induced delay in transfer latency
on day 1. On the basis of these findings, it is suggested that ashwagandha exhibits a nootropic-like effect in naive and amnesic mice.

Dhuley JN. Adaptogenic and cardioprotective action of ashwagandha in rats and frogs. J EthnoPharmacol. 2000;70(1):57-63.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Pharmacological and metabolic effects of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L. (Solanaceae)) used in Ayurveda as a herbal tonic and
health food were studied. Ashwagandha was shown to increase swimming time in rats in physical working capacity test, i.e. rats

133

swimming endurance test. Significant increase in relative heart weight and glycogen content in myocardium and liver was also
observed in ashwagandha treated group. Ashwagandha treatment increased the duration of contractility in functional test for the
resistance of frog heart muscle towards the toxic action of strophanthin-K. Ashwaaandha treatment also resulted in significant increase
in coagulation time which attains normalcy 7 days after cessation of treatment. Ashwagandha possesses no toxicity up to a dose of
(100 mg/kg; p.o. for 180 days) and does not cause significant changes in biochemical parameters in the blood serum of rats. Increase
in catecholamine content in the heart and aortic tissues and their decrease in adrenal glands are unfavourable effects of high doses of
ashwagandha. On the basis of these observations, it was concluded that ashwagandha possesses adaptogenic, cardiotropic,
cardioprotective and anticoagulant properties.

Dhuley JN. Hepatoprotective effect of rhinax on antitubercular drug-induced hepato-toxicity in rats. Hindustan Antibiot Bull.
2002;44(1-4):53-9.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Rhinax, a polyherbal formulation, exhibited hepatoprotective function when tested against antitubercular drug-induced hepatotoxicity
in rats. Suppression of GSH and antioxidant enzymes "superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR),
gultathionle peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were noticed in the liver of antitubercular chemotherapeutic agents
(namely isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide) treated animals accompanied with an increase in cytochrome P-450 contents and
increased production of lipid peroxidation. Rhinax afforded hepatoprotection by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and, as a result, the
animals showed improved antioxidant status.

Ding X, Staudinger JL. The ratio of constitutive androstane receptor to pregnane X receptor determines the activity of guggulsterone
against the Cyp2b10 promoter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther.2005;314(1):120-7.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Guggulsterone is the active ingredient in gugulipid, an organic extract of the Commiphora mukul plant. Gugulipid has been used for
nearly 3000 years in Ayurvedic medicine, mainly as a treatment for arthritis. Herbal practitioners currently use gugulipid therapy in
conditions as diverse as rheumatism, coronary artery disease, arthritis, hyperlipidemia, acne, and obesity. The active ingredient in
gugulipid is guggulsterone, a plant sterol compound recently identified as a pregnane X receptor (PXR; NR1I2) ligand. We show
herein that guggulsterone treatment represses the expression of cytochrome P450 2b10 (Cyp2b10) gene expression by inhibiting
constitutive androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3) activity in hepatocytes lacking functional PXR (PXR-knockout). We also show that
PXR-CAR cross-talk determines the net activity of guggulsterone treatment toward Cyp2b10 gene expression. Using mammalian twohybrid assays, we show that treatment with guggulsterone differentially affects protein cofactor recruitment to these two nuclear
receptors. These data identify guggulsterone as an inverse agonist of the nuclear receptor CAR. When viewed together with the data
showing that PXR and CAR expression is highly variable in different ethnic populations and that CAR expression is under the control
of a circadian rhythm, our data provide important insight into the molecular mechanism of interindividual variability of drug
Metabolism. These data, together with the recent resolution of the crystal structures of PXR and CAR, will likely aid in the rational
design of more specific CAR inverse agonists that are currently viewed as potential antiobesity drugs.

Ding X, Staudinger JL. Induction of drug Metabolism by forskolin: the role of the pregnane X receptor and the protein kinase a signal
transduction pathway. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005;312(2):849-56. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
An extract of the plant Coleus forskohlii has been used for centuries in Ayurvedic medicine to treat various diseases such as
hypothyroidism, heart disease, and respiratory disorders. Additionally, complex herbal mixtures containing this extract are gaining
popularity in United States for their putative "fat-burning" properties. The active ingredient in C. forskohlii extract is the diterpene

134

compound forskolin. Forskolin is a widely used biochemical tool that activates adenyl cyclase, thereby increasing intracellular
concentration of cAMP and thus actiVating the protein kinase A (PKA) signal transduction pathway. We show herein that both
forskolin and its nonadenyl cyclase-actiVating analog 1,9 dideoxyforskolin induce CYP3A gene expression in primary hepatocytes by
functioning as agonists of the pregnane X receptor (PXR). We show that activation of PKA signaling potentiates PXR-mediated
induction of CYP3A gene expression in cultured hepatocytes and increases the strength of PXR-coactivator protein-protein interaction
in cell-based assays. Kinase assays show that PXR can serve as a substrate for catalytically active PKA in vitro. Our data provide
important insights into the molecular mechanism of both the PKA-dependent and -independent effects of forskolin on the expression
of drug-metabolizing enzymes in liver. Finally, our data suggest that herbal therapy with C. forskohlii extract should be approached
cautiously due to the potential for herb-drug interactions in patients on combination therapy.

Diwanay S, Chitre D, Patwardhan B. Immunoprotection by botanical drugs in cancer chemotherapy. J EthnoPharmacol. 2004 ;
90(1):49-55. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Most of the synthetic chemotherapeutic agents available today are immunosuppressants, cytotoxic, and exert variety of side effects
that are Particularly evident in cancer chemotherapy. Botanical based immunomodulators are often employed as supportive or
adjuvant therapy to overcome the undesired effects of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents and to restore normal health. Total extract,
polar and non-polar extracts, and their formulations, prepared from medicinal plants mentioned in Ayurveda, namely, Withania
somnifera (Linn Dunal) (Solanaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Miers) (Menispermaceae), and Asparagus racemosus (Willd.)
(Liliaceae),exhibited various immunoPharmacological activities in cyclophosphamide (CP)-treated mouse ascitic sarcoma. Treatment
of ascitic sarcoma-bearing mice with a formulation of total extracts of Withania somnifera and Tinospora cordifolia (80:20) and
alkaloid-free polar fraction of Withania somnifera resulted in protection towards CP-induced myelo- and immunoprotection as evident
by significant increase in white cell counts and hemagglutinating and hemolytic antibody titers. Treatment with these candidate drugs
will be important in development of supportive treatment with cancer chemotherapy.

Dugasani S, Pichika MR, Nadarajah VD, Balijepalli MK, Tandra S, Korlakunta JN. Comparative antioxidant and anti-inflammatory
effects of [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol. J EthnoPharmacol. 2010;127(2):515-20.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:
Zingiber officinale Rosc. (Zingiberaceae) has been traditionally used in Ayurvedic, Chinese and Tibb-Unani herbal medicines for the
treatment of various illnesses that involve inflammation and which are caused by oxidative stress. Although gingerols and shogaols are
the major bioactive compounds present in Zingiber officinale, their molecular mechanisms of actions and the relationship between
their structural features and the activity have not been well studied.
AIM OF THE STUDY:
The aim of the present study was to examine and compare the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of gingerols and their
natural analogues to determine their structure-activity relationship and molecular mechanisms.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The in vitro activities of the compounds [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol were evaluated for scavenging of
1,1-diphenyl-2-picyrlhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, inhibition of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), inhibition of
lipopolysaccharide induced nitrite and prostaglandin E(2) production in RAW 264.7 cells.

135

RESULTS:
In the antioxidant activity assay, [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol exhibited substantial scavenging activities
with IC(50) values of 26.3, 19.47, 10.47 and 8.05 microM against DPPH radical, IC(50) values of 4.05, 2.5, 1.68 and 0.85 microM
against superoxide radical and IC(50) values of 4.62, 1.97, 1.35 and 0.72 microM against hydroxyl radical, respectively. The free
radical scavenging activity of these compounds also enhanced with increasing concentration (P<0.05). On the other hand, all the
compounds at a concentration of 6 microM have significantly inhibited (P<0.05) f-MLP-stimulated oxidative burst in PMN. In
addition, production of inflammatory mediators (NO and PGE(2)) has been inhibited significantly (P<0.05) and dose-dependently.
CONCLUSIONS: 6-Shogaol has exhibited the most potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties which can be attributed to the
presence of alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone moiety. The carbon chain length has also played a significant role in making 10-gingerol as
the most potent among all the gingerols. This study justifies the use of dry ginger in traditional systems of medicine.

Dwivedi C, Agrawal P, Natarajan K, Sharma H. Antioxidant and protective effects of Amrit Nectar tablets on adriamycin- and
cisplatin-induced toxicities. J Altern Complement Med. 2005;11(1):143-8. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
OBJECTIVES:
Maharishi herbal food supplements have been shown to inhibit the growth of mammary tumors and reduce free radical-mediated
injuries. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the effects of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Amrit Nectar tablets on rat
liver microsomal lipid peroxidation and compare to other antioxidants. The protective effects of dietary Amrit Nectar tablets (MA-7;
containing 38 herbs) on cisplatin-induced changes in glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity in rat liver and
kidney, and Adriamycin (Pharmacia S.p.A, Milan, Italy)-induced mortalities in mice were also investigated.
RESULTS:
Both aqueous and alcoholic extracts of MA-7 were more potent than other antioxidants tested under our experimental conditions.
Adriamycin (15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) caused 60% mortality during the period of 4 weeks in CDF1 mice. Dietary MA-7 (0.7%)
treatment decreased the mortality to 20%. Dietary MA-7 (0.7%) supplementation with cisplatin treatment reversed the effects of
cisplatin on liver and kidney GSH and GST activity. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that MA-7 is a powerful antioxidant.
MA-7 supplementation with Adriamycin and cisplatin treatment may protect against their toxicities.

Farag NH, Mills PJ. A randomised-controlled trial of the effects of a traditional herbal supplement on sleep onset insomnia.
Complement Ther Med. 2003;11(4):223-5. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
OBJECTIVES:
To study the effectiveness and safety of a traditional herbal supplement used for sleep onset insomnia.
DESIGN:
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study.
SETTING:
A total of 25 healthy volunteers (20-65 years of age) suffering from sleep onset insomnia were recruited from the general population.
INTERVENTION:

136

A traditional Ayurvedic supplement formulated to reduce sleep onset insomnia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Sleep latency.
RESULTS:
The supplement led to a statistically significant decrease in reported sleep latency of 16.72 min (S.D.=44.8) as compared to placebo
(P=0.003). There were no self-reported side effects.
CONCLUSIONS:
The findings suggest that traditional herbal supplements may be of significant benefit to patients suffering from sleep onset insomnia
while avoiding the negative side effects of commonly prescribed hypnotics.

Flammang AM, Erexson GL, Mecchi MS, Murli H. Genotoxicity testing of a Salacia oblonga extract. Food Chem Toxicol.
2006;44(11):1868-74.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Salacia oblonga has been used for thousands of years in Ayurvedic medicine for the oral treatment of diabetes. The root extract has
been shown to inhibit the activity of intestinal alpha-glucosidases, therefore S. oblonga holds potential as a natural method to mitigate
the blood glucose response for people with diabetes. As part of a safety evaluation of novel ingredients for use in blood glucose
control, the potential genotoxicity of a S. oblonga root extract (SOE) was evaluated using the standard battery of tests (reverse
mutation assay; chromosomal aberrations assay; mouse micronucleus assay) recommended by US Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) for food ingredients. SOE was determined not to be genotoxic under the conditions of the reverse mutation assay and mouse
micronucleus assay, and weakly positive for the chromosomal aberrations assay. A reproducible, although weak, positive
chromosomal aberrations response in human lymphocytes is of concern and further toxicity research is recommended. Use of SOE is
presently expected to be safe, as anticipated intake is small compared to the doses administered in the genotoxicity assays and may,
after further toxicity research, may prove be a useful ingredient in foodstuffs.

Funk JL, Frye JB, Oyarzo JN, Timmermann BN. Comparative effects of two gingerol-containing Zingiber officinale extracts on
experimental rheumatoid arthritis. J Nat Prod. 2009;72(3):403-7. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) supplements are being promoted for arthritis treatment in western societies on the basis of ginger's
traditional use as an anti-inflammatory in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine. However, scientific evidence of ginger's antiarthritic
effects is sparse, and its bioactive joint-protective components have not been identified. Therefore, the ability of a well-characterized
crude ginger extract to inhibit joint swelling in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis, streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis, was
compared to that of a fraction containing only gingerols and their deriVatives. Both extracts were efficacious in preventing joint
inflammation. However, the crude dichloromethane extract, which also contained essential oils and more polar compounds, was more
efficacious (when normalized to gingerol content) in preventing both joint inflammation and destruction. In conclusion, these data
document a very significant joint-protective effect of these ginger samples and suggest that nongingerol components are bioactive and
can enhance the antiarthritic effects of the more widely studied gingerols.

Funk JL, Oyarzo JN, Frye JB, Chen G, Lantz RC, Jolad SD, Slyom AM, Timmermann BN. Turmeric extracts containing
curcuminoids prevent experimental rheumatoid arthritis. J Nat Prod. 2006;69(3):351-5. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.

137

Turmeric has been used for centuries in Ayurvedic medicine as a treatment for inflammatory disorders including arthritis. On the basis
of this traditional usage, dietary supplements containing turmeric rhizome and turmeric extracts are also being used in the western
world for arthritis treatment and prevention. However, to our knowledge, no data are available regarding antiarthritic efficacy of
complex turmeric extracts similar in composition to those available for use as dietary supplements. Therefore, the studies described
here were undertaken to determine the in vivo efficacy of well-characterized curcuminoid-containing turmeric extracts in the
prevention or treatment of arthritis using streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis, a well-described animal model of
rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Arthritic index, a clinical measure of joint swelling, was used as the primary endpoint for assessing the
effect of extracts on joint inflammation. An essential oil-depleted turmeric fraction containing 41% of the three major curcuminoids
was efficacious in preventing joint inflammation when treatment was started before, but not after, the onset of joint inflammation. A
commercial sample containing 94% of the three major curcuminoids was more potent in preventing arthritis than the essential oildepleted turmeric fraction when compared by total curcuminoid dose per body weight. In conclusion, these data (1) document the in
vivo antiarthritic efficacy of an essential oil-depleted turmeric fraction and (2) suggest that the three major curcuminoids are
responsible for this antiarthritic effect, while the remaining compounds in the crude turmeric extract may inhibit this protective effect.

Galal KM, Khaled Z, Mourad AM. Role of cetuximab and sorafenib in treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer.
Indian J Cancer.2011;48:47-54.Http://www.indianjcancer.com/.
Abstract.
Background: The relationship of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) pathway, such as PI3K, K-ras, and B-raf, with response to
EGFR-targeted antibodies is less well studied. Aim: To assess sorafenib with cetuximab in treating metastatic colorectal cancer.
Settings and Design: Thirty-five patients with metastatic colorectal cancer were randomized to receive cetuximab with or without oral
sorafenib. Patients and Methods: Patients received cetuximab IV weekly for four weeks and oral sorafenib twice daily on days 1 - 28,
with recycling every four weeks. The primary end point was the response rate (pArtial and complete), while the secondary end points
were the adverse effects, time to progression and overall survival. Statistical Analysis was made using the Statistical Product and
Service Solutions, using SPSS 10.0, with estimation of both time to progression and overall survival time by the Kaplan-Meier method
and comparing the two groups with the use of a log-rank test. Results: PArtial response was higher in cetuximab-sorafenib (EN),
which constituted 33.3% compared to 17.6% in the cetuximab group (P = 0.44). Progression-free survival had a statistically higher
significant difference in wild K-ras compared to mutant K-ras cases (P = .0001). Median overall survival was seven and five months in
the (EN) and (E) groups respectively (P = 0.49). Conclusion: K-ras and B-raf was a predictor of response, so genotyping of tumors
was needed for defining the patient population that was likely to benefit from the targeted therapy. A combination of therapy that
simultaneously targets K-ras and B-raf could be a useful approach to increase the number of patients who may benefit from antiEGFR therapy.

Ganguly T, Badheka LP, Sainis KB. Immunomodulatory effect of Tylophora indica on Con A induced lymphoproliferation.
Phytomedicine. 2001;8(6):431-7. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Our preliminary studies with tylophora alkaloids had shown that they inhibit cellular immune responses like contact sensitivity to
dinitro-flurobenzene and delayed hypersensitivity to sheep red blood cells, in vivo. Investigations were hence carried out to determine
the cellular targets of tylophora alkaloids in in vitro systems. Con A induced proliferation of splenocytes was used as a model system
to study the effect of the alkaloids on cellular immune responses. The alkaloid mixture was found to inhibit proliferation of
splenocytes at higher concentrations and augment the same at lower concentrations. Both macrophages and T cells were found to be
vulnerable to tylophora alkaloids. The alkaloid mixture suppressed IL-2 production in Con A stimulated splenocytes at the inhibitory
or higher concentrations and enhanced production at the lower concentrations. IL-1 production by activated macrophages on the
contrary was doubled in the presence of inhibitory concentrations of tylophora. These studies indicate that tylophora alkaloids have a
concentration dependent biphasic effect on Con A induced mitogenesis. At lower concentrations they augment Con A induced

138

lymphoproliferation by enhancing IL-2 production. Inhibition of proliferation at higher concentrations of the alkaloid is due to
inhibition of IL-2 production and activation of macrophages, which have a cytostatic effect.

Goel A, Kunnumakkara AB, Aggarwal BB. Curcumin as "Curecumin": from kitchen to clinic. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008;75(4):787809.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Although turmeric (Curcuma longa; an Indian spice) has been described in Ayurveda, as a treatment for inflammatory diseases and is
referred by different names in different cultures, the active principle called curcumin or diferuloylmethane, a yellow pigment present
in turmeric (curry powder) has been shown to exhibit numerous activities. Extensive research over the last half century has revealed
several important functions of curcumin. It binds to a variety of proteins and inhibits the activity of various kinases. By modulating the
activation of various transcription factors, curcumin regulates the expression of inflammatory enzymes, cytokines, adhesion
Molecules, and cell survival proteins. Curcumin also downregulates cyclin D1, cyclin E and MDM2; and upregulates p21, p27, and
p53. Various preclinical cell culture and animal studies suggest that curcumin has potential as an antiproliferative, anti-invasive, and
antiangiogenic agent; as a mediator of chemoresistance and radioresistance; as a chemopreventive agent; and as a therapeutic agent in
wound healing, diabetes, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, and arthritis. Pilot phase I
clinical trials have shown curcumin to be safe even when consumed at a daily dose of 12g for 3 months. Other clinical trials suggest a
potential therapeutic role for curcumin in diseases such as familial adenomatous polyposis, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative
colitis, colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, hypercholesteremia, atherosclerosis, pancreatitis, Psoriasis, chronic anterior uveitis and
arthritis. Thus, curcumin, a spice once relegated to the kitchen shelf, has moved into the clinic and may prove to be "Curecumin".

Goel RK, Prabha T, Kumar MM, Dorababu M, Prakash, Singh G. Teratogenicity of Asparagus racemosus Willd. root, a herbal
medicine. Indian J Exp Biol. 2006;44(7):570-3.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Asparagus racemosus (AR) is a herb used as a Rasayana in Ayurveda and is considered both general and female reproductive tonic.
Methanolic extract of A. racemosus roots (ARM; 100 mg/kg/day for 60 days) showed teratological disorders in terms of increased
resorption of fetuses, gross malformations e.g. swelling in legs and intrauterine growth retardation with a small placental size in
Charles Foster rats. Pups born to mother exposed to ARM for full duration of gestation showed evidence of higher rate of resorption
and therefore smaller litter size. The live pup showed significant decrease in body weight and length and delay of various
developmental parameters when compared to respective control groups. AR therefore, should be used in pregnancy cautiously as its
exposure during that period may cause damage to the offspring.

Gopi S, Setty OH. Beneficial effect of the administration of Hemidesmus indicus against bromobenzene induced oxidative stress in rat
liver mitochondria. J EthnoPharmacol. 2010;127(1):200-3.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
AIM OF THE STUDY:
To study the beneficial effect of the prior administration of an aqueous extract of Hemidesmus indicus against bromobenzene induced
oxidative damage in rat liver mitochondria.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Oxidative stress was induced in rats with bromobenzene (10 mmol/kg body wt.). The rate of respiration, P/O ratios, lipid peroxides,
protein carbonyls and sulphydryls were studied.

139

RESULTS:
When the rats were administered with bromobenzene, the rate of respiration was decreased significantly and the P/O ratio was
completely abolished. There was a significant increase on the levels of lipid peroxide and protein carbonyl and a significant decrease
on total sulphydryl groups when compared with control. Administration of rats with an aqueous extract (100mg/kg) prior to
bromobenzene administration showed significant beneficial effects like, stimulation in respiration, prevented the rise in lipid peroxides
and protein carbonyls, increased the level of sulphydryl groups back to control level. Administration of vitamin E could not reverse as
effectively as Hemidesmus indicus.
CONCLUSIONS:
This study demonstrates a good protective effect of Hemidesmus indicus against the bromobenzene induced oxidative stress.

Govindarajan R, Vijayakumar M, Rao ChV, Pushpangadan P, Asare-Anane Persaud S, Jones P, Houghton PJ. Antidiabetic activity of
Croton klozchianus in rats and direct stimulation of insulin secretion in-vitro. J Pharm Pharmacol.2008;60(3):3716.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Croton klozchianus is a relatively uninvestigated species with no Pharmacological or phytochemical reports available, although it has
been used clinically by Ayurvedic physicians to treat diabetes. We have investigated this use by studying the insulin secretion and
antidiabetic activity of C. klozchianus. Treatment of diabetic rats with aerial parts of C. klozchianus extract (CK, 100 and 300 mg kg(1) body weight) for three weeks showed significant reduction in blood glucose (45.8% after 14 days for 300 mg kg(-1)). C.
klozchianus extract caused a significant concentration-dependent increase in insulin secretion (8-fold at 2 mg mL(-1) for cells
challenged with 20 mM glucose) from MIN6 cells grown as monolayers and as pseudoislets, indicating that the antidiabetic activity
may have been as a result of increased insulin secretion. It also had a role on the lipid profile of the rats by causing reduction in
cholesterol and triglycerides and increasing high density lipoprotein significantly. The results obtained gave some scientific support to
the traditional use of the plant as a treatment for diabetes.

Gupta A, Mishra A K, Bansal P, Kumar S, Sannd R, Gupta V, Goyal B M, Singh A K, Kumar A, Antilaprotic Potential of
Ethnomedicinal Herbs: A Review. Drug Invention Today. 2010;2(3):191-193
http://ditonline.info/Article/view/2121/1189
Abstract.
The World Health Organization estimates that about 80% of the population of most developing countries relies on herbal medicines
for their primary health care needs. Presently there are many medicinal herbs under investigation for their potential health protection.
Among the products under investigation are commonly consumed products like vegetables, fruits and condiments expected to protect
health and possess disease inhibiting properties like leprosy which caused by Mycobacterium leprae. This review therefore attempts to
bridge the existing literature and modern research and offers immense scope for researchers engaged in validation of the traditional
claims and development of safe, effective and globally accepted herbal drugs for treatment of leprosy.

Gupta R, Singhal S, Goyle A, Sharma VN. Antioxidant and hypocholesterolaemic effects of Terminalia Arjuna tree-bark powder: a
randomised placebo-controlled trial. J Assoc Physicians India. 2001;49:231-5.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
OBJECTIVE:

140

To evaluate the antioxidant and hypocholesterolaemic effects of Terminalia Arjuna tree bark (a popular cardiotonic substance in Indian
pharmacopoeia) and to compare it with a known antioxidant, vitamin E, we performed a randomized controlled trial.
METHODS:
One hundred and five successive patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) presenting to our centre were recruited and using a Latinsquare design divided into 3 groups of 35 each. The groups were matched for age, lifestyle and dietary variables, clinical diagnosis
and drug treatment status. None of the patients was on lipid-lowering drugs. Supplemental vitamins were stopped for one month
before study began and American Heart Association Step II dietary advice was given to all. At baseline, total cholesterol, triglycerides,
HDL and LDL cholesterol and lipid peroxide estimated as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were determined. Group I
received placebo capsules; Group II vitamin E capsules 400 units/day; and Group III received finely pulverized T. Arjuna tree barkpowder (500 mg) in capsules daily. Lipids and lipid peroxide levels were determined at 30 days follow-up.
RESULTS:
Response rate in various groups varied from 86% to 91%. No significant changes in total, HDL, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides
levels were seen in Groups I and II (paired t-test p > 0.05). In Group III there was a significant decrease in total cholesterol (-9.7 +/12.7%), and LDL cholesterol (-15.8 +/- 25.6%) (paired t-test p < 0.01). Lipid peroxide levels decreased significantly in both the
treatment groups (p < 0.01). This decrease was more in vitamin E group (-36.4 +/- 17.7%) as compared to the T. Arjuna group (-29.3
+/- 18.9%).CONCLUSIONS: Terminalia Arjuna tree bark powder has significant antioxidant action that is comparable to vitamin E.
In addition, it also has a significant hypocholesterolaemic effect.

Gupta SK, Dua A, Vohra BP. Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) attenuates antioxidant defense in aged spinal cord and inhibits
copper induced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidative modifications. Drug Metabol Drug Interact. 2003;19(3):21122.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Withania somnifera is classified in Ayurveda, the ancient Indian system of medicine, as a Rasayana, a group of plant-derived drugs
which promote physical and mental health, augment resistance of the body against disease and diverse adverse environmental factors,
revitalize the body in debilitated conditions and increase longevity. We investigated the effects of Withania somnifera on copperinduced lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in aging spinal cord of Wistar rats. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx)
decreased significantly in the spinal cord from adult to aged mice. Treatment with Withania somnifera successfully attenuated GPx
activity and inhibited lipid peroxidation in a dose dependent manner. Withania somnifera inhibited both the lipid peroxidation and
protein oxidative modification induced by copper. These effects were similar to those of superoxide dismutase and mannitol. The
results indicate the therapeutic potential of Withania somnifera in aging and copper-induced pathophysiological conditions.

Gupta V, Bansal P, Kumar S, Sannd R, Rao M M. Therapeutic efficacy of Phytochemicals as Anti-Anxiety-A Review. Journal of
Pharmacy Research. 2010;3(1):174-179
Abstract.
Anxiety disorders are a serious form of psychopathology, which can have a debilitating effect on children and adolescents. These
disorders are often associated with social problems at home and in school, somatic distress, depression, low self-esteem, and substance
abuse. Moreover, children with anxiety are likely to have similar disorders into adulthood, along with other adjustment problems.
There are too much antianxiety drugs in market which induce sleep or produce over sedation but phytochemicals have the potential to
cure the aliments without any adverse effect. In this paper authors have discussed the potentials of important anti-anxiety plants.

141

Hewawasam RP, Jayatilaka KA, Pathirana C, Mudduwa LK. Hepatoprotectiveeffect of Epaltes divaricata extract on carbon
tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Indian J Med Res. 2004;120(1):30-4. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
BACKGROUND and OBJECTIVES:
Epaltes divaricata is widely used in Sri Lanka as an Ayurvedic medicine. In the present study the hepatoprotective and antioxidative
effects of an aqueous extract of E. divaricata plant (Family-Compositae) were investigated against carbon tetrachloride induced
hepatocellular injury in mice.METHODS: Healthy male mice (30-35 g body weight, 6-8 wk old) were used. A single dose of carbon
tetrachloride (CCl4, 0.5 ml/kg in olive oil) was administered ip to induce hepatotoxicity and the plant extract at a dose of 0.9 g/kg was
administered orally by gavage. Animals were sacrificed 24 h and 4 days after the administration of CCl4. Blood and liver tissue were
collected for the assessment of serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline
phosphatase (ALP) and liver reduced glutathione level. The liver tissue was used for histopathological assessment of liver
damage.RESULTS: Pre-treatment of mice with the plant extract of Epaltes (0.9 g/kg) orally for 7 days significantly reduced serum
levels of ALT (P<0.01), AST (P<0.01) and ALP (P<0.001) enzymes by 21.40, 47.36 and 71.12 per cent respectively and significantly
increased (P<0.001) the liver reduced glutathione level by 42.32 per cent, 24 h after the administration of carbon tetrachloride. A
marked improvement in the enzyme activities and the liver reduced glutathione level was observed in the Epaltes pre-treated mice 4
days after the administration of carbon tetrachloride. Histopathological studies provided supportive evidence for the biochemical
analysis.
INTERPRETATION and CONCLUSION:
The results of the present study indicated that under the present experimental conditions, aqueous extract of Epaltes divaricata showed
hepatoprotective abilities against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in mice.

Hosamani R, Muralidhara. Neuroprotective efficacy of Bacopa monnieri against rotenone induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity
in Drosophila melanogaster.Neurotoxicology. 2009;30(6):977-85.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Bacopa monnieri, Linn. (Brahmi, BM), traditionally used to improve mental health in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine is known
to possess various neuroPharmacolgical properties. In the recent past, Drosophila has been widely used as a model to study various
neurodegenerative diseases. Environmental toxins like rotenone, a specific inhibitor of complex I is employed to increase oxidative
stress mediated neuropathology and sporadic Parkinson's disease. In this study, we examined the neuroprotective properties of BM
against rotenone induced oxidative damage and neurotoxicity. Flies (Oregon K strain, adult males) exposed to a standardized BM
powder for 7 days in the diet exhibited significant diminution in the levels of endogenous oxidative markers viz.malondialdehyde,
hydroperoxide and protein carbonyl content. Further, BM offered complete protection against rotenone (500 microM) induced
oxidative stress and markedly inhibited dopamine depletion (head region, 33%; body region, 44%) in flies. Flies exposed to
rotenone+BM exhibited a lower incidence of mortality (40-66% protection) and performed better in a negative geotaxis assay (4565%) both suggesting the neuroprotective potential of BM. Interestingly, BM also conferred significant resistance (43-54% protection)
in a paraquat oxidative stress bioassay. The neuroprotective effects of BM were highly comparable to those of a commercially
available Brahmi preparation. Although the precise mechanism/s underlying the neuroprotective efficacy of BM are not clear, it is
hypothesized that it is wholly or in part related to its ability to mitigate rotenone induced oxidative stress. Further, our approach
confirms the utility of the Drosophila model in screening putative neuroprotective Phytomedicines prior to their use in mammalian
models.

Huang TH, Peng G, Li GQ, YaMahara J, Roufogalis BD, Li Y. Salacia oblonga root improves postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic
steatosis in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: activation of PPAR-alpha. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006;210(3):22535.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

142

Abstract.
Salacia oblonga (SO) root is an Ayurvedic medicine with anti-diabetic and anti-obese properties. Peroxisome proliferator-activated
receptor (PPAR)-alpha, a nuclear receptor, plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of lipid Metabolism. Here, we
demonstrate that chronic oral administration of the water extract from the root of SO to Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, a genetic
model of type 2 diabetes and obesity, lowered plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol (TC) levels, increased plasma high-density
lipoprotein levels and reduced the liver contents of triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and the ratio of fatty droplets to total
tissue. By contrast, the extract had no effect on plasma triglyceride and TC levels in fasted ZDF rats. After olive oil administration to
ZDF the extract also inhibited the increase in plasma triglyceride levels. These results suggest that SO extract improves postprandial
hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in ZDF rats. Additionally, SO treatment enhanced hepatic expression of PPAR-alpha mRNA and
protein, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and acyl-CoA oxidase mRNAs in ZDF rats. In vitro, SO extract and its main component
mangiferin activated PPAR-alpha luciferase activity in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and lipoprotein lipase mRNA expression
and enzyme activity in THP-1 differentiated macrophages; these effects were completely suppressed by a selective PPAR-alpha
antagonist MK-886. The findings from both in vivo and in vitro suggest that SO extract functions as a PPAR-alpha activator,
providing a potential mechanism for improvement of postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in diabetes and obesity.

Huang TH, Yang Q, Harada M, Uberai J, Radford J, Li GQ, YaMahara J,Roufogalis BD, Li Y. Salacia oblonga root improves cardiac
lipid Metabolism in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: modulation of cardiac PPAR-alpha-mediated transcription of fatty acid metabolic genes.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006;210(1-2):78-85.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Excess cardiac triglyceride accumulation in diabetes and obesity induces lipotoxicity, which predisposes the myocytes to death. On the
other hand, increased cardiac fatty acid (FA) oxidation plays a role in the development of myocardial dysfunction in diabetes. PPARalpha plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis of lipid Metabolism. We have previously demonstrated that the extract from
Salacia oblonga root (SOE), an Ayurvedic anti-diabetic and anti-obesity medicine, improves hyperlipidemia in Zucker diabetic fatty
(ZDF) rats (a genetic model of type 2 diabetes and obesity) and possesses PPAR-alpha actiVating properties. Here we demonstrate that
chronic oral administration of SOE reduces cardiac triglyceride and FA contents and decreases the Oil red O-stained area in the
myocardium of ZDF rats, which parallels the effects on plasma triglyceride and FA levels. Furthermore, the treatment suppressed
cardiac overexpression of both FA transporter protein-1 mRNA and protein in ZDF rats, suggesting inhibition of increased cardiac FA
uptake as the basis for decreased cardiac FA levels. Additionally, the treatment also inhibited overexpression in ZDF rat heart of
PPAR-alpha mRNA and protein and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, acyl-CoA oxidase and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase mRNAs
and restored the downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA. These results suggest that SOE inhibits cardiac FA oxidation in ZDF
rats. Thus, our findings suggest that improvement by SOE of excess cardiac lipid accumulation and increased cardiac FA oxidation in
diabetes and obesity occurs by reduction of cardiac FA uptake, thereby modulating cardiac PPAR-alpha-mediated FA metabolic gene
transcription.

Ichikawa H, Nakamura Y, Kashiwada Y, Aggarwal BB. Anticancer drugs designed by mother nature: ancient drugs but modern
targets. Curr Pharm Des.2007;13(33):3400-16. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Nuclear factor-kappaBeta (NF-kappaBeta) is a transcription factor that is activated in response to various inflammatory stimuli such as
cytokines, growth factors, hormones, mitogens, carcinogens, chemotherapeutic agents, viral products, eukaryotic parasites, endotoxin,
fatty acids, metals, radiation, hypoxia, and psychological, physical, oxidative, and chemical stresses. In addition, constitutively active
NF-kappaBeta is frequently encountered in a wide variety of tumors. Furthermore, NF-kappaBeta activation has been shown to
regulate the expression of over 400 genes involved in cellular transformation, proliferation, inflammation, viral replication,
antiapoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis, oxidative stress, and osteoclastogenesis. Therefore, because of the critical role
NF-kappaBeta plays in the pathogenesis of cancer, specific inhibitors of this factor are being sought. Agents that prevent cancer or

143

inflammation have been found to suppress NF-kappaBeta activation. Numerous reports indicate that ancient plants and their
components are potent as NF-kappaB inibitors. However, ancient medicine such as traditional Chinese medicine, Kampo, Ayurveda
requires rediscovery in light of our current knowledge of allopathic (modern) medicine for the therapeutic and preventive purpose. In
this review, we present evidence that numerous agents identified from fruits and vegetables can interfere with NF-kappaBeta pathway.
The structure of drugs and their relationship with NF-kappaBeta inhibitory activity is discussed.

Itthipanichpong R, Lupreechaset A, Chotewuttakorn S, Akarasereenont P, Onkoksoong T, Palo T, Kongpatanakul S,


Chatsiricharoenkul S, Thitilertdecha P, Punpeng P, Laohapand T. Effect of Ayurved Siriraj herbal recipe Chantaleela on platelet
aggregation.J Med Assoc Thai.2010;93(1):115-22.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
INTRODUCTION:
Ayurved Siriraj Chantaleela recipe is a traditional Thai remedy consisting of eight medicinal plants, which is employed for the
treatment of fever.
OBJECTIVE:
To investigate the effects of Ayurved Siriraj Herbal recipe Chantaleela on platelet aggregation.STUDY DESIGN: Clinical research; ex
vivo with before and after study design.
MATERIAL AND METHOD:
Twelve healthy male and female volunteers participated in the present study. Platelet aggregation test before Chantaleela ingestion was
done as a control. After administration of 750 mg Chantaleela (3 x 250 mg tablets) every 8 hours for 3 doses, platelet aggregation was
measured 8 hours following the first dose using an aggregometer and microplate reader. Adrenaline (Adr) and adenosine diphosphate
(ADP) were used as platelet stimulants. Platelet aggregation was measured again at 32 hours and 8-10 days after the first dose.
RESULTS:
All of the pArticipants completed the present study without any adverse event. Ayurved Siriraj Chantaleela did not affect platelet
aggregation; neither Adr nor ADP were used as platelet agonists in both aggregometer and microplate reader Subgroup analysis
revealed no significant change in platelet aggregation after Chantaleela administration according to the control for both male and
female groups. The same results were also obtained in other subgroup analysis including hyperaggregation group, hypo-normal
aggregation group.
CONCLUSION:
From the present study, normal dose of Chantaleela for alleviation of fever does not have an effect on either platelet aggregation or
platelet numbers. It may conclude that the present study supports the safety use of Chantaleela for relieving fever as platelet status
does not need to be taken into consideration.

J Munasinghe TC, Seneviratne CK, Thabrew MI, Abeysekera AM. Antiradical and antilipoperoxidative effects of some plant extracts
used by Sri Lankan traditional medical practitioners for cardioprotection. Phytother Res. 2001;15(6):519-23.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in many pathogenic processes including the cardiovascular system. Detoxification of
ROS by antioxidants (AO) therefore affords protection against such diseases. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that

144

antioxidants contribute to cardioprotection. Therefore, nine plants that are components of Ayurvedic formulations used for the therapy
of cardiovascular diseases were investigated to determine whether antioxidant activity is one of the mechanisms by which these plants
exert cardioprotection. Initially aqueous freeze dried extracts of the plants were prepared and the antioxidant activity was measured (a)
in vitro, by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and deoxyribose damage protection assays, and (b) in vivo, by
effects on lipid peroxidation. Terminalia Arjuna showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity with EC(50) 8.3 +/- 0.3
microg/mL (similar to L-ascorbic acid). The potency of this activity was much lower in Cassia fistula (EC(50) = 59.0 +/- 2.7
microg/mL). The other seven extracts demonstrated no such activity in the concentration range tested. In the deoxyribose damage
protection assay, T. Arjuna> demonstrated no significant effect in the concentration range 0-20 microg/mL, but above -20 microg/mL
concentration (20-125 microg/mL), a pro-oxidant activity was observed (although markedly less than demonstrated by L-ascorbic
acid). A similar trend was observed with Vitex negundo. In contrast, C. fistula afforded a 30% protection against such damage at 125
microg/mL concentration. Other plant extracts did not show any activity in this assay. At a dose of 90 mg/kg (single dose) T. Arjuna,
cardiac lipid peroxidation in male Wistar rats was reduced by 38.8% +/- 2.6% (p<0.05) whereas the reduction was only 11.6% +/3.5% in the case of C. fistula even at a dose of 120 mg/kg. Of all the plants tested, T. Arjuna demonstrated the highest antioxidant
activity. Overall results show that only some plants used in the therapy of cardiovascular disease exert their beneficial effects via
antioxidant activity.

Jadon A, Bhadauria M, Shukla S. Protective effect of Terminalia belerica Roxb. and gallic acid against carbon tetrachloride induced
damage in albino rats.J EthnoPharmacol. 2007;109(2):214-8.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Terminalia belerica Roxb. is one of the oldest medicinal herb of India, is an ingredient of Indian Ayurvedic drug 'Triphala' used for the
treatment of digestion and liver disorders. Present study is aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Terminalia belerica fruit extract
and its active principle, gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) at different doses against carbon tetrachloride intoxication. Toxicant
caused significant increase in the activities of serum transaminases and serum alkaline phosphatase. Hepatic lipid peroxidation level
increased significantly whereas significant depletion was observed in reduced glutathione level after carbon tetrachloride
administration. A minimum elevation was found in protein content on the contrary a significant fall was observed in glycogen content
of liver and kidney after toxicant exposure. Activities of adenosine triphosphatase and succinic dehydrogenase inhibited significantly
in both the organs after toxicity. Treatment with TB extract (200, 400 and 800mg/kg, p.o.) and gallic acid (50, 100 and 200mg/kg, p.o.)
showed dose-dependent recovery in all these biochemical parameters but the effect was more pronounced with gallic acid. Thus it may
be concluded that 200mg/kg dose of gallic acid was found to be most effective against carbon tetrachloride induced liver and kidney
damage.

Jagtap AG, Shirke SS, Phadke AS. Effect of polyherbal formulation on experimental models of inflammatory bowel diseases. J
EthnoPharmacol. 2004 ;90(2-3):195-204. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
A polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation from an ancient authentic classical text of Ayurveda was evaluated for its activity against
inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The polyherbal formulation contained four different drugs viz.Bilwa (Aegle marmeloes), Dhanyak
(Coriandrum sativum), Musta (Cyperus rotundus) and Vala (Vetiveria zinzanioids). The formulation has been tried before in clinical
practice and was found to be useful in certain number of cases of IBD (ulcerative colitis), so was tried in the same form i.e.decoction
(aqueous extract) in experimental animals to revalidate the claims of the same. The formulation was tried on two different
experimental animal models of inflammatory bowel disease, which are acetic acid-induced colitis in mice and indomethacin-induced
enterocolitis in rats. Prednisolone was used as the standard drug for comparison. The formulation showed significant inhibitory
activity against inflammatory bowel disease induced in these experimental animal models. The activity was comparable with the
standard drug prednisolone. The results obtained established the efficacy of this polyherbal formulation against inflammatory bowel
diseases.

145

Jahangir T, Khan TH, PRasad L, Sultana S. Pluchea lanceolata attenuates cadmium chloride induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity
in Swiss albino mice. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005;57(9):1199-1204. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Cadmium intoxication induces lipid peroxidation and causes oxidative damage to various tissues by altering antioxidant defence
system enzymes. At 24 h after treatment with a single intraperitoneal dose of cadmium chloride (5 mg kg-1), Swiss albino mice
showed a significant increase in the levels of malanodialdehyde and xanthine oxidase (P<0.001), and a concomitant depletion of renal
glutathione, catalase (P<0.001) and other antioxidant enzymes. CdCl2 also led to a simultaneous increase in micronuclei formation
(P<0.001) and chromosomal aberrations (P<0.05) in mouse bone marrow cells. Oral pre-treatment with Pluchea lanceolata extract at
doses of 100 and 200 mg kg-1 for 7 consecutive days before CdCl2 intoxication caused a significant reduction in malanodialdehyde
formation and xanthine oxidase activity (P<0.001). A significant restoration of the activity of antioxidant defence system enzymes
such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase (P<0.05), glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase (P<0.001) was observed. A
significant dose-dependent decrease in chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei formation was also observed (P<0.05). The results
indicate that pre-treatment with P. lanceolata attenuates cadmium chloride induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity by altering
antioxidant enzymes and reducing chromatid breaks and micronuclei formation.

Jeyanthi T, Subramanian P. Protective effect of Withania somnifera root powder on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in
gentamicin-induced nephrotoxic rats. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;21(1):61-78. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
We investigated the protective effect of Withania somnifera root powder (used in Ayurvedic medicine in India) on gentamicin (GEN)
induced nephrotoxicity in male Wistar rats. The root powder was administered orally to rats for 14 days before GEN treatment and
thereafter with GEN for 8 days. Nephrotoxicity was manifested in GEN-treated rats as significant increases in urea, creatinine, uric
acid, non protein nitrogen, urinary protein, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides,
followed by a significant reduction in glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and reduced glutathione in liver and
kidney tissues, histopathologically confirmed by tubular necrosis. W. somnifera treatment altered the antioxidant status and
significantly reversed the levels as seen microscopically. The results show that the root powder of W. somnifera with the presence of
natural antioxidants, bioflavanoids, and other bioactive compounds scavenged the free radicals generated by GEN and ameliorated the
severity of GEN-induced nephrotoxicity by enhancing the antioxidant system and protecting the cellular integrity of kidney and liver
tissues.

Joy J, Nair CK. Amelioration of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in Swiss albino mice by Rubia cordifolia extract. J Cancer Res Ther.
2008;4(3):111-5. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
BACKGROUND:
Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutics against a wide range of cancers including head, neck, ovarian and lung
cancers. But its usefulness is limited by its toxicity to normal tissues, including cells of the kidney proximal tubule. The purpose of the
present study is to investigate whether the hydro-alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia could decrease the intensity of toxicity in Swiss
albino mice.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:

146

Cisplatin at a dose of 12 mg/kg body wt was administered intraperitoneally to Swiss albino mice. Another set of animals was given
hydro-alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia at different doses along with cisplatin treatment. The antioxidant levels, serum creatinine,
serum urea etc. were analyzed. Results: The extract could significantly decrease the cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity as inferred from
the tissue antioxidant status in the drug administered animals. Remarkable change was observed in serum creatinine and urea levels.
Lipid peroxidation in the kidney and liver tissues was also considerably reduced in Rubia cordifolia extract treated animals.
CONCLUSION:
Hydro-alcoholic extracts of Rubia cordifolia are effective in reducing the renal damage caused by the cancer chemotherapeutic drug
cisplatin. Since Rubia cordifolia has been in use as an important ingredient in the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine, it could be
safe and beneficial to use this herbal extract as an adjuvant to ameliorate renal damage in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy
with cisplatin.

Jurenka JS. Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcuma longa: a review of preclinical and clinical
research. Altern Med Rev.2009;14(2):141-53.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Curcuma longa (turmeric) has a long history of use in Ayurvedic medicine as a treatment for inflammatory conditions. Turmeric
constituents include the three curcuminoids: curcumin (diferuloylmethane; the primary constituent and the one responsible for its
vibrant yellow color), demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, as well as volatile oils (tumerone, atlantone, and
Zingiberone), sugars, proteins, and resins. While numerous Pharmacological activities, including antioxidant and antimicrobial
properties, have been attributed to curcumin, this Article focuses on curcumin's anti-inflammatory properties and its use for
inflammatory conditions. Curcumin's effect on cancer (from an anti-inflammatory perspective) will also be discussed; however, an
exhaustive review of its many anticancer mechanisms is outside the scope of this Article. Research has shown curcumin to be a highly
pleiotropic molecule capable of interacting with numerous molecular targets involved in inflammation. Based on early cell culture and
animal research, clinical trials indicate curcumin may have potential as a therapeutic agent in diseases such as inflammatory bowel
disease, pancreatitis, arthritis, and chronic anterior uveitis, as well as certain types of cancer. Because of curcumin's rapid plasma
clearance and conjugation, its therapeutic usefulness has been somewhat limited, leading researchers to investigate the benefits of
complexing curcumin with other substances to increase systemic bioavailability. Numerous in-progress clinical trials should provide
an even deeper understanding of the mechanisms and therapeutic potential of curcumin.

Jyoti A, Sethi P, Sharma D. Bacopa monniera prevents from aluminium neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex of rat brain. J
EthnoPharmacol. 2007;111(1):56-62.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Bacopa monniera is a perennial herb, and is used as a nerve tonic in yurVeda, a traditional medicinal system in India. Aluminiuminduced neurotoxicity is well known and different salts of aluminium have been reported to accelerate oxidative damage to
bioMolecules like lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether Bacopa monniera
could potentially inhibit aluminium toxicity in the cerebral cortex. Male Wister rats (8 months old) were administered with AlCl(3)
orally at a dose of 50mg/kg/day in drinking water for 1 month. Experimental rats were given AlCl(3) along with Bacopa monniera
extract at a dose of 40 mg/kg/day. One group of rats was treated with l-deprenyl at a dose of 1mg/kg/day along with AlCl(3) treatment.
We have observed that Bacopa monniera prevented accumulation of lipid and protein damage significantly, which resulted from
aluminium intake. Decline in the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes associated with aluminium administration was also
inhibited by Bacopa monniera extract. The potential of Bacopa monniera to inhibit Al-induced oxidative stress was observed to be
similar to that of l-deprenyl, which was taken as standard. The potential of Bacopa monniera extract to prevent aluminium
neurotoxicity was reflected at the microscopic level as well, indicative of its neuroprotective effects. These findings strongly implicate
that Bacopa monniera has potential to protect brain from oxidative damage resulting from aluminium toxicity.

147

Kaimal S, Sujatha KS, George S. Hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effects of fruits of Musa AAA (Chenkadali) in alloxan induced
diabetic rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010;48(2):165-73. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effects of ethanol extract of mature green fruits of Musa AAA (Chenkadali) was evaluated in alloxan
induced diabetic rats. The effect of extract at two doses, 500 mg/kg body weight and 1000 mg/kg body weight was analysed and
compared with a standard drug, glibenclamide. Rats administered with alloxan showed significantly increased levels of serum
triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and alanine amino transferase (ALT) activity. Lipid peroxides increased significantly while reduced
glutathione (GSH) decreased considerably in liver and pancreas. Oral administration of the ethanol extract of fruits of Musa AAA
(Chenkadali) significantly decreased the levels of serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol and ALT activity. Significant decrease was also
observed in the level of lipid peroxides while GSH content increased substantially in liver and pancreas. The effect was dose
independent and rats treated with 500 mg/kg body weight showed comparable levels of serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, ALT
activity and liver lipid peroxides to that of normal control and glibenclamide treated groups. Although, there was no significant
difference, treatment with 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract showed a higher content of GSH and lower level of lipid peroxides in
pancreas compared with glibenclamide. Histopathological examination of pancreas and liver revealed regeneration of islet cells and
hepatocytes respectively, which correlate with the biochemical findings. The present study shows that ethanol extract of mature green
fruits of Musa AAA (Chenkadali) has antioxidant and hypolipidaemic properties and may be used for treating diabetes mellitus.

Kaiser P, Youssouf MS, Tasduq SA, Singh S, Sharma SC, Singh GD, Gupta VK, Gupta BD, Johri RK. Anti-allergic effects of herbal
product from Allium cepa (bulb). J Med Food. 2009;12(2):374-82. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Allium cepa (Family Liliaceae) is a reputed Indian medicinal herb that is prescribed as an effective remedy for several ailments in the
Ayurvedic system of medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate its efficacy against various events responsible for Type I allergic
reactions. A herbal fraction (ALC-02) from A. cepa (bulb) inhibited histamine release and attenuated intracellular calcium levels in
Compound 48/80-induced rat peritoneal mast cells. It also prevented Compound 48/80-mediated systemic anaphylaxis while lowering
histamine levels in plasma. ALC-02 suppressed carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. It inhibited eosinophil peroxidase activity and
protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of ovalbumin-challenged mice. In this experiment ALC-02 also caused a
substantial reduction in lipid peroxidation in BALF/lung tissue and augmented superoxide dismutase activity in lung tissue. ALC-02
suppressed erythrocytic lysis caused by Triton X-100. A significant quenching of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical by ALC-02
was observed. The results have shown a promising anti-allergic profile of ALC-02 that could be attributed to its potential
antihistaminic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities.

Kar A, Choudhary BK, Bandyopadhyay NG. Comparative evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants in
alloxan diabetic rats.J EthnoPharmacol. 2003;84(1):105-8.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
In our experiments 30 hypoglycaemic medicinal plants (known and less known) have been selected for thorough studies from
indigenous folk medicines, Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha systems of medicines. In all the experiments with different herbal samples
(vacuum dried 95% ethanolic extracts), definite blood glucose lowering effect within 2 weeks have been confirmed in alloxan diabetic
albino rats. Blood glucose values are brought down close to normal fasting level using herbal samples at a dose of 250 mg/kg once,
twice or thrice daily, as needed. While evaluating comparative hypoglycaemic activity of the experimental herbal samples, significant
blood glucose lowering activities are observed in decreasing order in the following 24 samples-Coccinia indica, Tragia involucrata, G.
sylvestre, Pterocarpus marsupium, T. foenum-graecum, Moringa oleifera, Eugenia jambolana, Tinospora cordifolia, Swertia chirayita,
Momordica charantia, Ficus glomerata, Ficus benghalensis, Vinca rosea, Premna integrifolia, Mucuna prurita, Terminalia bellirica,

148

Sesbenia aegyptiaca, Azadirachta indica, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, Zingiber officinale, Aegle marmelos, Cinnamomum tamala,
Trichosanthes cucumerina and Ocimum sanctum. Present studies besides confirming hypoglycaemic activities of the experimental
herbal samples, help identify more potent indigenous hypoglycaemic herbs (in crude ethanolic extract) from the comparative study of
the reported experimental results.

Katzenschlager R, Evans A, Manson A, Patsalos PN, Ratnaraj N, Watt H, Timmermann L, Van der Giessen R, Lees AJ. Mucuna
pruriens in Parkinson's disease: a double blind clinical and Pharmacological study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75(12):16727. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
BACKGROUND:
The seed powder of the leguminous plant, Mucuna pruriens has long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for diseases
including parkinsonism. We have assessed the clinical effects and levodopa (L-dopa) pharmacokinetics following two different doses
of mucuna preparation and compared them with standard L-dopa/carbidopa (LD/CD).
METHODS:
Eight Parkinson's disease patients with a short duration L-dopa response and on period dyskinesias completed a randomised,
controlled, double blind crossover trial. Patients were challenged with single doses of 200/50 mg LD/CD, and 15 and 30 g of mucuna
preparation in randomised order at weekly intervals. L-dopa pharmacokinetics were determined, and Unified Parkinson's Disease
Rating Scale and tapping speed were obtained at baseline and repeatedly during the 4 h following drug ingestion. Dyskinesias were
assessed using modified AIMS and Goetz scales.
RESULTS:
Compared with standard LD/CD, the 30 g mucuna preparation led to a considerably faster onset of effect (34.6 v 68.5 min; p = 0.021),
reflected in shorter latencies to peak L-dopa plasma concentrations. Mean on time was 21.9% (37 min) longer with 30 g mucuna than
with LD/CD (p = 0.021); peak L-dopa plasma concentrations were 110% higher and the area under the plasma concentration v time
curve (area under curve) was 165.3% larger (p = 0.012). No significant differences in dyskinesias or tolerability occurred.
CONCLUSIONS:
The rapid onset of action and longer on time without concomitant increase in dyskinesias on mucuna seed powder formulation suggest
that this natural source of L-dopa might possess advantages over conventional L-dopa preparations in the long term management of
PD. Assessment of long term efficacy and tolerability in a randomised, controlled study is warranted.

Kaur K, Rani G, Widodo N, Nagpal A, Taira K, Kaul SC, Wadhwa R. Evaluation of the anti-proliferative and anti-oxidative activities
of leaf extract from in vivo and in vitro raised Ashwagandha. Food Chem Toxicol. 2004;42(12):201520.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) is used in Indian traditional medicine, Ayurveda and is believed to have a variety of health
promoting effects. Molecular mechanisms and pathways underlying these effects have not been studied. We tried to characterize
various activities of leaf extract of Ashwagandha (Lash) raised in the field and in the laboratory. We found that the Lash from fieldraised plants has a significant anti-proliferative activity in human tumorigenic cells. However, it did not impart any protection against
the oxidative damage caused by high glucose and hydrogen peroxide to human tumor cells suggesting that it can be used as an antitumor, but not as an anti-oxidant, substance.

149

Kaur P, Sharma M, Mathur S, Tiwari M, Divekar HM, Kumar R, Srivastava KK, Chandra R. Effect of 1-oxo-5beta, 6beta-epoxywitha-2-ene-27-ethoxy-olide isolated from the roots of Withania somnifera on stress indices in Wistar rats. J Altern Complement Med.
2003;9(6):897-907. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
OBJECTIVE:
Isolation of biologically active fractions and compounds from the roots of Withania somnifera, a plant used extensively as a
constituent of Rasayana, in Ayurveda and to test their adaptogenic activity on stress indices using the cold-hypoxia-restraint (C-H-R)
model. DESIGN: Bioactivity-guided fractionation of an aqueous extract of the roots of Withania somnifera led to the isolation of a
new species of withanolide 1-oxo-5beta, 6beta-epoxy-witha-2-ene-27-ethoxy-olide. Structure elucidation, was carried out using proton
nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared (IR), ultraviolet (UV), and mass spectroscopic analysis. Stress-related indices were evaluated,
namely serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activity, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, serum corticosterone levels, and
serum lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in a serum CPK, LDH, and LPO levels in animals
pretreated with (1) fraction-I (20 mg/kg body weight), (2) 1-oxo-5beta, 6beta-epoxy-witha-2-ene-27-ethoxy-olide (2.5 mg/kg body
weight) in comparison to control when subjected to C-H-R stress.CONCLUSIONS: The results show that the a new species of
withanolide, 1-oxo-5beta, 6beta-epoxy-witha-2-ene-27-ethoxy-olide (compound-1) could prove to be an effective agent to counteract
C-H-R stress.

Kesari AN, Gupta RK, Singh SK, Diwakar S, Watal G. Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of Aegle marmelos seed extract
in normal and diabetic rats. J EthnoPharmacol. 2006;107(3):374-9.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Aegle marmelos Corr. (Rutaceae) is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aqueous
extract of Aegle marmelos seeds was administered orally at different doses (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg) to normal as well as sub (fasting
blood glucose (FBG) normal; glucose tolerance abnormal) and mild (FBG 120-250 mg/dl) diabetic rats. The dose of 250 mg/kg was
found to be most effective dose and it decreases blood glucose level (BGL) by 35.1% in normal healthy rats after 6h of administration.
The same dose also showed a marked reduction in BGL of 41.2% in sub and 33.2% in mild diabetic rats in glucose tolerance test
(GTT) after 2 h. Treatment of severely (FBG >250 mg/dl) diabetic rats for 14 days with a dose of 250 mg/kg reduces the fasting blood
glucose by 60.84% and urine sugar by 75% than their pretreatment levels. It brought about fall in level of total cholesterol (TC) by
25.49% with increase of 33.43% in high density lipoprotein (HDL) and decrease of 53.97 and 45.77% in low density lipoprotein
(LDL) and triglyceride (TG), respectively. These results clearly indicate that aqueous seed extract of Aegle marmelos possess
antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects in diabetic rats.

Kirana H, Srinivasan BP. Effect of Cyclea peltata Lam. roots aqueous extract on glucose levels, lipid profile, insulin, TNF-alpha and
skeletal muscle glycogen in type 2 diabetic rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010;48(5):499-502. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
In view of multi-dimensional activity of plant drugs beneficial to complex disorders like diabetes, the present study has been
undertaken to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of C. peltata roots on serum glucose, lipid profile, insulin, inflammatory marker
namely tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and muscle glycogen in type 2 diabetic rats. Aqueous extract of C. peltata at 40 and 60
mg/kg dose significantly decreased both the fasting and postprandial blood glucose of type 2 diabetic rats; 60 mg/kg dose having more
pronounced effect on hyperglycemia. An enhanced insulin levels by the aqueous extract is primary for its glucose and lipid lowering
activity. The extract significantly decreased the elevated TNF-alpha in type 2 diabetic rats. The extract at 40 and 60 mg/kg dose

150

increased the glycogen levels in skeletal muscle by 58 and 60% respectively. Improved glycogen in peripheral tissue such as skeletal
muscle indicates the ability of plant drug to combat insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes.

Kollipara S, Bende G, Saha RN. Rapid and sensitive liquid chromatographic method for determination of Paclitaxel from parenteral
formulation and nanopArticles. Indian J Pharm Sci.2010Jul;72(4):465-70. Http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed//
Abstract.
A simple and fast reversed phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for estimation of paclitaxel in commercially available
parenteral formulation and nanopArticles. Separations were carried out using mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 20 mM
potassium dihydrogen phosphate (45:55, v/v) on Lichrocart() C(18) analytical column at a flow rate of 1 ml/min and detection
wavelength of 230 nm. The developed method exhibited linearity over an analytical range of 50-2000 ng/ml with regression equation,
mean peak area= 137.58 concentration (ng/ml)+1765.94, (R(2) =0.9999). The method demonstrated selectivity with no interfering
peaks eluting near the vicinity of drug peak. The method was found to be sensitive with detection and quantification limits of 7.57
ng/ml and 22.94 ng/ml. The method has shown consistent and good recoveries from parenteral formulation (100.060.86%) and
nanopArticles (100.430.91%). The method was successfully employed for the analysis of in vitro release study samples of
nanopArticle formulation. The method was also applied for determination of paclitaxel content in various pharmaceutical
formulations.

Komala M, Basha N Saleem, Sundaram R Meenskshi, Srinivasan M. Anthelmintic Activity of the Root Extracts of Cocos Nucifera.
Indian Journal of Natural Products.2010;26(2):20-21.
Abstract.
Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the roots of Cocos Nucifera were evaluated for anthelminitic activity on adult Indian earth worms
Pheretima posthuma, using albendazole as reference standard. The result indicated that ethanolic extract was more potent than the
aqueous extract.

Kotagale NR, Patel CJ, Parkhe AP, Khandelwal HM, Taksande JB, Umekar MJ. Carbopol 934-Sodium Alginate-Gelatin
Mucoadhesive Ondansetron Tablets for Buccal Delivery: Effect of pH Modifiers. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2010;72(4):471-9.Http://
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed//
Abstract.
The present work aims at developing mucoahesive tablets of ondansetron hydrochloride using bioadhesive polymers like carbopol934, sodium alginate and gelatin. Tablets prepared by direct compression using different polymer with varying ratio were evaluated for
hardness, friability, uniformity of weight, disintegration time, microenvironmental pH, bioadhesion and in vitro release. Hardness,
friability disintegration time and drug release were found within pharmacopoeial limit. Microenvironmental pH decreased whereas
bioadhesive strength, water uptake, and in vitro release increased with increase in carbopol-934. Increasing sodium alginate and
gelatin increased the microenviromental pH and decreased bioadhesive strength, water uptake and in vitro release. With a view to
investigate the modulation of drug release from formulation by addition of pH modifiers viz. citric acid and sodium bicarbonate, the
tablets with carbopol-934 (2.0), sodium alginate (0.5) and gelatin (6.5) were used and the effect of pH modifiers on
microenvironmental pH, bioadhesion, water uptake, in vitro permeation and in vitro release was studied. Microenvironmental pH,
bioadhesive strength, water uptake, in vitro release and permeation decreased with increasing concentration of citric acid whereas
microenvironmental pH, water uptake and release were enhanced and bioadhesive strength was lowered with increase in sodium
bicarbonate. Present study demonstrates carbopol-934, sodium alginate, gelatin polymer system with added pH modifier can be
successfully formulated for buccal delivery of ondansetron with desired release profile.

151

Krishnaraju AV, Sundararaju D, Sengupta K, Venkateswarlu S, Trimurtulu G. Safety and toxicological evaluation of
demethylatedcurcuminoids; a novel standardized curcumin product. Toxicol Mech Methods.2009;19(6-7):447-60.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Turmeric is a well recognized and highly recommended herb in Ayurvedic systems of medicine and it has also been used for culinary
purposes for thousands of years. Bis-O-demethylatedcurcumin (BDMC) was found to be more efficacious than curcumin and the
increased potentcy was attributed to a higher number of phenolic groups in BDMC. A novel demethylatedcurcuminoid composition
(DC)
comprising
minimum
95%
of
total
demethylatedcurcuminoids(67.8%bisdemethylcurcumin,20.7%demethylmonodemethoxycurcumin,5.86%
bisdemethoxycurcumin,
2.58% demethylcurcumin) was prepared (PCT/IN05/00337, dated October 13, 2005) stArting from Curcuma longa extract containing
95% total curcuminoids (C95). DC exhibited superior neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory efficacy compared to C95 in a GeneChip
study. Based on these interesting findings, this study sought to determine the broad-spectrum safety of DC. Acute oral, acute dermal,
primary skin and eye irritation, and dose-dependent 90 day sub-chronic toxicity studies were conducted. The acute oral LD50 of DC
was found to be > 5000 mg/kg in female SD rats. No changes in body weight or adverse effects were observed following necropsy.
Acute dermal LD50 of DC was found to be > 2000 mg/kg. Based on the data from primary skin irritation test conducted on New
Zealand Albino rabbits, DC was classified as minimally irritating. Similarly, primary eye irritation test was conducted with DC on
rabbits and based on the test outcome DC was classified as mildly irritating to the eye. A dose-dependent 90-day sub-chronic toxicity
study demonstrated no significant changes in selected organ weights and as percentages of body and brain weights. DC
supplementation did not cause changes in hepatic DNA fragmentation. Hematology, clinical chemistry, and histopathological
evaluations did not show any adverse effects in any of the organs tested. These results demonstrate the broad spectrum safety of DC.

Kronenberg F, Fugh-Berman A. Complementary and alternative medicine for menopausal symptoms: a review of randomized,
controlled trials. Ann Intern Med.2002;137(10):805-13.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
BACKGROUND:
Women commonly use soy products, herbs, and other complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies for menopausal
symptoms. Randomized, controlled trials have evaluated the efficacy and short-term safety of these therapies.
PURPOSE: To review randomized, controlled trials of CAM therapies for menopausal symptoms in order to better inform practice and
guide future research.DATA SOURCES: Searches of MEDLINE for Articles published from January 1966 through March 2002, of the
Alternative and Complementary Database (AMED) of the British Library for Articles published from January 1985 through December
2000, and of the authors' own extensive files. Search terms were hot flash/flush, menopause, and climacteric, combined with
phytoestrogens, alternative medicine, herbal medicine, traditional medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM ), Ayurveda,
naturopathy, chiropractic, osteopathy, massage, yoga, relaxation therapy, homeopathy, aromatherapy, and therapeutic touch.STUDY
SELECTION: 29 randomized, controlled clinical trials of CAM therapies for hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms were
identified; of these, 12 dealt with soy or soy extracts, 10 with herbs, and 7 with other CAM therapies.DATA EXTRACTION: Each
author extracted information from half of the studies on the number of patients, study design, outcome measures, and results; the other
author then checked these results.DATA SYNTHESIS: Soy seems to have modest benefit for hot flashes, but studies are not
conclusive. Isoflavone preparations seem to be less effective than soy foods. Black cohosh may be effective for menopausal
symptoms, especially hot flashes, but the lack of adequate long-term safety data (mainly on estrogenic stimulation of the breast or
endometrium) precludes recommending long-term use. Single clinical trials have found that dong quai, evening primrose oil, a
Chinese herb mixture, vitamin E, and acupuncture do not affect hot flashes; two trials have shown that red clover has no benefit for
treating hot flashes.

152

CONCLUSIONS:
Black cohosh and foods that contain phytoestrogens show promise for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Clinical trials do not
support the use of other herbs or CAM therapies. Long-term safety data on individual isoflavones or isoflavone concentrates are not
available.

Kulkarni SK, Dhir A. Withania somnifera: an Indian ginseng. Prog NeuropsychoPharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008;32(5):1093105.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Withania somnifera, popularly known as Ashwagandha is widely considered as the Indian ginseng. In Ayurveda, it is classified as a
Rasayana (rejuvenation) and expected to promote physical and mental health, rejuvenate the body in debilitated conditions and
increase longevity. Having wide range of activity, it is used to treat almost all disorders that affect the human health. The present
review discusses the Pharmacological basis of the use of W. somnifera in various central nervous system (CNS) disorders, Particularly
its indication in epilepsy, stress and neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disorders, tardive dyskinesia,
cerebral ischemia, and even in the management of drug addiction.

Kumar MC, Udupa AL, Sammodavardhana K, Rathnakar UP, Shvetha U, Kodancha GP. Acute toxicity and diuretic studies of the
roots of Asparagus racemosus Willd in rats. West Indian Med J. 2010;59(1):3-6.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
OBJECTIVE:
Asparagus racemosus Willd has been used as diuretic in Ayurveda but has not been validated by a suitable experimental model. Hence
the present study was undertaken.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The study was carried out with an aqueous extract of the roots of Asparagus racemosus utilizing three doses viz 800 mg/kg, 1600
mg/kg and 3200 mg/kg for its diuretic activity in comparison with standard drug (furosemide) and control (normal saline) rats after
doing acute toxicity study.
RESULTS:
Acute toxicity study showed no fatality even with the highest dose and the diuretic study revealed significant diuretic activity (p <
0.05) in the dose of 3200 mg/kg.
CONCLUSION:
Asparagus racemosus showed diuretic activity at a 3200 mg/kg dose without acute toxicity.

Kumar RS, Gupta M, Mazumdar UK, Rajeshwar Y, Kumar TS, Gomathi P, Roy R.Effects of methanol extracts of Caesalpinia
bonducella and Bauhinia racemosa on hematology and hepatorenal function in mice. J Toxicol Sci. 2005;30(4):265-74.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.

153

The aim of the present investigation deals with the hematology and hepatorenal function of Caesalpinia bonducella Flem. and
Bauhinia racemosa Lam. belonging to the Family: Caesalpiniaceae, and used in the traditional system of medicine. The tribal people
of Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India, use the leaves of Caesalpinia bonducella and the stem bark of Bauhinia racemosa in combination
with some other herbs for the treatment of various tumors, liver disorders, inflammation and some other diseases. In ancient Ayurveda
medicine these plants were mentioned to possess antitumor agents. Since there are no scientific reports regarding the toxicological
aspects of these plants, the present investigation deals with the sub-chronic toxicity studies of a methanol extract of Caesalpinia
bonducella (MECB) leaves and Bauhinia racemosa (MEBR) stem bark in Swiss albino mice. The MECB and MEBR were
administered intraperitoneally (i.p) to Swiss albino mice twice a week for thirteen weeks. No significant alterations in hematological,
biochemical and histopathological parameters were observed in the MECB- and MEBR-treated groups at the doses of 100 and 200
mg/kg body weight. Administration of MECB and MEBR at the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight elevated the levels of serum enzymes
and altered the hematological parameters. Our results suggested that MECB and MEBR at doses 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight did
not induce any toxic effects in the mice. Adverse effect was noted at the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight.

Kumar S, Bansal P, Gupta V, Sannd R, Rao M. M. The Clinical Effect of Albizia lebbeck Stem Bark Decoction on Bronchial Asthma.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research.2010;2(1):44-46
http://www.ijpsdr.com/volumetwo-issue1.html
Abstract.
Bronchial asthma is a disorder characterized by increased response of trachea and bronchioles to various stimuli resulting in wide
spread narrowing of airways. It is an inflammatory disease of respiratory organs combined with inflammatory cell infiltration,
epithelial damage and sub-epithelial fibrosis as its internal pathological picture. Its symptoms closely resemble with symptoms of
Tamak Shwasa in Ayurveda. The present study was conducted on 81 patients at I.P.D. and O.P.D. level. Patients were given Albizia
lebbeck stem bark decoction (Shireesh Twak Kwatha) in a dose of 50 ml thrice daily for 6 weeks, supported by light diet. The results
were assessed in terms of clinical recovery, symptomatic relief and pulmonary function improvement. The effect of the treatment was
assessed based on subjective and objective parameters. A significant increase in PEFR and considerable decrease in total leukocyte
count, eosinophil count and E.S.R. were observed. From the study conducted, it was found that 56 % (28) cases has shown good
response, 38 % (19) cases shown fair response, 6 % (03) cases shown poor response and 31 cases were dropouts. The results
demonstrate that the formulation can be used as an effective drug in Bronchial asthma however detailed obserVational studies are
required to demonstrate the effect of drug at molecular level.

Kumar S, Seal CJ, Howes MJ, Kite GC, Okello EJ. In vitro protective effects of Withania somnifera (L.) dunal root extract against
hydrogen peroxide and -amyloid(1-42)-induced cytotoxicity in differentiated PC12 cells. Phytother Res.2010;24(10):1567-74.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Withania somnifera L. Dunal (Solanaceae), also known as 'ashwagandha' in Sanskrit and as 'Indian ginseng', is used widely in
Ayurvedic medicine as a nerve tonic and memory enhancer, with antiaging, antistress, immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties.
There is a paucity of data on the potential neuroprotective effects of W. somnifera root, as traditionally used, against H(2)O(2)- and
A((1-42))-induced cytotoxicity which are current targets for novel approaches to treat dementia, especially dementia of the
Alzheimer's type (AD). In this study, an aqueous extract prepared from the dried roots of W. somnifera was assessed for potential
protective effects against H(2)O(2)- and A((1-42))-aggregated fibril cytotoxicity by an MTT assay using a differentiated rat
pheochromocytoma PC12 cell line. The results suggest that pretreatments of differentiated PC12 cells with aqueous extracts of W.
somnifera root significantly protect differentiated PC12 cells against both H(2)O(2)- and A((1-42))-induced cytotoxicity, in a
concentration dependent manner. To investigate the compounds that could explain the observed effects, the W. somnifera extract was
analysed by liquid chromatography-serial mass spectrometry and numerous withanolide deriVatives, including withaferin A, were
detected. These results demonstrate the neuroprotective properties of an aqueous extract of W. somnifera root and may provide some

154

explanation for the putative ethnoPharmacological uses of W. somnifera for cognitive and other neurodegenerative disorders that are
associated with oxidative stress.

Kumar SS, Shanmugasundaram KR. Amrita Bindu--an antioxidant


EthnoPharmacol.2004;90(1):105-14.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

inducer

therapy

in

asthma

children.

Abstract.
Studies all over the world on the therapeutic use of antioxidants as supplements has revealed their capacity to control inflammatory
processes. Amrita Bindu an Ayurvedic health food supplement has already shown to be an antioxidant inducer and to combat free
radical-mediated tissue damage studied in rats. Amrita Bindu is a salt-spice herbal mixture designed for positive health. It was tested
as a supplement to therapy for a period of 12 months in 36 children suffering from asthma. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease
with excessive free radical generation in lungs and blood cells. The patients were followed up by monitoring their clinical conditions,
therapeutic doses of anti-asthmatic drugs, free radical generation, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidants in blood. At the end of 3
months of Amrita Bindu supplementation, the patients had stopped all anti-asthmatic medications and were free from attacks of
asthma.

Kumar S, Srivastava DP. Efficient Electrochemical Synthesis, Antimicrobial and Antiinflammatory Activity of 2-amino-5-substituted1,3,4-oxadiazole DeriVatives.Indian J Pharm Sci. 2010;72(4):458-64. Http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed//
Abstract.
An efficient electrochemical method for the preparation of 2-amino-5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (4a-k) at platinum anode through
the electrooxidation of semicarbazone (3a-k) at controlled potential electrolysis has been reported in the present study. The electrolysis
was carried out in the acetic acid solvent and lithium perchlorate was used as supporting electrolyte. The products were characterized
by IR,(1)H-NMR,(13)C-NMR, mass spectra and elemental analysis. The synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro
growth inhibiting activity against different strains of bacteria viz.Klebsilla penumoniae, Escherichia coli, Bassilus subtilis and
Streptococcus aureus and antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Crysosporium pannical and results have been compared
with the standard antibacterial streptomycin and antifungal griseofulvin. Compounds exhibits significant antibacterial activity and
antifungal activity. Compounds 4a and g exhibited equal while 4c, d, i and j slightly less antibacterial activity than standard
streptomycin. Compounds 4a and g exhibited equal while 4b, c, d, f and i displayed slightly less antifungal activity than standard
griseofulvins.

Kumar US, Tiwari AK, Reddy SV, Aparna P, Rao RJ, Ali AZ, Rao JM. Free-radical-scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitory
constituents from Stereospermum personatum. J Nat Prod. 2005;68(11):1615-21. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Bioassay-guided fractionation of different extracts of both stem and stem bark of Stereospermum personatum led to the isolation of
free-radical-scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitory Molecules along with three new anthraquinones, sterequinones F-H (1-3), a
new naphthoquinone, sterequinone I (4), two new phenethyl esters, 2(4' hydroxyphenyl)ethyl undecanoate (14) and 2(4'hydroxyphenyl)ethyl
nonacosanoate
(15),
and
a
new
3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamyl
ether,
2-methoxy-4-[3'
(3'',4'',5''trimethoxyphenyl)allyloxymethyl]phenol (16), together with known compounds. The antioxidant and xanthine oxidase
inhibitory potentials of the isolated compounds are reported.

155

Kumar V, Singh RK, Jaiswal AK, Bhattacharya SK, Acharya SB. Anxiolytic activity of Indian Abies pindrow Royle leaves in rodents:
an experimental study. Indian J Exp Biol.2000;38(4):343-6. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Putative anxiolytic activity of ethanolic extract of Indian A. pindrow Royle leaf was investigated in rats using various experimental
paradigms of anxiety viz. open field exploratory behaviour, elevated plus maze (EPM) and elevated zero maze (EZM) tests. Pilot
studies indicated that single dose administration of extract had little to no acute behavioural effects, hence the extract was
administered orally at different dose levels once daily for three consecutive days, while lorazepam (LR) (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) was
administered acutely. Ethanolic extract of A. pindrow (AP) leaves (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) showed significant anxiolytic effects on all
the paradigms of anxiety. The results indicate that AP and LR induced a significant increase in open field ambulation and slight
increase in rearings and activity in center, whereas grooming and faecal droppings remain unchanged. In EPM, significant
augmentation of open arm entries, and time spent on open arms was noted in AP treated rats. In EZM test, significant increase in time
spent on open arms and entries in open arms was observed, whereas slight increase in head dips and stretched attend postures was also
observed. The AP extract showed consistent and significant anxiolytic activity in all the tests. The effects induced by ethanolic extract
of AP were less marked than those of lorazepam were.

Lalithakumari K, Krishnaraju AV, Sengupta K, Subbaraju GV, Chatterjee A. Safety and Toxicological Evaluation of a Novel,
Standardized 3-O-Acetyl-11-keto-beta-Boswellic Acid (AKBA)-Enriched Boswellia serrata Extract (5-Loxin(R)). Toxicol Mech
Methods. 2006;16(4):199-226. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The novel anti-inflammatory properties of the gum resin derived from Boswellia serrata, also known as Salai guggal in Ayurvedic
medicine, are well recognized and highly recommended for human consumption. The active constituents of the gum resin are
boswellic acids (BAs). Among the BAs, AKBA potently inhibits 5-lipoxygenase product formation with an IC(50) of 1.5 m muM. We
developed a novel Boswellia serrata extract (5-Loxin(R)) enriched with 30% AKBA (US Patent 2004/0073060A1). The genetic basis
of the anti-inflammatory effects of 5-Loxin(R) was explored in a system of TNFalpha-induced gene expression in human
microvascular endothelial cells. 5-Loxin(R) significantly prevented the TNFalpha-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinases
and adhesion Molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1), and inducible expression of the mediators of apoptosis. With such interesting
findings, we planned to determine the broad-spectrum safety of 5-Loxin(R). Acute oral, acute dermal, primary skin and eye irritation,
and dose-dependent 90-day subchronic toxicity studies were conducted. In safety studies, acute oral LD(50) of 5-Loxin(R) was found
to be greater than 5,000 mg/kg in both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. No changes in body weight or adverse effects were
observed following necropsy. Acute dermal LD(50) of 5-Loxin(R) was found to be >2,000 mg/kg. Primary skin irritation test was
conducted with 5-Loxin(R) on New Zealand Albino rabbits and 5-Loxin(R) was classified as nonirritating. Primary eye irritation test
was conducted with 5-Loxin on rabbits and 5-Loxin(R) was classified as mildly irritating to the eye. A dose-dependent 90-day
subchronic toxicity study demonstrated no significant changes in selected organ weights individually and as percentages of body and
brain weights. 5-Loxin(R) supplementation did not cause changes in hepatic DNA fragmentation on 30, 60, or 90 days of treatment.
Hematology, clinical chemistry, and histopathological evaluations did not show any adverse effects in all organs tested. Taken
together, these results demonstrate the broad spectrum safety of 5-Loxin(R).

Lee J, Hahm ER, Singh SV. Withaferin A inhibits activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in human breast
cancer cells.Carcinogenesis. 2010;31(11):1991-8.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
We have shown previously that withaferin A (WA), a promising anticancer constituent of Ayurvedic medicine plant Withania
somnifera, inhibits growth of human breast cancer cells in culture and in vivo in association with apoptosis induction. The present
study builds on these observations and demonstrates that WA inhibits constitutive as well as interleukin-6 (IL-6)-inducible activation

156

of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is an oncogenic transcription factor activated in many human
malignancies including breast cancer. The WA treatment (2 and 4 M) decreased constitutive (MDA-MB-231) and/or IL-6-inducible
(MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) phosphorylation of STAT3 (Tyr(705)) and its upstream regulator Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2;
Tyr(1007/1008)) in MDA-MB-231, which was accompanied by suppression of their protein levels especially at the higher
concentration. Exposure of MDA-MB-231 or MCF-7 cells to WA also resulted in suppression of (i) transcriptional activity of STAT3
with or without IL-6 stimulation in both cells; (ii) dimerization of STAT3 (MDA-MB-231) and (iii) nuclear translocation of Tyr(705)phosphorylated STAT3 in both cells. To our surprise, the IL-6-stimulation, either before or after WA treatment, did not have an
appreciable effect on WA-mediated apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 or MCF-7 cell line. The IL-6-stimulated activation of STAT3
conferred a modest protection against WA-mediated suppression of MDA-MB-231 cell invasion. General implication of these findings
is that WA can trigger apoptosis and largely inhibit cell migration/invasion of breast cancer cells even after IL-6-induced activation of
STAT3, which should be viewed as a therapeutic advantage for this agent.

Lehra Kuldeep Singh, Chawla AS, Maninder KV.Chemical investigation and antu-inflammatory activity of Barleria Prionitis. Indian
Journal of Natural Products.2010;26(2):3-7.
Abstract.
The genus Barleria has been found to contain a large number of iridoids, flavonoids, anthraquinones and Steroids. In our study of
Barleria Prionitis, n-octacosanol, taraxasterol, B-sitosterol, stigmasterol and oleanolic acid acetate were isolated from the whole plant.
It also showed anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model.

Lieu CA, Kunselman AR, Manyam BV, Venkiteswaran K, Subramanian T. A water extract of Mucuna pruriens provides long-term
amelioration of parkinsonism with reduced risk for dyskinesias. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2010;16(7):45865.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Dopaminergic anti-parkinsonian medications, such as levodopa (LD) cause drug-induced dyskinesias (DID) in majority of patients
with Parkinson's disease (PD). Mucuna pruriens, a legume extensively used in Ayurveda to treat PD, is reputed to provide antiparkinsonian benefits without inducing DID. We compared the behavioral effects of chronic parenteral administration of a water
extract of M. pruriens seed powder (MPE) alone without any additives, MPE combined with the peripheral dopa-decarboxylase
inhibitor (DDCI) benserazide (MPE+BZ), LD+BZ and LD alone without BZ in the hemiparkinsonian rat model of PD. A battery of
behavioral tests assessed by blinded investigators served as outcome measures in these randomized trials. In experiment 1, animals
that received LD+BZ or MPE+BZ at high (6mg/kg) and medium (4mg/kg) equivalent doses demonstrated significant alleviation of
parkinsonism, but, developed severe dose-dependent DID. LD+BZ at low doses (2mg/kg) did not provide significant alleviation of
parkinsonism. In contrast, MPE+BZ at an equivalent low dose significantly ameliorated parkinsonism. In experiment 2, MPE without
any additives (12mg/kg and 20mg/kg LD equivalent dose) alleviated parkinsonism with significantly less DID compared to LD+BZ or
MPE+BZ. In experiment 3, MPE without additives administered chronically provided long-term anti-parkinsonian benefits without
causing DID. In experiment 4, MPE alone provided significantly more behavioral benefit when compared to the equivalent dose of
synthetic LD alone without BZ. In experiment 5, MPE alone reduced the severity of DID in animals initially primed with LD+BZ.
These findings suggest that M. pruriens contains water-soluble ingredients that either have an intrinsic DDCI-like activity or mitigate
the need for an add-on DDCI to ameliorate parkinsonism. These unique long-term anti-parkinsonian effects of a parenterally
administered water extract of M. pruriens seed powder may provide a platform for future drug discoveries and novel treatment
strategies in PD.

Lodhi S, Pawar RS, Jain AP, Singhai AK. Wound healing potential of Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) Pers. in rats. J EthnoPharmacol.
2006;108(2):204-10.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

157

Abstract.
Tephrosia purpurea is a well-known herb for its hepatoprotective, anticancer, antiulcer, antibacterial and in healing bleeding piles, etc.
The present study was aimed for wound healing potential of ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (aerial part) in the form of simple
ointment using three types of wound models in rats as incision wound, excision wound and dead space wound. The results were
comparable to standard drug Fluticasone propionate ointment, in terms of wound contraction, tensile strength, histopathological and
biochemical parameters such as hydroxyproline content, protein level, etc. Histopathological study showed significant (P<0.05)
increase in fibroblast cells, collagen fibres and blood vessels formation. All parameters were observed significant (P<0.05) in
comparison to control group.

Madhusudhanan N, Kavithalakshmi SN, Shanmugasundaram ER, Shanmugasundaram KR. Aflatoxin B1-induced DNA damage in
Labeo rohita: protective effect of an antioxidant supplement, Amrita Bindu. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2006;98(5):473-9.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of potent hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1 in adduct formation and DNA
damage in Labeo rohita. Also, the salubrious efficacy of an antioxidant supplement Amrita Bindu (based on Indian system of
Medicine) was investigated. Fish weighing 175-250 g were administered intraperitoneally a single dose of 100 microg aflatoxin
B1/100 g body wt. and another group was given 20% solution of Amrita Bindu along with aflatoxin B1 at 100 microg/100 g body wt.
On the 3rd and 6th day, the liver tissue was analyzed for aflatoxin concentration, aflatoxin-DNA adduct formation and DNA damage
measured in terms of single strand breaks. The fishes administered with aflatoxin B1 showed elevated concentration of aflatoxin along
with a parallel increase in the DNA adduct when compared with the controls. While the fish co-administered with Amrita Bindu
showed 34% and 24% reduction in aflatoxin deposition (accumulation) and aflatoxin-DNA adduct formation respectively on the 3rd
day, a further reduction by around 41% and 33% in aflatoxin deposition and DNA adduct formation respectively was observed on the
6th day. Furthermore, the increased single strand breaks (measured by alkaline single cell gel assay) and fragmentation observed in
agarose gel electrophoresis in aflatoxin B1 administered fish were significantly reduced by Amrita Bindu co-administration. In
conclusion, this is the first report to show aflatoxin B1-induced DNA adduct formation and DNA damage in one of the major Indian
culturable fish, Labeo rohita. Also, our observations show that the antioxidant supplement, Amrita Bindu, has a potential role in
ameliorating the aflatoxin B1-induced DNA damage thus suggesting its applicability in preventing the vital macromolecule DNA.

Maharjan R, Nagar PS, Nampoothiri L. Effect of Aloe barbadensis Mill. formulation on Letrozole induced polycystic ovarian
syndrome rat model. J Ayurveda Integr Med .2010;1:273-9. http://www.jaim.in.
Abstract.
This is a preliminary study that explores the efficacy of Aloe vera gel formulation as a possible therapeutic agent in the prevention and
management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS is recognized as the most common endocrinopathy of women. Increased
androgen synthesis, disrupted folliculogenesis, and insulin resistance lie at the patho-physiological core of PCOS. Current therapy for
such a syndrome is use of insulin sensitizers. Large randomized clinical trials of metformin as the insulin-sensitizing drug, however,
suggested that it produces many side effects after prolonged usage. For this reason, an alternate therapy would be to use herbs with
hypoglycemic potential. Aloe barbadensis Mill. (Liliaceae) popularly known as Aloe vera is a well-known plant with such properties.
The present study evaluated the efficacy of Aloe vera gel formulation in a PCOS rat model. Five month old Charles Foster female rats
were orally fed with letrozole, a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor, to induce PCOS. The rats were then treated orally with the Aloe
vera gel formulation (1 ml dose daily for 45 days). This restored their estrus cyclicity, glucose sensitivity, and steroidogenic activity.
Co-treatment of the inductive agent (letrozole) with the Aloe vera gel prevented the development of the PCO phenotype. Aloe vera gel

158

formulation exerts a protective effect in against the PCOS phenotype by restoring the ovarian steroid status, and altering key
steroidogenic activity. This can be attributed to phyto-components present in the extract.

Mandal S, Barik B, Mallick C, De D, Ghosh D. Therapeutic effect of ferulic acid, an ethereal fraction of ethanolic extract of seed of
Syzygium cumini against streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male rat. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2008;30(2):121-8.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Diabetic therapeutic and antioxidative effects of an ethereal fraction of the ethanolic extract of the seed of Syzygium cumini was
studied in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes resulted in a significant elevation in the fasting blood glucose level and
in the activity of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase. There was diminution in the levels of glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscle along
with diminution in the activities of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase and peroxidase in diabetic rats when
compared with controls. Hepatic levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and conjugated dienes (CD) were elevated
in respect to control. Oral coadministration of the above fraction to diabetic rats resulted in significant protection in all these
parameters. Histological studies of the pancreas showed a qualitative diminution in the area and volume of the islet's of Langerhans,
but coadministration of the specific fraction resulted in a significant recovery of the islet's of Langerhans. Chromatography study
revealed that the used fraction was ferulic acid (FA). Treatment with FA in normoglycemic rats did not show any significant change in
the levels of the selected biosensors. The possible hypothesis for the therapeutic effect of FA against diabetes may be due to its
pancreatic beta-cell regenerative effect and/or due to its antioxidant properties.

Maniyar Y, BhixaVatimath P, Agashikar NV. Antidiarrheal activity of flowers of Ixora Coccinea Linn. in rats. J Ayurveda Integr Med .
2010;1:287-91. http://www.jaim.in.
Abstract.
Ixora Coccinea Linn (Rubiaceae), a small shrub cultivated throughout India, has been reported to possess a number of medicinal
properties. It has traditionally been used for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. However the claims of Ayurveda have to be
validated by suitable experimental models. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of I.
coccinea for its antidiarrheal potential against several experimental models of diarrhea in albino Wistar rats. Here, we report the effects
of aqueous extracts of flowers of I. coccinea in the castor oil induced diarrhea model. The gastrointestinal transit rate was expressed as
the percentage of the longest distance traversed by charcoal divided by the total length of the small intestine. Weight and volume of
intestinal content induced by castor oil were studied by the enteropooling method. Loperamide was used as a positive control. The
plant-extract showed significant (P<0.001) inhibitor activity against castor oil induced diarrhea and castor oil induced enteropooling in
rats at the dose of 400 mg/kg. There was also significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility in the charcoal meal test. Results
obtained in this study substantiate the antidiarrheal effect of the aqueous extract and its use by traditional practitioners in the treatment
of diarrhea.

Maurya R. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Withania coagulans: an Ayurvedic remedy. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2010;62(2):15360.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
OBJECTIVES: The use of Withania coagulans, a member of the solanaceae family, has been highlighted in Ayurveda. We have
reviewed the chemical constituents and Pharmacological properties of W. coagulans, as well as its morphology. This has included
therapeutic effects of the whole plant and its extracts, fractions and isolated withanolides. The hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory,
antihyperglycaemic, hypolipidaemic, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial, cardiovascular, central nervous system depressant,
immunomodulating, antitumour and cytotoxic activities of W. coagulans have been described. KEY FINDINGS: Research carried out

159

using different biological testing in-vitro and in-vivo techniques supported the claims.SUMMARY: This review has covered the
morphology, chemistry and Pharmacology of the plant. It has described 37 compounds containing 46 references.

Meena A K, Saraswathy A, Shakila R, Sunil Kumar KN, Ariyanathan S, Pharmacognostic studies on Alangium salvifolium
(Linn.f.): Wang. root bark. Journal of pharmacognocy. 2010;2(11):374-380.
Abstract.
Root bark of Alangium salvifolium (Linn.f.): Wang. (Family Alangiaceae): is a reputed drug mentioned in the ancient books of
Ayurveda and Siddha for the treatment of epilepsy, jaundice, hepatitis etc. Root bark of the plant was subjected to macro-microscopic,
photomicrographic, physico-chemical, fluorescence, preliminary phytochemical, TLC and HPTLC to fix quality standards for this
drug. Microscopic studies have shown stratified phellem, rhytidome, cluster crystals of calcium oxalate and uni- to triseriate medullary
rays in the root bark. Chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol extracts and alkaloid fraction revealed characteristic chromatographic patterns
with presence of alkaloids in varying concentrations. This study would be useful in the identification and authentication of the raw
drug.

Mohd. Amanullah, Hari BY. Evaluation of carbamate insecticides as chemotherapeutic agents for cancer. Indian J Cancer 2011;48:749. Http://www.indianjcancer.com/.
Abstract.
Background: Cancer chemotherapy has already been in practice by the use of toxins and some of the specific poisonous compounds of
cyanide deriVatives. Carbamate insecticides inhibit cellular Metabolism including energy, protein, and nucleic acid Metabolism,
thereby, causing cell regression and death. Aim: Preliminary evaluation of three carbamate insecticides, namely, baygon, carbaryl, and
carbofuran as chemotherapeutic agents for cancer is undertaken in the present study. Materials and Methods: The toxicity of
carbamates on squamous cell carcinoma was assessed in-vitro using dye binding tests. Cells were grown in microtitration ELISA
plates, as adherent cultures, for six hours, and then exposed to the drugs for 2, 4, 8, and 12 hours, and finally stained with neutral red,
to assess the viable cell number, and with methylene blue for the determination of protein in the monolayer. Optical density was read
in an ELISA reader. Statistical Analysis: The data obtained during the experiment was subjected to statistical analysis by using the
student 't' test. Results: The results indicated that the percentage of the viable cell number reduced with an increase in the time of
exposure of the drugs. Exposure of the tumor cells to the drugs for 12 hours detached them completely from the wells, and hence, all
the cells were washed out. Exposure of the drugs prior to the establishment of the culture in-vitro resulted in the non-formation of the
monolayer in the wells. Conclusions: Among the three drugs studied, the survival percent was least with carbaryl treatment followed
by baygon, and with carbofuran treatment it was almost near to control group.

Mukherjee PK, Maiti K, Mukherjee K, Houghton PJ. Leads from Indian medicinal plants with hypoglycemic potentials. J
EthnoPharmacol. 2006;106(1):1-28.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Diabetes mellitus is caused due to deficiency in production of insulin by the pancreas, or by the ineffectiveness of the insulin
produced. It is a global problem and number of those affected is increasing day by day. The plants provide a potential source of
hypoglycemic drugs because many plants and plant derived compounds have been used in the treatment of diabetes. Several medicinal
plants have found potential use as hypoglycemic in the Indian system of medicines, including Ayurveda. Many Indian plants have
been investigated for their beneficial use in different types of diabetes and reports occur in numerous scientific journals. This Article
aims to provide a comprehensive review on various plant species from Indian biosphere and their constituents, which have been
shown to display potent hypoglycemic activity. The use of herbs as hypoglycemic is a major avenue in Indian perspectives Particularly

160

for treating diabetes, which require to be explored more effectively as there are so many literatures available on these aspects. This
paper describes the chemistry, activity and usage of the constituents isolated from these plants from India for the treatment of diabetes.

Mukherjee Pulok K, Venkatesh M,Gantait Arunava. Ayurveda in Modern Medicine: Development and Modification of Bioactivity.
Comprehensive Natural Products II Chemistry and Biology.2010;3:479-507.
Abstract.
Natural products play an important role in the development of several therapeutic leads. Ayurveda, one of the oldest systems of Indian
medicine, has a great traditional importance in therapeutics. Recent advances in analytical and biological sciences along with
innoVations in genomics and proteomics can play an important role in validation of this age old system of medicine. This Article
highlights various aspects of Ayurveda, their development, and the modern tools for enhancement of their bioactivity.

Murty D, Rajesh E, Raghava D, Raghavan TV, Surulivel MK. Hypolipidemic effect of Arborium plus in experimentally induced
hypercholestermic rabbits.Yakugaku Zasshi. 2010;130(6):841-6.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Hypercholesteremia is one of the risk factors for coronary artery disease. The present study highlights the efficacy of the Ayurvedic
herbal formulation Arborium Plus [Hyppophae ramnoides L. fruit juice (S) and Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Linn flower juice (R) in
a 1:4 ratio] on triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), atherogenic index (AI), high-density
lipoprotein (HDL), and high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs CRP) in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Four
groups of rabbits were subjected to different treatments for 8 weeks: control group, CHOL group (1% w/w cholesterol for 8 weeks),
S+R group (1% w/w cholesterol and Arborium Plus for 8 weeks), and A group (1% w/w cholesterol and atorvastatin for 8 weeks).
The results showed significant increases in TG, TC, LDL, AI, and hs CRP in hypercholesterolemic rabbits which was significantly
reduced in Arborium Plus-treated hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The data demonstrated that the Arborium Plus formulation was
associated with hypolipidemic effects in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

Nahata A, Patil UK, Dixit VK. Effect of Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. On learning behavior and memory enhancement activity in
rodents. Phytother Res. 2010;24(4):486-93. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
In the Ayurvedic system of medicine, the whole herb of 'Shankhpushpi' has been employed clinically for centuries for its memory
potentiating, anxiolytic and tranquilizing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Evolvulus
alsinoides (EA), considered as Shankhpushpi on learning and memory in rodents. Nootropic activity using Cook and Weidley's pole
climbing apparatus, passive avoidance paradigms and active avoidance tests were used to test learning and memory. The ethanol
extract of EA and its ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions were evaluated for their memory enhancing properties. Two doses (100 and
200 mg/kg p.o.) of the ethanol extract and ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions were administered in separate groups of animals. Both
doses of all the extracts of EA significantly improved learning and memory in rats. Furthermore, these doses significantly reversed the
amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg i.p.). Nootropic activity was compared using piracetam as the standard. EA also exhibited
potent memory enhancing effects in the step-down and shuttle-box avoidance paradigms.

Nag Ambika, Galav Praveen,Katewa S.S, Swarankar Shweta. Traditional herbal veterinary medicines from kotda tehsil of Udaipur
district (Rajasthan). Ethnobotany.2009;21:103-106.

161

Abstract.
Ethnobotanical uses of plants in veterinary medicine by the tribals of Kotda tehsil of Udaipur district of Rajasthan have been reported.
According to the census of India 2001, about 89.32 % of the total population of kotda belongs to scheduled tribes including mainly
Bhil, Garasia, and Kathodia. The use of locally available ingredients , methods of preparation and mode of administration were
investigated. The study revealed 30 methods of treating 16 types of veterinary health problems. 24 plants species of veterinary
importance are recorded.

Nanda GC, Rao MM, Padhi MM, Das B,Premkishore. Ayurbala as a Health Promotive A study on School Children. THE
ANTISEPTIC. 2005; 102 (11): 674-677.
Abstract.:
A community based Health Care Research (CCHCR) was conducted during the year 1986-87 to find out the effect of a herbal
formulations on under nourished school children in Chandaka tribe belt of Khuda district of Orrisa State. A total No. of 75 school
children were registered for the study. Out of 75 children 70.60 percent of the children were under poor nutrition and remaining were
mild to moderately nourished and about 85.32 percent of the students were endomorphic constituents. About 53.32 percent were
below than NCHS (National Child Health Survey) standard. The 75 children were provided Ayurbala biscuits weighing 20 gm. twice
daily for a period of 10 days and measurement in terms of weight and hemoglobin percentage before and after the study was recorded.
Out of 75 children, who received Ayurbala biscuits no weight gain was noticed in about 56 percent of children, 22.66 percent children
gained weight of up to 0.5 kg,about 9.33 percent gained 05. to 1 kg. weight, about 8 percent gained 1 to 2 kg. weight. About 4 percent
gained 2 to 3 kg. weight. The hemoglobin was also found to be increased at proportionately in weight gained children.

Narasimhan S, Govindarajan R, Vijayakumar M, Mehrotra S. Free radical scavenging potential of Chlorophytum tuberosum Baker. J
EthnoPharmacol. 2006;104(3):423-5.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Chlorophytum tuberosum Baker commonly referred as 'Musli' has been widely used as a potent 'Rasayana' drug in 'Ayurveda' as a
rejuvenator and tonic. Antioxidant potential of Chlorophytum tuberosum has been investigated for their ability to scavenge
1,1,diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide radical along with their capacity to reduce lipid peroxidation in rat liver
homogenate, chelation of ferrous ion, radical scavenging potential using chemiluminescence and their total antioxidant capacity.
Sugar, starch, protein, and Vitamin C content were estimated spectrophotometrically along with the percentages of the individual
amino acids by HPLC and individual sugars by using HPTLC as standardization tool. The extract has been found to possess
antioxidant activity in all the models tested as evident by IC50 values being 225.31, 888.44, 809.22 and 422.97 microg/ml for
scavenging of DPPH, nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation and ferry bi-pyridyl complex, respectively, along with a integral anitoxidant
activity of 2.986 nmol ascorbic acid/g equivalents in photochemiluminescence assay.

Nath Mautushi, Choudhury M.Dutta.Ethnoveterinary practices by Hmar tribe in Cachar District, Assam. Ethnobotany.2009;21:61-65.
Abstract.
The present paper deals with 20 plant species belonging to 18 families, which are being used by the Hmar tribe of Cachar district
against various diseases of animals. For each spacies. Botanical name, local name , family, plant parts and mode of uses have been
recorded. Some of the interesting plants are Allium cepa, Annona muricata, Blechnum orientale, Crinum amoenum, Erythria stricta,
phlogacanthus thrsiformis, polygala arillata, Symplocos cochinchinensis, ets.

162

Padhi MM, Das B, Audichya KC, Rao MM. Some important Ayurvedic literatures from the manuscripts available at Orissa
(1.Chikitsarnava). Bulletin of Indian Institute of History of Medicine. 2005;35:33-40.
Abstract.:
In the treasure of Ayurvedic literature many texts are missing or pArtially available. Only references or few verses from many such
texts are mentioned in later texts. Unfortunately a large number of Ayurvedic texts are explored till today are likely to exist in palm
leaf manuscripts, which are decaying or undergoing permanent annihilation. As such many unique and valuable informations
contained in these texts are being lost. Though several Institutions have taken up work on literary Research, only few texts have been
published during past decades, The present paper highlights the salient features of the text Chikisarnava authored by Visvanath
Sena of 16th century of Orissa. Though his text on Pathypathya has already been published, which has a got a place in the pages of
history of Ayurveda, a very little is known about this important text on therapeutics. Various aspects of this text and its author have
been discussed to bring it into the knowledge of fraternity of Ayurvedic physicians and Sanskrit scholars.

Palappallil DS, Nair BL, Jayakumar KL, Puvathalil RT. Comparative study of the toxicity of 5-fluorouracil-adriamycincyclophosphamide versus adriamycin-cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel in carcinoma breast. Indian J Cancer 2011;48:6873.Http://www.indianjcancer.com/.
Abstract.
Context: When cure is possible treatment should be undertaken despite life-threatening toxicities. Fluorouracil-AdriamycinCyclophosphamide (FAC) and Adriamycin-Cyclophosphamide (AC-P) are two popular regimens used in the treatment of carcinoma
breast and the data regarding the toxicity profile of the AC-P regimen is scarce in the South Indian population. Aims: To study the
severity of different types of toxicities seen in patients on FAC and AC-P regimens, to grade the toxicity according to the World Health
Organization (WHO) toxicity grading, and to compare the same. Settings and Design: A prospective obserVational study, with 50
patients in each regimen, was conducted in the Department of Radiotherapy between February 2007 and July 2008. Materials and
Methods: The high risk patients received the AC-P regimen and the rest received the FAC regimen. The toxicities developed were
graded according to the WHO guidelines. Statistical Analysis Used: The data was analyzed using the chi square test in SPSS 16.
Results: Anemia, hyperpigmentation, stomatitis, and diarrhea were significantly high (P < 0.05) in patients receiving the FAC regimen,
whereas, leukopenia, myalgia, arthralgia and peripheral neuropathy were significantly high (P <0.05) in patients receiving the AC-P
regimen. The Karnofsky performance status was higher in patients receiving the AC-P regimen. Conclusions: Although both the
regimens had different toxicity profiles the quality of life was better for patients on the AC-P regimen.

Pal Mahesh, Srivastava Manjoosha. Antifungal Activity of Excelsin From AILANTHUS EXCELSA. Indian Journal of Natural
Products.2010;26(2):15-19.
Abstract.
Ailanthus excels Roxb is a plant used in india system of medicine for the cure of different ailmets. The antifungal activity of excelsin
isolated from the plant was determined for the first time on four different fungal species. The pure compound excelsin significantly
inhibited the growth of Aspergillus niger, Prnicillium frequentance, P. notatum and botrytis cinerea in a concentration dependent
fashion.

Pandey MK, Sung B, Kunnumakkara AB, Sethi G, Chaturvedi MM, Aggarwal BB. Berberine modifies cysteine 179 of IkappaBalpha
kinase, suppresses nuclear factor-kappaB-regulated antiapoptotic gene products, and potentiates apoptosis.Cancer Res.
2008;68(13):5370-9.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

163

Abstract.
Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid derived from a plant used traditionally in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine, has been reported to
exhibit chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory activities through unknown mechanism. Because of the critical role of the
transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in these processes, we investigated the effect of berberine on this pathway. We
found that berberine suppressed NF-kappaB activation induced by various inflammatory agents and carcinogens. This alkaloid also
suppressed constitutive NF-kappaB activation found in certain tumor cells. Suppression of NF-kappaB activation occurred through the
inhibition of phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaBalpha by the inhibition of IkappaB kinase (IKK) activation, leading to
suppression of phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65, and finally to inhibition of NF-kappaB reporter activity. Inhibition of
IKK by berbeine was direct and could be reversed by reducing agents. Site-specific mutagenesis suggested the involvement of
cysteine residue 179 in IKK. Berberine also suppressed the expression of NF-kappaB-regulated gene products involved in
antiapoptosis (Bcl-xL, Survivin, IAP1, IAP2, and cFLIP), proliferation (cyclin D1), inflammation (cyclooxygenase-2), and invasion
(matrix metalloproteinase-9). Suppression of antiapoptotic gene products correlated with enhancement of apoptosis induced by tumor
necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and chemotherapeutic agents and with inhibition of TNF-induced cellular invasion. Overall, our results
indicate that chemopreventive, apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities displayed by berberine may be mediated in part through the
suppression of the NF-kappaB activation pathway. This may provide the molecular basis for the ability of berberine to act as an
anticancer and anti-inflammatory agent.
Panjamurthy K, Manoharan S, Menon VP, Nirmal MR, Senthil N. Protective role of withaferin-A on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthraceneinduced genotoxicity in bone marrow of Syrian golden hamsters. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2008;22(4):2518.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The present study has investigated the antigenotoxic effect of withaferin-A, a steroidal lactone obtained from the roots and leaves of
Withania somnifera, in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced genotoxicity. Measurement of the frequency of
micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) and chromosomal aberrations is used as cytogenetic endpoints. A single
intraperitoneal injection of DMBA (30 mg/kg b.w.) to golden Syrian hamsters resulted in marked elevation in the frequency of
MnPCEs and aberrations in the chromosomal structure. Hamsters pretreated with withaferin-A intraperitonealy 2 h before the injection
of DMBA, significantly reduced the frequency of MnPCEs and chromosomal aberrations such as chromosomal break, gap, minute,
and fragment. Our results thus demonstrated the antigenotoxic effect of withaferin-A in DMBA-induced genotoxicity in the bone
marrow of golden Syrian hamsters.

Pariandawar I, Sawakhande RB, Langade DG, Prabhu MM. Three arm, Randomized, Uni-centre, Single blind, Comparative study to
demonstrate Safely and efficacy of Glimepiride (Glimer-Brand 1) Vs Glimepiride(Bran-2) Vs Glimpiride (Brand-3) in terms of
HbA1c Reduction as an add on in the management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with inadequate glycemic control who are
initially on Metformin monotherapy: TRUST Study. The Indian Practitioner.2009;62(12):769-774.
Abstract.
The present study demonstrate that there is difference in the glycemic control achieved with different Glimepiride brands as an add on
to metformin monotherapy. Brand 1 Glimer [Glimepiride] geve better glycemic control than other two Glimepiride brands as an add
on to metformin monotherapy. Less dose titration was required in Arm 1 [Brand Glimer] than Arm 2 and 3 which have Brand 2 and 3
of Glimepride respectively. [Brand 1-20%, Brand 2-30% and Brand 3- 83%]. The Indian Practitioner.2009;62(12):769-774.

Parmar JJ, Singh DJ, Hegde DD, Lohade AA, Soni PS, Samad A, Menon MD.Development and evaluation of inhalational liposomal
system of budesonide for better management of asthma. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2010;72(4):442-8.Http://
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed//
Abstract.

164

Budesonide is a corticosteroid used by inhalation in the prophylactic management of asthma. However, frequent dosing and adverse
effects (local and systemic) remain a major concern in the use of budesonide. Liposomal systems for sustained pulmonary drug
delivery have been Particularly attractive because of their compatibility with lung surfactant components. In the present investigation,
pulmonary liposomal delivery system of budesonide was prepared by film hydration method and evaluated for sustained release.
Various parameters were optimized with respect to entrapment efficiency as well as pArticle size of budesonide liposomes. For better
shelf life of budesonide liposomes, they were freeze dried using trehalose as cryoprotectant. The liposomes were characterized for
entrapment efficiency, pArticle size, and surface topography; in vitro drug release was evaluated out in simulated lung fluid at 37 at
pH 7.4. The respirable or fine pArticle fraction was determined by using twin stage impinger. The stability study of freeze dried as
well as aqueous liposomal systems was carried out at 2-8 and at ambient temperature (2840). The freeze dried liposomes showed
better fine pArticle fraction and drug content over the period of six months at ambient as well as at 2-8 storage condition compared to
aqueous dispersion of liposomes

Patel KK, Singour PK, Chaurasiya PK, Pawar RS, Patil UK.Effect of Aqueous Extraact of NILUMBO NUVCIFERA Gartn on
Haloperidol Induced Iron Deficiency Anemea in Rats. Indian Journal of Natural Products.2010;26(2):8-14.
Abstract.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL information indicates that the aerial parts of Nilmbo nucifera N(N)
Are used in the treatment of anaemia in the traditional system of medicine. In the study, the aqueous extract of the aerial parts of NN
was tested for haematopoietic activity in rats using haloperidol (HP-0.2 mg /kg.ip.) induced iron deficiency anaemia. The red blood
cell count (RBC), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), white blood cell count (WBC) haemotocrit (PCV), serum iron and serum protein
were estimated using autonalyzer. The result of this study strongly indicates that aqueous extract was found to be active in increasing
the lowered blood parameters in albino rats for haematopoietic activity.

Patel SS, Shah RS, Goyal RK. Antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of Dihar, a polyherbal Ayurvedic
formulation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2009;47(7):564-70.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Present investigation was undertaken to evaluate antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of Dihar, a
polyherbal formulation containing drugs from eight different herbs viz.Syzygium cumini, Momordica charantia, Emblica officinalis,
Gymnema sylvestre, Enicostemma littorale, Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia and Curcuma longa in streptozotocin (STZ, 45
mg/kg iv single dose) induced type 1 diabetic rats. STZ produced a significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride,
very low density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, creatinine, and urea levels in diabetic rat. Treatment with Dihar (100 mg/kg) for
6 weeks produced decrease in STZ induced serum glucose and lipids levels and increased insulin levels as compared to control. Dihar
produced significant decrease in serum creatinine and urea levels in diabetic rats. There was a significant decrease in reduced
glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase levels and increase in thiobarbituiric acid reactive species levels in the liver of STZinduced diabetic rats. Administration of Dihar to diabetic rats significantly reduced the levels of lipid paroxidation and increased the
activities of antioxidant enzymes. The results suggest Dihar to be beneficial for the treatment of type 1 diabetes.

Patil JB, Kim J, Jayaprakasha GK. Berberine induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells (MCF-7) through mitochondrial-dependent
pathway. Eur J Pharmacol.2010;645(1-3):70-8.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Bioactive compounds found in many plant species have been used in Chinese, Unani, and Indian Ayurvedic medicine. Accumulative
evidences in both in vitro and in vivo studies using berberine demonstrated anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties in different

165

cancer cells. In the present study, a putative compound from commercial sample was purified by chromatographic techniques. The
structure of the pure compound was confirmed by spectroscopic studies. The purified berberine was tested against breast cancer
(MCF-7) and normal human breast epithelial (MCF-12F) cells for 24, 48 and 72 h at various concentrations. Using MTT assay,
berberine exhibited a significant cytotoxic effect on the MCF-7 cells (P<0.01) without affecting the breast normal epithelial cell
growth at 25 microM concentration. Based on these results, MCF-7 cells were treated with 25 microM berberine for 48 and 72 h for
further studies to illustrate induction of apoptosis through cell cycle distribution and DNA fragmentation with agarose gel
electrophoresis. Western blotting with treated cells revealed that berberine induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through a mitochondriadependent pathway by increasing levels of cytoplasmic cytochrome c, caspase-9 activity and cleavage of PARP while decreasing
levels of Bcl-2. Furthermore, immunoblotting results demonstrated that p53 and p27 were up-regulated suggesting that barberine
seems to play a pro-apoptotic role in cancer cells. In conclusion, berberine inhibits the proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells
through a mitochondria and caspase dependent apoptotic pathway. It is possible that berberine may serve as a potential naturally
occurring compound for breast cancer therapy.

Purnima A, Koti BC, Thippeswamy AH, Jaji MS, Swamy AH, Kurhe YV, Sadiq AJ. Antiinflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic
Activities of Mimusops elengi Linn.Indian J Pharm Sci. 2010;72(4):480-5. Http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed//
Abstract.
In the present study, 70% ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark was assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic
activities in animals. The antiinflammatory activity of ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) was evaluated using
carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acidinduced writhing and Eddy's hot plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The
ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw oedema at 3rd and 4th h and
in cotton pellet model it reduced the transudative weight and little extent of granuloma weight. In analgesic models the ethanol extract
of Mimusops elengi decreases the acetic acid-induced writhing and it also reduces the rectal temperature in Brewer's yeast induced
pyrexia. However, Mimusops elengi did not increase the latency time in the hot plate test. These results show that ethanol extract of
Mimusops elengi has an antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity.

Pawar RS, Jain AP, Lodhi S, Singhai AK. Erythropoietic activity of Asteracantha longifolia (Nees.) in rats. J EthnoPharmacol.
2010;129(2):280-2.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:
Asteracantha longifolia Nees. (Family-Acanthaceae) is a wild herb commonly used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine as Kokilaaksha
and the Unani drug as Talimakhana in India and Srilanka for various medicinal uses as aphrodisiac, tonic, sedative and blood diseases
etc.
AIM OF THE STUDY:
The aim of the current study was to validate and explore the folk use of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. (AL) (Leaf part) on
Pharmacological grounds using haloperidol induced iron deficiency anemia for the assessment of erythropoietic activity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Determination of iron in plant extracts was carried out using spectrophotometric method. Plant extract was obtained from crude drugs
using extraction with ethanol. In vivo study, haloperidol induced iron deficiency anemia model was used in experimental studies.
RESULTS:

166

An administration of ethanolic extract of AL at the doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight, i.p.demonstrated a significant
(P<0.05) increase in erythrocyte count, haemoglobin count, serum iron and serum protein etc. This effect may be due to the presence
of iron (622 microg/50 mg) in extract estimated by spectrophotometric method.
CONCLUSION:
An ethanolic extract of AL effectively restored the hematological parameters, serum iron and serum protein and normalized the
microcytic (smaller in size), anisocytosis (disturbed shape) and hypochromic RBCs. These observations could justify the inclusion of
this plant in the management of iron deficiency anemia due the presence of iron and other constituents as flavonoids, terpenoids,
Steroids, lupeol and betulin.

Ponnusankar S, Pandit S, Babu R, Bandyopadhyay A, Mukherjee PK. Cytochrome P450 inhibitory potential of Triphala--a Rasayana
from Ayurveda. J EthnoPharmacol. 2011;133(1):120-5.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:
'Triphala' is one of the age-old, most commonly used polyherbal preparation from Ayurveda as Rasayana drug.
AIM OF THE STUDY:
This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of 'Triphala' on drug modulating enzymes to assess its safety through its potential to
interact with co-administered drugs.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The cytochrome P450 inhibitory effect of 'Triphala' formulation was investigated on rat liver microsomes using CYP450-CO complex
assay and on individual isoform such as CYP3A4 and 2D6 using fluorescence screening. RP-HPLC method was developed to
standardize 'Triphala' and its individual components using gallic acid as analytical marker compound.
RESULTS:
RP-HPLC analysis demonstrated the presence of gallic acid (4.302.09 mg/g) in the formulation. The formulation showed 23%
inhibition of the rat liver microsomes through CYP450-CO complex assay which is comparatively less when compared with the
individual components. Further, the effect of standardized formulation dissolved in ethanol showed CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 inhibitory
activity at the IC(50) values of 119.651.91 g/ml and 105.030.98 g/ml respectively. Gallic acid was also found to inhibit both the
isoforms at the IC(50) valuesof 87.241.11 g/ml and 92.030.38 g/mlrespectively.CONCLUSIONS: Various concentrations of the
formulation and its individual components showed significantly less inhibitory activity (p<0.001) on individual isoforms when
compared with the positive control. Assessment on the in vitro effect of 'Triphala' on drug modulating enzymes has important
implications for predicting the likelihood of herb-drug interactions if these are administered concomitantly.

Potu BK, Rao MS, Nampurath GK, Chamallamudi MR, Nayak SR, Thomas H. Anti-osteoporotic activity of the petroleum ether
extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. in ovariectomized Wistar rats. Chang Gung Med J. 2010;33(3):252-7.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
BACKGROUND:

167

The plant Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) is used as an osteoprotective agent in Ayurveda, the Indian system of alternative medicine. The
present study was done to validate the anti-osteoporotic role of the petroleum ether extract of CQ on ovariectomy-induced
osteoporosis in rats.
METHODS:
Female wistar rats were divided into five groups of six rats each; (1) The Normal control (NC) group (n=6) received no surgery and no
treatment, (2). The Sham control (SHAM) group (n=6) received sham surgery but no treatment, (3) the Ovariectomized (OVX) group
(n=6) received an ovariectomy and normal saline treatment for 90 days, (4) the Ovariectomized+raloxifene (OVX+RAL) group (n=6)
received an ovariectomy and treatment with raloxifene, a known anti-osteoporotic agent for 90 days commencing from 22nd post
ovariectomy day and (5) the Ovariectomy+Cissus quadrangularis (OVX+CQ) group (n=6) received an ovariectomy, and treatmentwith
the petroleum ether extract of CQ 500 mg/kg body weight daily for 90 days commencing from 22nd post ovariectomy day. At the end
of the treatment period, rats in all groups were sacrificed and the right femur was used for biomechanical analysis, and the left femur
for histomorphometrical analysis.
RESULTS:
CQ significantly increased the force required to break the femur (p<0.001) and significantly increased the thickness of both cortical
(p<0.001) and trabecular bone (p<0.001). This action of CQ was comparable to the action of raloxifene.
CONCLUSIONS:
The petroleum ether extract of CQ stem seems to possess anti-osteoporotic activity in rats.

Prabha T, Dorababu M, Goel S, Agarwal PK, Singh A, Joshi VK, Goel RK. Effect of methanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata Linn
seed on gastro-duodenal ulceration and mucosal offensive and defensive factors in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2009;47(8):649-59.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Pongamia pinnata has been advocated in Ayurveda for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions and dyspepsia. The present
work includes initial phytochemical screening and study of ulcer protective and healing effects of methanolic extract of seeds of P.
pinnata (PPSM) in rats. Phytochemical tests indicated the presence of flavonoids in PPSM. PPSM when administered orally (po)
showed dose-dependent (12.5-50 mg/kg for 5 days) ulcer protective effects against gastric ulcer induced by 2 h cold restraint stress.
Optimal effective dose of PPSM (25 mg/kg) showed antiulcerogenic activity against acute gastric ulcers (GU) induced by pylorus
ligation and aspirin and duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine but not against ethanol-induced GU. It healed chronic gastric ulcer
induced by acetic acid when given for 5 and 10 days. Further, its effects were studied on various parameters of gastric offensive acidpepsin secretion, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) and defensive mucosal factors like mucin secretion and mucosal cell
shedding, glycoproteins, proliferation and antioxidants; catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels.
PPSM tended to decrease acid output and increased mucin secretion and mucosal glycoproteins, while it decreased gastric mucosal
cell shedding without any effect on cell proliferation. PPSM significantly reversed the increase in gastric mucosal LPO, NO and SOD
levels caused by CRS near to the normal level while it tended to increase CAT and GSH level decreased by CRS and ethanol
respectively. Thus, the ulcer protective effects of PPSM may be attributed to the presence of flavonoids and the actions may be due to
its effects both on mucosal offensive and defensive factors.

Prajapati RP, Kalariya M, Parmar SK, Sheth NR. Phytochemical and Pharmacological review of Lagenaria sicereria. J Ayurveda Integr
Med .2010;1:266-72. http://www.jaim.in
Abstract.

168

Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) standley (LS) (Family: Cucurbitaceae) is an annual herbaceous climbing plant with a long history of
traditional medicinal uses in many countries, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Since ancient times the climber has been
known for its curative properties, and has been utilized for treatment of various ailments, including jaundice, diabetes, ulcer, piles,
colitis, insanity, hypertension, congestive cardiac failure (CCF), and skin diseases. Its fruit pulp is used both as an emetic and
purgative, and for its cooling, diuretic, antibilious, and pectoral properties. Boiled in oil this pulp is used to treat rheumatism and
insomnia. A wide range of chemical compounds including sterols, terpenoids, flavonoids, and saponins have been isolated from the
species. Its extracts have been found to possess various Pharmacological activities. Below, we give a comprehensive review of its
ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents, and Pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant. Particular attention is given to its
analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, diuretic, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic, and antibacterial effects so that its potential
uses in pharmaceutics can be better evaluated.

Putnam SE, Scutt AM, Bicknell K, Priestley CM, Williamson EM. Natural products as alternative treatments for metabolic bone
disorders and for maintenance of bone health. Phytother Res. 2007;21(2):99-112. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Bone Metabolism involves a complex balance between the deposition of matrix and mineralization and resorption. There is now good
evidence that dietary components and herbal products can influence these processes, Particularly by inhibiting bone resorption, thus
having beneficial effects on the skeleton. For example, it has been reported that a number of common vegetables, including onion,
garlic and parsley, can inhibit bone resorption in ovariectomized rats. Essential oils derived from sage, rosemary, thyme and other
herbs inhibit osteoclast activity in vitro and in vitro and leading to an increase in bone mineral density. Soya, a rich source of
isoflavones, has shown promising results and epidemiological evidence to support a use in maintaining bone health, and various
traditional herbal formulae in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine also have demonstrable effects in Pharmacological models of
osteoporosis. Recently, cannabinoids have been described as having positive effects on osteoblast differentiation, and the presence of
cannabinoid receptors in bone tissue indicates a more complex role in bone Metabolism than previously thought. The first part of this
review briefly discusses normal bone Metabolism and disorders caused by its disruption, with Particular reference to osteoporosis and
current Pharmacological treatments. The effects of natural products on bone and connective tissue are then discussed, to include items
of diet, herbal extracts and food supplements, with evidence for their efficacy outlined.

Qidwai W, Hamza HB, Qureshi R, Gilani A. Effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of powdered Nigella sativa (kalonji) seed in
capsules on serum lipid levels, blood sugar, blood pressure, and body weight in adults: results of a randomized, double-blind
controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2009;15(6):639-44. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
OBJECTIVE:
The seed extracts from Nigella sativa is used by Unani physicians of traditional medicine (Hakims or Tabibs) and Ayurvedic
practitioners (Vaids) in the treatment of several medical disorders including dyslipidemia, obesity, and hypertension. It is, therefore,
important to prove or disprove the effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of powdered N. sativa (Kalonji) seed in capsules on serum
lipid levels, blood sugar, blood pressure, and body weight in adults. DESIGN: The study design was a randomized, double-blind trial.
SETTINGS/LOCATION: Conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from February 2006 to January 2007. SUBJECTS:
Half of the respondents received powdered N. sativa (Kalonji) seed in capsule and the rest received a placebo.
INTERVENTION/OUTCOME: Baseline and after-intervention variables recorded were the following: body-mass index, waist-hip
ratio, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, serum lipids, serum alanine aminotransferase, and serum creatinine. RESULTS: One
hundred and twenty-three (123) patients were recruited. Sixty-four (64) and 59 patients were randomized to the intervention and the
control arms, respectively. Thirty-nine (39) patients in the intervention group and 34 in the control group completed the study.
Favorable impact of powdered N. sativa (Kalonji) seed in capsule was noted on almost all variables, but results were not statistically

169

significant because of small sample size. CONCLUSIONS: Favorable impact of powdered N. sativa (Kalonji) seed in capsule was
noted on almost all variables, but results were not statistically significant. A larger study with adequate sample size is recommended.

Rabi T, Wang L, Banerjee S. Novel triterpenoid 25-hydroxy-3-oxoolean-12-en-28-oic acid induces growth arrest and apoptosis in
breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007;101(1):27-36. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
25-Hydroxy-3-oxoolean-12-en-28-oic acid (Amooranin-AMR) is a triterpene acid isolated from the stem bark of a tropical tree
(Amoora rohituka) grown wild in India. A herbal preparation used for the treatment of cancer by the Ayurvedic system of medicine
contains the stem bark of Amoora rohituka as one of the ingredients. In this paper, we show that AMR displays a strong inhibitory
effect on survival of human breast carcinoma MDA-468, breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells compared to breast epithelial MCF-10A
control cells. A 50% decrease in cells (IC50) ranged from 1.8 to 14.6 microM and cell growth was suppressed by arresting cell cycle at
G2 + M phase. AMR effectively induces apoptosis and triggered a series of effects associated with apoptosis including cleavage of
caspase-8, -9, -3, Bid and ER stress in MDA-468 cells and caspase- 8, -9, -6 and Bid in MCF-7 cells, release of cytochrome c from the
mitochondria, cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and DNA fragmentation with a concomitant upregulation of p53,
Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 in MDA-468 cells, but Bax unchanged in MCF-7 cells. The use of caspase blocking peptides and
acridine orange staining confirmed the involvement of primarily caspase-9 and -3 in MDA-468 cells with mutated p53 and primarily
caspase-8, -9 and -6 in MCF-7 cells expressing wt p53. We also observed in MCF-7/p53siRNA cells AMR treatment caused reduced
expression of Bcl-2 without affecting levels of Bax similar to MCF-7 cells treated with AMR and proteolytic activation of Bax in
MDA-468 cells. These results suggest that AMR induces apoptosis in human breast carcinoma cells via caspase activation pathway
and likely it is a p53-independent apoptosis.

Rai V, Kakkar P, Singh J, Misra C, Kumar S, Mehrotra S. Toxic metals and organochlorine pesticides residue in single herbal drugs
used
in
important
Ayurvedic
formulation
'Dashmoola'.
Environ
Monit
Assess.
2008;143(1-3):2737.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Herbal formulations are getting popularity throughout the world and commercialized extensively for various medicinal properties.
WHO has emphasized the need for quality assurance of herbal products, including testing of heavy metals and pesticides residues.
'Dashmoola', a popular herbal formulation, with immunomodulator and febrifugal properties, consists of ten single root drugs. In view
of WHO guidelines, single herbal drugs used in 'Dashmoola', were collected from different places of India for testing heavy metals
and persistent pesticides residue. Although use of roots in 'Dashmoola' is prescribed in original Ayurvedic literature but now many
pharmacies use stem in place of roots. Therefore, in the present study both roots and stems were selected for estimation of six heavy
metals namely arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni). Apart from these, the
organochlorine pesticides residue viz. different metabolites of DDT, DDE, isomers of HCH and alpha-endosulfan were checked in
total 40 samples of single crude drugs. Heavy metals except Hg, were present in most of the samples. In few samples Pb and Cd
concentration were beyond the WHO permissible limits. Although alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH were present in almost all the
samples, but other pesticides were not detected in these samples. DDT and DDE were found only in two samples.

Raina V, Kunjahari M, Shukla NK, Deo S, Sharma A, Mohanti BK, Sharma DN. Outcome of combined modality treatment including
neoadjuvant chemotherapy of 128 cases of locally advanced breast cancer: Data from a tertiary cancer center in northern India. Indian
J Cancer.2011;48:80-5.Http://www.indianjcancer.com/.
Abstract.

170

Background: Breast cancer is now the most common cancer in many parts of India and the incidence varies from 12 to 31/100000, and
is rising. Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) accounts for 30 - 35% of all cases of breast cancers in India. LABC continues to
present a challenge and imposes a major health impact in our country. Materials and Methods: We carried out a analysis of our LABC
patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) at our hospital over a 10-year period, from January 1995 to December
2004. We analyzed the response to NACT, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: Patients with stages IIIA,
IIIB, and IIIC were included. LABC comprised of 26.24% (609 patients) of new patients. One hundred and twenty-eight (31.1%)
patients received NACT. Median age was 48 years and estrogen receptor was positive in 64%. Chemotherapy protocol was an FEC (5Fluorouracil, Epirubicin, Cyclophosphamide) regimen in the following doses: Cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2, 5-FU 600 mg/m2, and
Epirubicin 75 mg/m2 given every three weeks, six doses, followed by modified radical mastectomy (MRM) and locoregional
radiotherapy. The overall response rate (complete response (CR) + pArtial response (PR)) was 84.4%, clinical CR (cCR) was 13.3%
and pathological CR (pCR) was 7.8%. Median DFS and OS were 33 and 101 months, respectively. The disease-free survival (DFS)
and overall survival (OS) at five years were 41 and 58%, respectively. Conclusions: This study analyzes the outcome in patients who
received NACT, in the largest number of LABC patients from a single center in India, and our results are comparable to the results
reported from other centers.

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhatacharya P, Devidas KV. A Clinical study on the effect of Kravyadi ras, Kaseesadi taila vasti and Triphala
churna in the management of Arsha (Haemorrhoids).Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2004;25(1-2):1-10.
Abstract.
In order to evaluate the efficacy of Kravyadi Rasa, Kaseesadi taila vasti and Triphala churna in the management of Arsha
(Haemorrhoids) a single blind clinical trial was conducted at Ano-Rectal Clinic, Central Research Institute (Ay.), Kolkata during the
period from May 1999 to March 2004. This trial was conducted on 230 patients of Arsha as per the protocol designed by CCRAS,
New Delhi. Out of 230 cases who received the above regimen, 37.39 percent cases got complete relief, 26.08 percent got marked
relief, 14.78 percent got moderate relief, 6.52 percent got mild relief, while 15.21 percent of cases were dropped out. Analysis was
made to assess the results in relation to age, duration of illness, Type of Arsha, Type of Haemorrhoids and also in the improvement in
haemoglobin levels. After analyzing the results it is concluded that the above drug regimen is effective in Arsha management.

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhatacharya P. A Clinical study on the effect of KankayanaVati,, Kaseesadi taila and Triphala churna in the
management of Arsha (Haemorrhoids). Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2004;25(3-4): 9 21.
Abstract.
A single blind clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of Kankayana Vati, Kaseesadi taila vasti and Triphala churna in the management
of Arsha (Haemorrhoids) was carried out at Ano-Rectal Clinic, Central Research Institute (Ay.), Kolkata during the period from May
1999 to March 2004. This trial was conducted on 247 patients of Arsha as per the proforma designed by CCRAS, New Delhi. Out of
247 cases who received the above regimen, 42.91 percent patients got complete relief, 27.12% patients got marked relief, 10.93%
patients got moderate relief, 4.04% patients got mild relief, 1.61% patients got No relief while 13.36% patients were dropped out. It is
concluded that the above drug regimen is effective in the management of Arsha.

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhatacharya P, Maity SK, Pandey DR, Hazra JR. Study of Health Statistics in KHARI BARI Village of West
Bengal under Mobile Clinical Research Programme with Special Reference to PRAKRITI A Report of some observations. Journal
of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha;27 ( 3-4): 30 47.
Abstract.
This paper covers the information regarding the health statistics, collected during the study conducted by the Mobile Clinical Research
Unit of Central Research Institute (Ay.), Kolkata under the Mobile Clinical Research Programme of the Council. The programme was

171

aimed to study the role of Prakriti in relation to the Socio-economic and Demographic aspects, the relation between the food habits
and the incidence of diseases, the nature and frequency of prevalent diseases, ways and means of prevention of diseases and
maintenance of positive health. In addition to this the unit was given the task of collecting information regarding folklore claims,
medical facilities available, maintaining contact with village vaidyas and providing incidental medical aid to the patients in the village
itself.

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhattacharya P, Hazra J. Comparative therapeutic evaluation of the Efficacy of Shamana Chikitsa Vs. Shodhana
Chikitsa (Vamana karma) in the management of Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis). Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha.
2008;29(3):1-24.
Abstract.
In order to evaluate the efficacy of different drug combinations in different modes i.e. Shamana and Shodhana with reference to
Vamana karma in the treatment of Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis) a randomized, single blind clinical trial was conducted at Central
Research Institute (Ay.), Kolkata during the period from May 1999 to March 2004. A total number of 478 cases were selected and kept
in four groups (Shamana = 2 (A1, A2) + Shodhana = 2 (B1, B2) on the basis of criteria of diagnosis laid down by the American
College of Rheumatology (1987-revised) and also as per the protocol designed by C.C.R.A.S,New Delhi. In group A1, the patients
were administered Pippali vardhaman Ksheerapaka + Sameera pannaga Rasa;In Group A2, Shunti + Guggulu + Godanti
combination and in Group B1, patients were subjected for Deepana + Pachana + Snehana + Swedana + Vamana karma + Samsarjana
karma while in group B2 patients were subjected for only Snehana + Swedana + Vamana karma + Samsarjana karma i.e without
administration of Deepana-Pachana drugs. The results were assessed in terms of Clinical recovery, Functional recovery and Recovery
in E.S.R. In group A1;Out of 157 cases, 15.28 percent had good response, 31.84 percent had fair response, 15.28 percent had poor
response, 2.54 percent had no response while 35.03 percent cases were dropped out while in group A2;Out of 80 cases, 22.50
percent had good response, 31.25 percent had fair response, 21.25 percent had poor response, 2.5 percent had no response while 22.5
percent cases were dropped out. In group B1; Out of 110 cases, 10 percent had good response, 59.09 percent had fair response, 19.09
percent had poor response, 7.27 percent had no response while 4.54 percent cases were dropped out while in group B2;Out of 131
cases, 13.74 percent had good response, 57.24 percent had fair response, 20.21 percent had poor response, 5.34 percent had no
response while 6.87 percent cases were dropped out. After analyzing the results it was concluded that the Shodhan Chikitsa (Vamana
karma) is more effective than Shamana Chikitsa.

Rao MM, Kar AC, Bhattacharya P, Hazra J. The effect of Ayurvedic drug regimen in the management of Arsha (Haemorrhoids), - A
comparative therapeutic study. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha.2009;30(4):77-92.
Abstract.:
A single blind clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of Kravyadi Rasa, Kaseesadi taila vasti and Triphala Churna in one group (GroupI) and Kankayana Vati, Kravyadi Rasa, Kaseesadi Taila Vatti, Abhayarishtam and Triphala Churna in another group (Group-II) in the
management of Arsha (Hemorrhoids) was carried out at Ano-Rectal Clinic, Central Research Institute (Ay), Kolkata during the period
from May 1999 to March 2004. This trial was conducted on 412 patients of Arsha as per the proforma designed by CCRAS, New
Delhi.Group-I: Out of 230 cases who received the above regimen, 31.31 percent cases got complete relief, 29.12 percent got marked
relief, 20.32 percent got moderate relief, 1.092 percent got mild relief, while 15.21 percent of cases were dropped out.Group-II : Out
of 182 cases who received the above regimen, 37.39 percent cases got complete relief, 26.08 percent got marked relief. 14.78 percent
got moderate relief, 6.52 percent got mild relief, 0.54 percent of cases got no relief while 15.93 percent were dropped out. After
analyzing the results it was observed that even though there was significant improvement in both the groups, there was observed a
higher rate of improvement in Group-I than that of Group-II.

172

Rao M.M, Das B, Nanda GC, Padhi MM. The role of Pichu (Taila) application in the management of Arsha (Haemorrhoids). Journal
of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2006; 27(1-2):41-51.
Abstract.
A pilot study was conducted to see the efficacy of Pichu (Taila) application in the treatment Arsha (Haemorrhoids) at Ano-Rectal
Clinic, Central Research Institute (Ay.), Bhubaneswar. This obserVational (Pilot) study was conducted on 25 patients of Arsha as per
the Proforma designed by CCRAS, New Delhi. Out of 25 cases who received the above regimen, 80 percent cases got complete relief,
12 percent got marked relief and 8 percent got moderate relief. Analysis was made to assess the results in relation to various aspects
including improvement in hemoglobin levels. After analyzing the results it is concluded that the above drug regimen is effective in
Arsha management.

Rasmussen LB, Mikkelsen K, Haugen M, Pripp AH, Frre T. Treatment of fibromyalgia at the Maharishi Ayurveda Health Centre in
Norway. A six-month follow-up study. Clin Exp Rheumatol.2009;27(5):S46-50.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
BACKGROUND:
Treatments offered at the Maharishi Ayurveda Health Centre in Norway are based on Maharishi Vedic medicine, which is also known
as Maharishi Ayurveda. It is a consciousness based revival of the ancient Ayurvedic medicine tradition in India and is established by
Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, the founder of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique.
OBJECTIVE:
To conduct a pilot study of the effect of the treatment program at the Health Centre on fibromyalgia patients.
METHODS:
Thirty-one women with diagnosed fibromyalgia received an individually designed Maharishi Vedic physiological purification therapy.
All subjects received personal advice on diet based on Ayurvedic principles, including a novel approach to food into-lerance, and daily
routines. In addition they were offered instruction in TM (for stress and pain management and personal development) (four subjects
started), and recommended Ayurvedic herbal food products for home treatment.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
A modified Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire included a visual analogue scale for each of the seven outcomes: working ability,
generalised pain, tiredness, stiffness, tiredness on arising, anxiety and depression. Pre-treatment scores were compared with scores at
six-month follow-up for levels of statistical significance.
RESULTS:
Twenty-eight subjects (90%) completed the follow-up. The outcome measures were reduced by 25 to 46% by the study's endpoint:
working ability (p<0.002), pain (p<0.001), tiredness (p<0.001), morning tiredness (p<0.001), stiffness (p<0.005), anxiety (p<0.136),
and depression (p<0.001). A group of five excellent responders including all four pArticipants who started to practise TM, had almost
no symptoms by the endpoint. Compared to the non-meditating control group the TM-subgroup showed statistically significant
improvements for all outcome measures except depression.
CONCLUSIONS:
In this pilot study fibromyalgia patients undergoing treatment at Maharishi Ayurveda Health Centre in Norway showed significant
improvements six months post treatment. Because fibromyalgia is considered a treatment-resistant condition, these encouraging
results warrant further research.

173

Rastogi S, Kulshreshtha DK, Rawat AK. Streblus asper Lour. (Shakhotaka): A Review of its Chemical, Pharmacological and
Ethnomedicinal Properties. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2006;3(2):217-22.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Streblus asper Lour is a small tree found in tropical countries, such as India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand.
Various parts of this plant are used in Ayurveda and other folk medicines for the treatment of different ailments such as filariasis,
leprosy, toothache, diarrhea, dysentery and cancer. Research carried out using different in vitro and in vivo techniques of biological
evaluation support most of these claims. This review presents the botany, chemistry, traditional uses and Pharmacology of this
medicinal plant.

Rathore P, Dohare P, Varma S, Ray A, Sharma U, Jagannathan NR, Ray M. Curcuma oil: reduces early accumulation of oxidative
product and isanti-apoptogenic in transient focal ischemia in rat brain. Neurochem Res. 2008;33(9):167282.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Turmeric is a source of numerous aromatic compounds isolated from powdered rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn. The constituents are
present as volatile oil, the Curcuma oil (C.oil), semi-solid oleoresins and non-volatile compounds such as curcumin. A rapidly
expanding body of data provides evidence of the anti-cancer action of Curcumin, and most importantly in the present context, its
neuroprotective activity. Almost nothing is known about such activity of C.oil. We report that C.oil (500 mg Kg(-1) i.p.) 15 min before
2 h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) followed by 24 h reflow in rats significantly diminished infarct volume, improved
neurological deficit and counteracted oxidative stress. The percent ischemic lesion volume on diffusion-weighted imaging was
significantly attenuated. Mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species, peroxynitrite levels, caspase-3 activities leading
to delayed neuronal death were significantly inhibited after treatment with C.oil. These results suggest that the neuroprotective activity
of C.oil against cerebral ischemia is associated with its antioxidant activities and further; there is attenuation of delayed neuronal death
via a caspase-dependent pathway. C.oil appears to be a promising agent not only for the treatment of cerebral stroke, but also for the
treatment of other disorders associated with oxidative stress.

Reddy VD, Padmavathi P, Kavitha G, Gopi S, Varadacharyulu N. Emblica officinalis ameliorates alcohol-induced brain mitochondrial
dysfunction in rats.J Med Food. 2011;14(1-2):62-8.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The fruit of Emblica officinalis has been used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of different ailments and is also
an ingredient of various traditional medicinal herbal formulations in India and other countries. To investigate the protective effect of
Emblica officinalis fruit extract (EFE) against alcohol-induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction, male Wistar rats were orally
administered 20% alcohol (5g/kg of body weight/day) and EFE (250mg/kg of body weight/day) for 60 days. Alcohol-treated rats
showed significantly lowered activities of mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and
reduced glutathione compared with those of experimental control rats. Furthermore, alcohol feeding lowered the activities of NADH
dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and cytochrome c oxidase and the content of cytochromes followed by increased
levels of nitric oxide (NO), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and protein carbonyls. No significant change was observed in
membrane potential. Administration of EFE to alcohol-treated rats, lowered the levels of NO, protein carbonyls, and lipid peroxidation
and elevated the activities of the antioxidant enzymes SDH, NADH dehydrogenase, and cytochrome c oxidase and the content of
cytochromes. The active tannoid principles present in EFE with its antioxidant as well as NO scavenging properties might have
contributed to the observed protection against alcohol-induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction.

174

Sahoo BB, Satapathy KB. Plants used by the tribals and rural folks for common ailments in Jajpur district(Orissa).
Ethnobotany.2009;21:107-111.
Abstract.
This paper provides first hand information on the herbal remedies practised by the tribals and rural folks of jaijpur district of Orissa.
During the study, 25 plant species belonging to 24 families were found to be used by the local tribal medicine men and village folks to
cure various common ailments like cold and cough, jaundice, diabetes, dysentery, stomach ailments, worms, rheumatism, headache,
cuts, pimples, sinusitis, pyorrhea, piles, insect bites, womens diseases, etc. the report incorporates botanical names of the plants
followed by the family name(s) , mode of administration, dosage, etc.

Sandeep D, Krishnan Nair CK. Amelioration of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by extracts of Hemidesmus indicus and Acorus
calamus. Pharm Biol.2010;48(3):290-5. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Administration of commonly used anticancer drug cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II)] at Pharmacologically relevant
concentrations (12 mg/kg body weight) resulted in severe renal toxicity as evidenced from histopathological observations and
biochemical alterations in the renal tissue. The extracts of medicinal plants Hemidesmus indicus L. (Apocynaceae) and Acorus
calamus L. (Araceae) protected the renal tissue effectively from cisplatin-induced toxicity. Treatment of cisplatin-administered
animals with the plant extracts could prevent the drug-induced oxidative damage in the renal tissue as evidenced from the decreased
levels of lipid peroxidation and enhanced activities of the antioxidants in the renal tissue. Cisplatin treatment increased serum urea
level to 41.3 +/- 2.86 mg/dL and administration of the extracts of H. indicus and A. calamus brought down the level to 34.54 +/- 0.37
and 30.12 +/- 0.95 mg/dL, respectively. Serum creatinine levels were increased to 1.1 +/- 0.02 mg/dL following cisplatin
administration, and treatment with extracts of H. indicus and A. calamus brought this down to 0.76 +/- 0.09 and 0.61 +/- 0.06 mg/dL,
respectively. The histopathological observations indicated that treatment with the H. indicus and A. calamus extracts restored the
cisplatin-induced structural alterations in the renal tissue.

Sandhya T, Lathika KM, Pandey BN, Mishra KP. Potential of traditional Ayurvedic formulation, Triphala, as a novel anticancer drug.
Cancer Lett. 2006;231(2):206-14. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The cytotoxic effects of aqueous extract of Triphala, an Ayurvedic formulation, were investigated on human breast cancer cell line
(MCF-7) and a transplantable mouse thymic lymphoma (barcl-95). The viability of treated cells was found to decrease with the
increasing concentrations of Triphala. On the other hand, treatment of normal breast epithelial cells, MCF-10 F, human peripheral
blood mononuclear cells, mouse liver and spleen cells, with similar concentrations of Triphala did not affect their cytotoxicity
significantly. The drug treatment was found to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and barcl-95 cells in vitro as determined by annexin-V
fluorescence and proportion of apoptotic cells was found dependent on Triphala concentration. MCF-7 cells treated with Triphala
when subjected to single cell gel electrophoresis, revealed a pattern of DNA damage, characteristic of apoptosis. Studies on Triphala
treated MCF-7 and barcl-95 cells showed significant increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a concentration
dependent manner. ROS increase was, however, found to be insignificant in MCF-10 F as well as in murine spleen and liver normal
cells. In vivo, direct oral feeding of Triphala to mice (40 mg/kg body weight) transplanted with barcl-95 produced significant
reduction in tumor growth as evaluated by tumor volume measurement. It was also found that apoptosis was significantly higher in the
excised tumor tissue of Triphala fed mice as compared to the control, suggesting the involvement of apoptosis in tumor growth
reduction. These results suggest that Triphala possessed ability to induce cytotoxicity in tumor cells but spared the normal cells. The
differential effect of Triphala on normal and tumor cells seems to be related to its ability to evoke differential response in intracellular
ROS generation. The differential response of normal and tumor cells to Triphala in vitro and the substantial regression of transplanted
tumor in mice fed with Triphala points to its potential use as an anticancer drug for clinical treatment.

175

Sandhya T, Mishra KP. Cytotoxic response of breast cancer cell lines, MCF 7 and T 47 D to Triphala and its modification by
antioxidants. Cancer Lett. 2006;238(2):304-13. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The cytotoxic effects of Triphala (TPL), an Indian Ayurvedic formulation with known anti-cancer properties, has been investigated on
two human breast cancer cell lines differing in their p53 status. In vitro studies showed that MCF 7 with wild type p53 was more
sensitive to TPL than T 47 D, which is p53 negative. TPL induced loss of cell viability was determined by MTT assay. After 72h
incubation, the IC 50 values for MCF 7 was found to be approximately 8microg/ml and that for T 47 D was approximately
26microg/ml. Moreover, TPL inhibited the clonogenic growth of MCF 7 cells, which was significantly recovered by pifithrin-alpha,
the p53 inhibitor. However, pifithrin-alpha, did not modify TPL induced cytotoxicity in T 47 D cells. Exogenous addition of
antioxidants, glutathione (GSH) and N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC) inhibited the anti-proliferative ability of TPL in both MCF 7 and T47
D. Annexin-V and propidium iodide double staining of cells treated with TPL for 2h revealed that TPL induced significant apoptosis in
both the cell lines in a dose dependant manner but magnitude of apoptosis was significantly higher in MCF 7 than in T 47-D cells.
TPL was also found to induce dose and time dependent increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species in both the cell lines. Present
results have demonstrated that MCF 7 and T 47 D cells exhibited differential sensitivity to TPL, which seems to be dependant on their
p53 status. Inhibition of anti-proliferative ability of TPL by antioxidants suggests a role for TPL induced ROS in the induction of
apoptosis. It is concluded that p53 status of cancer cells formed an important factor in predicting the response of cancer cells to
prooxidant drugs.

Sannd Rajesh, Acharya M V, Clinical Effect of 'BRYT' formula as a supportive therapy along with the Conventional regimen on
Gulma, Arbuda, with special reference to Cancer. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha. 2000;21(3-4):148-158.
Abstract.
Cancer is a large mortality problem all over the world. The conventional treatment such as Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy
are associated with fatal side effects, hence fail to give a comprehensive treatment for Cancer. Aetiopathogenasis of Gulma, arbuda
resemble that of Cancer. Herbo-mineral drugs are advocated to treat these ailments. Out of these, BRYT formula was tried as
independent as well as a supportive therapy to the conventional treatments. The formula consists of Bhallataka (Semecarpus
anacardium Linn.f.), Rohitaka (Aphanamixis polystachia Wall.), YashtiMadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.) and Tamra bhasma.The
study was carried out on 400 patients under 7 groups by Dr. G.C. PRasad et. al. at Institute of Medical Sciences. B.H.U.Varanasi. They
were assessed by their general body health including body weight, Hb. GABA (Gama amino butyric acid) and GAD (glutamate
decarboxylase) estimation and life span of the patient.It was observed that the patients treated with BRYT formula as a supportive
therapy to the conventional therapies lead better and longer life devoid of side effects of the treatment as compare to those received
only either conventional treatment of BRYT formula.

Sannd Rajesh, Bansal Parveen, Kumar Sanjiv, Bikshapathi T. Clinical effect of Arkakit Nasya in the management of Epilepsy A case
study. Scientific Journal of Panchkarma. 2007;8(1):13-14
Abstract.
Apasmara is categorised as a Mansik Roga. This symptomatology resembles with that of Grand mal Epilepsy, now known as Tonic
Clonic Epilepsy. Verbal meaning of epilepsy is tendency of having seizure. A number of medicines are enlisted to treat the disease. But
these drugs are not free from side effects. They have mild to severe side effects depending upon dose and type of medicine used. Most
common side effects are, giddiness, dizziness, nausea, dependency and over reactivity.The present case is a 4 yrs old female child who
was having seizure since birth. She was diagnosed for Myocolonic epilepsy at the age of 3 months. The EEG revealed disturbed
sleep pattern with excessive high potential discharge in the whole brain. The frequency of discharge was from 3 sec. to 9 sec.which
remained for 1.5 to 3 sec. The CT scan and MRI of brain showed no anatomical abnormality. The medicine used to treat the case was

176

Ark Keet. The reference is found in MEGH VINOD, a book written by Muni Megh Raj (461/48). The old plants of Calotropis procera
were uprooted and the insects were collected from there. These were placed in a box. After few days they died and turned into a
pungent smelling powder. The powder was given as Nasya in the morning for 40 days. No other medicine was given during the
treatment. There is a seizure threshold of brain. When this seizure threshold is lowered these become visible. . The pungent smelling
powder, which is an animal product, might be having some effect that could reduce the electrical discharges from the brain cells as
evident from the EEG after the treatment, or might have increased the seizure threshold and the patient did not suffer the seizure.

Santosh N, Mohan K, Royana S, Yamini TB. Hepatotoxicity of tubers of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa) in rats. Food Chem
Toxicol. 2010;48(4):1066-71.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Methanolic extract of tubers of Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae) (PTME) has been tested for hepatoxicity in rats. In acute study,
PTME (100-400 mg/100 g BW, given orally) showed LD(50) at 227.5 mg. For sub-chronic study, its repeated doses (5-100 mg/100 g
BW, for 30 days), significantly increased hepatic enzymes in blood, sinusoidal congestion, disruption of central vein, inflammatory
cell infiltration and hepatocellular necrosis in liver in dose dependent manner, with increase in NO, iNOS and ROS levels. In a kinetic
study (single dose 227.5 mg/100 g BW), there was sequential decrease in GSH and enhanced NO suggesting free-radical generation as
the primary cause of cell damage. It is concluded that the higher dosing of PTME or its continuous use for longer period (even in low
doses) is hepatotoxicity by inducing oxidative stress.

Saraswathy A, Devi SN, Pradeep Chandran RV. Analgesic and Antiinflammatory activity of Amukkarac curanam. Indian J Pharm Sci.
2009;71(4):442-5.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Amukkarac curanam a polyherbal Siddha formulation was examined for its analgesic and antiinflammatory activity at a dose of 500
mg/kg, p.o. The experimental methods used were tail immersion and acetic acid induced writhing method for analgesic and cotton
pellet induced granuloma formation for antiinflammatory activity. Pentazocine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and aspirin (150 mg/kg,
orally) clinically used analgesics were used as standard analgesics. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, orally) was used as standard for
antiinflammatory study. Amukkarac curanam showed significant analgesic and antiinflammatory activity in the above study.

Sarfaraz S, Siddiqui IA, Syed DN, Afaq F, Mukhtar H. Guggulsterone modulates MAPK and NF-kappaB pathways and inhibits skin
tumorigenesis in SENCAR mice. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29(10):2011-8.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Guggulsterone (GUG), a resin of the Commiphora mukul tree, has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries to treat a variety of
ailments. Recent studies have suggested that GUG may also possess anticancer effects. In the present study, we show that GUG
possesses antitumor-promoting effects in SENCAR mouse skin tumorigenesis model. We first determined the effect of topical
application of GUG to mice against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced conventional markers and other novel
markers of skin tumor promotion. We found that topical application of GUG (1.6 micromol per mouse) 30 min prior to TPA (3.2 nmol
per mouse) application onto the skin of mice afforded significant inhibition against TPA-mediated increase in skin edema and
hyperplasia. Topical application of GUG was also found to result in substantial inhibition against TPA-induced epidermal (i) ornithine
decarboxylase (ODC) activity; (ii) ODC, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expressions; (iii)
phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, c-jun N-terminal kinases and p38; (iv) activation of NF-kappaB/p65 and
IKK alpha/beta and (v) phosphorylation and degradation of I kappaB alpha. We next assessed the effect of topically applied GUG on
TPA-induced skin tumor promotion in 7,12-dimethyl benz[a]anthracene-initiated mice. Compared with non-GUG-pretreated mice,
animals pretreated with GUG showed significantly reduced tumor incidence, lower tumor body burden and a significant delay in the

177

latency period for tumor appearance from 5 to 11 weeks. These results provide the first evidence that GUG possesses anti-skin tumorpromoting effects in SENCAR mice and inhibits conventional as well as novel biomarkers of tumor promotion. In summary, GUG
could be useful for delaying tumor growth in humans.

Sathesh Kumar S, Ravi Kumar B, Krishna Mohan G. Hepatoprotective effect of Trichosanthes cucumerina Var cucumerina L. on
carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in rats. J EthnoPharmacol. 2009;123(2):347-50.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:
Different parts of the plant Trichosanthes cucumerina Var cucumerina L. (cucurbitaceae) are used to treat liver disorders, traditionally.
It is one among the constituents in various Ayurvedic formulations used for the treatment of liver disorders and other diseases.AIMS
OF STUDY: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of Trichosanthes cucumerina against experimentally
induced liver injury.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The methanolic extract of whole plant of Trichosanthes cucumerina (TCME) was evaluated for the hepatoprotective activity against
carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Various biochemical parameters like alanine amino transferase (ALT),
aspartate amino transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TB), total protein (TP) and albumin (ALB) levels were
estimated in serum as well as the glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the liver were determined.
Histopathological changes in the liver of different groups were also studied.
RESULTS:
The pre-treatment of TCME at dose levels of 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w.p.o. had controlled the raise of AST, ALT, ALP, TB and MDA
levels and the effects were comparable with standard drug (silymarin 100 mg/kg b.w.p.o.). The GSH, TP and ALB levels were
significantly increased in the animals received pre-treatment of the extract. The animals received pre-treatment of the extract shown
decreased necrotic zones and hepatocellular degeneration when compared to the liver exposed to CCl(4) intoxication alone. Thus the
histopathalogical studies also supported the protective effect of the extract.
CONCLUSION:
This study demonstrates the hepatoprotective activity of Trichosanthes cucumerina and thus scientifically supports the usage of this
plant in various Ayurvedic preparations and traditional medicine for treatment of liver disorders.

Savaliya AA, Shah RP, PRasad B, Singh S. Screening of Indian aphrodisiac Ayurvedic/herbal healthcare products for adulteration with
sildenafil, tadalafil and/or vardenafil using LC/PDA and extracted ion LC-MS/TOF. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010;52(3):4069.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Ayurvedic/herbal healthcare products are considered safe under the impression that they are derived from natural products. But
recently, there have been several reports worldwide on the adulteration of synthetic PDE-5 inhibitors in aphrodisiac herbal
formulations. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to explore the presence of synthetic PDE-5 inhibitors (sildenafil,
tadalafil and/or vardenafil) in Ayurvedic/herbal healthcare products sold in Indian market for aphrodisiac/related uses. In total, 85
herbal formulations (HFs) were included in the study. The formulations were extracted with methanol and subjected to centrifugation.
The supernatant was analysed by HPLC and LC-MS/TOF. Early detection of the presence of sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil in the
herbal samples was done by the study of extracted ion mass chromatograms at the m/z values of respective parent ions, and two
prominent fragments of each. In case of sildenafil and tadalafil, adulteration was also detected by comparing the relative retention

178

times (RR(T)) and UV spectra. Further substantiation was done through comparison of accurate mass spectra with those of the two
available standards. Of the 85 HFs tested, only one was eventually found to be adulterated with sildenafil. The extent of adulterant in
this sample was determined to the therapeutic dose in the formulation. The study thus indicates emergence of the problem of
adulteration of Indian herbal products with PDE-5 inhibitors.

Sen SK, Behera LM. Traditional use of herbal medicines against headache and migraine by the tribals of Bargarh district of Orissa.
Ethnobotany.2009;21:127-130.
Abstract.
Ethnobotanical studies were carried out in different tribal areas of Bargarh district. During survey, the tribals and other rural
communities were interviewed to record information regarding their lifestyle, tradition, culture and medicinal uses of the plant species.
Out of a number of plants used by these tribals for treatment of various ailmets, 30 plants are used to treat headache and migraine. The
local names(s), locally and collection number along with part(s) used and mode of administration for treatment of headache and
migraine are presented here.

Shah AS, Juvekar AR. In vitro and in vivo immunostimulatory activity of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers on non-specific immunity.
Pharm Biol. 2010;48(9):1066-72. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
CONTEXT:
Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz. (Lythraceae), a non-Rasayana immunomodulatory Indian medicinal plant, used traditionally as an
anthelmintic, in dysentery, leprosy, blood diseases, leucorrhea, and menorrhagia.
OBJECTIVE:
To investigate the effect of ethanol extract of W. fruticosa flowers on non-specific immune responses in mice.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
In vitro immunomodulatory activity of the extract was examined on murine peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis (nitroblue
tetrazolium (NBT) dye reduction, lysosomal enzyme activity, nitric oxide and myeloperoxidase) and on proliferation of bone marrow
cells by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, while the in vivo potential on macrophages and bone marrow cells was evaluated by using
carbon clearance test and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression, respectively.
RESULTS:
Significant increase in the release of myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide lysosomal enzyme and superoxide from macrophages along with
significant increase in phagocytic index in carbon clearance test indicate stimulatory activity of the extract on macrophages. The
extract also demonstrated 60% increase in bone marrow cell proliferation and offer protection towards cyclophosphamide-induced
myelosuppression which represents the stimulation of bone marrow activity.
DISCUSSION:
Significant increase in mediators released from macrophages and phagocytic index in carbon clearance test suggests the release of
cytokines from macrophages and stimulation of reticulo-endothelial system. Proliferation of bone marrow cells indicates the plausible
release of colony stimulating factors, which further stimulates the immune system through generation of immune cells.
CONCLUSION:

179

The result described here indicates the immunostimulatory activity of ethanol extract of W. fruticosa flowers by stimulating nonspecific immune responses, macrophages and bone marrow cells.

Shah N, Kataria H, Kaul SC, Ishii T, Kaur G, Wadhwa R. Effect of the alcoholic extract of Ashwagandha leaves and its components on
proliferation, migration, and differentiation of glioblastoma cells: combinational approach for enhanced differentiation. Cancer Sci.
2009;100(9):1740-7.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is widely used in the Indian traditional system of medicine, Ayurveda. Although it is claimed to
have a large variety of health-promoting effects, including therapeutic effects on stress and disease, the mechanisms of action have not
yet been determined. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the growth inhibition and differentiation potential of the alcoholic
extract of Ashwagandha leaves (i-Extract), its different constituents (Withaferin A, Withanone, Withanolide A) and their combinations
on glioma (C6 and YKG1) cell lines. Withaferin A, Withanone, Withanolide A and i-Extract markedly inhibited the proliferation of
glioma cells in a dose-dependent manner and changed their morphology toward the astrocytic type. Molecular analysis revealed that
the i-Extract and some of its components caused enhanced expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, change in the immunostaining
pattern of mortalin from perinuclear to pancytoplasmic, delay in cell migration, and increased expression of neuronal cell adhesion
Molecules. The data suggest that the i-Extract and its components have the potential to induce senescence-like growth arrest and
differentiation in glioma cells. These assays led us to formulate a unique combination formula of i-Extract components that caused
enhanced differentiation of glial cells.

Sharma V, Thakur M, Chauhan NS, Dixit VK. Immunomodulatory activity of petroleum ether extract of Anacyclus pyrethrum. Pharm
Biol. 2010;48(11):1247-54.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
CONTEXT:
Anacyclus pyrethrum DC (Compositae) roots, commonly known as Pellitory root and locally as akarkara, are widely recognized in the
Indian traditional systems of medicine, Ayurveda, as a 'Rasayana', i.e. a plant with immunomodulatory properties. Objective:
Evaluation of A. pyrethrum extract for its effect on normal and chemically suppressed immune systems in vivo.
MATERIALS:
Petroleum ether extract (PEE) of roots was tested at 50 and 100 mg/kg dose. The effect of both doses on total and differential
leukocyte count, cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression, survival rate against Candida albicans infection, delayed type
hypersensitivity reaction, percentage neutrophil adhesion, and phagocytic activity were tested.
RESULTS:
The PEE-treated rats were able to overcome cyclophosphamide-induced myelo-suppression as evidenced by the normalization of
blood parameters. Survival rate of albino rats was improved in Candida albicans-infected animals by treatment with the extract (p
<0.05). An increase in delayed type hypersensitivity response (DTH), percentage neutrophil adhesion, and in vivo phagocytosis by
carbon clearance method was observed after treatment. Extract administration also increased the HA titer value and IgG antibodies.
DISCUSSION:
Immunostimulant activity increased two-fold upon doubling the dosage of extract administered. While a significant (p <0.05)
improvement was observed in the humoral component, a highly significant (p <0.01) effect was observed in the cellular components
of the immunity evaluated. The results thus provide a basis for the use of A. pyrethrum as an adaptogen and immunomodulator in the
Ayurvedic system of medicine.

180

Shabir GA. A New Validated HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of 2-phenoxyethanol, Methylparaben, Ethylparaben
and Propylparaben in a Pharmaceutical Gel. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2010;72(4):421-5. Http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/
Abstrac
A novel reversed-phase HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 2-phenoxyethanol,
methylparaben, ethylparaben and propylparaben preserVatives. The method uses a Lichrosorb C8 (1504.6 mm, 5 m) column and
isocratic elution. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran and water (21:13:66, v/v/v), pumped at a
flow rate of 1 ml/min. The UV detection was set at 258 nm. The method was validated with respect to accuracy, precision
(repeatability and intermediate precision), specificity, linearity and range. All the parameters examined met the current
recommendations for bioanalytical method validation. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of
commercially available pharmaceutical gel products for these preserVatives. The procedure describes here is simple, selective and
reliable for routine quality control analysis and stability tests.

Shirsand SB, Suresh S, Jodhana LS, Swamy PV. Formulation design and optimization of fast disintegrating Lorazepam tablets by
effervescent method.Indian J Pharm Sci. 2010;72(4):431-6. Http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/
Abstract.
Fast disintegrating tablets of lorazepam were prepared by effervescent method with a view to enhance patient compliance. A 3(2) full
factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of two formulation variables: amount of crospovidone and mixture of
sodium bicarbonate, citric acid and tartaric acid (effervescent material) on in vitro dispersion time. Crospovidone (2-8% w/w) was
used as superdisintegrant and mixture of sodium bicarbonate, citric acid and tartaric acid (6-18% w/w) was used as effervescent
material, along with directly compressible mannitol to enhance mouth feel. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability,
thickness, drug content uniformity and in vitro dispersion time. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 13 s); the
formulation containing 8% w/w crospovidone and 18% w/w mixture of sodium bicarbonate, citric acid and tartaric acid was found to
be promising and tested for in vitro drug release pattern (in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer), short-term stability and drug-excipient
interaction. Surface response plots are presented to graphically represent the effect of independent variables (concentrations of
crospovidone and effervescent material) on the in vitro dispersion time. The validity of the generated mathematical model was tested
by preparing two extra-design check point formulations. The optimized tablet formulation was compared with conventional marketed
tablet for drug release profiles. This formulation showed nearly eleven-fold faster drug release (t(50%) 2.8 min) compared to the
conventional commercial tablet formulation (t(50%) >30 min). Short-term stability studies on the formulation indicated that there
were no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (P<0.05).

Shi Y, Sahu RP, Srivastava SK. Triphala inhibits both in vitro and in vivo xenograft growth of pancreatic tumor cells by inducing
apoptosis. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:294. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
BACKGROUND:
Triphala is commonly used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat variety of diseases; however its mechanism of action remains unexplored.
This study elucidates the molecular mechanism of Triphala against human pancreatic cancer in the cellular and in vivo model.
METHODS:
Growth-inhibitory effects of Triphala were evaluated in Capan-2, BxPC-3 and HPDE-6 cells by Sulphoradamine-B assay. Apoptosis
was determined by cell death assay and western blotting. Triphala was administered orally to nude mice implanted with Capan-2

181

xenograft. Tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting.RESULTS: Exposure of Capan-2 cells to the
aqueous extract of Triphala for 24 h resulted in the significant decrease in the survival of cells in a dose-dependent manner with an
IC50 of about 50 microg/ml. Triphala-mediated reduced cell survival correlated with induction of apoptosis, which was associated
with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Triphala-induced apoptosis was linked with phosphorylation of p53 at Ser-15 and
ERK at Thr-202/Tyr-204 in Capan-2 cells. Above mentioned effects were significantly blocked when the cells were pretreated with an
antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), suggesting the involvement of ROS generation. Pretreatment of cells with pifithrin-alpha or
U0126, specific inhibitors of p53 or MEK-1/2, significantly attenuated Triphala-induced apoptosis. Moreover, NAC or U0126
pretreatment significantly attenuated Triphala-induced p53 transcriptional activity. Similarly, Triphala induced apoptosis in another
pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3 by actiVating ERK. On the other hand, Triphala failed to induce apoptosis or activate ERK or p53
in normal human pancreatic ductal epithelial (HPDE-6) cells. Further, oral administration of 50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg Triphala in PBS,
5 days/week significantly suppressed the growth of Capan-2 pancreatic tumor-xenograft. Reduced tumor-growth in Triphala fed mice
was due to increased apoptosis in the tumors cells, which was associated with increased activation of p53 and ERK.
CONCLUSION:
Our preclinical studies demonstrate that Triphala is effective in inhibiting the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells in both cellular
and in vivo model. Our data also suggests that the growth inhibitory effects of Triphala is mediated by the activation of ERK and p53
and shows potential for the treatment and/or prevention of human pancreatic cancer.

Singh OP, Padhi MM, Das B, Deep VC, Hazra J, Alam MM, Tewari NS, Rao MM. Clinical evaluation of Kanchanar Guggulu and
gokshuradi Guggulu in the management of manifested case of Slipada (Filariasis).Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha.
2008;29(2): 39 47.
Abstract.:
Slipada (Filariasis) is mosquito borne disease which initially either remains latent or presents ambiguous features whn manifested.
The pitting oedema or progressive hardened swelling becomes irreversible in proportion to duration of the disease. As such in chronic
manifested stage, very few medicines are likely to bring about complete recovery or to prevent the episodes. So the drugs likely to act
in chronic dormant stage are supposed to have anti tumour, anti inflammatory and diuretic effect. N this series, Kanchnar Guggulu
and Goksuradi Guggulu were put to clinical trial in 50 patients of chronic manifested Slipada (Filariasis). Considering prognosis of
the disease the result seems encouraging since only with a 4 weeks course of treatment 32% of patients had good response, 44%
patients had Fair rspsonse. 16% had poor response, 2% had no response and 6% were dropped out.

Srikanth N, Mangal AK, Lavekar GS. An Insight on Indigenous Ophthalmic Medicinal Flora: An Ayurvedic Pharmacological Basis.
Bull. Med. Ethno Bot. Research. 2005; 26(3-4):65-74.
Abstract.
This contribution highlights hidden knowledge about various ophthalmic plant drugs scattered elsewhere in various corners of ancient
literatures of Ayurveda and provides the basic knowledge concerning ophthalmic drugs found in medical classics of ancient and
medieval period, which forms a base for further research and validation. An attempt has also made to classify the Ayurvedic
ophthalmic plants drugs based on their mode of action with Ayurvedic Pharmacological basis.

Srikanth N, Mangal AK, Lavekar GS. Scientific exposition of medicinal plants in painful ophthalmic conditions: An Ayurvedic
Pharmacological perspective. Bull. Med. Ethno Bot. Research. 2007; 28(3-4): 25-40.
Abstract.

182

Antiquity of ophthalmic use of medicinal plants goes back to the period of (1000 B.C.). A mention of different analgesic ophthalmic
drugs is found in Garudapurana. The present work aims at exposition of hidden knowledge about single ophthalmic plant drugs
indicated in ocular pain scattered elsewhere in ancient and medieval Ayurvedic literature and to impart the basic knowledge
concerning these drugs which forms a base for further research and revalidation. A special edition has also been made to analyse these
drugs based on Pharmacodynamic/kinetic principles mentioned in Ayurvedic Pharmacology, to arrive rational conclusions concerning
the probable mode of action of these agents and creating possible basis for formulation of strategy for developing appropriate topical
drops and oral dosage forms to achieve ocular analgesia without adverse effects.

Suneetha J, Reddi TVV Seetharami, PRasanthi S.Traditional phytotheraphy for bites in East Godavari district (Andhara Pradesh).
Abstract.
The paper highlights uses of 45 ethnomedicinal plants with 46 prescriptions traditionally utilized by the tribals and other rural
inhabitants in East Godavari district. The plant species are used either singly or in combination for the treatment of various kinds of
bites and scorpion sting.

Swami G, Gupta K, Kymonil KM, Saraf S. Soyabean powder as a novel diluent in tablet formulation of simvastatin. Indian J Pharm
Sci. 2010;72(4):426-30.Http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/
Abstract.
The present research paper introduces soyabean nuggets powder, as a novel excipient with nutraceutical value for tablets containing
cholesterol lowering drug, simvastatin. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the suitability of soyabean nuggets powder as a
diluent by incorporating in tablet formulation of simvastatin. The formulation was compared with the marketed product to determine
its relative efficacy. Soyabean nuggets powder was found to be a promising diluent for tablets for both pharmaceutical and
nutraceutical purposes. Simavastatin soya tablet showed acceptable pharmacotechnical properties and assay requirement.

Tatiya AU, Saluja AK. Studies on Physico- Chemical Properties and Antuoxidant Activity of Mucilage Polysaccharides From
Machilus Macrantha Bark. The Journal of Research and Education in Indian Medicine.2008;14(2):1-6.
Abstract.
Mucilage from the water extract of bark of Machilus macrantha was isolated and purified by ethanol precipitation and delignification.
Qualitative and quantitative analysis of sugars were identified by using HPTLC. The antioxidant effects of Mucilage were evaluated
against DPPH, Nitric oxide, reducing power and lipid peroxidation model. The IC50 of mucilage was 58.01, 52.45 and 47.08 ug/ml
respectively. The IC50 stands for the concentration required for 50% scavenging activity. The results demonstrated that 16-20% of
mucilage was present in the bark in which arabinose and xylose were present as sugars molecule. The antioxidant results suggested
that mucilage of machilus macrantha might play an important role in free radical scavenging activity.

Tomar NR, Singh V, Marla SS, Chandra R, Kumar R, Kumar A. Molecular docking studies with rabies virus glycoprotein to design
viral therapeutics. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2010;72(4):486-90. Http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed//
Abstract.
The genome of rabies virus encodes five proteins; the nucleoprotein, the phosphoprotein, the matrix protein, the glycoprotein, and the
RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Among these, the glycoprotein is the most important as it is the major contributor to pathogenicity
and virus neutralizing antibody response. Keeping in mind that glycoprotein is the only protein exposed on the surface of virus and is

183

thought to be responsible for the interaction with the cell membrane, it was attempted to target glycoprotein by a ligand polyethylene
glycol 4000, which blocks its active site, as seen by molecular operating environment software, so that it may be possible to prevent
the spread of virus into the host. The ligand polyethylene glycol 4000 was retrieved from Research Collaboratory for Structural
Bioinformatics protein data bank by providing the glycoprotein sequence to the databank. In this study it was observed that the ligand
was successfully docked on a major portion of antigenic site II of glycoprotein by mimicking the virus neutralizing antibodies. This
knowledge may be important for the development of novel therapies for the treatment of rabies and other viral diseases in the future.

Upadhayay PS, Kumar Mohan, Singh BM. An Experimental Study on Shavasa-Kasa-Chintamani-Rasa. The Journal of Research and
Education in Indian Medicine.2008;14(2):21-6.
Abstract.
Purified herbometallic preparations have been advocated in Indian system of medicine to treat almost all diseases of human since 6th
century by the Ayurvedic physician without any significant adverse effects. But many research scholars of modern science has doubts
regarding their safety in human and claimed that herbomineral drugs are harmful, because of hepatp-renal toxicity and many other side
effects. So, to evaluate the facts regarding toxicity of SKCR an experimental study was performed on Swiss mice (C3HHC)-Strain) of
both sex, based on research methodology (W.H.O. guidelines).40 mice of both sex were divided into three groups as follows- (a)
Group A (control group i.e. without any drug administration): 10 mice ( 5 male and 5 female mice), (b) Group B (safety profile): 10
mice(5 male 5 female mice), 40mg/kg drug was given twice daily and (c) Group C : 20 mice, categorized into two sub group based on
the drug dose level (1). T1- 200mg/kg, SKCR given twice daily: 10 mice (5 male and 5 female mice).(2). T2-400mg/kg, SKCR given
twice daily: 10 mice (5 male and 5 female mice). The drug was given for a total period of 14 days and then all the mice were kept on
animal diet for next 7 days, before they were scarified. No significant pathological changes were observed on macroscopic and
histopathological study of liver, brain and kidney in any mice of three groups.

Wabwoba BW, Anjili CO, Ngeiywa MM, Ngure PK, Kigondu EM, Ingonga J, Makwali J. Experimental chemotherapy with Allium
sativum (Liliaceae) methanolic extract in rodents infected with Leishmania major and Leishmania donovani. J Vector Borne Dis. 2010
;47(3):160-7. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Several plant products have been tested and found to possess antileishmanial activity. The present study was undertaken to establish
whether methanolic extract of Allium sativum Linn has antileishmanial activity in comparison to standard drugs. Methanolic extract of
A. sativum bulbs was screened for in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activity against Leishmania major strain (NLB 145) and L.
donovani strain (NLB 065). Pentostam and Amphotericin B were used as standard drugs. BALB/c mice and golden hamsters
(Mesocricetus auratus) were used in in vivo studies on L. major and L. donovani respectively. The extract exhibited very low
cytotoxicity (IC50 >450 g/ml) against Vero cells. The extract had significantly better (p <0.001) leishmanicidal activity against both
species (IC50 34.22 g/ml to L. major, 37.41 g/ml to L. donovani) than Pentostam. However, the activity was significantly lower (p
<0.001) than that of Amphotericin B against both the species. At a concentration of 250 g/ml, the extract induced the production of
60 M of nitric oxide, a ten-fold up-regulation in activated macrophages. The multiplication indices for L. major amastigotes treated
in 100 g/ml were significantly different (p <0.05). Treatment with the extract, daily for 28 days led to a significant reduction (p
<0.05) in footpad swelling in BALB/c mice; similar activity noticed in the treatment with standard drugs. The Leishman-Donovan
Units (LDU) for the extract treated animals were significantly higher (p <0.05) than those of standard drugs, but lower compared to
the negative control. Since the mechanism of action for the methanolic extract is apparently immunomodulatory, garlic compounds
could be purified and tried as complementary medicine in the management of leishmaniases

Zaid AN, Cortesi R, Kort J, Sweileh W. Interchangeability of two 500 mg amoxicillin capsules with one 1000 mg amoxicillin tablet
after a single oral administration. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2010;72(4):414-20. Http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/

184

Abstract.
The aim of the study was to evaluate if two capsules (Amoxil capsules, 500 mg/capsule) and one tablet (Amoxicare tablets, 1000
mg/tablet) of amoxicillin have similar bioequivalence parameters. For this purpose a randomized, two-way, crossover, bioequivalence
study was performed in 24 healthy, male volunteers, divided into two groups of 12 subjects each. One group was treated with the
reference standard (Amoxil ) and the other one with the generic tablet Amoxicare , with a crossover after a wash-out period of 7
days. Blood samples were collected at fixed time intervals and amoxicillin was determined by a validated HPLC method. The
pharmacokinetic parameters AUC 0-8, AUC 0-, C max , T max , K e and T 1/2 were determined for both formulations and
statistically compared to evaluate the bioequivalence between the two brands of amoxicillin, using the statistical model recommended
by the FDA. C max and AUC 0- were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA); no statistically significant
difference was observed between the two formulations. The 90% confidence intervals between the mean values of C max and AUC 0-
fall within the FDA specified bioequivalent limits (80-125%) suggesting that the two products are bioequivalent and the two
formulations are interchangeable. Based on these findings it was concluded that the practice of interchangeability between the above
formulations to achieve better patient compliance could be followed without compromising the extent of amoxicillin absorption.

VETERINERY
Mallick S, Prakash BS. Effects of supplementation of Tinospora cordifolia to crossbred cows peripartum. Anim Reprod
Sci.2011;123(1-2):5 13.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), a medicinal plant used in Ayurveda, is well documented for its immunomodulatory properties. Since
the crossbred periparturient cow is highly susceptible to various diseases that effectively reduces its reproductive performance
postpartum we explored the possibility of enhancing the reproductive performance of crossbred cows by Guduchi supplementation
peripartum. A total of 15 pregnant Karan Fries cows were selected and divided into two groups: treatment group of 8 cows which were
supplemented with Guduchi at 60 g/day for 45 days prepartum and 120 g/day for 45 days postpartum and unsupplemented control
group of 7 cows. Jugular blood samples were collected from all cows during the periparturient period for analysis of endocrine
(progesterone, total estrogens and PGFM), immunological and hematological parameters. Incidence of retention of fetal membranes,
endometritis, pyometra and calf mortality were higher in control group of cows in comparison to those recorded in treated group. The
Guduchi supplemented cows exhibited faster uterine involution (28 days vs. 42 days) and early commencement of cyclicity (37 days
vs. 58 days; based on plasma progesterone profiles) in comparison to untreated control group of cows. Mean birth weight of calves
from treatment group of cows was significantly higher than those from control group however no significant difference was observed
in average daily body weight gain of calves in both the groups. A higher total leukocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil count along with
increased neutrophil lymphocyte ratio was recorded in Guduchi supplemented cows in comparison to untreated cows although plasma
total antioxidant activity was similar between the two groups. Prepartum plasma progesterone concentration was significantly lowered
in the treated group however there was no significant change in peripartum plasma total estrogens and PGFM levels due to Guduchi
supplementation.

MISCELLANEOUS.
Abraham S, Kumar MS, Sehgal PK, Nitish S, Jayakumar ND. Evaluation of the inhibitory effect of Triphala on PMN-type matrix
metalloproteinase (MMP-9). J Periodontol.2005;76(4):497-502.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

185

Abstract.
BACKGROUND:
This study evaluated the inhibitory activity of Triphala on PMN-type matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9) expressed in adult
periodontitis patients and compared its activity with another Ayurvedic drug, kamillosan, and doxycycline, which has known
inhibitory activity.
METHODS:
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were extracted from gingival tissue samples from 10 patients (six males, four females) with
chronic periodontitis. Tissue extracts were treated with the drug solutions, the inhibition was analyzed by gelatin zymography, and the
percentage of inhibition was determined by a gel documentation system. RESULTS: The activity of MMPs was significantly
decreased with the use of the drugs. Triphala showed a 76.6% reduction of MMP-9 activity, whereas kamillosan showed a 46.36%
reduction at a concentration of 1,500 microg/ml (crude extract) and doxycycline showed a 58.7% reduction at a concentration of 300
microg/ml (pure drug).
CONCLUSION:
The present study showed the strong inhibitory activity of Triphala on PMN-type MMPs involved in the extracellular matrix (ECM)
degradation during periodontitis.

Adedotun AA, Morenikeji OA, Odaibo AB. Knowledge, attitudes and practices about malaria in an urban community in south-western
Nigeria. J Vector Borne Dis. 2010 ;47(3):155-9. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Oyo is an urban community in Oyo state of south-western Nigeria and it is holoendemic for malaria. Information was collected on the
knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of inhabitants of Oyo town in relation to malaria.A cross-sectional survey of 192 households
with the aid of self- or researcher-administered questionnaires was carried out to identify factors associated with the disease in the
area.
About 93.2% (n=192) of respondents recognized mosquito bites as the cause of malaria. A small proportion of children (13.7%) and
adults (5.3%) received prompt treatment; however, more adults (65.8%) got correct dosage of antimalarials than children (38.7%).
About 90% of suspected malaria cases in children and adults were first treated at home with local herbs or drugs, purchased from
medicine stores. The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) was scarce as only 16.7% of households used them for their children. Other
reported malaria prevention methods include the use of insecticides (79.7%) and herbs (44.3%). In all, 17 (8.9%) of households did
not have screening nets on their windows and 6.3% of 175 households with screening nets on their windows had rusty and torn nets.
The level of education of heads of households was a strong predictor of positive malaria-related KAP. Window types and
environmental hygiene were associated with prevalence of malaria in households.The control of malaria cannot be achieved without
full involvement of the affected communities; the available tools for control can only be effective and sustainable if the local
communities are mobilized and empowered with knowledge. It is suggested that health education campaigns be intensified; chemist
shop-keepers and mothers being important target groups.

Adhya D, Basu A. Epigenetic modulation of host: new insights into immune evasion by viruses; J. Biosci. 2010;35(4):647663.
http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci
Abstract.
Viruses have evolved with their hosts, which include all living species. This has been partly responsible for the development of highly
advanced immune systems in the hosts. However, viruses too have evolved ways to regulate and evade the hosts immune defence. In

186

addition to mutational mechanisms that viruses employ to mimic the host genome and undergo latency to evade the hosts recognition
of the pathogen, they have also developed epigenetic mechanisms by which they can render the hosts immune responses inactive to
their antigens. The epigenetic regulation of gene expression is intrinsically active inside the host and is involved in regulating gene
expression and cellular differentiation. Viral immune evasion strategies are an area of major concern in modern biomedical research.
Immune evasion strategies may involve interference with the host antigen presentation machinery or host immune gene expression
capabilities, and viruses, in these manners, introduce and propagate infection. The aim of this review is to elucidate the various
epigenetic changes that viruses are capable of bringing about in their host in order to enhance their own survivability and
pathogenesis.

Aggarwal A, Tandon S, Singla SK, Tandon C. Diminution of oxalate induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury and inhibition of
calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro by aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris. Int Braz J Urol. 2010 ;36(4):4808.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
PURPOSE:
Recurrence and persistent side effects of present day treatment for urolithiasis restrict their use, so an alternate solution, using
phytotherapy is being sought. The present study attempted to evaluate the antilithiatic properties of Tribulus terrestris commonly
called as "gokhru" which is often used in Ayurveda to treat various urinary diseases including urolithiasis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The activity of Tribulus terrestris was investigated on nucleation and the growth of the calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals as well as on
oxalate induced cell injury of NRK 52E renal epithelial cells. RESULTS: Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited a concentration
dependent inhibition of nucleation and the growth of CaOx crystals. When NRK-52E cells were injured by exposure to oxalate for 72
h, Tribulus terrestris extract prevented the injury in a dose-dependent manner. On treatment with the different concentrations of the
plant, the cell viability increased and lactate dehydrogenase release decreased in a concentration dependent manner.
CONCLUSION:
The current data suggests that Tribulus terrestris extract not only has a potential to inhibit nucleation and the growth of the CaOx
crystals but also has a cytoprotective role. Our results indicate that it could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against
urolithiasis.

Agnihotri S, Vaidya AD. A novel approach to study antibacterial properties of volatile components of selected Indian medicinal herbs.
Indian J Exp Biol. 1996;34(7):712-5.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The aromatic substances of natural origin are used medicinally in Ayurveda, and can have diverse bio-dynamic actions. The existing
methods like agar-cup method or disc diffusion method are not adequate to study the exclusive antibacterial effects of the volatile
components of aromatic oils due to lack of ideal diffusion and evaporation from the surface. Hence an attempt is made to develop a
novel approach to assess the antibacterial activity of few aromatic herbs like Eugenia caryophyllus, Thymus vulgaris, Cinnamonum
zeylanium, Cuminum cyminum; these were extracted with hexane filled in tiny sterile tubes and the volatile components were tested
for their antibacterial properties using standard strains of gram +ve and gram -ve bacteria grown on agar slants. The results are
expressed as a percent of inhibition of the area on the slants, from the top of the extract tube. Of the four herbs selected, volatile
components of Thymus vulgaris were most effective againsts all the seven test organisms.

187

Akhtar S, Maimoon S, Wilkinson A, Gowardhan V, Mahore S. Feasible choices in diagnostic methods of malaria. J Vector Borne Dis.
2010 ;47(3):151-4. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The present study was undertaken to find out a new easy method in the diagnosis of malaria by centrifuged buffy coat smear, which
was found to be a feasible and reasonable procedure. Blood samples collected from 120 patients suspected of malaria were subjected
to all three diagnostic modalities-peripheral blood smear (PS), centrifuged buffy coat smear (CBCS) and antigen detection test using
pLDH and aldolase (AG). The results of various methods were compared. It was seen that addition of centrifugation (i.e. CBCS) to
conventional method of PS (i.e. thick and thin smears) improved its sensitivity from 85 to 93.3%. Antigen detection and CBCS were
found superior to PS in sensitivity. CBCS gives combined sensitivity and specificity of both antigen and PS. CBCS is as sensitive as
antigen test and as specific as PS in species identification. It is a reasonable and feasible procedure too.

Amarasiri de Silva MW, Wijekoon A, Hornik R, MArtines J. Care seeking in Sri Lanka:one possible explanation for low childhood
mortality. Soc Sci Med. 2001;53(10):1363-72.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
This paper examines care-seeking practices of mother caretakers with children less than five years of age in a rural district of Sri
Lanka. The study was carried out from June to September 1998, documenting care-seeking practices of mother caretakers in a
population of 2248 children in 60 villages. Of the five targeted diseases in the IMCI programme (Integrated Management of
Childhood Illnesses) that were the focus of the study, acute respiratory infections (82.0%) and diarrhoea (14.8%) were predominant.
Although malnutrition was highly prevalent it was not recognised by mother caretakers as an illness. Findings show that in 65.0% of
illness episodes in children the mother caretakers sought outside care and treatment. Caretakers sought treatment from both private
and public sectors with the majority seeking care in the private sector. Care seeking of mother caretakers was driven by
symptomology. Young children with higher perceived severity and high-risk symptoms were brought to provider care more frequently,
although a large percentage of episodes with low-risk symptoms were also brought for outside care. Care seeking was similar across
socio-economic groups. The study points out that high care seeking of mother caretakers in Sri Lanka, Particularly for illnesses with
acute high-risk symptoms and signs, is a plausible explanation for the low level of childhood mortality despite the prevalence of a high
rate of malnutrition.

Anandhi CL, Nagaraj VK, Kumar R. Knowledge and practice pattern of non-allopathic indigenous medical practitioners regarding
tuberculosis in a rural area of India. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis.2002;6(6):553-5.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
OBJECTIVE:
To assess the knowledge and practice patterns of non-allopathic indigenous medical practitioners (IMPs) regarding tuberculosis (TB)
METHODS:
Seventy-four IMPs practising in Naraingarh block, a rural area of Haryana State, India, were interviewed using a semi-structured
interview schedule.
RESULTS:
Fifty-four per cent (40/74) of the IMPs saw two to five TB patients every month. Sixty-one per cent (46/74) reported that they based
their diagnosis of TB on symptoms alone, whereas 38% use diagnostic tests such as chest X-ray, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and
sputum examination. Forty per cent of the IMPs reported that alcohol was the cause of TB, 36.5% cited smoking and 17.6% reported
infection as the cause. Only 34% (25/74) of IMPs reported that they treated TB patients, while the rest said that they referred such

188

cases to nearby hospitals. Anti-tuberculosis drugs used by IMPs were isoniazid, rifampicin and streptomycin, but none of them knew
the dosage of the drugs, the duration of treatment or the correct regimen. Sixty-four per cent of the 25 IMPs reported using Ayurvedic
medicines.
CONCLUSION:
Considerable proportions of TB patients seek IMPs for cure of TB, while the knowledge and practice of IMPs is inadequate.

Antia NH. On health and healing:


73.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

community

health

care

in

India.

Indian

Pediatr.

1991;58(2):161-

Abstract.
PIP: Indian society adhere to certain Articles of faith: health is a right of everyone and when the normal healthy state fails illness
arises. Therefore health maintenance should prevail over treating illness. Still influential Western trained physicians in India operate
under a top down technomanagerial approach where the beneficial health services center around large expensive specialized curative
services in urban hospitals. Yet 70% of the rural population do not even have access to basic health services and communicable
diseases continue to be the leading health problems, especially among children who compromise 45% of the population. This happens
despite adoption of a decentralized health services model where basic health services would be accessible to all, Particularly the rural
population after Independence from Great Britain. Some in India advocate a model created by 2 research centers that minimizes the
importance of medical technology and recognizes the influence of socioeconomic, cultural, and political determinants of health and of
health services. This model does not incorporate indigenous and traditional systems, however. For example, Ayurveda is a more
holistic approach than Western medicine and more suited to Indian society. Experiences in Kerala state and other small and effective
projects reinforces the positive effect of community health services. The new approach needed in India begins with people not the elite
and centers on their real problems which include not only medical problems but also socioeconomic and cultural problems. This
approach also attempts to know their perception of health and illness. This model begins at the village level with a primary health care
center. It is used in projects in Mandwa and Malshiras.

Ashok BT, Ali R. Aging research in India. Exp Gerontol. 2003;38(6):597 603.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Research on aging in India has been well documented since ancient times. As way back as 3000-1500 BC, the Indian medical system
of Ayurveda was used as a means for the prevention of the effects of aging and generation of disease in organs or the whole organism,
respectively. In recent years, the focus has been demographic studies on different aspects of aging and has been in isolation. Molecular
aspects of aging have been addressed only by a few groups of scientists which has focused on regulation of gene expression, DNA
damage and repair, development of immunochemical reagents to detect oxidative DNA damage and assessing the levels of circulating
antibodies to reactive oxygen species modified DNA (ROS-DNA), etc. This review aims to recapitulate various research studies on
aging since 3000 BC to date.

Anwikar SR, Bandekar MS, Patel TK, Patel PB, Kshirsagar NA. Tetany: Possible adverse effect of bevacizumab. Indian J
Cancer.2011;48:31-3. Http://www.indianjcancer.com/.
Abstract.

189

Background: Bevacizumab a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody was approved in 2004 by US FDA for metastatic
colorectal cancer. It is reported to cause potentially serious toxicities including severe hypertension, proteinuria, and congestive heart
failure. Aim: To correlate adverse event tetany with the use of bevacizumab. Materials and Methods : World Health Organization's
Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden, for reporting of adverse drug reactions from all over the world, identified 7 cases with tetanyrelated symptoms to bevacizumab from four different countries. These 7 patients reported to UMC database developed adverse events
described as musculoskeletal stiffness (1), muscle spasm (1), muscle cramps (1), lock jaw or jaw stiffness (4), and hypertonia (1), with
hypocalcaemia. Results: After detailed study of the possible mechanism of actions of bevacizumab and factors causing tetany, it is
proposed that there is a possibility of tetany by bevacizumab, which may occur by interfering with calcium Metabolism. Resorption of
bone through osteoclasts by affecting VEGF may interfere with calcium Metabolism. Another possibility of tetany may be due to
associated hypomagnesaemia, hypokalemia, or hyponatremia. Conclusions: Tetany should be considered as a one of the signs. Patient
on bevacizumab should carefully watch for tetany-related symptoms and calcium and magnesium levels for their safety.

Azaizeh H, Saad B, Cooper E, Said O. Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine,


a Re-emerging Health Aid. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med.2008.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Complementary medicine is a formal method of health care in most countries of the ancient world. It is expected to become more
widely integrated into the modern medical system, including the medical curriculum. Despite the perception of modern medicine as
more efficacious, traditional medicine continues to be practiced. More than 70% of the developing world's population still depends
primarily on the complementary and alternative systems of medicine (CAM). In rural areas, cultural beliefs and practices often lead to
self-care, home remedies or consultation with traditional healers. Herbal medicine can be broadly classified into four basic systems as
follows: Traditional Chinese Herbalism, Ayurvedic Herbalism, Western Herbalism-which originally came from Greece and Rome to
Europe and then spread to North and South America and Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine (TAIM). There is no doubt that
today the concept of Arabic traditional herbal medicine is a part of modern life in the Middle East, and it is acquiring worldwide
respect, with growing interest among traditional herbalists and the scientific community. TAIM therapies have shown remarkable
success in healing acute as well as chronic diseases and have been utilized by people in most countries of the Mediterranean who have
faith in spiritual healers. TAIM is the first choice for many in dealing with ailments such as infertility, epilepsy, psychosomatic
troubles and depression. In parallel, issues of efficacy and safety of complementary medicine have become increasingly important and
supervision of the techniques and procedures used is required for commercial as well as traditional uses. More research is therefore
needed to understand this type of medicine and ensure its safe usage. The present review will discuss the status of traditional Arab
medicine (Particularly herbal medicine), including the efficacy and toxicity of specific medicinal preparations, with an emphasis on
the modern in vitro and in vivo techniques.

Babu TD, Sasidharan N, Vijayan FP, Padikkala J. Comparative phytochemical and biological analysis to detect the genuineness of
substitutes of the plant Moovila in drug preparations. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol.2008;19(2):11930.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Pseudarthria viscida is the preferred source of the raw drug Salaparni in Ayurvedic system of medicine, especially in the preparation of
Dasamoolarishtam. Due to its scarcity, other trifoliate leguminous plants, Particularly the species of Desmodium and Uraria are used
as substitutes. The phytochemical and biological properties of these plants were analyzed to sort out the genuineness of the substitutes.
Qualitative as well as quantitative chemical profiles obtained for P. viscida showed similarity to U. rufescens. In vitro antioxidant and
in vivo gastroprotective assays carried out to determine the biological properties of the extracts revealed that the acetone extract of P.
viscida inhibited the formation of hydroxyl, superoxide, nitric oxide radicals, and lipid peroxidation. The oral administration of P.
viscida extract significantly reduced ethanol-induced gastric ulceration in mice. Even though more or less the same chemical profile
was obtained for I. viscida and U. rufescens, only P. viscida exhibited significant biological properties.

190

Bandyopadhyay S, Singh A. History of son preference and sex selection in India and in the west. Bull Indian Inst Hist Med
Hyderabad. 2003;33(2):149-67.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
In the history of mankind, there was a time when women dominated the world. In due course of time, as the patriarchal societies
evolved, the status of women gradually declined. Sons were preferred to daughters. In India, the Brahmin community promoted such
customs and rituals, which gave more and more importance to sons eg. Lighting the funeral pyre of the father was told to be a precondition for salVation of his spirit. Similarly, in western civilization also women were considered to be weak. In consonance with
such a mind-set man has been trying various techniques for sex-selection since antiquity eg. for acquiring a son choosing a special
day, time and posture for sexual intercourse, special diet, charms and amulet and prayers etc. In Vedas also punsavana karma has been
described as a technique for acquiring a son. Apart from these techniques, female infanticide has also been used as a way to create a
male dominated, son-worshipping society. On development of the technique of ultrasonography as an example of progress of science
and technology, man has devised a new way of killing females in womb itself, which has resulted in continuous decline in female:
male sex ratio in India. To stop this, Indian Govt. promulgated PNDT Act 1994. But considering the widely prevalent practice of use
of various regimen of sex-pre-selection by people as well as unscrupulous medical practitioners, Govt. of India has amended this Act
(2002). Still, as authors have found in one of their studies, sex-selection drugs are being used widely by north Indians for getting a
son. Here, it should be noted that sex-selection methods are being used in west also. But the perspective is different. There, it is not
used for female feticide or for acquiring a son. Rather, it is more an effort towards demonstrating the control of man over the
NATURE.

Baruah D, Gupta OP. A comparative study of Prameha Roga from the Brihatrayee. Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad.
2002;32(2):93-107. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The study of this Prameha Roga reveals the rich knowledge of the Ayurveda developed since the time immemorial. Although
descriptions of this disease are scattered in different classics of Ayurveda but here importance has been given to Brihatrayee. The aim
and object of this paper review the well documented concept of the Ayurveda about the Prameha Roga as the trend of diabetes is
increasing day by day in the society and is very difficult to prevent and manage owing to its complexity. The Ayurvedic concept of this
Roga information on the subject regarding classification, characteristics, features etc. has been also made in this paper. This Article
highlights the wisdom of ancient Indian literature and some historical view of the disease i.e. Prameha Roga or Diabetes Mellitus.

Banerjee M, Nair GB, Ramamurthy T. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of Bacillus cereus isolated from the acute diarrhoeal
patients. Indian J Med Res.2011;133(1):88-95. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/
Abstract.
Background and objectives : Bacillus cereus is one of the pathogens responsible for human diarrhoea, mainly due to consumption of
contaminated food. The present study was undertaken to determine the occurrence of B. cereus among diarrhoeal patients and its
phenotypic and genetic characteristics that determine the virulence and clonal features. Methods: Stool specimens were collected for
two years from acute diarrhoeal patients attending the two referral hospitals in Kolkata. Presence of virulence genes in B. cereus was
determined by PCR. Clonality was assessed by pulsed-field gel analysis (PFGE) by restriction digestion with SmaI and NotI enzymes.
Enterotoxins were detected by haemolysin assay and using BCET-RPLA kit. Invasion assay was done on Hep-2 cell line.
Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by disc diffusion method. Results: B. cereus was identified in 54 (3.5%) of the 1536 diarrhoeal
cases studied. Majority of the isolates were susceptible to many antibiotics but showed resistant to amoxyclav and cephalosporins. Six
genes covering the two different enterotoxic complexes determining the pathogenicity of B. cereus have been characterized by PCR.
The nhe genes were detected in a higher proportion than hbl. Except in two, clonal diversity was noticed among 21 B. cereus isolates.

191

Haemolytic enterotoxin was detected in 76 per cent of the isolates. Majority of the isolates (67%) produced in vitro enterotoxin
(BCET) confirming its involvement in the infection. Interpretation and conclusions : Though the presence of B. cereus was not high in
patients with diarrhoea, several virulence factors confirm their association with diarrhoea. Distinct clonality was identified in majority
of the isolates indicating their origin from different sources.

Behari J. Biological responses of


Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/

mobile

phone

frequency

exposure.

Indian

Exp

Biol.

2010;48(10):959-81.

Abstract.
Existence of low level electromagnetic fields in the environment has been known since antiquity and their biological implications are
noted for several decades. As such dosimetry of such field parameters and their emissions from various sources of mass utilization has
been a subject of constant concern. Recent advancement in mobile communications has also drawn attention to their biological effects.
Hand held children and adults alike generally use mobile sources as cordless phones in various positions with respect to the body.
Further, an increasing number of mobile communication base stations have led to wide ranging concern about possible health effects
of radiofrequency emissions. There are two distinct possibilities by which health could be affected as a result of radio frequency field
exposure. These are thermal effects caused by holding mobile phones close to the body and extended conversations over a long period
of time.Secondly, there could be possibly non thermal effects from both phones and base stations whereby the affects could also be
cumulative. Some people may be adversely affected by the environmental impact of mobile phone base stations situated near their
homes, schools or any other place. In addition to mobile phones, appliances like microwave oven etc are also in increasing use. Apart
from the controversy over the possible health effects due to the non-thermal effect of electromagnetic fields the electromagnetic
interaction of portable radio waves with human head needs to be quantitatively evaluated. Relating to this is the criteria of safe
exposure to the population at large. While a lot of efforts have gone into resolving the issue, a clear picture has yet to emerge. Recent
advances and the problems relating to the safety criteria are discussed.

Behari J. Principles of nanoscience: an overview. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010;48(10):1008-19. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/


Abstract.
The scientific basis of nanotechnology as envisaged from the first principles is compared to bulk behavior. Development of
nanopArticles having controllable physical and electronic properties has opened up possibility of designing Artificial solids. Top down
and bottom up approaches are emphasized. The role of nanopArticle (quantum dots) application in nanophotonics (photovoltaic cell),
and drug delivery vehicle is discussed. Fundamentals of DNA structure as the prime site in bionanotechnological manipulations is also
discussed. A summary of presently available devices and applications are presented.

Bera R, Dhara TK, Bhadra R, Majumder GC, Sen PC. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids enriched polyunsaturated fatty
acids from the coastal marine fish of Bay of Bengal and their therapeutic value. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010;48(12):1194-203.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/
Abstract.
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) enriched polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) significantly present in
marine fish oil emerge as preventive agents for combating many health problems specially in chronic or metabolic disorders. The fish
in the coastal area of Bay of Bengal has remained unexplored with respect to EPA/DHA enriched PUFA content in its oils, although it
may be a potential source in harnessing the health benefit. In this study, seven varieties of the coastal fish were analysed for the
content of EPA/DHA. The one locally known as lotte, (Harpadon nehereus) though has low content of total lipids, was found to have
high EPA/DHA in its oil. The phospholipids rich fraction was extracted from the total fish oil. The EPA/DHA enriched PUFA was
isolated to investigate the potential use for health benefits. EPA/DHA is found to act as protective agent against mercury poisoning

192

studied in cell culture as well as in animal mode. It is found to be highly preventive in diabetes. The lotte is available in the coastal
area of Bay of Bengal adjoining West Bengal, India in large scale and it is the first report showing EPA/DHA enriched PUFA in these
fish oil that can be availed to harness in important health benefits.

Biswas A, See D, Kogon MM, Spiegel D. Hypnotizability and the use of traditional dhami-jhankri healing in Nepal. Int J Clin Exp
Hypn. 2000;48(1):6-21. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
This study examined the role of hypnotic responsiveness in the practice of a dhami-jhankri, a traditional Nepali healer. The hypnotic
capacity of 248 male patients was measured in an allopathic (Western) clinic, an Ayurvedic (ancient Hindu healing art) clinic, and a
dhami-jhankri's practice. Hypnotizability was assessed using the Hypnotic Induction Profile (HIP). The Induction scores of the HIP
were significantly higher among the dhami-jhankri's patients than among either the Ayurvedic or allopathic patients. Furthermore,
patients who returned to the dhami-jhankri were more highly hypnotizable than first-time dhami-jhankri patients. In addition,
treatment satisfaction as reported by dhami-jhankri patients was positively correlated with HIP scores. The authors conclude that
hypnotic phenomena as measured in the West might be an important component of the dhami-jhankri's treatment in the East.

Borde AU, Qureshi MI, Patil MK, Mendhe MS, Athawaly AM. Protective Effect of Withania Somnifera on Cadmium Chloride
Induced Haematological and Biochemical Changes in Male Rats. The Journal of Research and Education in Indian
Medicine.2008;14(2):15-20.
Abstract.
The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of Withania somnifera (WS) in cadmium chloride induced
haemetological and biochemical changes produced in mele rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided equally into three groups. Group
I was fed on balanced diet of rat pellets for a period of sixty days. The rats in group II were given freshly prepared cadmium chloride
solution in the deionised drinking water in the dose of 200 ppm daily for 60 days. The rats in Group III were fed on Withania
somnifera plant powder thoroughly mixed in rats feed at the concentration of 0.5g/kg (w/w) corresponding to 500 ppm level.
Simultaneously the rats were given cadmium chloride in the dose of 200 ppm in deionised drinking water throughout the experimental
period. There was significant decrese (p<0.01) in mean value of hemoglobin, total serum proteins whereas serum aspartate
transminase (AST) and serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were increased in cadmium
chloride alone treated rats (Group II) as compared to control (Group I). WS, plant powder significantly improved the mean value of
hemoglobin (Hb), value of total serum protein (TSP), higher than in cadmium chloride alone. The administration of WS, plant powder
in cadmium chloride treated rats showed significant reduction in activities of serum aspartate transminase (AST) and serum alanine
transminase (ALT) and the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels.

Borrelli F, Ascione V, Capasso R, Izzo AA, Fattorusso E, Taglialatela-Scafati O. Spasmolytic effects of nonprenylated rotenoid
constituents of Boerhaavia diffusa roots. J Nat Prod. 2006;69(6):903-6. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Boerhaavia diffusa is an Ayurvedic remedy used traditionally for the treatment of a number of diseases, including those affecting the
gastrointestinal tract. In the current investigation, a methanol extract obtained from roots of B. diffusa exhibited a significant
spasmolytic activity in the guinea pig ileum, probably through a direct effect on the smooth muscle. A detailed phytochemical analysis
of this methanol extract led to the isolation of one new (12) and six known (6-11) rotenoid deriVatives. The structure of the new
compound was determined through interpretation of its MS and NMR data. All the isolated rotenoids were evaluated for their effect on
intestinal motility in vitro, and the results obtained showed unambiguously that they are active spasmolytic constituents. Preliminary
structure-activity relationships for this class of compounds are suggested

193

Borrelli F, Borbone N, Capasso R, Montesano D, Izzo AA, De Marino S, Capasso F, Ferrara L, Longo R, Zollo F. New sesquiterpenes
with intestinal relaxant effect from Celastrus paniculatus. Planta Med. 2004;70(7):652-6. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Abstract.
The seed oil obtained from Celastrus paniculatus has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of several complaints
including intestinal disorders. The muscle relaxing activity of C. paniculatus has been studied in vitro on isolated preparations of rat
intestine. C. paniculatus seeds extract (0.001 100microg/mL) produced a concentration-related relaxation of the rat ileum [IC (50)
(95 % c. l.) 0.24 (0.13 - 0.45) microg/mL]. Among the four fractions ( n-hexane, CCl (4), CHCl (3), n-BuOH) obtained from the
methanolic extract of C. paniculatus, only the carbon tetrachloride fraction (0.01 - 10 000 ng/mL) induced a significant relaxation of
the intestinal muscle [IC (50) (95 % c. l.): 1.9 (1.38 - 2.87) ng/mL]. Three new sesquiterpene polyol esters have been isolated from the
carbon tetrachloride fraction. These new metabolites, characterised as 1alpha,8beta,14-triacetoxy-9beta-furoyloxydihydro-betaagarofuran(1),1alpha,6beta,8beta,14tetraacetoxy-9beta-benzoyloxydihydro-beta-agarofuran(2)and1alpha,8beta-diacetoxy-9beta
benzoyloxydihydro-beta-agarofuran (3), at the concentration of 1 microg/mL produced a relaxant effect of 30.6 +/- 12.2 %, 26.9 +/4.7 % and 7.27 +/- 1.7 %, respectively.

Burlando B, Parodi A, Volante A, Bassi AM. Comparison of the irritation potentials of Boswellia serrata gum resin and of acetyl-11keto-beta-boswellic acid by in vitro cytotoxicity tests on human skin-derived cell lines. Toxicol Lett. 2008;177(2):1449.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Indian frankincense is a gum resin from Boswellia serrata of Burseraceae used in Ayurveda and Western medicine for the
antinflammatory effects of boswellic acids, Particularly 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA). We evaluated in vitro
cytotoxicities of B. serrata extract and AKBA on differentiated and undifferentiated keratinocytes (HaCaT and NCTC 2544), and
foetal dermal fibroblasts (HFFF2), using neutral red uptake (NRU), MTT, and DNA assays. Comparison between NRU and MTT, and
between the extract and AKBA, suggested a relatively higher toxicity of both substances on lysosomes respect to mitochondria.
Extract cytotoxicity on lysosomes was higher in NCTC and HFFF2 than on the more differentiated HaCaT. DNA assay showed low
extract inhibition on HFFF2 proliferation, possibly due to lower growth rate, and a stronger effect on NCTC than on HaCaT, possibly
related to higher proapoptotic effect on the less differentiated NCTC, as also suggested by higher AKBA toxicity on NCTC than on
HaCaT. In general, gum resin and AKBA toxicities were slightly lower or higher than that of the reference compound SDS. Our in
vitro model allowed to compare the sensitivities of different human skin cells to B. serrata, and indicated that the gum resin and
AKBA exert moderate to low toxicity on the skin.

Chakraborty S, Roy M, Taraphdar AK, Bhattacharya RK. Cytotoxic effect of root extract of Tiliacora racemosa and oil of Semecarpus
anacardium nut in human tumour cells. Phytother Res. 2004;18(8):595-600. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Tiliacora racemosa and Semecarpus anacardium, the two plants frequently used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of cancerous
diseases, have been selected to examine their action in four human tumour cell lines: acute myeloblastic leukaemia (HL-60), chronic
myelogenic leukaemia (K-562), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and cervical epithelial carcinoma (HeLa). In cells grown in
appropriate media the ethanol extract of T. racemosa root, the total alkaloids isolated from this organ and S. anacardium nut oil
prepared according to the Ayurvedic principle were found to have cytotoxic activity. The alkaloid fraction from T. racemosa had
maximum cytotoxicity and was effective against all four cell lines. S. anacardium oil was cytotoxic only in leukaemic cells. These
herbal preparations were not cytotoxic towards normal human lymphocytes, suggesting their action is specific for tumour cells. On

194

microscopic examination the cells treated with these agents exhibited characteristic morphological features of apoptosis, such as cell
shrinkage, and the formation of apoptotic bodies. Fluorescent staining with propidium iodide revealed distinct chromatin condensation
and nuclear fragmentation. The apoptotic index paralleled the cytotoxic parameters, and fragmented DNA extracted free of genomic
DNA from treated cells displayed a typical ladder pattern on gel electrophoresis. Apoptosis induced by alkaloids and phenolics, the
active principles present in T. racemosa and S. anacardium, respectively, was found to be mediated by theactivation of caspases.

Chandrashekar CR, Math SB. Psychosomatic disorders in developing countries: current issues and future challenges. Curr Opin
Psychiatry. 2006 ;19(2):201-6. . Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:
This paper focuses on understanding of the concept, recent advances, and challenges to be faced in the field of psychosomatic
disorders by the developing countries. RECENT FINDINGS: Changing health scenario in developing countries has led to imminent
epidemic of noncommunicable diseases along with the unmet agenda of controlling infectious diseases. Psychosomatic medicine has a
role to play in curtailing the upcoming epidemic. Research studies on psychosomatic disorders from developing countries are very
few. Most of the publications are in nonpsychiatric medical journals covering explorative to intervention studies. Traditional,
complementary, and alternative medicines such as Ayurveda are already playing their role in the area of psychosomatic disorders in
developing countries. SUMMARY: The role and responsibility of the psychiatrist is changing from treating major mental disorders to
preventing and treating psychosomatic disorders. In this regard, developing countries have to meet various challenges such as
development of manpower, training of medical and paramedical staff, funding resources for clinical practice and research,
coordinating with complementary and alternative medicines, and networking with policy makers in combating the imminent epidemic.

Chankapa YD, Pal R, Tsering D. Correlates of cervical cancer screening among underserved women. Indian J Cancer.2011;48:406.Http://www.indianjcancer.com/.
Abstract.
Background and Objectives: Substantial subgroups of Indian women, specifically those of ethnic minorities, had not been screened for
cervical cancer or are not screened at regular intervals. We aim to find out the magnitude of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions
among women in the age group 15-60 years, and to identify the various socio-demographic and reproductive correlates among those
with the cervical lesions. Patients and Methods: Nine hundred and sixty-eight adult women in the age group 15-60 years were selected
by simple random sampling technique in a population based descriptive cross-sectional study in a cervical cancer screening camp in a
primary health center at the East Sikkim, during 1st September to 30th November 2006. Main outcome measures were the extent and
correlates of cervical cancer without any interventions. The data collection tool used for the study was a pre-tested questionnaire
prepared prior to the study for ensuring feasibility, acceptability, time management, validity and reliability. Information on sociodemographic and reproductive variables was collected by interview method using this questionnaire. Results: Out of 968 women in
the study population, overwhelming majority 921 (95.15%) had no overt or pre-cancerous cervical lesion. Only 47 were found to have
changes in their cervical epithelium. None of these 47 women was proved dyskaryotic on cytopathological screening of the cervical
smear. No significant difference was noted among those with or without lesions among women below 30 years of age with those
above, among illiterate women with literates, in per capita monthly family income difference, age at marriage and childbirth. Lowgrade and high-grade squamous intraepithelial cervical lesions were associated with Hindu women only and were related with past

195

history of abortion and still birth in women significantly. Conclusion: There was an imperative need for identifying prevalence of
asymptomatic cervical dysplasia in all population.

Chaudhary A, Singh N, Kumar N. Pharmacovigilance: Boon for the safety and efficacy of ayuVedic formulations. J Ayurveda Integr
Med. 2010;1:251-6.http://www.jaim.in
Abstract.
Pharmacovigilance is a corrective process originating in pharmaco-epidemiology. The 1997 Erice Declaration, presented at the World
Health Organisation, became the basis on which the concept was implemented internationally for conventional systems of medicine.
The increasing international acceptance of Ayurveda, led regulators to implement a similar program for Ayurveda, Particularly as some
medical professionals, scientists and members of the public reported adverse reactions after taking Ayurvedic formulations. The World
Health Organisation therefore persuaded the Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, to
implement a pharmacovigilance program for Ayurveda, as a means to ensuring the safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic medicines. After a
year of due diligence, the pharmacovigilance program was launched nationally on 29 September 2008. Since that time, Ayurveda,
Siddha and Unani medicines have been monitored according to the provisions of a protocol prepared by the National
Pharmacovigilance Resource Centre, IPGTRA, Jamnagar, and approved by Department of AYUSH. The program was reviewed, first,
on 21st January 2009 by the National Pharmaco-vigilance Consultative Committee for ASU drugs (NPCC-ASU), and again, on 15
Feburary, 2010, when an evaluation meeting effectively rubber stamped the program. Among the outcomes of these meetings were
several suggestions of measures to improve the program's efficiency. Recent developments include the constitution of
pharmacovigilance centers at all Ayurveda Teaching institutes and research centers.

Chaurasiya ND, Sangwan RS, Misra LN, Tuli R, Sangwan NS. Metabolic clustering of a core collection of Indian ginseng Withania
somnifera Dunal through DNA, isoenzyme, polypeptide and withanolide profile diversity. Fitoterapia. 2009;80(8):496505.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/. .
Abstract.
Withania somnifera is one of the most important medicinal plants of Ayurveda and finds extensive uses in Indian traditional herbal
preparations. In this investigation, selected accessions of the plant were examined for diversity through RAPDs, isoenzymes,
polypeptide polymorphism and withanolide profiles. The accessions clustered together with respect to their characteristic profile of
major withanolides and represented withaferin A, withanone, withanolide D or withanolide A rich groups. This level of phytochemical
diversity as discrete chemotypes is widest and is being first ever documented to occur in Indian population of the plant.

Chen ZQ, Mo ZN. [Curcumin in the treatment of prostatic diseases]. Zhonghua


70.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

Nan Ke Xue. 2008;14(1):67-

Abstract.
The use of turmeric, derived from the root of the plant Curcuma longa, for the treatment of various diseases has been described in
Ayurveda and in Traditional Chinese Medicine for thousands of years. The active component of turmeric responsible for this activity,
curcumin, was identified almost two centuries ago. Extensive research over the last decade has indicated that this polyphenol can both
prevent and treat prostatic diseases.

196

Chopra A, Saluja M, Patil J, Tandale HS. Pain and disability, perceptions and beliefs of a rural Indian population: A WHO-ILAR
COPCORD study. WHO-International League of Associations for Rheumatology. Community Oriented Program for Control of
Rheumatic Diseases. J Rheumatol. 2002;29(3):614-21. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
OBJECTIVE:
The WHO-ILAR Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) primarily aims to estimate the
burden of rheumatic-musculoskeletal symptoms/disorders (RMS). We investigated data on pain and disability, perceptions and beliefs
in the first rural community based COPCORD study in India.
METHODS:
A total of 4092 adults were interviewed (response rate 89%) in a population survey (Stage 1) in Bhigwan village in 1996 using
modified COPCORD core questionnaires. Twenty-one trained volunteers completed the survey in 5 weeks. Those reporting RMS were
identified (Phase 1) to complete a self-evaluation questionnaire (Phase 2) prior to rheumatological evaluation (Phase 3). Phase 2
included questions on perceptions and beliefs regarding pain, effect on life, work and socioeconomic factors, disability, and therapy;
only the moderate and severe grades were considered significant. Patients marked their pain sites on a manikin during the presurvey
week. A validated modified Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index (HAQDI) in the local language evaluated functional
disability.
RESULTS:
RMS were the predominant ailments reported by 746 adult villagers (18.2%; 95% CI 17.1, 19.2). Moderate pain of > 2 years' duration
was reported by almost 60% of RMS patients. Neck (6%), lumbar (11.4%), shoulder (7.4%), elbow (6.5%), wrist (6.4%), hand (6.1%),
knee (13.2%), calf (6.6%), and ankle (6.5%) were the common painful sites, predominantly in women; 91%, 89%, and 31% with RMS
reported a significant grade of pain, RMS illness, and disturbed sleep, respectively. In the age group 25-54 years, 21% of those with
RMS perceived a significant effect on work ability, while less than 20% of those with RMS admitted a similar effect on their personal
life (including finances). About 10% with RMS had ceased to work because of RMS. Among RMS subjects 21% scored a significant
HAQDI, but many more reported significant difficulty (HAQ) in the individual items of walking, hygiene (squatting), arising (from
sitting cross-legged), reaching, and occupational/household chores; this corresponded to the dominant pain sites in low back and
lower limbs. Oral tobacco use was reported to be significantly greater (p < 0.001) in the RMS patients. Past trauma was recalled by
23% of patients, and many connected this to their RMS. Modern medicines were consumed by 55% of patients with RMS. Among
patients, 86% and 65% expected "pain relief" and "cure," respectively, from their doctor; 23% of patients wanted greater sympathy
and attention. However, 21% of patients had never visited a doctor and were only identified by the COPCORD study.
CONCLUSION:
The findings of this study (1) demonstrate that RMS, although a predominant ailment, has a modest effect on daily living in most
subjects with RMS; (2) indicate there is inconsistency between the measures of pain and disability (using HAQ) and their effects; (3)
describe the beliefs and expectations of the community. Based on the data and community support, the COPCORD has been continued
for Stages II and III, especially with a view to health education.

Choudhury RP, Reddy AV, Garg AN. Availability of essential elements in nutrient supplements used as antidiabetic herbal
formulations. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2007;120(1-3):148-62. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Five brands of antidiabetic herbal formulations as tablets, Diabetex, Divya Madhu Nashini, Jambrushila, Diabeticin, and Madhumeh
Nashini, from different pharmacies were analyzed for six minor (Na, K, Ca, Cl, Mg, and P) and 20 trace (As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs,
Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, V, and Zn) elements by thermal neutron irradiation followed by high-resolution gamma

197

ray spectrometry. Further Ni, Cd, and Pb were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Most elements vary in a narrow
range by a factor of 2-4 while a few others vary in a wide range, e.g.Na (0.05-0.67 mg/g), Mn (26.7-250 microg/g), and V (0.26-2.50
microg/g). All the five brands contain K, Cl, Mg, P, and Ca as minor constituents along with mean trace amounts of Cr (2.11 +/- 0.67
microg/g), Cu (15.7 +/- 7.11 microg/g), Fe (459 +/- 171 microg/g), Mn (143 +/- 23 microg/g), Se (238 +/- 112 ng/g), and V (0.99 +/0.93 microg/g). Jambrushila is enriched in Na, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, Cu, Se, and Zn, essential nutrients responsiblefor curing diabetes.
Dietary intake of Mn, Fe, and Cu are greater than 10% of the recommended dietary allowance, whereas that for Zn and Se is less than
2%. Mean contents of toxic elements (As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) were found below permissible limits except in Jambrushila. Cr and Zn
were inversely correlated with r = -0.81, whereas Rb and Cs exhibit linear correlation (r = 0.93) in five brands. C, H, N analysis
showed C approximately 55%, H approximately 12%, and N approximately 2% with a total of approximately 70% organic matter.
However, thermal decomposition studies at 700 degrees C suggest less than 5% nonvolatile metal oxides. Herbal formulations contain
minor and trace elements in bioavailable forms that favorably influence glucose tolerance and possibly increase the body's ability to
ameliorate development of diabetes.

Christakis NA. Ethics are local: engaging cross-cultural variation in the ethics for clinical research. Soc Sci Med. 1992;35(9):1079-91.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Relatively little consideration has heretofore been given to the interaction between Western clinical research ethics and non-Western
ethical expectations. How should any conflict that might arise when a biomedical investigator and a research subject come from
different cultural settings and have different ethical expectations be addressed? Which ethics should govern such trans-cultural clinical
research? The answers to these questions are of increasing importance because many countries of the developing world are presently
sites of field testing of biomedical agents sponsored and administered by countries of the developed world, especially in the context of
the AIDS pandemic. Drawing mainly on examples from Asian medical systems and settings, I elucidate four possible ethical models to
guide the conduct of transcultural biomedical research. Two assume that research ethics are culturally relative and two assume that
aunified, universalistic conceptualization of research ethics is possible. All four, however, are problematic and are to a large extent
deficient. The cause of the deficiencies of these models lies, I argue, in the way that ethics are ordinarily conceived. The proper
approach to ethical conflict recognizes that culture shapes (1) the content of ethical precepts, (2) the form of ethical precepts, and (3)
the way ethical conflict is handled. Medical ethics may be viewed in cross-cultural perspective as a form of 'local knowledge', and any
differences in such knowledge between cultures--since such differences will not
conveniently disappear--must be engaged and negotiated.

Das S, Bhansali A, Dutta P, Aggarwal A, Bansal MP, Garg D, Ravikiran M, Walia R, Upreti V, Ramakrishnan S, Sachdeva N,
Bhadada SK. Persistence of goitre in the post-iodization phase: Micronutrient deficiency or thyroid autoimmunity? Indian J Med Res.
2011;133(1):103-9. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/
Abstract.
Background and objectives : Despite years of salt iodization, goitre continues to be a major public health problem worldwide. We
examined the prevalence of goitre in the post-iodization phase and the relationship of goitre with micronutrient status and thyroid
autoimmunity in school children of Chandigarh, north India. Methods: Two phase study; in the first phase, 2148 children of 6 to 16 yr
were screened for goitre by two independent observers as per the WHO grading system. In the second phase, a case-control study, 191
children with goitre and 165 children without goitre were compared with respect to urinary iodine, iodine content of salt, serum levels
of T 3 , T 4 , TSH, anti-TPO (thyroid peroxidase) antibody, haemoglobin, ferritin and selenium. Results: Prevalence of goitre in the
studied subjects was 15.1 per cent (13.9% in 6 to 12 yr and 17.7% in 13 to 16 yr age group, P= 0.03). Median urinary iodine excretion
in both the groups was sufficient and comparable (137 and 130 g/l). 3.2 per cent children with goiter and 2.4 per cent without goitre
had hypothyroidism (subclinical and clinical) and only one child with goitre had subclinical hyperthyroidism. Nine (4.9%) children in
the goitre group and 3 (1.9%) in control group had anti-TPO antibody positivity. The median serum selenium levels were not different

198

in both the groups (181.9 and 193.5 g/l). Seventy one (37.4%) of the goitrous children had anaemia (haemoglobin <12 g/dl) as
compared to 41 (24.8%) of the control group ( P <0.01). More number of goitrous children (39, 20.6%) were depleted of tissue iron
stores (serum ferritin <12 g/l) as compared to controls (11, 6.4%; P<0.001). Serum ferritin level negatively correlated with the
presence of goitre (r = - 0.22, P =0.008) and had an OR of 2.8 (CI 1.20 - 6.37, P =0.017). Interpretation and conclusions : There was a
high prevalence of goitre in young children despite iodine repletion and low thyroid autoimmunity. The concurrent iron deficiency
correlated with the presence of goiter. However, the cause and effect relationship between iron deficiency state and goitre requires
furtherelucidation.

Deepshikha, Basu T. Development of transducer matrices based upon nanostructured conducting polymer for application in
biosensors. Indian J ExpBiol. 2010;48(10):1053-62. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/
Abstract.
The nanostructured polyaniline (NSPANI) and its gold nano composite (GNP) with controlled size distribution were developed using
structure directing agents (SDA). The nano structure of polyaniline were investigated by UV-Visible spectroscopy, transmission
electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), fourrier transform spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray crystallography and
scanning electron microscopy(SEM) etc. These characterization techniques reveal the spherical shape of polyaniline nanopArticles
and size in the range of 7-50 nm depending on the type of dopant and nature of SDA. In general, these NSCP colloidal solutions are
highly stable. UV-Visible spectra show mainly two peaks at 360-430 nm and at 780-870 nm. The bathochromic shift of the UV-Visible
bands as compared to bulk polyaniline, reflect high DC conductivity. TEM and DLS results demonstrate the formation of
nanostructure with narrow size distribution. Due to remarkable properties of, it is used as an efficient transduction matrice for the
development of highly sensitive, reproducible, stable optical cholesterol and H202 biosensors having wide range of linearity and low
Km values.

Deshpande K, RaviShankar, Diwan V, Lnnroth K, Mahadik VK, Chandorkar RK. Spatial pattern of private health care provision in
Ujjain, India: a provider survey processed and analysed with a Geographical Information System. Health Policy. 2004;68(2):211-22.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
In developing countries like India, official information on private health careproviders is scanty. This is an obstacle for effective health
care planning and policy development. In this paper, we present a project aimed to enumerate, characterise and digitally map all
private providers (PPs) using Geographical Information System (GIS) in a rural district in India. A team of surveyors carried out a
census of private providers in the district. This data was combined with official data on geophysical characteristics and infrastructure,
demographic situation and location of settlements and public health care providers. This
study highlights the need to consider PPs in health policy making in India. The survey identified about 2000 additional PPs over and
above those listed with the health authorities. About half practised modern medicine (Allopathy) while the rest practised other types
of formal medical systems (Ayurveda or Homeopathy) or informal therapeutic systems. Individuals with no formal health care
training constituted the majority of PPs. Formally trained doctors were highly concentrated in urban areas while trained non-doctors
and untrained PPs dominated in the rural areas. The study shows how GIS can be used to create an improved basis for health services
research. In the future, the digitised map will be used as a sampling frame and point of reference for studies on quality and utilization
of PPs in Ujjain district. However, the utility for health care planning is less clear. GIS has limitations in countries like India due to
lack of valid routinedata to enter into GIS as well as to competing demand for health care resources.

Dhanda V, Vohra H, Kumar R. Group A Streptococcus virulence factors genes in north India and their association with emm type in
pharyngitis. Indian J Med Res.2011;133(1):110-5. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/

199

Abstract.
Background and objectives: Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis, especially among children, leads to high prevalence of
rheumatic fever (RF)/rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in India, as compared to the western world where invasive diseases are
common. GAS encodes numerous virulence factors that cause diseases by exhibiting extraordinary biological diversity. Hence, we
studied the virulence factors genes of GAS isolated from the throat of children with pharyngitis and also asymptomatic carriers.
Methods: Fifty GAS isolates cultured from throats of north Indian children aged 5-15 yr with mild pharyngitis (20), severe pharyngitis
(24) and asymptomatic pharyngeal carriers (6), during 2000-2003 along with reference M1 strain were emm typed and characterized
for virulence factors genes by PCR. The presence of virulence factors was also checked for their association with emm type in
pharyngitis. Results: Twenty emm types, six sequence types, and
one non-typeable strain were found circulating in north India. The five most prevalent types were emm 74 (12%), 11 and StI129 (8%
each) and emm 68 and NS292 (6% each). The spe B gene was found to be significantly higher (P=0.0007) in opacity factor (OF)
negative isolates. emm 3, 11, 77, 86, 87, 109 and StI129 showed maximum virulence factors genes. Interpretation and conclusions:
GAS isolates collected from throats of children from north India possess highly virulent antigens. This study also supports concept of
isolate-associated virulence rather than type relatedness.

Dillard JN, Knapp S. Complementary and alternative pain therapy in the emergency department. Emerg Med Clin North Am.
2005;23(2):529-49. . Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
One primary reason patients go to emergency departments is for pain relief. Understanding the physiologic dynamics of pain,
Pharmacologic methods for treatment of pain, as well CAM therapies used in treatment of pain is important to all providers in
emergency care. Asking patients about self-care and treatments used outside of the emergency department is an important part of the
patient history. Complementary and alternative therapies are very popular for painful conditions despite the lack of strong research
supporting some of their use. Even though evidenced-based studies that are double blinded and show a high degree of interrater
observer reliability do not exist, patients will likely continue to seek out CAM therapies as a means of self-treatment and a way to
maintain additional life control. Regardless of absolute validity of a therapy for some patients, it is the bottom line: "it seems to help
my pain." Pain management distills down to a very simple endpoint, patient relief, and comfort. Sham or science, if the patient feels
better, feels comforted, feels less stressed, and more functional in life and their practices pose no health risk, then supporting their
CAM therapy creates a true wholistic partnership in their health care.CAM should be relatively inexpensive and extremely safe. Such
is not always the case, as some patients have discovered with the use of botanicals. It becomes an imperative that all providers be
aware of CAM therapies and informed about potential interactions and side effects when helping patients manage pain and explore
adding CAM strategies for pain relief. The use of regulated breathing, meditation, guided imagery, or a massage for a pain sufferer are
simple but potentially beneficial inexpensive aids to care that can be easily employed in the emergency department. Some CAM
therapies covered here, while not easily practiced in the emergency department, exist as possibilities for exploration of patients after
they leave, and may offer an improved sense of well-being and empowerment in the face of suffering and despair. The foundations of
good nutrition, exercise, stress reduction, and reengagement in life can contribute much to restoring the quality of life to a pain patient.
Adding nondrug therapies of physical therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, TENS, hypnosis, biofeedback, psychoanalysis, and others
can complete the conventional picture. Adding in simple mind/body therapies, touch therapies, acupuncture, or others may be
appropriate in select cases, and depending on the circumstances, may effect and enhance a conventional pain management program.
Armed with an understanding of pain dynamics and treatments, practitioners can better meet patient needs, avoid serious side effects,
and improve care when addressing pain management in the emergency department.

Dubey N, Dubey N, Mehta R, Saluja A. Selective determination of aconitine in polyherbal oils containing Aconitum chasmanthum
using high-performance thin-layer chromatography. J AOAC Int. 2009;92(6):1617-21. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.

200

Many polyherbal oil formulations in traditional systems of medicine contain aconite root. This paper reports the development and
validation of a simple, rapid, and sensitive HPTLC method for identification and quantification of aconitine from polyherbal oil
formulations. Chromatography of methanolic extract of these formulations was performed on silica gel 60F254 aluminum-backed
HPTLC plates with a 0.2 mm layer thickness. The plates were developed up to 85 mm with the binary mobile phase ethyl acetateethanol (7.5 + 2.5, v/v) at 22 +/- 2 degrees C with 20 min of chamber saturation. The system produced a compact band of the marker
aconitine at an R(f) value of 0.33 that was quantified at its maximum absorbance of 238 nm. The LOD and LOQ values were found to
be 20 and 70 ng/band, respectively. The linearity with respect to peak area was in the range of 300 to 1800 ng/band with an r of
0.9991. Polyherbal oil formulations were analyzed with reasonable accuracy, and no matrix interference was observed. The developed
HPTLC method is accurate, precise, and cost-effective, and can be used for marker-based QA of polyherbal oil formulations
containing Aconitum chasmanthum as one of the active ingredients.

Dubey Prajjwal , Sharma P Gyan, Raghubanshi A. S,J. S. Singh. Leaf traits and herbivory as indicators of ecosystem function.
Current Science.2011;100(3);313-320. http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/contents.htm.
Abstract.
Plant functional types bridge the gap between plant physiology and ecosystem processes. In the present Article, we review the plant
functional traits and their response to grazing, and discuss how this affects the nutrient dynamics of the system under the pressure of
herbivory. The results also strengthen the management of ecosystems being grazed by herbivores

Dutta-Bergman MJ. Poverty, structural barriers, and health: a Santali narrative of health communication. Qual Health Res.
2004;14(8):1107-22. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Recent years have witnessed a surge in scholarship that problematizes the linear, Eurocentric approach to international health
communication and suggests the pressing need for a culture-centered approach. This author takes a culture-centered approach to
exploring the Santali meanings of health in rural Bengal. The open-ended interviews conducted with the Santals bring to surface key
issues and meaningful theories of health. Central to the Santali experience of health is food; for the Santal, it is his or her hunger that
is the greatest cause of disease and illness. Poverty and the presence of structural barriers that cripple Santali existence emerge as the
critical themes of Santali health meanings. The study also illuminates the complex process of meaning making engaged in by
pArticipants of marginalized sectors. The author draws policy-based implications from the findings of this research.

Eisler O, Lajtai L. Health care systems in Nepal. Orv Hetil. 2000;141(24):1355-8. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
This Article is the result of some preliminary journey of two Hungarian psychiatrist (one also epileptologist, other also anthropologist)
to Nepal. The main aim of the research was to elaborate a community based epilepsy health care pilot project. It is shown a brief look
at the modern and traditional health care systems and the severely difficult condition of the general and health infrastructure in Nepal.
Some recommendations of possible help and intervention are offered for foreign (Hungarian) doctors.

Engebretson J. Culture and complementary


84.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

therapies.

201

Complement

Ther

Nurs

Midwifery.

2002;8(4):177-

Abstract.
Complementary therapies are becoming increasingly popular in cultures dominated by biomedicine. Modalities are often extracted
from various healing systems and cultural contexts and integrated into health care, expanding the focus from treatment of disease to
the promotion of health. The cultural aspects of biomedicine are presented and compared and contrasted with other healing systems.
Three healing systems; traditional Chinese medicine, Yoga, with roots in Ayurvedic medicine and Shamanic healing illustrate these
fundamental differences in approaches to healing. A reverse example of isolating one healing intervention from biomedicine and
interpreting it through other cultural lenses is presented.Implications are drawn for practice and research.

Fields JZ, Walton KG, Schneider RH, Nidich S, Pomerantz R, Suchdev P, Castillo-Richmond A, Payne K, Clark ET, Rainforth M.
Effect of a multimodality natural medicine program on carotid atherosclerosis in older subjects: a pilot trial of Maharishi Vedic
Medicine. Am J Cardiol. 2002;89(8):952-8. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Although the onset and progression of coronary heart disease (CHD) involve multiple risk factors, few intervention studies have
attempted to modify these factors simultaneously. This pilot study tested the effect of a multimodality intervention involving dietary,
exercise, herbal food supplement, and stress reduction approaches from a traditional system of natural medicine, Maharishi Vedic
Medicine (MVM). The primary outcome measure was carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a noninvasive measure of peripheral
atherosclerosis and surrogate measure of coronary atherosclerosis. Comparison groups included modern medicine (conventional
dietary, exercise, and multivitamin approaches) and usual care (no added intervention). Of 57 healthy seniors (mean age 74 years)
randomized to the 3 treatment groups, 46 completed IMT post-testing. Carotid IMT was determined by B-mode ultrasound before and
after 1 year of treatment. IMT decreased in a larger fraction of MVM subjects (16 of 20) than in the modern (5 of 9) and usual care (7
of 14) groups combined (i.e.12 of 23; odds ratio 3.7, p = 0.05). For subjects with multiple CHD risk factors ("high-risk" subjects, n =
15), IMT decreased more in the MVM (-0.32 +/- 0.23 mm, mean +/- SD) than in the usual care (+0.022 +/- 0.085; p = 0.009) or
modern (-0.082 +/- 0.095, p = 0.10) groups. Within-group reductions in IMT were significant for all MVM subjects (-0.15 +/- 0.21, n
= 20, p = 0.004) and for high-risk MVM subjects (n = 6, p = 0.01). These results show that this multimodality traditional approach can
attenuate atherosclerosis in older subjects, Particularly those with marked CHDrisk.

Fox M, Dickens A, Greaves C, Dixon M, James M. Marma therapy for stroke rehabilitation -- a pilot study. J Rehabil Med.
2006;38(4):268-71. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
OBJECTIVE:
To examine feasibility and acceptability issues and to gather preliminary outcome data to ascertain the numbers needed for a trial of
Marma massage therapy for stroke rehabilitation. DESIGN: Pilot non-randomized controlled trial, comparing standard care with
standard care plus Marma therapy in post-stroke patients with a nested qualitative study. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients who had an
infarction or haemorrhage at any brain location with a Barthel Index score of 75/100 or less.
METHODS:
Feasibility was assessed in terms of recruitment and response rates and loss to follow-up, and acceptability was assessed by patient
interviews (n=13). The main outcome measure was the Barthel Index. RESULTS: The recruitment rate was 0.53 patients per week in a
stroke unit with an admission rate of 15.1 per week, the response rate was 91% and the loss to follow-up 30%. Most patients believed
that the massage was beneficial, and although some reported pain, all interviewed would choose it again. The effectiveness data
showed no significant differences in changed scores. However, the secondary measure follow-up score differences of the Motricity
Index at 6 and 12 weeks and the trunk control test at 6 weeks suggest a possible greater improvement in the intervention group
(p<0.05, p<0.01). CONCLUSION:

202

There are grounds for a future trial of Marma therapy (n=172), which would be feasible and acceptable to patients.

Francis JA, Raja SN, Nair MG. Bioactive terpenoids and GugguluSteroids from Commiphora mukul gum resin of potential antiinflammatory interest. Chem Biodivers. 2004;1(11):1842-53. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Guggulu, the gum resin from Commiphora mukul, is one of the components of various formulations of traditional Ayurvedic medicine
to treat inflammation, obesity, and lipid disorders. In most preparations of Ayurvedic medicine in India, Guggulu is boiled prior to its
use. Therefore, Guggulu was boiled with H2O prior to extractions in our study. Bioassay-guided isolation of compounds from the
hexane-soluble portion of the MeOH extract of Guggulu yielded cembrenoids, 1-6, a bicyclic diterpene, 7, Guggulusterone
deriVatives, 8-11, myrrhanone deriVatives, 12, myrrhanol deriVative, 13, and a lignan, 14. The structures of these compounds were
confirmed by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 5, 6, 7, 10, and 12-14 are novel. These compounds were assayed for lipid
peroxidation and cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme inhibitory activities. At 100 ppm, compounds 3, 6, and 14 inhibited the lipid
peroxidation by 79, 57, and 58%, respectively, and the rest of isolated compounds showed 20-40% inhibitory activity with respect to
the controls. In COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme inhibitory assays, compound 3 showed 79 and 83%, and compound 8 gave 67 and 54% of
inhibition, respectively, at 100 ppm. All fourteen compounds inhibited COX-1 enzyme at 100 ppm. The lipid peroxidation and COX
enzyme inhibitory activities exhibited by compounds isolated from C. mukul may substantiate its use in traditional medicine.

Fritts M, Crawford CC, Quibell D, Gupta A, Jonas WB, Coulter I, Andrade SA. Traditional Indian medicine and homeopathy for
HIV/AIDS: a review of the literature. AIDS Res Ther.2008;5:25. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
BACKGROUND:
Allopathic practitioners in India are outnumbered by practitioners of traditional Indian medicine and homeopathy (TIMH), which is
used by up to two-thirds of its population to help meet primary health care needs, Particularly in rural areas. India has an estimated 2.5
million HIV infected persons. However, little is known about TIMH use, safety or efficacy in HIV/AIDS management in India, which
has one of the largest indigenous medical systems in the world. The purpose of this review was to assess the quality of peer-reviewed,
published literature on TIMH for HIV/AIDS care and treatment.
RESULTS:
Of 206 original Articles reviewed, 21 laboratory studies, 17 clinical studies, and 6 previous reviews of the literature were identified
that covered at least one system of TIMH, which includes Ayurveda, Unani medicine, Siddha medicine, homeopathy, yoga and
naturopathy. Most studies examined either Ayurvedic or homeopathic treatments. Only 4 of these studies were randomized controlled
trials, and only 10 were published in MEDLINE-indexed journals. Overall, the studies reported positive effects and even "cure" and
reversal of HIV infection, but frequent methodological flaws call into question their internal and external validity. Common reasons
for poor quality included small sample sizes, high drop-out rates, design flaws such as selection of inappropriate or weak outcome
measures, flaws in statistical analysis, and reporting flaws such as lack of details on products and their standardization, poor or no
description of randomization, and incomplete reporting of study results.
CONCLUSION:
This review exposes a broad gap between the widespread use of TIMH
therapies for HIV/AIDS, and the dearth of high-quality data supporting their effectiveness and safety. In light of the suboptimal
effectiveness of vaccines,barrier methods and behavior change strategies for prevention of HIV infection and the cost and side effects
of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for its treatment,it is both important and urgent to develop and implement a rigorous research agenda

203

to investigate the potential risks and benefits of TIMH and to identify its role in the management of HIV/AIDS and associated
illnesses in India.

Furnham A. How the public classify complementary medicine: a factor analytic study. Complement Ther Med. 2000;8(2):827.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
OBJECTIVES:
To see how lay people group or classify various CAM therapies. DESIGN: Nearly 600 adults rated 39 relatively familiar branches of
complementary medicine on four dimensions: whether they had heard of it, whether they think they know how it works; whether they
had tried it; and a rating of efficacy on a 10-point scale.
RESULTS:
As predicted those most heard of were acupuncture, aromatherapy, herbal medicine, hypnosis, massage and yoga while those with
lowest ratings were autogenic training, Ayurveda, biochemic tissue salts, chelation cell therapy and ozone therapy. A number of
multivariate statistical techniques were used to attempt to investigate the perceived dimensional structure of the different therapies.
Slightly different structures emerged depending on the question asked and the analysis computed.
CONCLUSION:
The 'bottom-up' empirically derived taxonomization of therapies was interpretable and showed 10 different factors. The issue of
classifying or taxonomizing complementary medicines is discussed.

Gadgil Sulochana, Srinivasan J.Seasonal prediction of the Indian monsoon. Current Science. 2011;100(3);343-353.
http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/contents.htm
Abstract.
Under the project Seasonal Prediction of the Indian Monsoon (SPIM), the prediction of Indian summer monsoon rainfall by five
atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) during 19852004 was assessed. The project was a collaborative effort of the
coordinators and scientists from the different modelling groups across the country. All the runs were made at the Centre for
Development of Advanced Computing (CDAC) at Bangalore on the PARAM Padma supercomputing system. Two sets of simulations
were made for this purpose. In the first set, the AGCMs were forced by the observed sea surface temperature (SST) for May
September during 19852004. In the second set, runs were made for 1987, 1988, 1994, 1997 and 2002 forced by SST which was
obtained by assuming that the April anomalies persist during MaySeptember. The results of the first set of runs show, as expected
from earlier studies, that none of the models were able to simulate the correct sign of the anomaly of the Indian summer monsoon
rainfall for all the years. However, among the five models, one simulated the correct sign in the largest number of years and the second
model showed maximum skill in the simulation of the extremes (i.e. droughts or excess rainfall years). The first set of runs showed
some common bias which could arise either from an excessive sensitivity of the models to El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or an
inability of the models to simulate the link of the Indian monsoon rainfall to Equatorial Indian Ocean Oscillation (EQUINOO), or
both. Analysis of the second set of runs showed that with a weaker ENSO forcing, some models could simulate the link with
EQUINOO, suggesting that the errors in the monsoon simulations with observed SST by these models could be attributed to
unrealistically high sensitivity to ENSO.

Ganzera M, Khan IA. A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography method for the analysis of boswellic acids in
Boswellia serrata. Planta Med. 2001;67(8):778-80. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

204

Abstract.
An HPLC method for the separation of boswellic acids, the active constituents in Boswellia serrata resin has been developed. The first
accurate determination of 6 individual acids was possible in the resin as well as in multi-component preparations. By using an acidic
mobile phase, raised temperature and a 4 microm Synergi MAX-RP 80 A column the acids could be detected at levels as low as 0.9
microg/ml. The study of market products revealed significant variations in the content of these Pharmacologically active compounds
in commercial samples.

Garrow D, Egede LE. National patterns and correlates of complementary and alternative medicine use in adults with diabetes. J Altern
Complement Med. 2006;12(9):895-902. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
OBJECTIVE:
The aim of this study was to determine national patterns and correlates of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among
adults with diabetes.
METHODS:
The authors compared CAM use in 2474 adults with and 28,625 adults without diabetes who participated in the most comprehensive
national survey on CAM use (2002 National Health Interview Survey). Eight CAM use categories were created, including dietary,
herbal, chiropractic, yoga, relaxation, vitamin, prayer, and other (acupuncture, Ayurveda, biofeedback, chelation, energy healing or
Reiki therapy, hypnosis, massage, naturopathy, and homeopathy). An overall CAM use category also was created that excluded
vitamins and prayer. Patterns of use were compared with chi-square and independent correlates of CAM use with multiple logistic
regression controlling for relevant covariates. STATA was used for analysis to account for the complex survey design.
RESULTS:
Prevalence of overall use of CAM did not differ significantly by diabetes status (47.6 versus 47.9%, p = 0.81). Diabetes was not an
independent predictor of overall use of CAM (OR 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83, 1.05). However, persons with diabetes
were more likely to use prayer (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.05, 1.36), but less likely to use herbs (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75, 0.99), yoga (OR
0.56, 95% CI 0.43, 0.72), or vitamins (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.72, 0.93) than people without diabetes after controlling for relevant
covariates. Independent correlates of overall use of CAM differed by age, income, employment, comorbidity, and health status
between people with and without diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that there has been a dramatic increase in overall use
of CAM in adults with diabetes; diabetes was not an independent predictor of overall use of CAM; and people with diabetes were
more likely to use prayer, but less likely to use herbs, yoga, or vitamins compared to persons without diabetes.

Gautam R, Saklani A, Jachak SM. Indian medicinal plants as a source of antimycobacterial agents. J EthnoPharmacol.
2007;110(2):200-34. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
It is estimated that one-third of the world's population is infected with tubercle bacillus and the problem of tuberculosis (TB) has been
intensified due to HIV pandemic providing a large reservoir of highly susceptible individuals. Since no anti-TB drugs have been
introduced in past 30 years, there is an urgent need to search for and develop new, effective and affordable anti-TB drugs. In this
scenario, the plant kingdom with enormous chemical diversity may be looked as an important source of new anti-TB agents. Of
17,500 higher plant species occurring in India only about 365 species have been evaluated so far for antimycobacterial activity. The
present review Article describes the 255 (70% of 365) plant species from a wide range of families that have shown antimycobacterial
activity. The species are enumerated in table format describing plant species and family, plant part used, type of extract and in vitro

205

activity (MIC value), information on active compounds, if any, and uses in the ethnomedicine and Ayurveda. Interestingly, most of the
plant species have shown strong positive ethnoPharmacological correlation with the traditional knowledge. In addition, the recent in
vitro screening methods for antimycobacterial activity are also described in brief. An attempt has been made to highlight the promising
plant species for further investigation as leads for drug development.

Gayathri M, Kannabiran K. 2-hydroxy 4-methoxy benzoic acid isolated from roots of Hemidesmus indicus ameliorates liver, kidney
and pancreas injury due to
streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Indian J Exp Biol.2010;48(2):159-64.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Protective effect was evaluated in streptozoticin (STZ)-induced diabetes rats. 2-Hydroxy 4-methoxy benzoic acid (HMBA) was
isolated from the roots of Hemidesmus indicus and administered (500 microg/kg body weight) orally for 7 weeks to STZ-induced
diabetic and non-diabetic rats to study its effect on protein Metabolism, serum electrolytes and on liver and kidney lipid peroxides.
Oral administration of HMBA restored the altered biochemical parameters such as urea, uric acid, creatinine, plasma proteins and
serum electrolytes to near-normal levels. HMBA treatment significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde levels in
diabetic liver and kidney. Effect of HMBA was equivalent to that of the standard drug, tolbutamide (100 mg/kg body wt). The
histological changes were also in correlation with the biochemical findings. The present study showed that HMBA isolated from H.
indicus roots had ameliorative effect on liver, kidney and pancreatic injury in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

Ghotge NS, Ramdas SR, Ashalata S, Mathur NP, Broome VG, Sanyasi Rao ML. A social approach to the validation of traditional
veterinary remedies--the Anthra project. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2002;34(2):121-43. Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Anthra, an organization of women veterinary scientists working in the field of livestock production and development, has been
involved since 1996 in a research project to document and validate local ethnoveterinary and animal management practices carried out
by livestock-rearing communities in different parts of the states of Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra in India. Communal knowledge
and innoVation are an integral part of the day-to-day healing and management practices of farmers in all areas and over 80% of
farmers continue to use these because they are easily and quickly available, especially in remote villages. However, this knowledge is
today rapidly being lost. Farmers, both men and women, have expressed a keen desire to increase their own knowledge of these
systems. This paper outlines the validation framework evolved by Anthra, wherein farmers using these medicines are actively
pArticipating in an evaluation process. Major findings are that local practices are effective, pArticipating farmers use them confidently
and other farmers are keen to use and increase their knowledge of them.

Ghule BV, Murugananthan G, Nakhat PD, Yeole PG. Immunostimulant effects of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves. J
EthnoPharmacol.2006;108(2):311-5.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
The present study was undertaken to explore the immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic and water extracts of Capparis zeylanica
Linn. (family: Capparidaceae) leaves on neutrophil adhesion test, humoral response to sheep red blood cells, delayed-type
hypersensitivity, phagocytic activity and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression. Pre-treatment of water extract (300 mg/kg,
oral) of Capparis zeylanica evoked a significant increase in neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibres. The augmentation of humoral immune
response to sheep red blood cells by ethanolic and water extracts (150-300 mg/kg) is evidenced by increase in antibody titres in mice.
A dose-related increase in both primary and secondary antibody titre was observed. Oral administration of ethanolic and water extracts
of Capparis zeylanica leaves, at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg in mice, dose dependently potentiated the delayed-type hypersensitivity
reaction induced by sheep red blood cells. Immunomodulatory activity was also assessed by serological and haematological tests.

206

Capparis zeylanica extracts prevented myelosuppression in mice treated with cyclophosphamide drug. The study comprised the acute
toxicity and preliminary phytochemical screening of the ethanol and water extracts.

Go VL, Champaneria MC. The new world of medicine: prospecting for health.Nippon Naika Gakkai Zasshi. 2002 20;91:159-63.
Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Throughout past millennia, human beings have shared the common goal of improving health for longevity. However, different cultures
around the world have developed their own approaches to achieve this goal. Various traditions have emerged, rendering distinct
medical systems such as Ayurveda, Yoga, Chinese-Japanese medicine, shamanism, and Native American healing. Traditional medicine
involves a holistic approach to the human body to integrate healing with culture, environment, and tradition. Modern allopathic
medicine originated from Greco-Roman Medicine and Northern European traditions and is built on the science of anatomy,
physiology, and biochemistry and the structure-function relationship between cells, tissues, and organs. This foundation focuses on
diagnosis, treatment, and cure for acute illnesses via potent pharmaceutical drugs, surgery, radiation, and other treatment modalities.
Within this past century, we have doubled the life-span of human beings. Genomic medicine, including stem cell research, cloning,
and gene therapy, will increase our capability to treat even more diseases. In the new millennium, we face more chronic illnesses
related to aging, environment, and lifestyle, such as cancer, diabetes. osteoporosis, and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, health care
providers face the challenge of prospecting for health and disease prevention. Modern science and medical advancements provide the
rationale for the integration of various traditional healing techniques, which have been termed Alternative and Complementary
Medicine, to promote healing, health, and longevity. Advances in medicine must include the holistic approach of traditional medicine
to face the current challenges in health care. Therefore, the New World of Medicine must fuse the antiquity of ancient healing with the
innoVations of modern medicine to increase life-expectancy and improve quality of life throughout the world.

Goenka AH. Rustom Jal Vakil and


200.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.

the

saga

of

Rauwolfia

serpentina.

Med

Biogr.2007;15(4):195-

Abstract.
Dr Rustom Jal Vakil was India's pioneer in cardiology. He introduced the discipline of cardiology in his country. His mixture of
clinical acumen, research and writing has survived him. Through his work with an ancient Indian folk remedy, Rauwolfia serpentina,
he ushered in the modern era of effective pharmacotherapy of hypertension. His work was Particularly significant since it galvanized
other workers into finding more effective agents for the treatment of hypertension. He is remembered fondly by his acquaintances as
an unassuming man in whom a multitude of choicest qualities blended seamlessly with each other.

Gogtay NJ, Bhatt HA, Dalvi SS, Kshirsagar NA. The use and safety of non-allopathic Indian medicines. Drug Saf. 2002;25(14):100519.Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.
Abstract.
Non-allopathic Indian medicines, referred to elsewhere in the world as complementary and alternative medicine have gathered
increasing recognition in recent years with regard to both treatment options and health hazards. Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and
homeopathy are practiced in India as non-allopathic systems. These systems comprise a wide range of therapeutic approaches that
include diet, herbs, metals, minerals, precious stones and their combinations as well as non-drug therapies. Ayurveda is the oldest
system of medicine in the world and by far the most commonly practiced form of non-allopathic medicine in India, Particularly in
rural India, where 70% of the population lives. The difference between modern medicine and these systems stems from the fact that
the knowledge base of many of the above systems, unlike Western medicine, is based on years of experience, observations, empiricism
and intuition and has been handed down generations both through word of mouth and treatises. The focus on non-allopathic systems

207

of medicine in India can be attributed to various causes including a need to revive a rich tradition, the dependency of 80% of the
country's population on these drugs, their easy availability, increasing worldwide use of these medicines, the lack of focused concerted
scientific research and the abuse of these systems by quacks. Elsewhere, the increasing use of herbal products worldwide and the
growth of the herbal product industry has led to increasing concern regarding their safety. The challenges in these non-allopathic
systems relate to the patient, physician, regulatory authorities, the abuse/misuse of these medicines, quality and purity issues. Safety
monitoring is mandated by a changing ecological environment, the use of insecticides, new manufacturing techniques, an as yet
unregulated pharmaceutical industry, the availability of combinations of herbs over the counter and not mentioned in ancient
Ayurvedic texts, and the need to look at the active principles of these medicines as potential chemotherapeutic agents. The Indian
traditional medicine industry has come a long way from the times when it was considered unnecessary to test these formulations prior
to use, to the introduction of Good Manufacturing Practice guidelines for the industry. However, we still have a long way to go. The
conflict between the traditional practitioners and the purists demanding evidence of safety and efficacy needs to be addressed. There is
an urgent need for the practitioners of the allopathic and non-allopathic systems to work together to optimise the risk-benefit profile of
these medicines.

Govindarajan R, Vijayakumar M, Rao ChV, Pushpangadan P, Asare-Anane Persaud S, Jones P, Houghton PJ. Antidiabetic activity of
Croton klozchianus in rats and direct stimulation of insulin secretion in-vitro. J Pharm Pharmacol