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1. Clara organizes cans in triangular piles, where each row has one less can than the row

below. For example, the pile of 15 cans shown has 5 cans in the bottom row and 4

cans in the row above it.

(a)

A pile has 20 cans in the bottom row. Show that the pile contains 210 cans.

(b)

There are 3240 cans in a pile. How many cans are in the bottom row?

(c)

(i)

There are S cans and they are organized in a triangular pile with n cans in

2

the bottom row. Show that n + n 2S = 0.

(ii)

Clara has 2100 cans. Explain why she cannot organize them in a triangular pile.

(a)

Find

(i)

S4;

(ii)

S100.

1 2

.

Let M =

0 1

(b)

(i)

Find M .

(ii)

1 6

3

.

Show that M =

0 1

1 2n

n

, for n 4. The sum Tn is defined by

It may now be assumed that M =

0 1

1

Tn = M + M + M + ... + M .

4

(c)

(i)

Write down M .

(ii)

Find T4.

(d)

3. A city is concerned about pollution, and decides to look at the number of people using taxis. At the end of the

year 2000, there were 280 taxis in the city. After n years the number of taxis, T, in the city is given by

n

T = 280 1.12 .

(a)

(i)

(ii)

Find the year in which the number of taxis is double the number of taxis there were at the

end of 2000.

(b)

At the end of 2000 there were 25 600 people in the city who used taxis. After n years the number

of people, P, in the city who used taxis is given by

2 560 000

.

10 90e 0.1n

P=

(c)

(i)

Find the value of P at the end of 2005, giving your answer to the nearest whole number.

(ii)

After seven complete years, will the value of P be double its value at the end of 2000?

Justify your answer.

Let R be the ratio of the number of people using taxis in the city to the number of taxis. The city

will reduce the number of taxis if R 70.

(i)

(ii)

After how many complete years will the city first reduce the number of taxis?

4. Let f (x) = p

3x

, where p, q

x q2

shown below.

(a)

1, y = 2. Write down the value of

(i)

(b)

(c)

(d)

p;

(ii)

q.

the x-axis, and the y-axis.

(i)

(ii)

R is revolved through 360 about the xaxis.

3 x 2 1

(i)

(ii)

Hence, show that there are no maximum or minimum points on the graph of f.

Let g (x) = f (x). Let A be the area of the region enclosed by the graph of g and the x-axis, between

x = 0 and x = a, where a 0. Given that A = 2, find the value of a.

5. A Ferris wheel with centre O and a radius of 15 metres is represented in the diagram below. Initially seat A is

B = .

at ground level. The next seat is B, where AO

6

(a)

(b)

(c)

2

of

. Find the height of A above the

3

ground.

after t minutes, can be modelled by the function

h (t) = 15 15 cos 2t .

4

(d)

.

4

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

Find the time at which seat C first reaches its highest point.

(e)

Find h (t).

(f)

For 0 t ,

(i)

(ii)

6. The following is the cumulative frequency curve for the time, t minutes, spent by 150 people in a store on a

particular day.

150

140

130

120

110

c u m u la tiv e fre q u e n c y

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

10

11

12

tim e (t)

(a)

(i)

(ii)

Find the number of people who spent between 5 and 7 minutes in the store.

(iii)

(b)

Given that 40 of the people spent longer than k minutes, find the value of k.

(c)

(i)

On your answer sheet, copy and complete the following frequency table.

t (minutes)

0t2

2t4

Frequency

10

23

(ii)

4t6

6t8

8 t 10

Hence, calculate an estimate for the mean time spent in the store.

10 t 12

15

(a)

shows the possible outcomes.

Let E be the event that exactly one four occurs when the

pair of dice is thrown.

(b)

Calculate P(E).

(c)

three times in the five throws.

(d)

three times in the five throws.

from a bag.

Bag M contains 3 red marbles (R) and 2 green marbles (G).

Bag N contains 2 red marbles and 8 green marbles.

A fair six-sided die is tossed. If a 3 or 5 appears on the die,

bag M is selected (M).

If any other number appears, bag N is selected (N).

A single marble is then drawn at random from the selected

bag.

(a)

your answer sheet.

(b)

(i)

Write down the probability that bag M is selected and a green marble drawn from it.

(ii)

Find the probability that a green marble is drawn from either bag.

(iii)

Given that the marble is green, calculate the probability that it came from Bag M.

(c)

A player wins $2 for a red marble and $5 for a green marble. What are his expected winnings?

The heights of the girls are normally distributed with mean 155 cm and standard deviation 10 cm.

The heights of the boys are normally distributed with mean 160 cm and standard deviation 12 cm.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Given that 90 of the boys have heights between q cm and r cm where q and r are symmetrical

about 160 cm, and q r, find the value of q and of r.

The probability that a girl is taller than 170 cm was found in part (a).

The probability that a boy is taller than 170 cm is 0.202.

A fourteen-year-old student is selected at random.

(d)

Calculate the probability that the student is taller than 170 cm.

(e)

Given that the student is taller than 170 cm, what is the probability the student is a girl?

x

(a)

Part of the graph of y = f (x), for 6 x 2, is shown below. The x-coordinates of the local minimum

and maximum points are r and s respectively.

(b)

(c)

(d)

Let L be the normal to the curve of f at P(0, 1). Show that L has equation x + y = 1.

(e)

Let R be the region enclosed by the curve y = f (x) and the line L.

(i)

(ii)

Solution:

1. (a) For recognizing the arithmetic sequence

(M1)

u1 = 1, n = 20, u20 = 20 (u1 = 1, n = 20, d = 1)

Evidence of using sum of an AP

M1

S20 =

1 20 20

(or S

S20 = 210 AG

(b)

20

2 1 19 1 )

2

(A1)

A1

N0

Evidence of using Sn = 3240

eg

(M1)

2

n + n 6480 = 0 A1

n = 80 or n = 81 (A1)

n = 80

(c)

(i)

A1

N2

Evidence of using S =

1 n n

2

(M1)

2S = n + n

A1

n + n 2S = 0

(ii)

AG

N0

METHOD 1

Substituting S = 2100

2

eg n + n 4200 = 0,

2100 =

1 n n

2

A1

EITHER

n = 64.3, n = 65.3

A1

and pointing out that integer not possible here.

R1

integer solutions.

OR

Discriminant = 16 801

A1

N1

R1

R1

N1

integer solution as needed.

METHOD 2

Trial and error

S64 = 2080, S65 = 2145

Any valid reason which includes reference to integer

being needed,

R1

and pointing out that integer not possible here.

2. (a) (i)

S4 = 20

(ii)

(b)

N1

A1

N1

M1

S100 = 10100

A1

(i)

1 4

2

M =

0 1

(ii)

1 2 1 4

3

2

2

For writing M as M M or M M or

0 1 0 1

A2

4 2

(i)

1 8

4

M =

0 1

(ii)

1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8

4

T =

0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

1 2 1 4

1 200

...

T100 =

1

0 1 0 1

0

100 10100

100

0

M1

AG

N0

A1A1

N3

N1

4 20

=

0 4

A2

0 1

A1

N2

N2

1 6

3

M =

0 1

(d)

R1

u1 = 2, d = 2 (A1)

1 0

3

M =

00

(c)

A1A1

(M1)

(M1)

3. (a) (i)

n = 5 (A1)

T = 280 1.12

T = 493

(ii)

(b)

(i)

A1

eg 560

setting up equation

n

n

eg 280 1.12 = 560, 1.12 = 2

n = 6.116...

in the year 2007

2560000

10 90 e 0.1 5

(i)

correct value A2

e.g .

(ii)

N3

A1

N3

A1

A1

R1

N0

2560000

10 90 e 0.1 7

P = 46 806.997...

not doubled

valid reason for their answer

eg P < 51200

(c)

(A1)

A1

(A1)

P = 39 636

A1

(A1)

P = 39 635.993...

(ii)

N2

N2

25600

, 91.4 , 640 : 7

280

inequality) M1

e.g .

P

2560000

70 ,

70

T

10 90e 0.1n 280 1.12 n

(A1)

after 10 years

4.

(a)

(b)

(i)

p=2

(ii)

q = 1A1

N1

(i)

f (x) = 0

(M1)

A1

3x

=0

x 2 1

(2x 3x 2 = 0)

A1

N1

x=

(ii)

1

x=2

2

1

, 0

2

A1

Using V =

V=

b

a

0

1

2

3x

2 2

x 1

(M1)

A2

dx

V = 2.52

(c)

(i)

N2

A1

N2

M1

2

Correct substitution

eg

(ii)

A1A1

A1

3 ( x 2 1) ( 3 x ) (2 x )

( x 2 1) 2

f (x) =

3x 2 3 6 x 2

( x 2 1) 2

A1

f (x) =

3x 2 3

3( x 2 1)

=

( x 2 1) 2

( x 2 1) 2

AG

N0

METHOD 1

Evidence of using f (x) = 0 at max/min

2

(M1)

3 (x + 1) = 0 (3x + 3 = 0)

A1

no (real) solution

R1

AG

N0

METHOD 2

Evidence of using f (x) = 0 at max/min

(M1)

A1

R1

AG

METHOD 3

Evidence of using f (x) = 0 at max/min

(M1)

A1

R1

N0

(d)

Area =

g ( x ) dx or

0

Recognizing that

a

0

a

0

f ( x) dx or

g ( x) dx f ( x)

a

0

3x 2 3

Correct equation

eg

a

0

a=

1

2

a=

1

2

( x 1)

A1

A2

(M1)

a=2

A1

N2

(M1)

N2

1

Evidence of using A r 2

2

(M1)

2

METHOD 1

angle =

dx

A1

(c)

3a

2

dx = 2, 2 2 2 0 = 2, 2a + 3a 2 = 0

a

3x 2 3

2

( x 1)

(b)

AG

30

6

(A1)

A1

N2

N0

M1

height = 15 + 15 sin

= 22.5 (m)

A1

N2

METHOD 2

60

3

angle =

(A1)

height = 15 + 15 cos

= 22.5 (m)

(d)

(i)

M1

A1

N2

15 15 cos

4

2 4

(M1)

= 25.6 (m)

(ii)

h(0) = 15 15 cos 0

4

= 4.39(m)

(iii)

A1

N2

A1

N2

(M1)

METHOD 1

Highest point when h = 30

R1

30 = 15 15 cos 2t

4

M1

cos 2t = 1

4

(A1)

t = 1.18 accept

A1

N2

METHOD 2

h

30

2

Sketch of graph of h

Correct maximum indicated

t = 1.18

t

M2

(A1)

A1

N2

METHOD 3

Evidence of setting h(t) = 0

M1

sin 2t 0

4

(A1)

Justification of maximum

R1

derivative test

t = 1.18 accept

8

(e)

4

(f)

(i)

A1

N2

A1A1A1

N3

A1A1 N2

h (t)

30

30

for two zeros.

Award A1 for approximate correct

sinusoidal shape.

(ii)

METHOD 1

Maximum on graph of h

t = 0.393

(M1)

A1

N2

(M1)

A1

N2

METHOD 2

Minimum on graph of h

t = 1.96

METHOD 3

Solving h(t) = 0

(M1)

A1

t = 0.393, t = 1.96

6. (a) (i)

N2

(ii)

A1

(A1)

90 50

(iii)

(b)

(c)

N1

(M1)

= 40

A1

N2

median = 6.25 (min), 6 min 15 secs

A1

N1

M1

Number spending less than k minutes is (150 60) = 90

k=7

A1

N2

(A1)

(i)

t (minutes)

0t<2

2t<4

4t<6

6t<8

8 t < 10

10 t < 12

Frequency

10

23

37

38

27

15

A1A1A1

(ii)

N3

A1

110 3 23 5 37 7 38 9 27 1115

150

mean =

7. (a)

A1

N1

S e c o n d d ie

in p a ir

F irs t d ie

in p a ir

fo u r

1

6

fo u r

1

6

5

6

not

fo u r

fo u r

1

6

5

6

not

fo u r

5

6

Note:

(b)

P(E) =

=

(c)

not

fo u r

1 5 5 1 5 5

6 6 6 6 36 36

(A2)

10 5

or 0.278

36 18

A1

A1A1A1 N3

probabilities.

N3

(M1)

5

5

13

eg X ~ B 5 , or p , q

18

18

18

5

P(X = 3) =

3

5 13

18 18

= 0.112

(d)

(A1)

A1

N3

A1

N2

METHOD 1

Evidence of using the complement M1

eg P(X 3) = 1 P(X 2)

Correct value 1 0.865

(A1)

= 0.135

METHOD 2

M1

eg P(X 3) = P(X = 3) + P(X = 4) + P(X = 5)

Correct values 0.1118 + 0.02150 + 0.001654

(A1)

= 0.135

A1

N2

A1A1A1

N3

A1

N3

A1

N3

8. (a)

3

5

1

3

2

5

2

3

(b)

P(M and G) =

(ii)

P(G) =

(iii)

2

10

8

10

1 2

2

(

0.133) A1

3 5 15

1 2 2

8

3 5 3 10

N1

(A1)(A1)

10 2

0.667

15 3

2

P( M G ) 15

P(M G) =

(A1)(A1)

2

P(G )

3

=

(c)

(i)

P(R) = 1

1

or 0.2

5

2 1

(A1)

3 3

1

2

1 3

2 2

1 2

2 8

E(win) = 2 5 or 2 2 5 5

3

3

3 5

3 10

3 5

3 10

= $4

accept

12 60

,

3 15

170 155

10

A1

A1

N2

(A1)

(A1)

= 0.0668

(b)

z = 1.2816

(c)

A1

N3

A1

N2

(A1)

x = 142

A1

(A1)

N3

(A1)

r = 160 + 1.645(12) = 179.74

= 180

A1

N2

symmetry (A1)

eg P(B < q) = 0.05, z = 1.6449

q = 160 1.645(12) = 140.26

= 140

(d)

A1

N2

Note: Symbols are not required in parts (d) and (e).

0.6 0.0668

(A1)(A1)

P(H > 170) = 0.0808 + 0.04008

= 0.12088 = 0.121 (3 sf)

(e)

P( F H 170 )

(M1)

P H 170

A1

0.60 0.0668

0.121

0.0401

0.04008

or

0.121

0.1208

= 0.332

10. (a)

A1

x

A1

N1

M1

x

x

f (x) = e (1 2x x )

A1

AG

N0

(b)

y=0

N1

(c)

x

f (x) = 0 (e (1 2x x ) = 0)

(M1)

1 2x x = 0 (M1)

r = 2.41 s = 0.414 A1A1 N2N2

(d)

f (0) = 1 A1

gradient of the normal = 1 A1

evidence of substituting into an equation for a straight line (M1)

correct substitution A1

eg y 1 = 1(x 0), y 1 = x, y = x + 1

x + y = 1 AG

N0

(e)

(i)

approach involving subtraction and integrals

fully correct expression

eg

(ii)

e 1 x 1 x dx ,

1

area R = 0.5 A1

N1

(A1)

(M1)

A2

1

0

f x dx

1 x dx

0

N4

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