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Big Questions Practice

1. Clara organizes cans in triangular piles, where each row has one less can than the row

below. For example, the pile of 15 cans shown has 5 cans in the bottom row and 4
cans in the row above it.
(a)

A pile has 20 cans in the bottom row. Show that the pile contains 210 cans.

(b)

There are 3240 cans in a pile. How many cans are in the bottom row?

(c)

(i)

There are S cans and they are organized in a triangular pile with n cans in
2
the bottom row. Show that n + n 2S = 0.

(ii)

Clara has 2100 cans. Explain why she cannot organize them in a triangular pile.

2. Let Sn be the sum of the first n terms of the arithmetic series 2 + 4 + 6 + .

(a)

Find
(i)

S4;

(ii)

S100.

1 2
.
Let M =
0 1

(b)

(i)

Find M .

(ii)

1 6
3
.
Show that M =
0 1

1 2n
n
, for n 4. The sum Tn is defined by
It may now be assumed that M =
0 1
1

Tn = M + M + M + ... + M .
4

(c)

(i)

Write down M .

(ii)

Find T4.

(d)

Using your results from part (a) (ii), find T100.

3. A city is concerned about pollution, and decides to look at the number of people using taxis. At the end of the
year 2000, there were 280 taxis in the city. After n years the number of taxis, T, in the city is given by
n

T = 280 1.12 .
(a)

(i)

Find the number of taxis in the city at the end of 2005.

(ii)

Find the year in which the number of taxis is double the number of taxis there were at the
end of 2000.

(b)

At the end of 2000 there were 25 600 people in the city who used taxis. After n years the number
of people, P, in the city who used taxis is given by

2 560 000
.
10 90e 0.1n

P=

(c)

(i)

Find the value of P at the end of 2005, giving your answer to the nearest whole number.

(ii)

After seven complete years, will the value of P be double its value at the end of 2000?
Justify your answer.

Let R be the ratio of the number of people using taxis in the city to the number of taxis. The city
will reduce the number of taxis if R 70.
(i)

Find the value of R at the end of 2000.

(ii)

After how many complete years will the city first reduce the number of taxis?

4. Let f (x) = p

3x
, where p, q
x q2

Part of the graph of f, including the asymptotes, is


shown below.
(a)

The equations of the asymptotes are x =1, x =


1, y = 2. Write down the value of
(i)

(b)

(c)

(d)

p;

(ii)

q.

Let R be the region bounded by the graph of f,


the x-axis, and the y-axis.
(i)

Find the negative x-intercept of f.

(ii)

Hence find the volume obtained when


R is revolved through 360 about the xaxis.

3 x 2 1

(i)

Show that f (x) =

(ii)

Hence, show that there are no maximum or minimum points on the graph of f.

Let g (x) = f (x). Let A be the area of the region enclosed by the graph of g and the x-axis, between
x = 0 and x = a, where a 0. Given that A = 2, find the value of a.

5. A Ferris wheel with centre O and a radius of 15 metres is represented in the diagram below. Initially seat A is
B = .
at ground level. The next seat is B, where AO
6

(a)

Find the length of the arc AB.

(b)

Find the area of the sector AOB.

(c)

The wheel turns clockwise through an angle


2
of
. Find the height of A above the
3
ground.

The height, h metres, of seat C above the ground


after t minutes, can be modelled by the function

h (t) = 15 15 cos 2t .
4

(d)

.
4

(i)

Find the height of seat C when t =

(ii)

Find the initial height of seat C.

(iii)

Find the time at which seat C first reaches its highest point.

(e)

Find h (t).

(f)

For 0 t ,
(i)

sketch the graph of h;

(ii)

find the time at which the height is changing most rapidly.

6. The following is the cumulative frequency curve for the time, t minutes, spent by 150 people in a store on a
particular day.

150
140
130
120
110

c u m u la tiv e fre q u e n c y

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

10

11

12

tim e (t)

(a)

(i)

How many people spent less than 5 minutes in the store?

(ii)

Find the number of people who spent between 5 and 7 minutes in the store.

(iii)

Find the median time spent in the store.

(b)

Given that 40 of the people spent longer than k minutes, find the value of k.

(c)

(i)

On your answer sheet, copy and complete the following frequency table.

t (minutes)

0t2

2t4

Frequency

10

23

(ii)

4t6

6t8

8 t 10

Hence, calculate an estimate for the mean time spent in the store.

10 t 12
15

7. A pair of fair dice is thrown.


(a)

Copy and complete the tree diagram below, which


shows the possible outcomes.

Let E be the event that exactly one four occurs when the
pair of dice is thrown.
(b)

Calculate P(E).

The pair of dice is now thrown five times.


(c)

Calculate the probability that event E occurs exactly


three times in the five throws.

(d)

Calculate the probability that event E occurs at least


three times in the five throws.

8. A game is played, where a die is tossed and a marble selected

from a bag.
Bag M contains 3 red marbles (R) and 2 green marbles (G).
Bag N contains 2 red marbles and 8 green marbles.
A fair six-sided die is tossed. If a 3 or 5 appears on the die,
bag M is selected (M).
If any other number appears, bag N is selected (N).
A single marble is then drawn at random from the selected
bag.
(a)

Copy and complete the probability tree diagram on


your answer sheet.

(b)

(i)

Write down the probability that bag M is selected and a green marble drawn from it.

(ii)

Find the probability that a green marble is drawn from either bag.

(iii)

Given that the marble is green, calculate the probability that it came from Bag M.

(c)

A player wins $2 for a red marble and $5 for a green marble. What are his expected winnings?

9. In a large school, the heights of all fourteen-year-old students are measured.

The heights of the girls are normally distributed with mean 155 cm and standard deviation 10 cm.
The heights of the boys are normally distributed with mean 160 cm and standard deviation 12 cm.
(a)

Find the probability that a girl is taller than 170 cm.

(b)

Given that 10 of the girls are shorter than x cm, find x.

(c)

Given that 90 of the boys have heights between q cm and r cm where q and r are symmetrical
about 160 cm, and q r, find the value of q and of r.

In the group of fourteen-year-old students, 60 are girls and 40 are boys.


The probability that a girl is taller than 170 cm was found in part (a).
The probability that a boy is taller than 170 cm is 0.202.
A fourteen-year-old student is selected at random.
(d)

Calculate the probability that the student is taller than 170 cm.

(e)

Given that the student is taller than 170 cm, what is the probability the student is a girl?
x

10. Let f (x) = e (1 x ).


(a)

Show that f (x) = e (1 2x x ).

Part of the graph of y = f (x), for 6 x 2, is shown below. The x-coordinates of the local minimum
and maximum points are r and s respectively.

(b)

Write down the equation of the horizontal asymptote.

(c)

Write down the value of r and of s.

(d)

Let L be the normal to the curve of f at P(0, 1). Show that L has equation x + y = 1.

(e)

Let R be the region enclosed by the curve y = f (x) and the line L.
(i)

Find an expression for the area of R.

(ii)

Calculate the area of R.

Solution:
1. (a) For recognizing the arithmetic sequence

(M1)
u1 = 1, n = 20, u20 = 20 (u1 = 1, n = 20, d = 1)
Evidence of using sum of an AP
M1
S20 =

1 20 20

(or S

S20 = 210 AG
(b)

20
2 1 19 1 )
2

(A1)

A1

N0

Let there be n cans in bottom -row


Evidence of using Sn = 3240
eg

(M1)

1 n n 3240 , n 2 n 1 3240 , n 2n n 1 1 3240


2

n + n 6480 = 0 A1
n = 80 or n = 81 (A1)
n = 80
(c)

(i)

A1

N2

Evidence of using S =

1 n n
2

(M1)

2S = n + n

A1

n + n 2S = 0
(ii)

AG

N0

METHOD 1
Substituting S = 2100
2

eg n + n 4200 = 0,

2100 =

1 n n
2

A1

EITHER
n = 64.3, n = 65.3

A1

Any valid reason which includes reference to integer being needed, R1


and pointing out that integer not possible here.

R1

eg n must be a (positive) integer, this equation does not have


integer solutions.
OR
Discriminant = 16 801

A1

N1

Valid reason which includes reference to integer being needed,

R1

and pointing out that integer not possible here.

R1

N1

eg this discriminant is not a perfect square, therefore no


integer solution as needed.
METHOD 2
Trial and error
S64 = 2080, S65 = 2145
Any valid reason which includes reference to integer
being needed,
R1
and pointing out that integer not possible here.
2. (a) (i)

S4 = 20
(ii)

(b)

N1

A1

N1

Attempting to use formula for Sn

M1

S100 = 10100

A1

(i)

1 4
2

M =
0 1

(ii)

1 2 1 4
3
2
2

For writing M as M M or M M or
0 1 0 1

A2

4 2

(i)

1 8
4

M =
0 1

(ii)

1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8
4


T =
0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

1 2 1 4
1 200

...

T100 =
1
0 1 0 1
0
100 10100

100
0

M1

AG

N0

A1A1

N3

N1

4 20

=
0 4

A2

0 1

A1

N2

N2

1 6
3

M =
0 1

(d)

R1

u1 = 2, d = 2 (A1)

1 0
3
M =
00

(c)

A1A1

(M1)

(M1)

3. (a) (i)

n = 5 (A1)
T = 280 1.12

T = 493
(ii)

(b)

(i)

A1

evidence of doubling (A1)


eg 560
setting up equation
n
n
eg 280 1.12 = 560, 1.12 = 2
n = 6.116...
in the year 2007

2560000
10 90 e 0.1 5

(i)

correct value A2

e.g .
(ii)

N3

A1

N3

A1
A1
R1

N0

2560000
10 90 e 0.1 7

P = 46 806.997...
not doubled
valid reason for their answer
eg P < 51200
(c)

(A1)
A1

(A1)

P = 39 636

A1

(A1)

P = 39 635.993...

(ii)

N2

N2

25600
, 91.4 , 640 : 7
280

setting up an inequality (accept an equation, or reversed


inequality) M1

e.g .

P
2560000
70 ,
70
T
10 90e 0.1n 280 1.12 n

finding the value 9.31....

(A1)

after 10 years
4.

(a)

(b)

(i)

p=2

(ii)

q = 1A1

N1

(i)

f (x) = 0

(M1)

A1

3x
=0
x 2 1

(2x 3x 2 = 0)

A1

N1

x=

(ii)

1
x=2
2

1
, 0
2

A1

Using V =
V=

b
a
0
1
2

y dx (limits not required)

3x
2 2
x 1

(M1)

A2

dx

V = 2.52
(c)

(i)

N2

A1

Evidence of appropriate method

N2

M1

eg Product or quotient rule


2

Correct derivatives of 3x and x 1


Correct substitution
eg

(ii)

A1A1
A1

3 ( x 2 1) ( 3 x ) (2 x )
( x 2 1) 2

f (x) =

3x 2 3 6 x 2
( x 2 1) 2

A1

f (x) =

3x 2 3
3( x 2 1)
=
( x 2 1) 2
( x 2 1) 2

AG

N0

METHOD 1
Evidence of using f (x) = 0 at max/min
2

(M1)

3 (x + 1) = 0 (3x + 3 = 0)

A1

no (real) solution

R1

Therefore, no maximum or minimum.

AG

N0

METHOD 2
Evidence of using f (x) = 0 at max/min

(M1)

Sketch of f (x) with good asymptotic behaviour

A1

Never crosses the x-axis

R1

Therefore, no maximum or minimum.

AG

METHOD 3
Evidence of using f (x) = 0 at max/min

(M1)

Evidence of considering the sign of f (x)

A1

f (x) is an increasing function (f (x) 0, always)

R1

N0

Therefore, no maximum or minimum.


(d)

For using integral (M1)


Area =

g ( x ) dx or
0

Recognizing that

a
0

a
0

f ( x) dx or

g ( x) dx f ( x)

a
0

3x 2 3

Correct equation
eg

a
0

a=

1
2

a=

1
2

( x 1)

A1

A2
(M1)

a=2

A1

N2

arc AB = 7.85 (m) A1

(M1)
N2

1
Evidence of using A r 2
2

(M1)
2

Area of sector AOB = 58.9 (m )


METHOD 1

angle =

dx

A1

5. (a) Evidence of using l = r

(c)

3a
2
dx = 2, 2 2 2 0 = 2, 2a + 3a 2 = 0
a

3x 2 3
2

( x 1)

Setting up equation (seen anywhere)

(b)

AG

30
6

(A1)

A1

N2

N0

attempt to find 15 sin

M1

height = 15 + 15 sin
= 22.5 (m)

A1

N2

METHOD 2

60
3

angle =

(A1)

attempt to find 15 cos

height = 15 + 15 cos
= 22.5 (m)
(d)

(i)

M1

A1

N2



15 15 cos
4
2 4

(M1)

= 25.6 (m)
(ii)

h(0) = 15 15 cos 0
4

= 4.39(m)

(iii)

A1

N2

A1

N2

(M1)

METHOD 1
Highest point when h = 30

R1

30 = 15 15 cos 2t
4

M1

cos 2t = 1
4

(A1)

t = 1.18 accept

A1

N2

METHOD 2
h
30

2
Sketch of graph of h
Correct maximum indicated
t = 1.18

t
M2
(A1)
A1

N2

METHOD 3
Evidence of setting h(t) = 0

M1

sin 2t 0
4

(A1)

Justification of maximum

R1

eg reasoning from diagram, first derivative test, second


derivative test

t = 1.18 accept
8

(e)

h(t) = 30 sin 2t (may be seen in part (d))


4

(f)

(i)

A1

N2

A1A1A1

N3

A1A1 N2

h (t)
30

30

Notes: Award A1 for range 30 to 30, A1


for two zeros.
Award A1 for approximate correct
sinusoidal shape.
(ii)

METHOD 1
Maximum on graph of h
t = 0.393

(M1)
A1

N2

(M1)
A1

N2

METHOD 2
Minimum on graph of h
t = 1.96
METHOD 3
Solving h(t) = 0

(M1)

One or both correct answers

A1

t = 0.393, t = 1.96
6. (a) (i)

N2

50 (accept 49, fewer than 50)


(ii)

A1

Cumulative frequency (7) = 90

(A1)

90 50

(iii)
(b)

(c)

N1

(M1)

= 40

A1

N2

75th or 75.5th personA1


median = 6.25 (min), 6 min 15 secs

A1

N1

Evidence of finding 40% (60%) of 150


M1
Number spending less than k minutes is (150 60) = 90
k=7
A1
N2

(A1)

(i)

t (minutes)

0t<2

2t<4

4t<6

6t<8

8 t < 10

10 t < 12

Frequency

10

23

37

38

27

15
A1A1A1

(ii)

Evidence of using all correct mid-interval values (1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11)

N3

A1

110 3 23 5 37 7 38 9 27 1115

150

mean =

= 6.25 (min), 6 min 15 secs


7. (a)

A1

N1

S e c o n d d ie
in p a ir
F irs t d ie
in p a ir

fo u r

1
6
fo u r

1
6

5
6

not
fo u r
fo u r

1
6

5
6

not
fo u r
5
6

Note:
(b)

P(E) =

=
(c)

not
fo u r

Award A1 for each pair of complementary

1 5 5 1 5 5


6 6 6 6 36 36

(A2)

10 5

or 0.278
36 18

A1

A1A1A1 N3
probabilities.

N3

Evidence of recognizing the binomial distribution

(M1)

5
5
13

eg X ~ B 5 , or p , q
18
18
18
5
P(X = 3) =
3

5 13

18 18

(or other evidence of correct setup)

= 0.112
(d)

(A1)
A1

N3

A1

N2

METHOD 1
Evidence of using the complement M1
eg P(X 3) = 1 P(X 2)
Correct value 1 0.865
(A1)
= 0.135
METHOD 2

Evidence of adding correct probabilities


M1
eg P(X 3) = P(X = 3) + P(X = 4) + P(X = 5)
Correct values 0.1118 + 0.02150 + 0.001654

(A1)

= 0.135

A1

N2

A1A1A1

N3

A1

N3

A1

N3

8. (a)
3
5

1
3

2
5

2
3

(b)

P(M and G) =

(ii)

P(G) =

(iii)

2
10

8
10

1 2
2
(
0.133) A1
3 5 15

1 2 2
8

3 5 3 10

N1

(A1)(A1)

10 2

0.667
15 3

2
P( M G ) 15

P(M G) =
(A1)(A1)
2
P(G )
3
=

(c)

(i)

P(R) = 1

1
or 0.2
5

2 1

(A1)
3 3

Evidence of using a correct formula M1

1
2
1 3
2 2
1 2
2 8
E(win) = 2 5 or 2 2 5 5
3
3
3 5
3 10
3 5
3 10
= $4

accept

12 60
,

3 15

9. (a) P(G > 170) = 1 P(G < 170)

170 155

P(G > 170) = P Z


10

A1

A1

N2

(A1)
(A1)

P(G > 170) = 1 (1.5) = 1 0.9332


= 0.0668
(b)

z = 1.2816

(c)

A1

N3

A1

N2

(A1)

Correct calculation (eg x = 155 + 1.282 10)


x = 142

A1

(A1)

N3

Calculating one variable

(A1)

eg P(B < r) = 0.95, z = 1.6449


r = 160 + 1.645(12) = 179.74
= 180

A1

N2

Any valid calculation for the second variable, including use of


symmetry (A1)
eg P(B < q) = 0.05, z = 1.6449
q = 160 1.645(12) = 140.26
= 140

(d)

A1
N2
Note: Symbols are not required in parts (d) and (e).

P(M (B > 170)) = 0.4 0.2020, P(F (G > 170)) =


0.6 0.0668
(A1)(A1)
P(H > 170) = 0.0808 + 0.04008
= 0.12088 = 0.121 (3 sf)

(e)

P(F H > 170) =

P( F H 170 )
(M1)
P H 170

A1

0.60 0.0668
0.121

0.0401
0.04008
or

0.121
0.1208

= 0.332
10. (a)

A1

evidence of using the product rule


x

A1
N1

M1

f (x) = e (1 x ) + e (2x) A1A1


x

Note: Award A1 for e (1 x ), A1 for e (2x).


x

f (x) = e (1 2x x )
A1

AG

N0

(b)

y=0

N1

(c)

at the local maximum or minimum point


x

f (x) = 0 (e (1 2x x ) = 0)

(M1)

1 2x x = 0 (M1)
r = 2.41 s = 0.414 A1A1 N2N2
(d)

f (0) = 1 A1
gradient of the normal = 1 A1
evidence of substituting into an equation for a straight line (M1)
correct substitution A1
eg y 1 = 1(x 0), y 1 = x, y = x + 1
x + y = 1 AG
N0

(e)

(i)

intersection points at x = 0 and x = 1 (may be seen as the limits)


approach involving subtraction and integrals
fully correct expression
eg

(ii)

e 1 x 1 x dx ,
1

area R = 0.5 A1

N1

(A1)
(M1)
A2

1
0

f x dx

1 x dx
0

N4