6.777J/2.
372J: The MEMSclass
Introduction to MEMS and MEMS Design
Joel Voldman
(with ideas from SDS)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  1
Outline
> Class odds and ends
> Intro to MEMS
> The challenge of MEMS Design
> Course outline
> Design projects
and then, Microfab Part I
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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Handouts
> General Information Handout
Lecturers: Carol Livermore, Joel Voldman
Text: Senturias Microsystem Design
Beware: Errata on website
> Schedule
> Student Information Sheet
VERY IMPORTANT
Fill out and hand back at end of class
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  3
Handouts
> Lecture notes
Handed out at beginning of class
Extra copies available at Carols office
> Library Orientation NEXT FRIDAY FEBRUARY 16
Learn how to use online databases, journals, etc.
This will be VERY useful for Problem Set 2
and for life!
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  4
Course overview
> Course is broken into two halves
> First half
MEMS design and modeling
Seven problem sets
Differing lengths and complexity
Due on due date IN CLASS
> Second half
Case studies
Design projects
> Grading
15% Problem sets
Regrades on psets must be requested promptly
35% Takehome design problem
50% Final project
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  5
Course conduct and ethics
> See policy on cooperation in General Info handout
> We encourage teamwork during the psets
Literature solutions are OK
Students must follow ethical guidelines
All students must write up their own pset
List those you work with on problem set
Cite any literature solutions used
Some behavior is patently unacceptable
Use of prior years homework solutions
>
>
>
>
>
Cooperation is essential in final design project
No cooperation is allowed on takehome design problem
Any breaches will be dealt severely, with no warnings
Please consult us before doing anything questionable
web.mit.edu/academicintegrity/handbook/handbook.pdf
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  6
Course overview
> What makes this course challenging?
> Relevant physics in lots of fields must be grasped
quickly
We teach a great deal of material in ~2/3 semester
> Every student will learn new concepts
> Design projects
Complex openended design problems
Team dynamics
> All of you can learn MEMS design, and we will try to
make it easier and fun!
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  7
Outline
> Class odds and ends
> Intro to MEMS
> The challenge of MEMS Design
> Course outline
> Design projects
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  8
What are MEMS?
> MicroElectroMechanical Systems
> Microsystems
> Microfabrication
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
> Microtechnology
> Nanotechnology
> Etc.
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Lucas Novasensor
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  9
What are MEMS?
> Microfabrication is a manufacturing technology
A way to make stuff
Adapted from semiconductor industry
With changes
Therefore, MANY standard design principles hold
> But has unique elements
New materials: SU8, PDMS
New ways to shape them: DRIE
New material properties
Bulk vs. thin film
Different physics regimes
Si at small scales
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Sandia
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
What are MEMS?
> Definitions vary
Usually made via semiconductor batch fabrication
Usually small
Some important dimension is <1 mm
Ideally, useful
Used to be actual electromechanical systems
Sensors: Something moves and is sensed electrically
OR
Actuators: An electrical signal moves something
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
What are MEMS?
> Now, many MEMS have no
E or M
Static microfluidic structures
But often are multidomain
Electroother domain is very
Aluminum
heater
Silicon
e.g., ElectroThermalFluidic
pumps
Pumping
chamber
Nozzle valve
Dual bubble
Duty = 5%
Duty = 10%
Duty = 15%
5
4
3
2
1
0
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Diffuser valve
Electric connection
through hole
6
Volume flow rate (l/min)
Microbubble
Liquid inlet
Liquid outlet
popular
actuation
Pyrex glass
(B)
Images by MIT OpenCourseWare.
0
100
200
300
Pulse frequency (Hz)
400
500
Liwei Lin (UCB)
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
MEMS: Starting points
> Some starting points:
1961 first silicon pressure sensor (Kulite)
Diffused Si piezoresistors mounted onto package
to form diaphragm
Dr. Kurtz (founder) is MIT graduate, of course
Mid 60s: Westinghouse Resonant Gate Transistor
H.C. Nathanson, et al.,
The Resonant Gate Transistor,
IEEE Trans. Electron Devices,
March 1967, 14(3), 117133.
Figure 1 on page 119 in: Nathanson, H. C., W. E. Newell, R. A. Wickstrom,
and J. R. Davis, Jr. "The Resonant Gate Transistor." IEEE Transacationson
Electron Devices 14, no. 3 (1967): 117133. 1967 IEEE.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
MEMS: Important early work
> Stanford Gas
Chromatograph (1975)
SC Terry, JH Jerman and JB
Angell, IEEE Trans Electron
Devices ED26 (1979) 1880
WAY ahead of its time
> 70s to today: Ken Wise
Figure 3 on page 1882 in: Terry, S. C., J. H. Jerman, and J. B.
Angell. "A Gas Chromatographic Air Analyzer Fabricated on a
Silicon Wafer." IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 26,
no. 12 (1979): 18801886. 1979 IEEE.
(Michigan) neural probes
> 70s Inkjet printheads
> 70s Start of TI DMD
project
Courtesy of Kensall D. Wise. Used with permission.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
MEMS: Important early work
> MEMS blossomed in the 80s
> 1982 Kurt Petersen Silicon as a
mechanical material
Proc. IEEE, 70(5), 420457, 1982.
> Mid80s BSAC folks (Howe, Muller,
etc.) polysilicon surface
micromachining
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
T. Lober, MIT
R. T. Howe and R. S. Muller,
Polycrystalline silicon micromechanical
beams, J. of the Electrochemical
Society, 130, 14201423, (1983).
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
MEMS: Important early work
> Electrostatic Micromotors
Introduced in 19881990
MIT and Berkeley
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
> Microchip capillary
electrophoresis and labonachip
Introduced ~19901994
A. Manz, D.J. Harrison,
Fan et al., IEDM 88, p 666.
others
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Harrison et al., Science 261:895, 1993
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
MEMS: Some current hot topics
> Optical MEMS
Switching of optical signals
Big boom in the late 90s
Big bust in the early 00s
Muller et al., Proc. IEEE, 8:1705, 1998.
Fig. 1 on page 1706 in: Muller, R. S., and K. Y. Lau. "SurfaceMicromachined Microoptical Elements and Systems." Proceedings
of the IEEE 86, no. 8 (August 1998): 17051720. 1998 IEEE.
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Lucent micromirror
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
MEMS: Some current hot topics
> RF MEMS
Smaller, cheaper, better
way to manipulate RF
signals
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Figure 9 on p. 17 in: Nguyen, C. T.C. "Vibrating RF MEMS
Overview: Applications to Wireless Communications."
Proceedings of SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 5715 (Jan. 2005): 1125.
Reliability is issue, but
getting there
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Figure 15 on p. 64 in: Nguyen, C. T.C."Micromechanical Filters for Miniaturized
Lowpower Communications." Proceedings of SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 3673 (July 1999): 5566.
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07. MIT
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
MEMS: Some current hot topics
> BioMEMS
Shows promise for
diagnostics
Next era of quantitative
biology
No commercial winners
yet
Wise (UMich)
Courtesy of Kensall D. Wise. Used with permission.
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Voldman (MIT)
Courtesy of Joel Voldman. Used with permission.
Chen (UPenn)
Mathies (UCB)
Courtesy of Richard A. Mathies.
Used with permission.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
MEMS: Commercial success
> This isnt just academic curiosity
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
> There are products you can actually buy
Pressure sensors in your car & in your body
Accelerometers EVERYWHERE
Gyroscopes
HP
Inkjet print heads
Texas Instruments micromirror array
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Motorola Razr
Nintendo Wii
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
MEMS: Commercial success
> The major successes have been
pressure and inertial sensors
Why?
Most mature: 40+ years
Huge initial market: automotive
Recent access to huger
commercial market
Easy access to physical signal
Smaller than alternatives
Cheaper than alternatives
In medical market, that
means disposable
Can be integrated with
electronics
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Honeywell microswitch
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Analog Devices pressure sensor.
Moderately precise & accurate
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
Outline
> Class odds and ends
> Intro to MEMS
> The challenge of MEMS Design
> Course outline
> Design projects
JV: 2.372/6.777 Spring 2007, Lecture 1  22
MEMS Design
> For our purposes, design means
Create a device or system
With quantitative performance parameters (e.g., sensitivity)
Subject to constraints
Size, price, materials, physics
Some clearly defined some not
> This is hard no matter what the device is
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
MEMS Design
> MEMS design is hard because
The manufacturing technology is actually quite imprecise
10% tolerance on inplane dimensions is typical
Outofplane tolerances may be much better
or much worse
Fabrication success is NOT a given AND is tied to the design
The material properties are unknown or poorly known
The physics are often different
Not the traditional size scales
The system must be partitioned
Which parts to integrate onchip?
Packaging is nontrivial
NOT like ICs
All these questions should be answered early on
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
Some solutions to this challenge
> Approach #1
Make something easy or not useful, etc.
> Approach #2
Do incorrect backoftheenvelope design and then proceed
> Approach #3 (grad student favorite)
Create a large range of structures One of them will work, hopefully
> Approach #4 (the MEMS class way)
Predictive design of all you know to enable chance of 1st round
success
Determine necessary modeling strategies for a given problem
From analytical to numerical
In THIS class we concentrate on analytical and tell you where it
fails
Be aware of what you dont know, cant control, and what your
assumptions are
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
MEMS Design
> Different levels of design
Analytical design
Abstracted physics
ODEs, Scaling, Lumpedelement models
Numerical design
Intermediate approach between physical and analytical
design
Physical level:
3D simulation of fundamental physics
PDEs, finiteelement modeling, etc.
> Tradeoff between accuracy and effort/time
> Always limited by fundamental knowledge of
properties or specifications
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
Outline
> Class odds and ends
> Intro to MEMS
> The challenge of MEMS Design
> Course outline
> Design projects
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
Course goal
> Course goal: Learn how to design any
microfabricated device/system
> Learn how to
Understand the design process
Partition the system
Determine and model relevant physics
Evaluate different designs & fabrication technologies
Understand the linkage between fabrication and design
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
Course outline
> First up: fabrication and material properties (4.5 lectures)
> MEMS fabrication is intimately coupled with design
Not true of many other worlds
Example: diaphragm pressure sensor
Would like to use Si because of
piezoresistors
Material choice sets fabrication
technology: KOH
Fabrication technology determines
shapes and physical limits:
diaphragm thickness
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
This in turn affects performance Photograph of Motorola MPX200 xducer.
deflection ~ (thickness)3
> Material properties also matter greatly
MEMS material properties are often poorly characterized
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
Course outline
> Fabrication lectures will focus on MEMS process
development
Unit processes
Orderofoperations
Frontend and backend processing
> These themes will be broadcast throughout the term
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
Course outline
> Next we introduce the electrical and mechanical domains (2
lectures)
> This gives us something concrete to design
> Split class into two groups for Lectures 6 & 7
> Group 1: Basic Elasticity and Structures
> Group 2: Basic Electronics (Circuits, Devices, Opamps)
> Goal is to teach fundamentals at a slower pace without boring
experts
> Rejoin at Lecture 8
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
Course outline
> Split sessions
> Which session should I attend?
> Go for material you are less familiar with
MEs go to Electronics
EEs go to Elasticity/Structures
> Notes for both lectures will be available to all
> What if you dont know either subject?
We will hold makeup lectures of Elasticity/Structures
Please let us know ASAP if you need a makeup
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
Course outline
> Next we present an approach to design (3 lectures)
Lumpedelement modeling
Different energy domains all use common language
Electrical, Magnetic, Structural, Fluidic, Thermal
Therefore, when you encounter a new domain, you can
quickly attach it to existing knowledge
Enables quick design
But has limits
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
Course outline
> Then we explore additional energy domains (6
lectures)
Structures, Thermal, Fluids & Transport
What physics are relevant?
Not all of fluids, just lowReynoldsnumber flows
How do we extract lumpedelement or analytical models?
What is the resistance of a microfluidic channel?
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
Course outline
> Systems issues (4 lectures)
Noise, feedback, packaging, design tradeoffs
> Partitioning
A major theme of the course
Cant design device with process
Also cant design device without package
Should you put any electronics onchip?
Can you design MEMS to make readout easier?
What are the tradeoffs between different choices
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
Course outline
> Finally, case studies
Integrate everything we have up to now to learn about design
process of actual devices
Analog Devices accelerometer
TI micromirror
BioMEMS such as integrated PCR devices
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
Outline
> Class odds and ends
> Intro to MEMS
> The challenge of MEMS Design
> Course outline
> Takehome and team design projects
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
Design projects
> Design is the heart of this course
> We will have short design problems on the psets
> In March, we will have a takehome graded design
problem
Multifaceted: fabrication, electromechanical analytical design
Students will prove their design to staff
> In April, team design projects start
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
Design projects
> Projects, projects, projects
Teams of 46 people
Chosen by US, with input from you
Only students taking class for CREDIT can participate
All teams have a mentor
> Paper design of a MEMSbased device
Quantitative systemlevel specifications
Analytical design, finiteelement modeling, fabrication,
packaging, electronics, calibration, etc.
Final project grade 50% due to team, 50% due to individual
> Lectures will focus on case studies
> Almost no more homeworks
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
Design projects
> Project timeline
Short description March 9
Your preferences March 23
Teams assigned April 4
Preliminary report
Is team functioning and has it started?
Intermediate report
Is team functioning and is it going to finish?
Final presentations and report
~30min presentation in front of judges
20pg manuscriptquality report
Significant prize to winning team
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
Design projects
> Use to illustrate course approach
> A piezoresistive sensor for biomolecular recognition
(2003)
The goal of this project is to create cantileverbased device
that detects stress induced by molecular binding.
Two cantilevers (operated differentially) will be created out of
Si with integrated polySi piezoresistors.
The packaged device will be used in a handheld pointofcare diagnostic monitor and so must be robust, small, and
connected to a circuit that gives an output proportional to the
logarithm of the concentration ratio.
> Show slides from presentation to illustrate design
process
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 
Images removed due copyright restrictions.
Student final presentation: Gerhardt, Antimony L., Saif A. Kahn, Adam D. Rosenthal,
Nicaulas A. Sabourin, and KengHoong Wee. "A Piezoresistive Molecular Binding Detector."
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Microfabrication for MEMS: Part I
Carol Livermore
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
* With thanks to Steve Senturia, from whose lecture notes
some of these materials are adapted.
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  1
Outline
> A way to think about process design
> Surface and bulk micromachining concepts
> Next class: substrates, lithography and patterning, and thin
films
> Class #3: etching, wafer bonding (including bulk
micromachining), surface micromachining and process
integration
> Class #4: in class process design exercise
> Class #5: fabrication for the life sciences and material
properties
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  2
Learning to speak fab
> There are huge lists of things that you can and cant do in
microfab (vocabulary)
> There are limits on how you can combine steps together to form
a process (grammar)
> An experienced microfabricator knows most of these
capabilities and limits from long experience (fluency)
> A beginning microfabricator must struggle to master details and
rules
> Our goal: teach enough vocabulary and grammar to get you
started (today starts with grammar)
> Only practice will make you fluent!
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  3
The promise and the pain
> Microfabrication can produce a near infinite array of structures
> But making your particular structure can be very difficult!
> Youd think it would be easy
Functional requirements dictate materials and geometry
> but its not! Fabrication processes are not ideal.
Materials property variability
Geometric variability
> Early phase design must seek a selfconsistent solution to the
question of what will I make and how will I make it?
> But for that, we must be familiar with our tools and how they
work
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  4
Crayon Engineering
> At the early stages of MEMS design, conceptual process design
rather than highly detailed process design is required
> It is necessary to obey
The laws of physics
Constraints on temperatures
Constraints on chemical compatibility
Design rules on geometry
> But we can draw our processes with crayons
Hence the phrase crayon engineering
> As we approach the final design, we need CAD tools
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  5
Making integrated circuits
Wafers in
1. The Front End (creating
transistors, etc.):
Hot processes: growing
defectfree oxides, diffusing
dopants to create
transistors
Clean processes: Junk will
diffuse in, too, if you let it
2. The Back End (wiring up
the system):
Cooler processes:
depositing metal interconnects, separating layers
with less perfect insulators
Notsoclean processes:
Dirt is still bad, but you can
wash it off
Integrated circuits out
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  6
Things to remember about IC fab
> A LOT of effort has gone into designing IC processes so that
they achieve the desired result and dont violate the laws of
physics
> Why these processes are hard to design and improve:
What if the circuit would be better if it included feature A, but
making feature A requires a back end step followed by a front end
step?
Typical solutions: omit feature A or create a back end version of
the front end step
An unacceptable solution: just go from the back end process into
the front end tool. This will contaminate the fab line and may melt
your back end features in the process.
> Bottom line: IC processing is always done the same way, with a
few variants
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  7
Things to remember about MEMS fab
> You are subject to many of the same restrictions as the IC
designers
Laws of physics
Restrictions imposed by vendors: you cant do x because it would
contaminate my tools from the point of view of my other customers
> but you have additional challenges and advantages
Often there is no baseline process to work from (though the
literature can often give you a good start)
There is no guarantee that conventional processes and tools can
produce your part
The MEMS tool kit is significantly broader than the IC tool kit (so
theres more available, but its up to you to figure out how to turn
the raw material into a functional process)
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  8
The MEMS tool kit
The Front End
(with some front
endcompatible
MEMS additions)
The Back End
(with some back
endcompatible
MEMS additions)
Everything else:
Soft lithography (polymers, stamping,
microcontact printing)
Electroplating
Electron beam lithography
Spincast materials (e.g. spinon glass)
Piezoelectrics
Magnetic materials
Anodic bonding of glass to silicon
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  9
An important caveat
> MEMS processes also basically flow from the front end to the
back end
> The lines between front end and back end processes are not set
in stone they depend on your tolerance for risk/contamination.
How clean is clean?
How hot is hot?
> We will present unit processes according to whether they are
roughly front end, back end, or everything else processes, but
it is up to you, the process designer, to consider the actual
temperatures, contamination, and materials compatibilities that
are involved. What is clean for my application may not be clean
enough for yours.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  10
Implementation of rules is labspecific (MTL example)
Chart removed due to copyright restrictions.
Complete chart is at http://wwwmtl.mit.edu/services/fabrication/ptc_matrix.html
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  11
Outline
> A way to think about process design
> Surface and bulk micromachining concepts
> Next class: substrates, lithography and patterning, and thin
films
> Class #3: etching, wafer bonding (including bulk
micromachining), surface micromachining and process
integration
> Class #4: in class process design exercise
> Class #5: fabrication for the life sciences and material
properties
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  12
Fundamentals of Surface Micromachining
Surface Micromachining
> A technique for fabricating micromechanical devices by
selectively depositing and etching thin films on the surface of a
substrate
> Structural layers are the thin films that form the final structure
> Sacrificial layers are thin films that support a MEMS structure
during fabrication, until it is released (that is, until the sacrificial
layer is etched away)
Important techniques for surface micromachining
> Lithography and patterning
> Wet and dry etching
> Deposit thin films by CVD, PECVD, thermal oxidation,
evaporation, etc.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  13
Sandia: surface micromachined gear chain
Courtesy of Sandia National Laborator
i
es, SUMMiT Technologies, www.mems.sandia.gov
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  14
Texas Instruments Digital Mirror Display
> One MEMS example:
inside the projector
Images removed due to copyright restrictions.
Figures 48 and 50 in Hornbeck, Larry J. "From Cathode Rays to Digital Micromirrors: A History of Electronic Projection Display
Technology." Texas Instruments Technical Journal 15, no. 3 (JulySeptember 1998): 746.
http://www.dlp.com/
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  15
Berkeley: surface micromachined microphotonics
Figure 5 on page 316 in: Friedberger, A., and R. S. Muller. "Improved Surfacemicromachined Hinges
for Foldout Structures." Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 7, no. 3 (1998): 315319. 1998 IEEE.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  16
Fundamentals of Bulk Micromachining
Bulk Micromachining
> Selectively etch bulk substrate to create microelectronic or
micromechanical structures
> Remaining material forms the device structure
> Moving structures, trenches, and membranes possible
Important Techniques for Bulk Micromachining
> Lithography and patterning
> Wet and dry etching
Etch rate and profiles are important
Selectivity and masking materials, too!
> Wafer bonding
A process for permanently attaching two wafers together
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  17
MEMS energy harvester
Figure 5 on page 67 in: Meninger, S., J. O. MurMiranda, R. Amirtharajah,
A. Chandrakasan, and J. H. Lang. "Vibrationtoelectric Energy Conversion."
IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems 9, no. 1
(2001): 6476. 2001 IEEE.
Designed for microWatts.
MurMiranda, Jose Oscar. "Electrostatic VibrationtoElectric
Energy Conversion." Doctoral diss., Massachusetts Institute
of Technology, 2004, p. 88.
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  18
MIT: bulk micromachined microengine
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
3D cutaway of a micromachined microengine. Photograph by Jonathan Protz.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  19
NIST: bulk micromachined microheater
Polysilicon microheater suspended
above silicon substrate
Figure 1 on page 57 in: Parameswaran, M., A. M. Robinson, D. L. Blackburn, M.
Gaitan, and J. Geist. "Micromachined Thermal Radiation Emitter from a Commercial
CMOS Process." IEEE Electron Device Letters 12, no. 2 (Feb. 1991): 5759. 1991 IEEE.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  20
Preview: Unit Processes and Integration
> Next class we will start to fill in the details of the front end, back
end, and everything else with a set of unit process steps out of
which processes can be built (vocabulary)
Oxidation
Implantation and Diffusion
Lithography
Selective Etching
etc.
> But always remember to consider compatibility of the steps in
the overall, integrated process sequence (grammar) this is
critical to the success of the MEMS device
> Also remember that theoretical compatibility isnt enough! The
process sequence must be available at your facility or your
vendors facility in order for you to use it!
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1  21
Microfabrication for MEMS: Part II
Carol Livermore
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
* With thanks to Steve Senturia, from whose lecture notes some of
these materials are adapted.
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  1
Outline
> Substrates
> Lithography and patterning
> Doping
> Thin films
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  2
Silicon Wafers
> Silicon is a diamondstructure cubic crystal
> Comes with different amounts of either ntype or ptype doping
z
Simple cubic crystal
z
(100) Plane
z
(110) Plane
(111) Plane
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 3.1 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 31. ISBN: 9780792372462.
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  3
Notation
> A direction in crystal coordinates is denoted by square brackets, e.g.
[100]
> The set of symmetrically equivalent directions is written with braces,
e.g. <100>
> The plane perpendicular to a direction is denoted with parentheses,
e.g. (100)
> The set of symmetrically equivalent planes is written with curly
brackets, e.g. {100}
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  4
Diamond Structure
> The diamond structure is two facecentered cubic lattices shifted by
of the body diagonal. There are four silicon atoms per cubic unit
cell.
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 3.2 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 32. ISBN: 9780792372462.
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  5
Wafer orientation
(110) plane
(100) plane
45
(100) planes
(110) primary flat
(100) type wafer
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from: Maluf, Nadim. An Introduction to M icroelectromechanical Systems Enginee ring.
Boston, MA: Artech House, 2000. ISBN: 9780890065815.
Picture from N. Maluf, An Introduction to Microelectromechanical
Systems Engineering
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  6
Other substrates
> Silicon wafers with embedded layers, such as silicononinsulator (SOI) wafers
device layer
buried oxide layer
substrate
Initial purpose: build ICs on device layer, and buried oxide
minimizes stray capacitance to substrate
Common MEMS purpose: bulk micromachine top layer into
moveable structures with wellcontrolled thickness
$$$$
> Quartz wafers
Single crystal
Fused quartz amorphous quartz wafers
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  7
Other substrates
> Glass (cheap, high impurity content)
Inexpensive base for soft lithography
Transparent for optical access
Can be very strongly attached to silicon wafers via anodic bonding
> Compound semiconductors (IIIVs, IIVIs)
Optical applications
> Sapphire
Strong, wear resistant, transparent, insulating substrate
Compatible with CMOS (so transparent CMOS MEMS)
Expensive, hard to etch
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  8
Substrate summary
Substrate
Front end
compatible
Back end
compatible
Everything else
compatible
Silicon
yes +
yes
yes, but only use
if needed
Silicon on
insulator (SOI)
yes +
yes
yes, but only use
if needed
Quartz
yes
yes
yes, but only use
if needed
Glass (pyrex)
no
yes, sometimes
yes +
Compound
semiconductor
no
yes
yes, but only use
if needed
Sapphire
yes, but only use yes, but only use yes, but only use
if needed
if needed
if needed
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  9
Outline
> Substrates
> Lithography and patterning
> Doping
> Thin films
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  10
Optical Lithography
Spincast a photosensitive
resist layer; bake out solvent
Collimated UV exposure
through a mask; resist either
crosslinks or becomes
soluble
positive
negative
Develop by dissolving the
exposed/unexposed
(positive/negative) resist; can
now transfer pattern to
substrate
Alignment fiducials permit alignment of subsequent masks.
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  11
Methods of optical lithography I
> Contact
Mask touches wafer
Inexpensive
Contact degrades mask
No die size limit
Resolution: down to 1 micron nervously; down to several
microns comfortably
> Proximity
Mask of order 10 microns from wafer
Inexpensive
Less mask damage
Diffraction means lower resolution
No die size limit
Resolution: down to several microns nervously, somewhat
larger comfortably
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  12
Projection Lithography
> Projection lithography, especially
when combined with an optical
imaging system that reduces the
image size, is used for highresolution
patterning (submicron to very
submicron)
> Larger mask features, no contact with
mask
UV Light
Condensing
Lens
Mask
Projection
Optics
Wafer
> Wafer steppers expose one die at a
time, assuring good focus and
registration
> Something to consider: if your device
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 3.15 in: Senturia, Stephen D.
Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer
Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 53.
ISBN: 9780792372462.
needs fine features, a stepper may be
required. But steppers have limits on
die size of about 1 cm.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  13
Mask making
> Highest quality chromium on fused quartz written with an electron
beam exposing an electronbeam resist (PMMA)
Also very high quality: laserwriting
> Photographic emulsion on fused quartz exposed with UV light flashes
through a programmable aperture
> Patterns printed from an AutoCAD file on transparencies with a veryhighresolution printer low resolution, but cheap and fast
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  14
Positive thin resist
> Spin cast
> Thickness of order 1 micron
> Developer removes exposed resist
> Creates sloped profile at resist edge
> Some applications
Wet etching
Shallow dry etching
> Front end standard
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  15
Negative/image reversal photoresists
> Spin cast
> Thickness of order 1 micron
> Developer removes unexposed resist
> Creates a reentrant profile
> Typical application: liftoff processes
(in acetone), often seen in back end
processing
> Rule of thumb: resist thickness should
be 3x thickness of layer to be lifted off
> Not a standard front end material, but
not inherently incompatible with it
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  16
Positive thick photoresist
> Spin cast
> Thicknesses of order 10 microns
> Sloped profiles
Slope somewhat controllable
through process conditions
> Some planarizing capability
> Typical applications:
Prolonged or low selectivity dry
etch
Deep reactive ion etch
Masking any etch over topography
> Not a standard front end material,
but not inherently incompatible
Courtesy of Reza Ghodssi. Used with permission.
with it
5 m thick
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  17
Doublesided aligned lithography
> Goal: align features on the back of the wafer to features on the
front
Common requirement in bulk micromachining
Not a standard IC capability
Functionality more common as market grows
> What you need:
Double side polished wafer
Double sided alignment tool
IR alignment, registration to global fiducials in the tool,
through holes, etc.
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  18
Special purpose lithographic techniques I
> Xray lithography
One application: making molds for LIGA
Requires an xray source and xray mask
> Electron beam lithography
High resolution (tens of nanometers)
NEMS (NanoElectroMechanical Systems)
A slow, serial process
> Lithographic techniques that are rarely seen in front end
processing
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  19
Special purpose lithographic techniques II
> Shadow masking
Direct evaporation or sputtering through physical holes in a
shadow mask (think stencils)
Back end/everything else process
Last ditch technique for patterning surfaces that cannot be
coated with resist (large topography, fragile features)
> Soft lithography (Whitesides, Harvard)
Using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, a rubber material) as a
physical mold to replicate structures
Advantages:
Patterning curved surfaces
Rapid, inexpensive fabrication
A set of everything else processes
More on this later
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  20
Very thick photoresists
> SU8 epoxy
Spin cast
Negative resist, optical
exposure
SU8 epoxy photograph.
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Can planarize extreme
topographies
Can be structural, not easily
dissolved
> Polyimide
Spin cast
Can planarize topographies
Humidity sensitive
500 micrometer SU8 epoxy within deep silicon trench.
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
> Classified as everything else
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  21
Details that matter for lithographic patterning
> Existing topography: if your existing feature heights are comparable
to or greater than the thickness of the resist that you are putting
down, you will not have good coverage
Incompletely covered sidewalls, holes full of resist, resist that never
enters a hole at all
Solutions: eliminate the topography, thicker resist, alternate coating
technology (spray on, electrophoretic photoresist?), use of a previously
patterned hard mask instead of a resist mask
> Patterned resist does not have a square profile can affect the
topography of whatever you pattern with the resist
> Resist adhesion
If the surface of the wafer is hydrophilic (like SiO2), the resist might peel
during subsequent wet processing steps
Surface preparation is key (e.g. dehydration bake and HMDS coating to
render surface hydrophobic)
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  22
Cleaning!
> When we say (for example) that positive thin resist is compatible with
front end processing, we do not mean that you can have resist on
your wafer during most front end processes!
> Must remove resist and clean wafer thoroughly before high
temperature processes
> Always include cleaning in process flows, starting at the crayon
engineering level
> Resist removal techniques:
O2 plasma ash
Chemical removal of organics: piranha clean (3:1 H2SO4:H202) or
Nanostrip (a weaker version of piranha)
Solvents (acetone)
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  23
More cleaning!
> Additional cleans typically needed at specified points in the flow
> Example: RCA clean before very high temperature processing (as in furnace
for front end processing)
Step 1: Organic clean, 5:1:1 H2O:H2O2:NH4OH at 75  80C
Step 2: Thin oxide removal, 50:1 H2 O:HF
Step 3: Metal/ionic contamination removal, 6:1:1 H2O:H2O2: HCl at 75
80C
> Example: remove organics before moderately high temperature, fairly clean
processing (upper part of back end processing)
Piranha clean (3:1 H2SO4:H202)
> Materials compatibility (what cleans your structures can tolerate) often
determine what processes you can and cant use
> If you wait until the last minute to put cleans into your process flow, you will
likely be redesigning your device and process at the last minute
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  24
Another important detail: process bias
> The feature drawn on the mask is not the same size as the
feature produced on the wafer
> Exposed area usually extends beyond clear area on mask
> Resist selection impacts process bias
Resist thickness
Resist tone
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  25
Design Rules
After Mask 1
> Alignment of one
pattern to the next is
critical to device
fabrication
> Design rules are
created to assure that
fabrication tolerances
do not destroy devices
Feature on
Mask 1
Mandatory
Overlap
Design Rule
Feature on
Mask 2
After Mask 2:
Desired alignment
Barely acceptable misalignment
Unacceptable misalignment
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 3.16 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 54. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  26
Outline
> Substrates
> Lithography and patterning
> Doping
> Thin films
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  27
Doping
> Doping is the introduction of a controlled amount of
impurities to change the conductivity type and degree of a
semiconductor
> In silicon, boron is a ptype dopant (creating holes), while
phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony are ntype dopants
(creating conduction electrons)
> Some doping incorporated in initial silicon melt
> All modern thin film doping is done with ion implanation
> Doping doesnt add a new thin film, but it modifies the
properties of a thin film at the surface of existing material
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  28
Ion implantation
> A highvoltage accelerator is used to shoot ions at the wafer.
> The beam must be rastered and the wafer must be rotated to achieve
uniform dose
> Usually a thin protective layer, such as oxide, is used to prevent
sputtering of the surface and to reduce channeling
> The depth of the implant dose depends on energy
> Activation anneal after implantation allows dopants to reach proper
positions in crystal
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  29
Effective range
> The effective range measures the location of the
peak concentration of an implanted species.
10
Projected range (m)
rus
ho
osp
Ph
0.1
ron
Bo
enic
Ars
0.01
0.001
10
100
Energy (keV)
1000
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
This image is for illustration purposes only; it should not be used for design calculations.
Adapted from Figure 3.6 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA:
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 39. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  30
Masking of implants
> Control of which regions of a wafer receive the
implant is achieved with masking layers
Ions
Photoresist
Oxide
Silicon
Location of implanted ions
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 3.7 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 39. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  31
Diffusion
> After implantation, ions are driven deeper into the substrate by
6
5
Implant dose
x j = (4 Dt ) ln
N D Dt
Junction depth (microns)
>
diffusion, a hightemperature process
The junction depth is the point at which the implanted ion
concentration is equal (but of opposite type) to the substrate doping
4
3
2
1
Background doping
concentration
0
103
104
105
Time (seconds)
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
This image should not be used for design calculations. Adapted from Example 2.2 in:
Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers,
2001, p. 43. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  32
Outline
> Substrates
> Lithography and patterning
> Doping
> Thin films
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  33
Creating thin (and thick) films
> Many techniques to choose from
> Differences:
Front or back end processes
Quality of resulting films (electrical properties, etch
selectivity, defects, residual stress)
Conformality
Deposition rate, cost
> Physical techniques
Material is removed from a source, carried to the substrate,
and dropped there
> Chemical techniques
Reactants are transported to the substrate, a chemical
reaction occurs, and the products deposit on the substrate to
form the desired film
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  34
Taxonomy of deposition techniques
> Chemical
Thermal Oxidation
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)
Low Pressure (LPCVD), Atmospheric Pressure
(APCVD), Plasma Enhanced (PECVD)
Epitaxy
Electrodeposition (Electroplating)
> Physical
Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)
Evaporation
Sputtering
Spincasting
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  35
Oxidation I
> Silicon forms a high quality, stable oxide
> How it works:
Oxygen diffuses through oxide to Si/oxide interface
Si + O2 + high temperature (~1100 C) furnace SiO2
Some Si is consumed
tox
0.46 tox
> Rate determined by diffusion of oxygen through oxide
> Diffusion limits practical oxide thickness to < 2 m
> A key front end process
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  36
Oxidation II
> Dry oxidation (O2)
High quality, slow oxidation rate, smaller maximum thickness
(i.e. gate oxide)
> Wet oxidation (steam)
H2 to speed the diffusion
Lower quality, faster oxidation rate
> The DealGrove model describes the kinetics of oxidation quite
well for oxides greater in thickness than about 30 nm.
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  37
DealGrove Model
For oxides greater than about 30 nm thick:
4 B DG
x final = 0.5 ADG 1 + 2 (t + DG ) 1
ADG
where
DG =
x
B
2
i
DG
x
B
DG
/ ADG
(Constants are given in the text; beware units
of BDG, m2/hour)
Growth goes approximately as t for short times, and
approximately as t for long times.
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  38
Local Oxidation
> Oxidation can be masked locally by an oxidation barrier, such as
silicon nitride
> Oxide undercuts edge of mask layer to form a birds beak
> Oxidation followed by oxide etch can also be used to sharpen silicon
features.
Oxidation barrier
Silicon wafer
Birds beaks
After oxidation
Senturia, Microsystem Design.
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 3.5 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 37. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  39
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)
> How CVD works:
Gaseous reactants, often at low pressure
Long mean free path; reactants reach substrate
Reactants react and deposit products on the substrate
Unlike oxidation, does not consume substrate material
> Energy sources facilitate CVD reactions:
High temperature, plasma, laser
> Processing temperatures vary widely
> Commonly deposited films: Oxide, silicon nitride, polysilicon
> CVD results depend on pressures, gas flows, temperature
Film composition, uniformity, deposition rate, and electrical and
mechanical characteristics can vary
> Near the boundary between front and back end, depending
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  40
Some reasons to use CVD
> Oxide formation:
To get a thicker layer than thermal oxidation can provide
To create oxide on a wafer that cant withstand high
temperatures (for example because of metal features)
To create oxide on top of a material that is not silicon
> For film formation in general:
To tailor the film properties (like film stress) by adjusting
pressures, flow rates, external energy supply, ratios of different
precursor gases (to adjust proportions of different materials in
the final product)
Conformality: (more or less) even coating on all surfaces
> Drawbacks
Films deposited at low temperature are often lower quality than
high temperature versions, and have less predictable properties
Flammable, toxic, or corrosive source gases
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  41
Thick Film Formation
> Chemical vapor deposition is a common MEMS tool for creating thick
films on the wafer surface
In practice, film stress limits thickness (film delamination or cracking, or
curvature of underlying structures)
Can deposit thick oxides; nitrides are still typically submicron
Must anneal deposited oxides for some applications lose low stress
property on anneal
> Example: PECVD deposition (350400C) of 10 to 20 m oxides
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
25 m thick cracked oxide, X.
Zhang et al., Hilton Head 2000
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
18 m thick oxide insulation for a
microgenerator w/ Pt features
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  42
CVD enables conformal coating
MEMSbased fuel processor.
Figure 4 on p. 605 in: Arana, L.R., S. B. Schaevitz, A. J. Franz,
Figure 5 on p. 606 in: Arana, L.R., S. B. Schaevitz, A. J. Franz,
M. A. Schmidt, K. F. Jensen, "A Microfabricated Suspendedtube
M. A. Schmidt, K. F. Jensen, "A Microfabricated Suspendedtube
Chemical Reactor for Thermally Efficient Fuel Processing." Journal
of Microelectromechanical Systems 12, no. 5 (2003): 600612.
Chemical Reactor for Thermally Efficient Fuel Processing." Journal
of Microelectromechanical Systems 12, no. 5 (2003): 600612.
2003 IEEE.
2003 IEEE.
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  43
LPCVD Polysilicon
> Amorphous at lower deposition temperatures and higher
deposition rates
Typical temperature: ~ 590 C
> Polycrystalline at higher deposition temperatures and lower
deposition rates
Typical temperature: ~ 625 C
> Grain size and structure depend on detailed deposition
conditions
e.g. thicker films larger grains
> Structure, electrical properties, and mechanical properties also
vary with postdeposition thermal processing
Grain growth
Dopant activation or diffusion
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  44
Polysilicon stress depends on deposition details
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Kurt Petersen, Trans Sensory Devices
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Lober, Theresa Ann. "A Microfabricated Electrostatic
Motor Design and Process." Masters thesis, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, 1988. 132 pages.
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  45
Epitaxy
> CVD deposition process in which atoms move to lattice sites,
continuing the substrates crystal structure
Homoepitaxy: same material, i.e. Si on Si
Heteroepitaxy: different materials, i.e. AlGaAs on GaAs
> How it happens
Slow deposition rate (enough time to find a lattice site)
High temperature (enough energy to move to a lattice site)
> Selective epitaxy is possible through masking
> Can grow a doped Si layer of known thickness
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  46
Electroplating: basics
> Pass a current through an aqueous metal solution
Anode is made of the metal that you want to deposit
Cathode is the conductive seed material on your wafer
Positive metal ions travel to the negatively charged cathode on
your wafer and deposit there
> Preparing your wafer
If you want to plate metal in some places and not in others, you will
need a patterned metal seed layer (and typically a sticky metal
adhesion layer under that)
For very short features, just plate onto the seed layer
For taller features, need to plate into a mold
Molds can be photoresist, silicon, SU8, etc., depending on the
needs of your device
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  47
Electroplating
Electroplating for LIGA
40 m thick films of
nickel fabricated by
electroplating into a mold
This picture belongs to Professor Reza Ghodssi (University of Maryland) and was published in the following reference:
Ghodssi, R., D. J. Beebe, V. White, and D. D. Denton. "Development of a Tangential Tactor Using a LIGA/MEMS Linear
Microactuator Technology." Proceedings of the 1996 ASME Winter Annual Mtg., Symposium on MicroMechanical Systems,
Atlanta, Georgia, pp. 379386, November 1722, 1996.
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  48
Electroplating realities
Test run w/ bump
plating  perfect
Real device forms
keyholes different
loading pattern
Courtesy of Dariusz Golda. Used with permission.
Solution: Cu damascene
fill, with additives/agitation
to promote fill at bottom
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  49
Conformality and keyholes
> To lowest order, conformal films coat sidewalls and horizontal
surfaces at the same rate.
> But high aspect ratio trenches are prone to keyholes (CVD,
electroplating, etc.)
What you want:
What you get:
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  50
Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)
> Remove material from a solid source
> Transport material to substrate
> Deposit material on substrate
> Differences among PVD techniques
How material is removed from source
Directionality when it arrives at substrate
Cleanliness of deposition
> A family of quick, low temperature processes
> All back end processes or worse
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  51
Thermal Evaporation
Rsource
> Source is resistively heated in high vacuum
Typical source: metal
> Hot source atoms are emitted in all directions and stick where
they land
> Substrate receives a directional flux of source material
Good for liftoff processes, otherwise poor conformality
> Possible contamination from generalized heating
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  52
Ebeam Evaporation
electron
gun
V
esource
> Electron beam heats source in high vacuum
Typical source: metal
> Hot source atoms are emitted in all directions and stick where
they land
> Substrate receives a directional flux of source material
Good for liftoff processes, otherwise poor conformality
> Heating is less generalized less contamination
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  53
Sputtering
= Ar ion
target
> Unreactive ions (i.e. Ar) knock material off a target by momentum
transfer
> Targets: metals, dielectrics, piezoelectrics, etc.
> Different methods of obtaining energetic ions
Magnetron, plasma
> Low pressure, but not high vacuum
> Less directional and faster than evaporation
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  54
Etching, liftoff, and adhesion layers
> Films are patterned differently depending on whether the material in
question tends to react with other materials
> Materials that react (for example, aluminum):
Deposit a blanket film (sputtering good for better conformality), do
photolithography, and etch it into the desired shape
> Materials that dont react readily (for example, noble metals):
Hard to etch: typically use liftoff instead
Pattern resist, then deposit metal on top with a directional deposition tool
Not very sticky: typically need an adhesion layer to stick the noble metal
to what lies beneath
Example: use a few hundred A thick layer of Cr or Ti to adhere Au to an
underlying oxide (deposited without breaking vacuum between layers)
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  55
Is this all you can do with deposited films?
> No!
> Spincasting: put the stuff that you want to deposit in a
liquid, spin it onto the surface like resist, and bake out the
solvent (spin on glass, PZT piezoelectrics)
> Other forms of vapor deposition designed for a particular
purpose (depositing the inert polymer parylene by vapor
deposition followed by polymerization)
> Lamination of freestanding resist films onto surfaces
> Self assembled monolayers
>
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2  56
Microfabrication for MEMS: Part III
Carol Livermore
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
* With thanks to Steve Senturia, from whose lecture notes some of
these materials are adapted.
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  1
Outline
> Etching
> Wafer bonding
> Surface micromachining
> Process integration
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  2
Etching
> Wet etching
Isotropic
Anisotropic (for crystals only)
> Dry etching using plasma reactors
Isotropic plasma etching at relatively high gas pressures
Anisotropic reactionion etching at relatively lower gas
pressures
> Sputter etching or ionbeam milling
Not very selective
> A useful reference (what etches what and how fast):
Williams, Gupta, and Wasilik, Etch Rates for Micromachining
Processing Part II, JMEMS 12, 761778 (2003).
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  3
Considerations for etching
> Isotropic
Etch rate the same in all crystal directions
> Anisotropic
For wet etches, rate depends on crystal plane
For dry etches, directionality determined by process
> Selectivity
Etch rate of substrate vs. etch rate of mask
> Mask adhesion (for wet etching)
Increased etching along mask/substrate interface
> Temperature
Reaction rate limited?
> Stirring
Mass transfer limited?
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  4
Isotropic etching
> Etch rate is independent of orientation
> Isotropic etch profile
Assume a welladhered mask with infinite selectivity
Mask undercut, rounded etch profile
> Applications:
Flow channels
Removal of sacrificial layers in surface micromachining
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  5
Isotropic etching
> Some wet etches:
Si
mixture of nitric, acetic, and hydrofluoric acid
SiO2
buffered HF (BOE), also HF vapor
SiN
hot phosphoric acid
PolySi
KOH
Al
PAN etch (phosphoric, acetic, nitric acids)
> Some dry etches:
Si
XeF2 vapor
Organics O2 plasma
> Mostly clean enough for front end, with the exception of
KOH, which is a contamination risk for very high T
processes. XeF2 vapor is often used as a final release etch.
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  6
Anisotropic wet etching
> Depends on having a singlecrystal substrate
> The effect depends on the different etch rates of different
exposed crystal planes
> Silicon etchants for which <111> planes etch slowly
Strong bases (KOH, NaOH, NH4OH)
TMAH
Ethylene diamine pyrochatechol
Hydrazine
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  7
Making a Trench with KOH
Before Etching
[110]
Masking Layer
Top
View
> A rectangular
(100) Silicon Substrate
Cross Section
After Etching
[110]
Top
View
[111]
[100]
pattern is aligned
to a [110]
direction on a
<100> silicon
wafer
54.70
Cross Section
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 3.20 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 62. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  8
Making a Vgroove
> The previous etch is allowed to go to termination,
i.e. the slowing of etch rate when only {111} planes
are exposed
[110]
Top
View
54.7 0
Cross Section
54.7 0
Cross Section
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 3.21 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 63. ISBN: 9780792372462.
> Can also make a square, pyramidal hole
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  9
Convex corners
[110]
> Convex corners
become
undercut, as
there is no single
slowetching
(111) plane to
stop on
Masking Layer
[100]
[110] Silicon
Cross Section
[110]
Convex corners are
rapidly undercut
[110]
[100]
Cross Section
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 3.23 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 64. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  10
Corner Compensation
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Figure 3 on p. 143 in: Enoksson, Peter. "New Structure for Corner Compensation in Anisotropic KOH Etching." Journal
of Micromechanics and Microengineering 7, no. 3 (September 1997): 141144.
A common approach to corner compensation as shown in Enoksson,
J. Micromech. Microeng. 7 (1997), 141144.
> To etch a convex corner with KOH, add extra material at corner
> Amount of material is chosen so that it will etch away just when
the overall etch reaches the desired depth
> Extra material protects convex corner from attack
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  11
Arbitrary shapes
> Any mask feature, if etched long enough, will result in
a Vgroove tangent to the mask along <110>
directions
[110]
Boundary of
rectangular pit
Masking Layer
[100]
Undercut
Regions
Cross Section
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Figure 3.24 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 64. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  12
Misalignment
> Misalignment of the mask relative to the [110]
direction always results in a larger etched region
[110]
Boundary of
Rectangular Pit
50 misalignment
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Figure 3.25 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 65. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  13
Selectivity and etch masks for KOH etches
> Deep etches are long selectivity matters
> Mask must last long enough to bring the etch to completion
> Sidewall erosion must be at an acceptably slow rate
> Etch rate of {111} planes is finite but small
Conditiondependent, of order 400:1 for {100} rate/{111} rate
> Etch rate of mask
Si:SiO2 selectivity about 100:1
Si:LPCVD SiN selectivity at least 1000:1
PECVD SiN not effective (low quality)
Dont use photoresist!
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  14
Etch stops
> When etching into a wafer to leave a specific
thickness of material, it is necessary to have some
kind of etch stop.
> Example: diaphragm pressure sensor
Termination on {111} planes? (Vgrooves only)
Prayer and a stop watch?
Usually gives poor thickness control
Chemical etch stop
An unetched material, e.g. oxide or nitride
Heavily boron doped silicon, p+, as etch
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Motorola
stop for strong bases
(etches several orders of magnitude
more slowly than lightly doped if
concentration > 5 x 1019 cm3)
Electrochemical etch stop
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  15
Dry (Plasma) Etching
> At reduced pressure, a glow discharge is set up in a reactive gas
environment
> This produces
Ions that can be accelerated by the electric fields at the
bounding edges of the plasma so that they strike the surface
these can be quite directional in their impact
Free radicals (uncharged) that can diffuse to the surface and
undergo reaction
> Etching depends on reaction followed by creation of a gaseous
byproduct which is pumped away
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  16
Applicability
> Most materials can be plasma etched
Oxide
Nitride
Silicon
Most metals (not the noble metals)
Polymers
> The art is in achieving suitable selectivity both for masking
layers and to layers that lie beneath the layer being etched
Known recipes (gas mixtures, plasma conditions) with
desired selectivity
Endpoint detection is an important part of best practice
when using plasma etching
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  17
Shape
> The higher the pressure, the more isotropic the etch
because reactants are scattered many times before
reaching the surface (this is called plasma etching)
> To achieve directional anisotropy, one must go to low
pressure to achieve long meanfree paths for the ions
(this is called reactiveion etching or RIE)
> Deep reactive ion etching is another thing altogether
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  18
Deep Reactive Ion Etching (The Bosch Process)
> Photoresist mask: selectivity about 50:1
> Oxide mask: selectivity > 100:1
1. Pattern photoresist
2. Reactive ion etch in SF6
3. Deposit passivation (C4F8)
(produces a teflonlike
polymer)
4. Etch and repeat cycle
(directional ions clear passivation
from bottom only)
Figure 1 on p. 265 in: Chen, K.S., A. A. Ayon, X. Zhang, and S. M. Spearing. "Effect of process parameters on the
surface morphology and mechanical performance of silicon structures after deep reactive ion etching (DRIE)." Journal
of Microelectromechanical Systems 11, no. 3 (2002): 264275. 2002 IEEE.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  19
Depth depends on features and layout
> Features of different width etch at different rates (recipe
dependent)
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Figure 3.28 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers,
2001, p. 70. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  20
Multilevel Etching
> Making multi level etches can be challenging
> For through etches with two different depths, simply etch from
both sides of the wafer, with doublesided alignment
Pattern side 1
Etch side 1
Flip wafer and
pattern side 2
Etch side 2
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  21
Multilevel Etching with Nested Masks
> Etching two sets of deep (> about 10 m) features on the same
side of the wafer requires a nested mask
1. Grow oxide mask
5. Etch to first depth
2. Define resist mask
6. Strip resist mask
3. Etch oxide to form mask
7. Using oxide as a mask,
etch to second depth
4. Strip resist; pattern
with new resist mask
8. Strip oxide mask
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  22
DRIE with Etch Stop
> SOI substrate
> Buried oxide acts as an etch
stop
> Charging can lead to
footing
+ + +
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  23
Outline
> Etching
> Wafer bonding
> Surface micromachining
> Process integration
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  24
Fundamentals of Wafer Level Bonding
>
Two separate and distinct steps
The wafers are aligned to each other in a bond aligner with
a possible alignment accuracy of one micron or less
The bond fixture is loaded into a vacuum bond chamber
where the wafers are contacted together
>
Three most prevalent types
Direct or fusion wafer bonding (high temperature, ~ 1000 C)
Anodic or fieldassisted bonding, ~ 500 C
Bonding with an intermediate glue layer
Gold (thermocompression), ~ 300 C
Polymer or epoxy layer
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  25
Direct Wafer Bonding
Si
Hydrate
surface
Contact and
Anneal
Optional: Thin
top wafer
Si
Spontaneous bonding reduces
surface energy; compensates
some strain energy cost.
Si to Si, Si to oxide, oxide to
oxide.
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
A high quality Si to Si bond
can have bulk strength.
DRIE and wafer bonding, London et al.
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  26
IR visualization of bond formation
Kevin Turner, 2003.
Courtesy of Kevin Turner. Used with permission.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  27
Silicononinsulator
> Bonding to oxidized wafers is also possible, leading
to silicononinsulator wafers
Si
Hydrate
surface
Si
Contact and
Anneal
device layer
Thin top wafer
buried oxide layer
substrate
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  28
Wafer Geometry Impacts Bonding
> Spontaneous wafer bonding reduces surface energy
Two smooth, clean, perfectly flat wafers will bond
spontaneously
> When wafers are not perfectly flat, bonding requires them to
bend
Strain energy increases
> How far will two wafers bond?
Wafers bond until the surface energy reduction equals the
strain energy cost
> Important factors
Wafer thickness
Radius of curvature
Wafer bow innate or from stressed films
Waviness locally greater curvature
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  29
Wafer Geometry Impacts Bonding
> Bonding order and strain energy
For given total stack thickness, the strain energy accumulates
fastest for wafers of equal thickness (goes as thickness cubed)
K.T. Turner and S.M. Spearing, J. App. Phys., 92 (12) 2002,
765866.
To bond n wafers, add them one at a time
+
+
BAD
GOOD
> Etched features
Shallow etch hinders bonding (less interaction area)
Deep etch aids bonding (less stiffness)
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  30
Wafer bonding and yield
> Yield in MEMS can require a wholewafer outlook, unlike IC
processing
> A micronscale defect can create a mm to cmscale defect
Amplification by wafer stiffness
> Can have a die yield of 100% on individual wafers and not get
any devices if defects outside the die area prevent wafer
bonding
> Cleanliness (particulates, organics) is critical to prevent defects;
organics can outgas on anneal.
> Adjust process to minimize stiffness in bonding
At least one of the wafers should be thin (and therefore relatively
pliable) when going into the bonding process
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  31
Anodic bonding
> The mobility of sodium ions in the glass drives anodic bonding
> The wafers are heated to temperatures of about 500C; a positive
voltage (300 V 700 V) applied to the Si repels sodium ions from
the glass surface
> Suspectible to particulates, but less so than direct bonding
> Commonly used as a packaging step
+
_
Silicon
Heater
Heater
Glass
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  32
Designing process flows for cleanliness
> If you are planning to do a fusion bond, design your process
flow to prevent exposure of bonding surfaces to junk
Cleanliness is a good idea for anodic bonding, too, but
anodic bonding is less picky
> Some junk washes off easily, but some doesnt
> Example: deep reactive ion etchings passivation layer is
reluctant to come off (ashing helps somewhat but isnt perfect)
> Work around: if possible, start your process by coating your
wafer with a protective layer, like oxide. When you remove it
right before bonding, it carries the junk away with it.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  33
Outline
> Etching
> Wafer bonding
> Surface micromachining
> Process integration
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  34
Surface Micromachining
> Surface micromachining refers to the selective removal of
sacrificial layers beneath structural layers to create suspended
structures
> Many materials choices possible
> Structural polysilicon and sacrificial PSG oxide is welldeveloped, fully characterized, and available as a foundry
service
> Why use surface micromachining?
Complex multilayer structures are possible without the need
for wafer bonding
Structure thickness is controlled by thickness of deposited
film, not by etch
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  35
Illustrating surface micromachining
> Example
Structural layer:
polysilicon
Sacrifical layer:
Oxide
Etchant
HF
Top View
Cross Section
Substrate
Deposit
sacrificial layer
design
Deposit
structural layer
design
Remove
sacrificial layer
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 3.19 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 59. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  36
Surface Micromachining
Inplane processing; potentially out of plane structures.
Courtesy of Sandia National Laboratories, SUMMiT Technologies, www.mems.sandia.gov
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  37
Solder assembly of surface micromachined parts
> Build surface micromachined parts
> Place solder over the joint
> Melt solder; surface tension bends part up until it hits limiter
Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., http://www.sciencedirect.com.
Used with permission.
Figure 10 on p. 242 in: Harsh, K. F., V. M. Bright, and
Y. C. Lee. "Solder Selfassembly for Threedimensional
Microelectromechanical Systems." Sensors and Actuators
A: Physical 77, no. 3 (Nov. 1999): 237244.
Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., http://www.sciencedirect.com.
Used with permission.
Figure 11 on p. 243 in: Harsh, K. F., V. M. Bright, and
Y. C. Lee. "Solder Selfassembly for Threedimensional
Microelectromechanical Systems." Sensors and Actuators
A: Physical 77, no. 3 (Nov. 1999): 237244.
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  38
Introduction to MUMPs
Courtesy of MEMSCAP, Inc. Used with permission.
PolyMUMPs (MultiUser MEMS Process) is a threelayer polysilicon
surface micromachining commercial process established in BSAC and
now available from MEMSCAP.
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  39
MUMPs Process
Courtesy of MEMSCAP, Inc. Used with permission.
Cross section before sacrificial etch
Structural layers: Poly 0, Poly 1, Poly 2
Sacrificial layers: Oxide 1, Oxide 2 (phosphosilicate glass)
LPCVD nitride acts as passivation, electrical isolation layer
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  40
MUMPS Process: Step 1
Courtesy of MEMSCAP, Inc. Used with permission.
4 100 silicon wafers, 12 resistivity
600 nm LPCVD Si3N4
500 nm LPCVD polysilicon (Poly0)
Lithography poly0 (Hole 0) and RIE poly0
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  41
Step 2
Courtesy of MEMSCAP, Inc. Used with permission.
2.0 m LPCVD PSG (oxide1) and 1050 C anneal
Lithography Dimples and RIE PSG (750 nm)
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  42
Step 3
Courtesy of MEMSCAP, Inc. Used with permission.
Lithography Anchor1 and RIE PSG
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  43
Step 4
Courtesy of MEMSCAP, Inc. Used with permission.
2.0 m LPCVD polysilicon (poly1)
Lithography Poly1 (Hole 1) and RIE poly1
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  44
Step 5
Courtesy of MEMSCAP, Inc. Used with permission.
0.75 m LPCVD PSG(oxide 2 ) and 1050 C anneal
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  45
Step 6
Courtesy of MEMSCAP, Inc. Used with permission.
Lithography poly 2poly1via and RIE PSG (oxide 2)
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  46
Step 7
Courtesy of MEMSCAP, Inc. Used with permission.
Lithography Anchor 2 and RIE PSG (oxide2 and oxide1)
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  47
Step 8
Courtesy of MEMSCAP, Inc. Used with permission.
1.5 m LPCVD polysilicon (poly2)
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  48
Step 9
Courtesy of MEMSCAP, Inc. Used with permission.
Lithography poly2 (Hole 2) and RIE poly2
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  49
Step 10
Courtesy of MEMSCAP, Inc. Used with permission.
0.5 m Cr/Au evaporation (Metal)
Lithography Metal (HoleM) and lift off
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  50
Step 11
Courtesy of MEMSCAP, Inc. Used with permission.
Releasing
1.52 min 49% HF sacrificial oxide etch at room temp.
CO2 critical point drying
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  51
Limitations of Surface MM
Images removed due to copyright restrictions.
Stiction
> Permanent adhesion between movable structures or structure
and substrate
> Caused mainly by van der Waals forces due to hydrogen content
or moisture on surface and close proximity of movable
structures (due to thin films used)
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  52
Dealing with stiction
> Thin structures are susceptible
Deposited films
Narrow, deepetched structures
> Prevention is key
> Options
Low surface tension liquid rinse after sacrificial etch
Surface roughening or surface coating (hydrophobic)
Critical point CO2 or sublimation drying to prevent meniscus
formation
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  53
One release recipe
Acetone soak to remove photoresist (30 min)
Isopropanol soak to remove acetone (30 sec)
Rinse in water to remove isopropanol (1 min)
Soak in 49% HF (3:30 min)
Soak in 4:1 methanol/water (9 min)
CO2 supercritical release. Liquid CO2 is used to flush the
methanol. The CO2 is then heated and will subliminate around
35 C.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  54
HF only removes the oxide that it can reach
Holes in plates
are important!
Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., http://www.sciencedirect.com.
Used with permission.
Figure 11 on p. 243 in Harsh, K. F., V. M. Bright, and Y. C. Lee.
"Solder Selfassembly for Threedimensional Microelectromechanical
Systems." Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 77, no. 3
(November 1999): 237244.
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  55
Outline
> Etching
> Wafer bonding
> Surface micromachining
> Process integration
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  56
Concerns in designing a process and mask set
> We know that we have to obey the laws of physics and the
vendors constraints when designing a process flow
> Its easier to design a robust, effective process if youve
designed your device well
Selecting your device architecture wisely if you dont
design an unbuildable structure, you wont have to build it
Designing the package and packaging process during the
device design
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  57
One concern: accumulated topography
> Successive steps of lithography and etching or deposition
create nonplanar surface topography
> This can interfere with further fabrication:
Getting good coverage with photoresist
Depth of focus of lithographic tool
Wafer bonding
Stringers left over from etching
> Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) can be used to remove or
reduce unwanted topographic features
> Other techniques available for special cases
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  58
Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP)
> Often used to planarize interlayer dielectric insulators
> Typical surface roughness less than of 1 nm (but waviness can
be much bigger)
> Combination of mechanical polishing and chemical etching
> Using an abrasive slurry dispersed in an alkaline solution
> High, narrow features polish faster than low, uniform features
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  59
Stringers
> Stringers form when a conformal film that covers topographic
features is etched directionally, e.g. with RIE or dilute plasma
Conformal coating
over steps
Stringers remain
after directional
plasma etch.
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 3.34 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 74. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  60
A Bad Stringer Location
> The material in the cusp is almost impossible to remove by
etching
> Using a thicker white layer and polishing it back with CMP cures
the stringer problem (so part of the cure is dont let it happen in
the first place a good lesson to remember)
Stringer location
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 3.35 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 75. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  61
System partitioning
> You know that the overall system requires a set of functionalities.
How many of them should you put on the MEMS chip? This will
govern your fab process!
> Prime example: electronics
If you have a tiny signal that you cant detect without amplifying it as
soon as its produced, then you need at least first stage amplifying
electronics
If onchip electronics are not functionally required, you must choose
whether it will save you money (fewer chips to make and package
together) or cost you money (more ways to ruin your MEMS chip in
the fab, and fewer process options) to include electronics on chip
> Some commercially successful devices are made with onchip
electronics
> More commonly, they are not
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  62
Die separation
> Usually you use single MEMS chips, rather than whole wafers
> When and how to cut the chips apart?
> If youre going to slice them apart with a (very ungentle) die saw,
you must identify where in the process you will do it without
breaking your structures
> One alternate approach: include etch features on your mask
that will separate the dies most of the way so they snap apart at
the end
> Either way, must think about this when creating your process
flow
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  63
Design MEMS device and package together!
> You cant make the microfabricated part without photomasks
> The photomasks include interfaces to package:
Electrical bond pads, access required for MEMS function
> Until you make the system partitioning decision, you dont know
the bondpad requirements.
> Until you design the package, you dont know what the
constraints on the physical access will be
> Therefore, until you make the system partitioning decision and
design the package, you cant make the masks!
> Second order packagedevice interactions:
High temperature packaging step can affect device: thermal
stresses, outgassing, etc.
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  64
Process design philosophy
> People publish their fab accomplishments
> Students read the papers and take home the wrong message
They published X. X must be straightforward, and my process can
probably count on accomplishing even a little more than X.
W, X, Y, and Z have all been demonstrated. I cant count on doing
any better than W, X, Y, and Z, but Im sure I can accomplish all of
them simultaneously.
> Some advice:
Dont design your processes on the hairy edge of impossibility.
Including a very difficult process may be unavoidable, but a) dont
include a lot of them and b) be prepared to put a lot of work into
making that process robust.
On the design projects, we will know if your process is too
ambitious. In your thesis or in your job, Mother Nature will know if
your process is too ambitious.
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3  65
Process Flow Design Challenge: Thermal Pneumatic Actuator
A thermal pneumatic actuator consists of a sealed cavity bounded on one side by a
deformable, corrugated (wavy) membrane and on the other side by a surface with an
ohmic heater. When the heater is turned on, the air inside the cavity heats up, expands,
and makes the deformable membrane bulge out. Your teams job is to design a
fabrication process flow to create such a device. The cross sections are shown below.
The membrane is 2 m thick, 4 mm on a side, and is patterned out of a 450 m thick
silicon wafer. The cavity depth is 5 m. You may choose the detailed crosssectional
profile of the corrugations, but they should be concentric circles with a wavelength of
250 m and a depth of 10 m. The heater should be made of gold and patterned on a
Pyrex wafer.
With your team, first sketch out a process flow and mask set; then fill in the details as far
as possible. After each team has a chance to work on the process flow, a team or teams
will be chosen to present their solution(s) to the class. If your team is not chosen to
present its design, your job will be to critique the process that is presented.
Top view of silicon wafer containing
corrugated membrane
Cross section of complete device
Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., http://www.sciencedirect.com. Used with permission.
Figure 1a) on p. 63 in: Jeong, O. C., and S. S. Yang. "Fabrication of a Thermopneumatic
Microactuator with a Corrugated p+ Silicon Diaphragm." Sensors and Actuators A:
Physical 80, no. 1 (2000): 6267.
Close up crosssection of silicon wafer containing
corrugated membrane
Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., http://www.sciencedirect.com. Used with permission.
Figure 2 on p. 63 in: Jeong, O. C., and S. S. Yang. "Fabrication of a Thermopneumatic
Microactuator with a Corrugated p+ Silicon Diaphragm." Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 80,
no. 1 (2000): 6267.
This problem is based on a real device written up in the following paper; the cross
sections are from the paper as well.
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Devices, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on
[DD Month YYYY].
Soft Lithography and
Materials Properties in MEMS
Carol Livermore
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
* With thanks to Steve Senturia and Joel Voldman, from
whose lecture notes some of these materials are
adapted.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  1
Outline
> Soft Lithography
Materials and processes
Patterning biomaterials
> Material Properties in MEMS
Role of material properties in MEMS
Some examples
Determining material properties
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  2
SU8 Epoxy
> NearUV photosensitive epoxy that acts as a negative resist
> High aspect ratio structures possible (20:1), up to mm
> BUT it is not readily removed like photoresist would be
> Can be a structural material or a mask/mold for other materials
> Multilayer processing for thicker structures or two layer
structures, including enclosed flow paths
> Hydrophobic (adheres best to hydrophobic materials)
> Challenges:
Mechanical stress, cracking
When used as a mask, difficult to remove
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  3
Sample process: multilayer SU8 microfluidics
> Spin coat, prebake, expose, and
postbake first layer
> Spin coat, prebake, expose, and
postbake second layer
> Develop both layers
> Cap with SU8 coated transparent plate
> Expose to crosslink SU8 glue, final
bake
Described in Jackman, J. Micromech. & Microeng. 11, 2001, 263.
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  4
Multilayer SU8 options
> Challenge: suspended structures
Unintended exposure of first layer can destroy undercut
> Some demonstrated options:
Deposit metal on top of undeveloped first layer to protect it
from second exposure
Develop first layer channels and fill with a sacrificial polymer
to be removed later
Expose only the upper layer of SU8 by controlling dose
and/or focal depth
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  5
Cracking in SU8
> SU8 shrinks in developer, causing cracks and loss of
adhesion
cracks
100 m
Courtesy of Joel Voldman. Used with permission.
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  6
SU8 Removal
> When using SU8 as a resist and not a structural material, it must
be removed!
Enduring challenge best option is not to strip the SU8
> Postbaked material extremely chemically resistant
Wet
Piranha, also removes other materials
Nanostrip, but much slower
Organic SU8 removers
Work by swelling and peeling, not dissolution
Dry
O2 plasma for cleanup, too slow for bulk removal
Sacrificial layer: Omnicoat
Organic layer, O2 plasma patternable
Spincoat sacrificial layer, process SU8 on top
Sacrificial layer permits SU8 liftoff
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  7
PDMS
> Polydimethylsiloxane
> Flexible elastomer
> Used to replicate topography from a master (Si, SU8, etc)
> Used as a conformable stamp for patterning onto other surfaces
> Good for sealing microfluidic devices; can be sealed to many
materials
> Can be spincoated
> Possible to dry etch
> Low cost pattern replication
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  8
PDMS
CH3
CH3
CH3
O
Si
CH3
Si
CH3
CH3
Si
> Upon treatment in oxygen
CH3
n CH3
plasma, PDMS seals to itself,
glass, silicon, silicon nitride,
and some plastic materials.
Plasma oxidation
Air (~ 10 min)
contact PDMS
surfaces
irreversible seal:
formation of
covalent bonds
Courtesy of Hang Lu and Rebecca Jackman. Used with permission.
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  9
Pattern replication by molding
> Master can be silicon, SU8,
Master
apply
photoresist, or elastomer
> Apply prepolymer liquid to master
> Cure (by baking) and peel off
Prepolymer
Master
cure and peel
> When molding with PDMS, can
exploit PDMS sealing to form
enclosed microchannels
Master
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  10
Sample PDMS Process
Unexposed
SU8 (50 m)
Si
Surface treatment &
casting PDMS
photolithography
PDMS
UV light
Si
mask
removing elastomer from
master
Si
PDMS
development
seal against glass after plasma
treatment and insert tubing
Si
master
tubing
Courtesy of Hang Lu. Used with permission.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  11
Microcontact printing
Stamp
> Apply ink to an elastomer stamp
> Bring stamp in contact with surface
(need not be flat because stamp can
deform)
Stamp
> Ink transfers to surface of substrate
> Can be used to mask etches,
depositions, etc
> Inks:
Stamp
SAMs (alkanethiols for coating on
noble metals), organics, proteins,
etc.
> Size scale: submicron to
millimeters
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  12
Microcontact printing on nonplanar surfaces
Figure 2 on p. 186 in Rogers, J. A., R. J. Jackman, and G. M. Whitesides. "Constructing Single and
Multiplehelical Microcoils and Characterizing Their Performance as Components of Microinductors
and Microelectromagnets." Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 6, no. 3 (Sept. 1997): 184192.
1997 IEEE.
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  13
Pattern replication by imprinting
Master
deformable
> Imprint in a thermoplastic material
by heating and applying pressure
> Typical material: PMMA
(polymethylmethacrylate)
Master
> Or imprint in UVcurable fluid, like
polyurethane
> Process usually leaves trace
Master
material in clear areas, which may
be removed by dry etch
> Can replicate nanoscale features
(nanoimprinting, S. Chou)
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  14
Parylene
> A vapordeposited polymer that provides very conformal
coatings
> Thickness range: submicron to about 75 microns
> Chemically resistant, relatively inpermeable
Component encapsulation
> Low friction film can act as a dry lubricant
> Lowdefect dielectric insulating layer
> Relatively biologically inert
> Thin films nearly transparent
> Low stress minimizes interaction with components
> Can be dry etched
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  15
Some other useful materials
> Polyurethane
UVcurable is particularly useful, can be used for molding
process
> Special purpose polymers (not all terribly mainstream, but an
active and useful area of development):
Photodefinable polycarbonate that decomposes at 250C (ie
Unity Sacrificial Polymer)
Avatrel, a polymer material through which decomposed Unity
can diffuse
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  16
Outline
> Soft Lithography
Materials and processes
Patterning biomaterials
> Material Properties in MEMS
Role of material properties in MEMS
Some examples
Determining material properties
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  17
Biomaterials processing
> Biomolecules DNA, proteins, cells
Needed for biosensors, cell arrays, etc.
Challenge is integrating fragile molecules with
semiconductor processing
Multiple methods
Microcontact printing
Microfluidic patterning
Liftoff
Stencils
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  18
Biomaterials processing by microcontact printing
> Microcontact printing
Developed by Whitesides at
Harvard Univ.
Xia & Whitesides, Annu.
Rev. Mater. Sci. 28:153,
1998.
No harsh solvents needed
Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., http://www.sciencedirect.com. Used with permission.
Figure 4 on p. 601 in: Blawas, A. S., and W. M. Reichert. "Protein Patterning.
Biomaterials 19, nos. 79 (April 1998): 595609.
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  19
Biomaterials processing by microfluidic patterning
> Microfluidic patterning
Attach PDMS stamp to substrate
Add biomolecule to solution
Flow solution through channels
Attachment via adsorption
Courtesy of Annual Reviews. Used with permission.
Figure 1c) on p. 230: in Folch, A., and M. Toner. "Microengineering
of Cellular Interactions." Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
2 (August 2000): 227256.
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  20
Biomaterials processing by liftoff
> Liftoff
Use standard photoresist liftoff
Molecules must withstand acetone
or other solvent
Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., http://www.sciencedirect.com. Used with permission.
Figure 1 on p. 597 in: Blawas, A. S., and W. M. Reichert. "Protein Patterning.
Biomaterials 19, nos. 79 (April 1998): 595609.
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  21
Biomaterials processing by stencils
> Stencils
Use PDMS stamps as dry resists
Physically pattern biomaterials
Can use with most any substrate
Potential damage to cells
on feature periphery
PDMS stencil
A Folch, Univ. Washington
a)
b)
c)
d)
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Figure 3 on p. 351 in: Folch, A., B. H. Jo, O. Hurtado, D. J.
Beebe, M. Toner. "Microfabricated Elastomeric Stencils for
Micropatterning Cell Cultures." Journal of Biomedical Materials
Research 52, no. 2 (2000): 346353.
Attach stencil to substrate
Add cells
Let cells attach to substrate
Remove stencil
Courtesy of Albert Folch. Used with permission.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  22
Outline
> Soft Lithography
Materials and processes
Patterning biomaterials
> Material Properties in MEMS
Role of material properties in MEMS
Some examples
Determining material properties
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  23
Material properties and coupled domains
> The basic functionality of many MEMS devices is in
coupling one domain to another, and this coupling is
typically described by material properties
Mechanical to electrical
Electrical to thermal
Thermal to fluids
> The failure modes of many MEMS devices are in
coupling one domain to another
For example, package stress interacting with piezoresistor
> Some properties of MEMS materials are exceptional
Pronounced piezoresistivity of silicon
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  24
Offlabel use of materials
> MEMS devices often depend on material properties
that are less important for other uses of the material
> Fracture strength of Si
> Biocompatibility of Sibased materials
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  25
Process dependence
> Some microelectronic materials, like single crystal silicon, have
highly predictable and repeatable constitutive properties
> Most microelectronic materials, however, exhibit some degree of
process dependence in their material properties, especially
deposited or thermally formed thin films
> Some properties, like thinfilm residual stress, can be wildly
dependent on deposition conditions, even changing sign from
compressive to tensile
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  26
Planning around material properties
> Wellcontrolled material properties can pose a design challenge
Many factors, may point design in opposite directions
> Poorlycontrolled material properties are worse
Every device has specifications, which must be met by either
getting it right the first time or employing some combination
of trim (fixing the hardware later) and calibration
(compensating through software)
Getting it right includes both materials and geometry
The greater the variation in properties, the greater the
headache and the greater the cost
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  27
Constitutive Properties
> Constitutive properties are normally expressed as relationships
between applied loads (causes) and resulting responses
(effects).
> It is not always clear which is which. If the functional relation
can be inverted, it doesnt actually matter.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  28
Examples of constitutive properties
Load
Response
Property
Distributed mechanical
force
Acceleration
Mass density
Temperature rise
Increase in internal energy
per unit volume
Specific heat per unit
volume
Efield
Dfield
Dielectric permittivity
Hfield
Bfield
Magnetic permeability
Stress
Strain
Elastic compliance
Efield
Current density
Electrical conductivity
Temperature gradient
Heat flux
Thermal conductivity
Shear stress
Shear rate
Inverse of viscosity
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  29
Scalar properties
> Scalar properties are those which involve no
orientationdependent or directiondependent effects
> Examples:
Mass density
Specific heat
Viscosity of a gas or unoriented liquid (i. e. not a liquid
crystal)
And, for isotropic materials: permittivity, permeability,
electrical and thermal conductivity
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  30
Tensor properties
> Properties that involve directions, either the relative directions of
applied vector loads and vector responses, or the orientation of
loads and/or responses relative to internal (crystalline) axes,
require tensors for their specification
> Examples:
Permittivity, permeability, index of refraction and conductivity
of noncubic solids are secondrank tensors
Piezoelectric responses which couple stress and strain to
electric fields are described with thirdrank tensors
Elastic constants and piezoresistive responses require fourthrank tensors
> Because constitutive properties have lots of symmetry, we can
usually boil these higherorder tensors down to something
manageable.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  31
Outline
> Soft Lithography
Materials and processes
Patterning biomaterials
> Material Properties in MEMS
Role of material properties in MEMS
Some examples
Determining material properties
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  32
Which properties to consider?
> One of the challenges for the MEMS designer is knowing what
you should care about.
> One course goal is acquiring domain knowledge, which gives
you some insight into which material properties are important in
a given situation.
> Today: a sneak preview of what you might worry about
> A useful resource:
A previous years assignment involved looking up material
properties for many MEMS materials.
Results are posted on the web site.
Buyer beware! This is the work of 20 + students and surely
contains some errors.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  33
Electrical Conductivity
> Relates electric field to current density; Ohms law minus the
geometry.
> Importance: circuits, sensors
> Elemental metals: observed values can vary from tabulated bulk
values, depending on deposition method.
Example: a factor of two variation in metals printed as
nanoparticles in a solvent and then annealed.*
> Other materials: variations much more pronounced
Polysilicon conductivity depends on grain size, doping:
orders of magnitude with relatively small process variations.
> Characterize by fourpoint measurement of test structures with
known geometry.
* Fuller et al, JMEMS, vol. 11, p. 54 (2002).
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  34
Breakdown Strength
> The maximum electric field that an insulating material in the gap
between two flat electrodes can withstand without suffering
dielectric breakdown
> Depends on the size of the interelectrode gap
> Importance: high voltage actuators, maximum performance
> Can vary with film composition, defect density
> Tabulated values are sufficient if the design does not push the
limits; otherwise characterization is necessary.
> One test approach: fabricate a capacitor and fill gap with
material in question. Match gap thickness to actual device.
Detect onset of breakdown both optically and by current flow.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  35
Elastic constants
> Relate stress (how hard you push or pull on something in a
given direction, per unit area) to strain (the resulting fractional
change in the objects length or shape)
> Importance: how far will your cantilever or membrane deflect?
> Single crystal materials: good reproducibility
> Deposited materials: must be characterized
> Characterizing elastic constants in MEMS is a significant
challenge. Stay tuned for some sample approaches at the end.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  36
Residual film stress
> Stress in a film deposited on a Si wafer, in the absence of
external loading.
> Two flavors:
Intrinsic stress: related to structure
Thermal stress: accumulated from a change in temperature
> Residual stress is a VERY VARIABLE PROPERTY, and must be
measured.
> Can play games, such as adjusting deposition conditions to
ensure that intrinsic and thermal stresses cancel out at given T
> One basic characterization: wafer curvature in the presence of a
blanket film
> More advanced approaches later in lecture
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  37
Known problems from residual stress
> Deformation of free, moveable structures
Compressive film on a wafer
Wafer bows
Compressive membrane or beam
Buckling
Operational deflection can be enhanced
Tensile film on a wafer
Wafer bows
Tensile membrane or beam
Operational deflection can be reduced
> Film cracking and delamination
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  38
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE)
> Fractional change in length per unit temperature change
> Importance: CTE mismatch plus high T processing or operation
creates stress (and deformation and/or destruction)
> Examples:
Bonding glass (quartz or Pyrex) to Si
Thermal stress in a film that is deposited at high T
> CTE is tabulated, and one of the less variable material
properties.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  39
Piezoresistance
> Straining the silicon lattice shifts the bandedge energies of the
conduction band and the valence band
The conduction band, in particular, consists of multiple
minima and, depending on the direction of the strain, some
go up more than others
This shifts the relative electron population in some minima
compared to others and modifies scattering rates
> Result: an orientationdependent shift in the conductivity
> For historical reasons, the piezoresistive coefficients relate
resistivity to stress.
> Piezoresistivity is good for strain sensors, and sometimes
changes the resistance of otherwise perfectly good resistors.
> Coefficients are material, orientation, temperature, and doping
dependent
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  40
Analytic Formulation of Piezoresistance
> The electric field E is a vector (firstrank tensor)
> The current density J is a vector (firstrank tensor)
> Therefore, the resistivity e (and/or conductivity) is a
secondrank tensor, as is the stress
> The piezoresistive effect is described by a fourthrank
tensor
E = [e + ] J
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  41
The Details
> Good news: in cubic materials, there are just three independent
nonzero piezoresistance coefficients, 11, 12, 44.
Effect of stress along
direction of E
Effect of stress
perpendicular to E
Ohms law
Effect of
shear stress
E1
= [1 + 11 1 + 12 ( 2 + 3 )]J1 + 44 ( 12 J 2 + 13 J 3 )
E2
= [1 + 11 2 + 12 ( 1 + 3 )]J 2 + 44 ( 12 J1 + 23 J 3 )
E3
= [1 + 11 3 + 12 ( 2 + 1 )]J 3 + 44 ( 13 J1 + 23 J 2 )
where
e 11 = 1111 , e 12 = 1122 , e 44 = 2 2323
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  42
Piezoresistivity in Silicon
> Coefficients depend on doping, and decrease rapidly above
about 1019 cm3
> Coefficients are functions of temperature
> Typical values
Type
Units
ntype
ptype
Resistivity
cm
11.7
7.8
11
1011 Pa1
102.2
6.6
12
1011 Pa1
53.4
1.1
44
1011 Pa1
13.6
138.1
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  43
Piezoelectricity
> Ionic crystals that lack a center of inversion symmetry can
exhibit a net polarization within each unit cell. Materials which
have this at zero strain are called ferroelectrics. Materials in
which the dipole results from strain are called piezoelectrics
> Examples
Quartz
Zinc oxide
Lithium niobate
Lead zirconatetitanate (PZT)
Aluminum nitride
poly (vinylidene fluoride)
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  44
Piezoelectricity
> Piezoelectrics can have a net electric polarization which
interacts with mechanical strain
Applying a voltage across a piezoelectric creates strains
both parallel and perpendicular to the applied electric field
(actuation)
Straining a piezoelectric creates an electric field both parallel
and perpendicular to the imposed strain (sensing)
> Interaction between stored mechanical energy and stored
electrostatic energy
Permits both sensing and actuation
Unlike piezoresistivity, which is purely dissipative (no
actuation)
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  45
Piezoelectric coefficients
> The piezoelectric tensor links the stress tensor to the electric
polarization tensor
> There are four variables: stress, strain, electric field, and
electric displacement
> Simplification by symmetry: the behavior can be captured by
either the d coefficients (when stress and electric field are the
independent variables) or by the e coefficients (when strain
and electric field are the independent variables)
> The d coefficients (units C/N) relate strain to electric field
Consider an electric field in the z direction
Strain in the x or y direction = d31*Electric field in the z direction
Strain in the z direction = d33*Electric field in the z direction
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  46
Piezoelectric materials
> Some piezoelectrics have no net polarization at zero strain
Quartz
Zinc oxide
Quartz and ZnO are stiff materials, with low strain
> Some materials have a net polarization at zero strain
Common example: PZT (Lead zirconate titanate)
Higher strain ceramic material for larger deflections
Common choice for MEMS devices
Fabrication: deposited in layers by a solgel (spin on) process,
thermally cured, then poled in an electric field
> Piezoelectric polymers
Example: poly (vinylidene fluoride)
Very high strains
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  47
Examples of piezoelectric coefficients
> Zinc oxide
d31 =  5.4 pC/N
d33 = 11.7 pC/N
Note: expansion along the field corresponds to contraction
in the transverse direction
> PZT
Coefficients depend on exact PZT material, on underlying
material, on frequency, and on electric field
 d31 is in the ballpark of 100 pC/N to several hundred pC/N
d33 is in the ballpark of several hundred pC/N to 1000 pC/N
Again, expansion along the field corresponds to contraction
in the transverse direction
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  48
Variation over temperature
> Electrical conductivity
> Thermal conductivity
> Specific heat
> Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE)
Variations in the coefficient itself
> Piezoresistive coefficients
> Piezoelectric response (pyroelectricity)
> Youngs modulus
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  49
Outline
> Soft Lithography
Materials and processes
Patterning biomaterials
> Material Properties in MEMS
Role of material properties in MEMS
Some examples
Determining material properties
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  50
The bottom line
> You need to use test structures to characterize materials with
variable properties
> Measuring electrical properties requires electrical test devices
> Measuring mechanical properties requires a mechanical test
device
Basically a MEMS device designed to help you measure a
particular property value or values
Fabrication of test device must accurately reflect fabrication
processes that you will use to create your real device
> Measuring material properties requires as much careful design
and fabrication as is required to create a device
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  51
Whats Hard?
> Knowing the geometry of the test device well enough to be able
to make good measurements of the constitutive properties and
their repeatability
Lateral and vertical dimensions not too difficult
Sidewall angles, mask undercut are harder
> Modeling the test device accurately enough so that the accuracy
of the extracted properties are limited by geometric errors
A good procedure is to make a family of test structures with
a systematic variation in geometry, and extract constitutive
properties from all of the data.
> Preventing systematic errors in the measurement
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  52
Membrane LoadDeflection Example
> The problem: residual stress and stiffness of membranes affect
their deflection under load
> Example: pressure sensors
d
2a
Pressure (p)
> Approach:
Apply different pressures and measure resulting deflections
Fit to an energybased model for large membrane deflections
Ideal rigid boundary conditions are a benefit
> Weakness:
Deflection is very sensitive to variations in membrane
thickness and edge length, so metrology errors appear
How to get a family of test geometries?
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  53
Pullin of beams: MTest Example
> The problem: elastic constants and residual stress affect the
actuation of mechanical MEMS structures
> Approach:
Fabricate an array of microbeams of different lengths
Measure the voltage at which they pull in, and fit to models
Excellent agreement with known values when boundary
Gap Between Plates
conditions are ideal
g
2
g
3
Stable Region
Unstable
Region
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Figure 10 on page 116 in: Osterberg, P. M., and S. D. Senturia. "MTEST:
A Test Chip for MEMS Material Property Measurement Using
Electrostatically Actuated Test Structures." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 6, no. 2 (1997): 107118.
PullIn
Instability
Applied Voltage
VPI
Courtesy of Joel Voldman. Used with permission.
> Weakness: surface micromachined beams often have some
support compliance
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5  54
Electronics A
Joel Voldman
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  1
Outline
> Elements of circuit analysis
TODAY
> Elements of semiconductor physics
Semiconductor diodes and resistors
The MOSFET and the MOSFET inverter/amplifier
> Opamps
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  2
Elements of circuit analysis
> There are many ways to analyze circuits
> Here well go over a few of them
Elements laws, connection laws and KVL/KCL
Nodal analysis
Intuitive approaches
Superposition
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  3
Lumped elements in circuits
> Circuit elements (R, L,
closed
surface
C) are lumped
approximations of
complex devices
EA = Q
> The electrical capacitor
between Q and V?
E(r, t ) = V (r, t )
b
V (b) V (a) = V = Eg
A
+
V

E = 0
V (b) V (a ) = E dl
What is the relation
E da = Q
Q = AV
g
A
C=
g
E =V
V = CV
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  4
Lumped elements in circuits
> The electrical capacitor
We can replace all of field theory with terminal relations
And introduce an element with an element law
As long as capacitor size << wavelength of electrical signal
In general, MEMS are small
e.g., =50 m 600 GHz
Q = CV
dQ d
I=
= (CV )
dt dt
dV
I =C
dt
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  5
Elements and element laws
> Do this with all three basic
elements
> Resistor
> Capacitor
> Inductor
V
V = RI
V
dV
I =C
dt
dI
V =L
dt
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  6
Source elements
> We need elements to provide energy into the circuit
> Two common ones are voltage source and current
source
I
+
+
V V0
V = V0
I
+
V I0
I = I0
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  7
KVL and KCL
> These are continuity laws that allow us to solve
circuits
> Kirchhoffs voltage law
The oriented sum of voltages around a loop is zero
> Kirchhoffs voltage law
The sum of currents entering a node is zero
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  8
Complex impedances
> For LTI systems, use
complex impedances
instead
Implicitly working in
1
V = IZ C = I
Cs

frequency domain
> Much easier circuit
+
I
analysis
the same, like
resistors
> All elements treated
V
Z
V = IZ L = ILs
V = IZ R = IR
V (s) = I ( s) Z ( s)
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  9
Lets analyze a circuit
1. Figure out what are
you trying to determine
+
V0

2. Replace elements with
3. Assign across and
4. Use KVL
5. Substitute in element
laws
6. Solve
L
R
complex impedances
through variables
iV
i C + VC 
+
VV V0+

ZC
ZL
ZR
 VR +
VL
+
iL
iR
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  10
Lets analyze a circuit
1. Figure out what are
you trying to determine
2. Replace elements with
complex impedances
iV
i C + VC 
+
VV V0+

ZL
ZR
 VR +
3. Assign across and
through variables
ZC
VL
+
iL
iR
VV VC + VL VR = 0
4. Use KVL
V0 iC Z C + iL Z L iR Z R = 0
5. Substitute in element
iC = iL = iR
laws
6. Solve
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  11
Lets analyze a circuit
1. Figure out what are
iV
you trying to determine
+
VV V0+

2. Replace elements with
complex impedances
3. Assign across and
through variables
4. Use KVL
5. Substitute in element
laws
i C + VC ZC
ZL
ZR
 VR +
VL
+
iL
iR
V0 iR Z C iR Z L iR Z R = 0
iR =
V0
=
ZC + Z L + Z R 1
V0
Cs
+ Ls + R
Cs
iR =
V0
2
LCs + RCs + 1
6. Solve
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  12
Example #1
> Solve for VL
+
V0

C
L
R
VL

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  13
Nodal analysis
> Element law approach becomes tedious for circuits
with multiple loops
> Nodal analysis is a KCLbased approach
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  14
Nodal analysis
1. Figure out what are you
VC
trying to determine
2. Replace elements with
complex impedances
V0
+

3. Assign node voltages &
ground node
4. Write KCL at each node
5. Solve for node voltages
6. Use node voltages to
v2
v1
V0
+

C
R
find what you care about
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  15
Nodal analysis
1. Figure out what are you
trying to determine
2. Replace elements with
complex impedances
i1
v1
V0
i2
i3
+

v2
L
3. Assign node voltages &
ground node
4. Write KCL at each node
5. Solve for node voltages
6. Use node voltages to
Node 1:
Node 2:
v1 = V0
i1 + i2 + i3 = 0
v1 v2 0 v2 0 v2
+
+
=0
ZC
ZL
ZR
find what you care about
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  16
Nodal analysis
1. Figure out what are you
trying to determine
2. Replace elements with
complex impedances
i1
v1
V0
+

i2
v2
i3
C
R
3. Assign node voltages &
1
1
1 V0
v2
+
+
=
ZC Z L Z R ZC
4. Write KCL at each node
v2 ( Z L Z R + Z C Z R + Z L Z C ) = V0 Z L Z R
ground node
5. Solve for node voltages
6. Use node voltages to
ZLZR
v2 = V0
Z L Z R + ZC Z R + Z L ZC
find what you care about
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  17
Nodal analysis
1. Figure out what are you
trying to determine
2. Replace elements with
complex impedances
i1
v1
V0
+

i2
v2
i3
3. Assign node voltages &
ground node
6.
LRs + 1
R + Ls 1
Cs
LRCs 2
Solve for node voltages v2 = V0 LRCs 2 + Ls + R
4. Write KCL at each node
5.
v2 = V0
LRs
Cs
2
LRCs
Use node voltages to
VC = v1 v2 = V0 V0
2
LRCs
+ Ls + R
find what you care about
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  18
Example #2
R1
+

V0
R2
L
VL
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  19
Intuitive methods
> Instead of solving the circuit using
equations, use series/parallel tricks to
analyze the circuit by inspection
> Current divider & impedances in
parallel
Both elements have SAME voltage
Terminals connected together
+
V

i
i1
i2
Z1
Z2
i
Z
V

Z2
i1 = i
Z1 + Z 2
Z1
i2 = i
Z1 + Z 2
Z1Z 2
V = i1Z1 = i
Z1 + Z 2
Z1Z 2
= Z1 // Z 2
Z=
Z1 + Z 2
1 1
1
= +
Z Z1 Z 2
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  20
Intuitive methods
> Voltage divider & impedances in
series
Both elements have SAME current
i
+
V1
+
V2

Z2
V2 = V
Z1 + Z 2
Z1
Z2
V1
V
=
=i
i1 =
Z1 Z1 + Z 2
Z = Z1 + Z 2
i
V
Z1
V1 = V
Z1 + Z 2
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  21
Intuitive methods
> Examples of elements NOT in series OR parallel
Z1
Z2
Z1
Z3
Z4
Z3
Z1 and Z3 in series
Z2 and Z4 in series
Z1 and Z2 NOT in parallel
Z3 and Z4 NOT in parallel
Z4
Z3 and Z4 in parallel
Z1 and Z3 NOT in series
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  22
Intuitive methods
iL
> Lets use this approach to solve
a circuit
V0
+

C
L
1. Figure out what are you
trying to determine
+
2. Replace elements with
complex impedances
V0
+

C
Za
4. Reexpand to find signal of
interest
Z a = Z R // Z L
3. Collapse circuit in terms of
series/parallel relations till
circuit is trivial
Va
Za
Va = V0
Z a + ZC
Va
iL =
ZL
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  23
Intuitive methods
> Lets use this approach
to solve a circuit
Za
Z R // Z L
1
1
iL = V0
= V0
Z a + ZC Z L
Z R // Z L + Z C Z L
1. Figure out what are you
trying to determine
2. Replace elements with
complex impedances
3. Collapse circuit in terms of
series/parallel relations till
circuit is trivial
4. Reexpand to find signal of
interest
ZRZL
ZR + ZL
1
= V0
ZRZL
+ ZC Z L
ZR + ZL
= V0
= V0
ZRZL
1
Z R Z L + ( Z R + Z L ) ZC Z L
RLs
RLs + ( R + Ls ) 1
Cs
1
Ls
RCs
iL = V0
RLCs 2 + Ls + R
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  24
Example #3
R1
+

V0
R2
VR
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  25
Superposition
> These equivalent circuits are linear
and obey the principles of
superposition
This can be useful
> For circuits with multiple sources,
Turn off all independent sources
except one
Solve circuit
Repeat for all sources, then add
responses
V0
+

short
> Turning off a voltage source gives
a short circuit
> Turning off a current source gives
I0
open
an open circuit
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  26
Superposition
v2
v1
> For circuits with multiple
sources,
Turn off all independent
I0
sources except one
Solve circuit
Repeat for all sources, then add
v2 = I 0 Z R // Z C
responses
v2
v1
V0
+

V0
C
R
Find v2
I0
v2
v1
+

C
R
v2 = V0
ZR
Z R + ZC
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  27
Superposition
> For circuits with multiple
sources,
Turn off all independent
sources except one
ZR
v2 = I 0 Z R // Z C + V0
Z R + ZC
Z Z
ZR
Solve circuit
v2 = I 0 R C + V0
Repeat for all sources, then add
Z R + ZC
Z R + ZC
responses
v2
v1
V0
+

C
R
I0
v2 =
I0 R 1
Cs
R+ 1
+ V0 R
Cs
I 0 R + V0 RCs
v2 =
RCs + 1
Find v2
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  28
Conclusions
> There are many ways to analyze equivalent circuits
> Use the simplest method at hand
> Element laws & connection laws are OK for simple
ckts
> Nodal analysis works for most any circuit, but will be
tedious for complicated circuits
> Try to use intuitive approaches whenever possible
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E  29
Elasticity
(and other useful things to know)
Carol Livermore
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
* With thanks to Steve Senturia, from whose lecture notes some
of these materials are adapted.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  1
Outline
> Overview
> Some definitions
Stress
Strain
> Isotropic materials
Constitutive equations of linear elasticity
Plane stress
Thin films: residual and thermal stress
> A few important things
Storing elastic energy
Linear elasticity in anisotropic materials
Behavior at large strains
> Using this to find the stiffness of structures
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  2
Why we care about mechanics
> Mechanics makes up half of the Ms in MEMS!
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
DLP projection display
www.dlp.com
Pressure (p)
Pressure sensors
Images removed due to copyright restrictions. Figure 11 on p.
342 in: Zavracky, P. M., N. E. McGruer, R. H. Morrison, and D.
Potter. "Microswitches and Microrelays with a View Toward Microwave
Applications." International Journal of RF and Microwave ComputAided
Engineering 9, no. 4 (1999): 338347.
1 m
Silicon
0.5 m
Cantilever
Pulldown
electrode
Veeco.com
Anchor
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Rebeiz, Gabriel M. RF MEMS: Theory, Design, and Technology.
Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2003. I SBN: 9780471201694.
AFM cantilevers
Courtesy of Veeco Instruments, Inc. Used
with permission.
et al., Int. J. RF Microwave
Switches Zavracky
CAE, 9:338, 1999, via Rebeiz RF MEMS
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  3
What do we need to calculate?
> Eager beaver suggestion: everything
When I apply forces to this structure, it bends.
Heres the function that describes its deformed shape at
every point on the structure when the deformations are
small.
Here are numerical calculations of the shape at every point
on the structure when the deformations are large.
The structure is stressed, and the stress at every point in the
structure is
> Shortcut suggestion: just what we really need to know
When I apply a force F to the structure, how far does the point of
interest (the end, the middle, etc) move?
This boils down to a stiffness, as in F = kx
What is the stress at a particular point of interest (like where my
sensors are, or at the point of maximum stress)?
How much load can I apply without breaking the structure?
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  4
Why things have stiffness I
Unloaded beam is undeformed:
Axially loaded beam is stretched:
Stretching costs energy, which is stored as elastic energy.
Exactly how much energy is determined by material and
geometry.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  5
Why things have stiffness II
Unloaded beam is undeformed:
Loaded beam is bent:
Stretched
Compressed
Stretching and compressing cost energy, which is stored in
elastic energy. Exactly how much energy is determined by
material and geometry.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  6
Example: relating load to displacement in bending
> What are the loads, and where on the structure are they applied?
1 m
Silicon
0.5 m
Cantilever
Pulldown
electrode
Anchor
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Rebeiz, Gabriel M. RF MEMS: Theory, Design, and Technology.
Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2003. ISBN: 9780471201694.
> Given the loads, what is going on at point (x,y,z)?
M
> How much curvature does that bending moment create in the
structure at a given point?
What is the geometry of the structure?
What is it made of, and how does the material respond to the
kind of load in question?
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  7
Elasticity
> Elasticity: the ability of a body to deform in response to applied
forces, and to recover its original shape when the forces are
removed
> Contrast with plasticity, which describes permanent deformation
under load
> Elasticity is described in terms of differential volume elements to
which distributed forces are applied
> Of course, all real structural elements have finite dimensions
> We will ultimately use partial differential equations to relate
applied loads and deformations
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  8
Outline
> Overview
> Some definitions
Stress
Strain
> Isotropic materials
Constitutive equations of linear elasticity
Plane stress
Thin films: residual and thermal stress
> A few important things
Storing elastic energy
Linear elasticity in anisotropic materials
Behavior at large strains
> Using this to find the stiffness of structures
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  9
Stress
> Stress is force per unit area
> Normal stress
x, y, or z
> Compressive: < 0
> Tensile: > 0
x
z
x
xy
> Shear stress
xy, xz, or yz
x
z
xy
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  10
Stress
> Can have all components
at a given point in space
> SI Units: the Pascal
1 Pascal = 1 N/m2
z
zy
zx
> Other units:
yz
xz
1 atm = 14 psi = 100 kPa
1 dyne/cm2 = 0.1 Pa
z
xy
yx
y
x
> Notation: face,direction
x
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA:
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  11
Deformation
> Illustrating a combination of translation, rotation, and
deformation
x3, y3
x2, y2
x3, y3
x2, y2
x4, y4
u(x1, y1)
x1, y1
x4, y4
x1, y1
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers,
2001. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  12
Strain
> Strain is a continuum description of deformation.
> Center of mass translation and rigid rotation are NOT strains
> Strain is expressed in terms of the displacements of each point
in a differential volume, u(x) where u is the displacement and x is
the original coordinate
> Deformation is present only when certain derivatives of these
displacements u are nonzero
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  13
Normal Strains (x, y, z)
> Something changes length
xf
> Normal strain is fractional
change in length (dimensionless)
> > 0: gets longer, < 0: gets
shorter
yi
yf
xi
x x+x
Initial length : ( x + x) x = x
Final length : ( x + x + u x ( x + x) ) ( x + u x ( x) ) =
= x + u x ( x + x) u x ( x)
x =
x+ux(x)
u x ( x + x) u x ( x) u x
=
x
x
x+x + ux(x+x)
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  14
Shear Strains (xy, xz , yz)
> Angles change
ux
> Comes from shear stresses
> Quantified as change in angle
in radians
2
y
x
xy
uy
u x u y u x u y
=
+
=
+
x
x y
y
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  15
Different regimes
> How are stress and strain related? It depends on the regime in
which youre operating.
> Linear vs nonlinear
Linear: strain is proportional to stress
Most things start out linear
> Elastic vs. plastic
Elastic: deformation is recovered when the load is removed
Plastic: some deformation remains when unloaded
> Isotropic vs. anisotropic
Life is simpler when properties are the same in all directions;
however, anisotropic silicon is a part of life
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  16
Outline
> Overview
> Some definitions
Stress
Strain
> Isotropic materials
Constitutive equations of linear elasticity
Plane stress
Thin films: residual and thermal stress
> A few important things
Storing elastic energy
Linear elasticity in anisotropic materials
Behavior at large strains
> Using this to find the stiffness of structures
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  17
Linear Elasticity in Isotropic Materials
> Youngs modulus, E
The ratio of axial stress to axial strain, under uniaxial loading
Typical units in solids: GPa = 109 Pa
Typical values 100 GPa in solids, less in polymers
x
L + L
x = E x
x = L L
(for uniaxial loading)
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  18
Linear Elasticity in Isotropic Materials
> Poisson ratio,
Some things get narrower in the transverse direction when
you extend them axially.
Some things get wider in the transverse direction when you
compress them axially.
This is described by the Poisson ratio: the negative ratio of
transverse strain to axial strain
Poisson ratio is in the range 0.1 0.5 (material dependent)
y = x
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  19
Poissons ratio relates to volume change
> Volume change is
z
proportional to (12)
> As Poisson ratio
approaches , volume
change goes to zero
We call such materials
z (1 x )
incompressible
> Example of incompressible
material:
Rubber
y (1 x )
x(1 + x )
V = xyz (1 + x )(1 x ) xyz
2
V = xyz (1 2 ) x
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  20
Isotropic Linear Elasticity
> For a general case of loading, the constitutive relationships
between stress and elastic strain are as follows
> 6 equations, one for each normal stress and shear stress
xy
1
x = x ( y + z )
E
1
y = y ( z + x )
E
1
z = z ( x + y )
E
Shear modulus G is given by
yz
zx
G=
1
= xy
G
1
= yz
G
1
= zx
G
E
2(1 + )
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  21
Other Elastic Constants
> Other elastic constants in
isotropic materials can
always be expressed in
terms of the Youngs
modulus and Poisson
ratio
Shear modulus G
Bulk modulus (inverse of
compressibility)
E
K=
3(1 2 )
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  22
Plane stress
> Special case: when all stresses are confined to a single plane
Often seen in thin films on substrates (will discuss origin of
these stresses shortly)
> Zero normal stress in z direction (z = 0)
> No constraint on normal strain in z, z
1
1
x = ( x ( y + z )) = ( x y )
E
E
1
1
(
)
y = y ( x + z ) = ( y x )
E
E
1
( x + y )
z = ( z ( x + y )) =
E
E
often get insight
about these from
boundary conditions
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  23
Plane stress: directional dependence
> Principal axes: those
x
directions in which the
load appears to be
entirely normal stresses
(no shear)
Here, principal axes are in x and y.
> In general, there are shear
stresses in other
directions
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  24
Stresses on Inclined Sections
> Can resolve axial forces into normal and shear forces
on a tilted plane
FN = F cos
FV = F sin
FN
FV
FV
FN
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 9.3 in: Senturia, StephenD. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA:
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 205. ISBN: 9780792372462.
A
Area =
cos
F
= cos2
A
F
= cos sin
A
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  25
Resultant stresses vary with angle
Normalized stress
1.2
0.8
0.4
0
0.4
0.5
0.25
0.25
0.5
/
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 9.4 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA:
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 206. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Failure in shear occurs at an angle of 45 degrees
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  26
Special case: biaxial stress
> A special case of plane stress
Stresses x and y along principal axes are equal
Strains x and y along principal axes are equal
> Leads to definition of biaxial modulus
1
( x y )
E
1
y = ( y x )
E
x =
1
(1 )
E
E
=
(1 )
Biaxial modulus =
E
(1 )
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  27
Thin Film Stress
> A thin film on a substrate can have residual stress
Intrinsic stress
Thermal stress
> Mostly welldescribed as a plane stress
Thin film
Plane stress region
Edge
region
Substrate
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 8.5 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer
Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 190. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  28
Types of strain
> What we have just talked about is elastic strain
Strains caused by loading; returns to undeformed
configuration when load is removed
Described by the isotropic equations of linear elasticity
> There are other kinds of strain as well
Thermal strain, which is related to thermal expansion
Plastic strain: if you stretch something too far, it doesnt
return to its undeformed configuration when the load is
removed (permanent component)
Total strain: the sum of all strains
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  29
Thermal expansion
> Thermal expansion: if you
change an objects temperature,
its length changes
> This is a thermallyinduced strain
> An unopposed thermal
expansion produces a strain, but
not a stress
> If you oppose the thermal
expansion, there will be a stress
> Coefficient of thermal expansion,
xthermal (T ) = T T
x (T ) = x (T0 ) + T (T T0 )
and
V
= 3 T (T T0 )
V
T
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  30
Thermally Induced Residual Stress
> If a thin film is adhered to a substrate, mismatch of thermal
expansion coefficient between film and substrate can lead to
stresses in the film (and, to a lesser degree, stresses in the
substrate)
> The stresses also set up bending moments
You care about this if you dont want your wafer to curl up
like a saucer or potato chip
> And the vertical expansion of the film is also modified
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  31
Thermally Induced Residual Stress
Substrate:
s = T , s T
where
T = Td Tr
Film:
f , free = T , f T
f ,attached = T , s T
Some of the final strain is
accounted for by the strain that the
film would have if it were free. The
remainder, or mismatch strain, will
be associated with a stress through
constitutive relationships.
Mismatch:
f ,mismatch = ( T , f T , s )T
Biaxial stress:
f ,mismatch
E
=
f ,mismatch
(1 )
Assuming that the film is much thinner than
the substrate, the films actual strain is
whatever the substrate imposes.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  32
Intrinsic residual stress
> Any thin film residual stress that cannot be explained by thermal
expansion mismatch is called an intrinsic stress
> Sources of intrinsic stress
Deposition far from equilibrium
Secondary grain growth can modify stresses
Ion implantation can produce compressive stress
Substitutional impurities can modify stress
etc.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  33
Edge effects
> If a bonded thin film is in a state of plane stress due to residual
stress created when the film is formed, there are extra stresses
at the edges of these films
Shear stresses
F=0
F=0
Extra peel force
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 8.6 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA:
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 191. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  34
Outline
> Overview
> Some definitions
Stress
Strain
> Isotropic materials
Constitutive equations of linear elasticity
Plane stress
Thin films: residual and thermal stress
> A few important things
Storing elastic energy
Linear elasticity in anisotropic materials
Behavior at large strains
> Using this to find the stiffness of structures
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  35
Storing elastic energy
> Remember calculating potential energy in physics
xf
U = Fx dx (for example, U = mgh)
xi
> Deforming a material stores elastic energy
> Stress = F/A, strain = L/L
(x,y,z)
()d = ???
> Together, they contribute 1/length3: strain energy density at a
point in space
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  36
Elastic Energy
> Elastic stored energy density is the integral of stress with
respect to strain
Elastic energy density :
When ( ) = E :
(x,y,z)
~
W(x,y,z) =
()d
0
1
~
2
W(x,y,z) = E [(x,y,z)]
2
> The total elastic stored energy is the volume integral of the
elastic energy density
Total stored elastic energy :
W=
~
W
(x,y,z)dxdydz
Volume
> You must know the distribution of stress and strain through a
structure in order to find the elastic energy stored in it (next
time).
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  37
Including Shear Strains
> More generally, the energy density in a linear elastic medium is
related to the product of stress and strain (both normal and
shear)
~ 1
For axial strains : W =
2
~ 1
For shear strains : W =
2
This leads to a total elastic strain energy :
W=
1
( x x + y y + z z + xy xy + xz xz + yz yz ) dxdydz
2 Volume
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  38
Linear elasticity in anisotropic materials
> General case:
Stress is a second
rank tensor
Strain is a second
rank tensor
Elastic constants
form a fourth rank
tensor
> There is lots of
symmetry in all the
tensors
> Can represent stress
as a 1 x 6 array and
strain as a 1 x 6 array
x C11
y C12
C
z = 13
yz C14
zx C15
C16
xy
C12
C13
C14
C15
C22
C23 C24
C25
C23 C33 C34
C24 C34 C44
C35
C45
C25
C26
C55
C56
C35
C36
C45
C46
C16 x
C26 y
C36 z
C46 yz
C56 zx
C66 xy
> The elastic constants
form a 6 x 6 array,
also with symmetry
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  39
Stiffness and Compliance
> The matrix of stiffness coefficients,
analogous to Youngs modulus, are
denoted by Cij
> The matrix of compliance
coefficients, which is the inverse of
Cij, is denoted by Sij
> Yes, the notation is cruel
> Some texts use different symbols,
I = CIJ J
J
and
I = S IJ J
J
but these are quite widely used in
the literature
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  40
Cubic materials
> Only three
independent elastic
constants
C11 = C22 = C33
C12 = C23 = C31 = C21
= C32 = C13
C44 = C55 = C66
All others zero
> Values for silicon
C11 = 166 GPa
C12 = 64 GPa
C44 = 80 GPa
C11
C12
C
12
0
0
C12
C11
C12
C12
0
0
0
0
C12
C11
0
C44
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
C44
0
0
0
0
0
C44
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  41
Materials with Lower Symmetry
> Examples:
Zinc oxide 5 elastic constants
Quartz 6 elastic constants
> These materials come up in piezoelectricity
> Otherwise, we can enjoy the fact that most materials
we deal with are either isotropic or cubic
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  42
What lies beyond linear elasticity?
> So far, we have assumed linear elasticity.
> Linear elasticity fails at large strains
Some of the deformation becomes permanent (plastic strain)
Things get stiffer
Things break
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  43
Plastic deformation
> Beyond the yield
> This is exploited
in the bending
and stamping of
metals
5
4
Stress (arbitrary units)
point, a plastic
material develops
a permanent set
Loading curve
Unloading curve
2
1
Strain if unloaded to zero stress
Stress if unloaded to zero strain
1
2
4
2
3
Strain (arbitrary units)
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 8.8 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA:
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 198. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  44
Material behavior at large strain
> Brittle and ductile materials are very different
6
Brittle Fracture
Stress (arbitrary units)
Yield
Ductile Fracture
3
2
Elastomeric or flow region
1
0
2
3
4
Strain (arbitrary units)
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 8.7 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA:
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 197. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  45
Any thoughts on this device?
Figures 2, 3, and 4 on pp. 236237 in: Kinoshita, H., K. Hoshino,
K., K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama. "Thin Compound eye Camera with a Zooming
Function by Reflective Optics." In MEMS 2005 Miami: 18th IEEE International
Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems: technical digest, Miami Beach,
Florida, USA, Jan. 30Feb. 3, 2005. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2005, pp. 235238.
ISBN: 9780780387324. 2005 IEEE.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  46
Outline
> Overview
> Some definitions
Stress
Strain
> Isotropic materials
Constitutive equations of linear elasticity
Plane stress
Thin films: residual and thermal stress
> A few important things
Linear elasticity in anisotropic materials
Behavior at large strains
> Using this to find the stiffness of structures
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  47
A simple example: axially loaded beams
> In equilibrium, force is uniform; hence stress is inversely
proportional to area (as long as area changes slowly with
position)
Geometry :
F
F
L
= =
and =
A WH
L
Uniaxial stress :
= E
F
L
=E
WH
L
EWH
F=
L
L
F = kL k =
Plug in for L=100 m,
W=5 m, H=1 m,
E=160 GPa:
EWH
L
k=8000 N/m
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  48
Another example: bending of beams and plates
> Stress and strain underlie bending, too
> Unlike uniaxial tension, where stress and strain are uniform,
bending of beams and plates is all about how the spatially
varying stress and strain contribute to an overall deformation.
Stretched: tensile stress
Compressive stress
> Next time!
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6  49
Electronics B
Joel Voldman
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  1
Outline
> Elements of circuit analysis
> Elements of semiconductor physics
Semiconductor diodes and resistors
The MOSFET and the MOSFET inverter/amplifier
> Opamps
TODAY
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  2
Elements of semiconductor physics
> Discrete molecules (e.g., hydrogen
E (eV)
atom) have discrete energy levels that
the electrons can occupy
E (0 eV)
E5 (0.54 eV)
E4 (0.85 eV)
E3 (1.51 eV)
E2 (3.40 eV)
Determined via quantum mechanics
Paschen
series
Balmer
series
Hydrogen
> Adding a discrete amount of energy to
the electrons (via light, thermal energy,
etc.) can excite an electron from its
ground state to an excited state
> Different atoms have different number
E1 (13.6 eV)
Lyman
series
(n = 3, 1 = 1)
p orbital 6
allowed levels
Silicon
(n = 2)
8 electrons
of filled states
All the action typically happens at the
highest unoccupied state
> Two distinct molecules have identical
and independent energylevel
structures
(n = 1)
2 electrons
(n = 3, 1 = 0)
s orbital 2
allowed levels
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figures 2.1 and 2.6 in Razeghi, M. Fundamentals
of Solid State Engineering. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Springer,
2006, pp. 48 and 59. ISBN: 9780387281520.
Razeghi, Fundamentals of Solid State Engineering
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  3
Elements of semiconductor physics
>
>
>
>
>
Atoms packed into a lattice behave differently than discrete atoms
Their discrete energy levels coalesce into continuous energy bands
There may be many energy bands for the molecule
We dont care about the ones that are filled and inaccessible
We care about the highest one with electrons
6
4
Electron energy
2
0
p
s
4N empty
states
2N+2N
filled states
Isolated
Si atoms
2'
L1
Si
2'
15
15
X4
4
X1
L1
8
L2'
1
12
L
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 2.5 in: Pierret, Robert F. Semiconductor DeviceFundamentals.
Reading, MA: AddisonWesley, 1996, p. 28. ISBN: 9780131784598.
Gap
L3,
6
Si lattice
spacing
Energy
25'
X1
25'
2
10
Decreasing
atom spacing
L3
U,K
Wave Vector k
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Figure 1 on p. 559 in: Chelikowsky, J. R., and M. L. Cohen. "Nonlocal
Pseudopotential Calculations for the Electronic Structure of Eleven
Diamond and Zincblende Semiconductors." Physical Review B 14, no.
2 (July 1976): 556582.
Razeghi, Fundamentals of Solid State Engineering
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  4
Elements of semiconductor physics
>
>
>
>
>
The highest normally filled set of electronic states is the valence band
The lowest normally empty set of electronic states is the conduction band
An energy gap separates these states
At T=0 K, all the valence band states are filled
A filled band cannot conduct electricity This is an insulator
6
4
2
0
L3
2'
L1
15
Si
2'
15
Energy
25'
X1
25'
2
conduction
band
Gap
L3,
X4
4
6
10
energy gap
X1
L1
8
L2'
1
12
L
U,K
valence
band
Wave Vector k
T=0 K
Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Figure 1 on p. 559 in: Chelikowsky, J. R., and M. L. Cohen. "Nonlocal
Pseudopotential Calculations for the Electronic Structure of Eleven
Diamond and Zincblende Semiconductors." Physical Review B 14, no.
2 (July 1976): 556582.
Razeghi, Fundamentals of Solid State Engineering
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  5
Elements of semiconductor physics
> T>0 K, electrons have thermal energy (~kT)
> At equilibrium, the only way for an electron to cross the energy barrier
is to be thermally excited
> The number of electrons that can do this is
increases with thermal energy (and thus T)
decreases with larger bandgap
> The thermally excited electrons give rise to electrons
> The resulting empty states in the valence band give rise to holes
Behave similar to electrons but with opposite charge and different mass
electrons
holes
T=0 K
T=300 K
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  6
Key terminology
> Energy gap EG (1.1 eV in silicon at RT)
> Si atom concentration = 5x1022 /cm3
> The number of carriers in intrinsic Si is
related to
Probability distribution function of energies
This obeys FermiDirac statistics
Allowable states
> ~109 (prob of being filled) x ~1019 (density of
states) = ~1010 (carriers)
> ni is the intrinsic carrier concentration
the equilibrium concentration of holes and
electrons in the absence of dopants
~1.5x1010 cm3 at RT
This is a material property
> n is the concentration [#/cm3] of electrons
> p is the concentration [#/cm3] of holes
ni e
EG
2 k BT
ni = pi
Every thermally
generated electron
leaves behind a hole
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  7
Key terminology
> Intrinsic carrier concentration of
1014
Si, Ge, and GaAs
1013
Ge
GaAs
Si
Intrinsic carrier concentration (cm3)
1012
1011
1010
109
108
107
Adapted from Figure 2.20 in: Pierret, Robert F. Semiconductor Device Fundamentals.
Reading, MA: AddisonWesley, 1996, p. 54. ISBN: 9780131784598.
106
105
200
300
400 500
T (K)
600
700
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  8
Doped semiconductors
> Dopants: substitutional impurity
atoms introduced having one
different valence than the
semiconductor
> Acceptor dopant concentrations are
NA
[#/cm3]
ptype material
Si
Si
Si
Si
Si
Si
Si
Si
Boron (3 valence electrons)
> Donor dopant concentrations are ND
[#/cm3] ntype material
Phosphorous (5 valence electrons)
> These introduce new energy levels
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 7.5 in: Razeghi, M. Fundamentals of Solid
State Engineering. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2006, p. 238.
ISBN: 9780387281520.
close to valence or conduction
bands (~0.05 eV)
> Dopant concentrations >> ni
T=0 K
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  9
Doped semiconductors
> Energy to ionize << kT (at RT)
> We assume all dopants are ionized at RT
Ec
ED
ntype dopant
Ev
T=0
T>0K
T = 300 K
Ec
ptype dopant
EA
Ev
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 2.13 in: Pierret, Robert F. Semiconductor Device Fundamentals. Reading,
MA: AddisonWesley, 1996, p. 38. ISBN: 9780131784598.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  10
Main results
> Donors or acceptors are fully ionized
> Define n0 and p0 as the electron and hole
N D N D+ + e
N A N A + h +
concentrations at equilibrium
> n0 and p0 follow a massaction law
N D N D+
N A N A
n0 p0 = ni2
+
+
N A = p N D+ = n
n= p
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  11
Main results
> Overall, silicon is neutral
Can use to determine n0 and p0
> Carrier concentrations typically
vary over many orders of
magnitude
Charge neutrality requires:
N A + n0 = N D+ + p0
N A + n0 N D + p0
Can use this to simplify
> Ex:
ni ~ 1010 cm3
NA, ND ~ 10161019 cm3
> In a given material at equilibrium
NA > 100ND (ptype)
ND > 100NA (ntype)
For ptype material:
p0 N A
ni2 ni2
n0 =
=
p0 N A
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  12
Main results
> Therefore, the equilibrium
majority carrier concentration is
determined by the net doping
and the minority carrier
concentration is determined by
the n0p0 product.
> For typical numbers, minority
carrier concentration is much
less majority carrier
concentration
ptype
ntype
p0 = N A
n0 = N D
ni2
n0 =
NA
ni2
p0 =
ND
N A ~ 1017 cm 3
p0 = N A = 1017 cm 3
n0 =
2
i
(1010 cm3 )
n
3
3
10
cm
=
=
NA
1017 cm 3
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  13
Excess carriers
> We can do various things to
create excess carriers
Shine light
Apply electric fields
> Excess carriers (n, p)
n = n n0
p = p p0
Generally, n = p
represent a departure from
equilibrium
> Excess holes and electrons
are created in pairs
> Excess carriers recombine
Recombination
rate
Electronhole
pair (EHP)
dn
n
dt
m
n(t ) ~ n(0)e
exponentially in pairs,
governed by lifetime
The minority carrier lifetime
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  14
Excess carriers
> GaAs w/ NA=p0=1015 cm3
> GaAs ni = 106 cm3
> Create 1014 EHP/cm3 and
calculate carrier
concentrations over time
p
Carrier concentrations (cm3)
> Therefore, n0= 103 cm3
p(t)
1015
1014
n(t)
1013
1012
Adapted from Figure 4.7 in: Streetman, Ben G., and Sanjay Kumar Banerjee.
Solid State Electronic Devices. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
Prentice Hall, 2006, p. 127. ISBN: 9780131497269.
10
20
30
40
50
time (ns)
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  15
Drift and diffusion of carriers
> Carriers in semiconductors
obey a drift/diffusion flux
relation
> Drift: carriers move in an
electric field
> Diffusion: carriers move in a
concentration gradient
Electric field [V/cm]
drift
diffusion
J n = qe ( n nE + Dnn )
Diffusivity [cm2/s]
Mobility [cm2/Vs]
Carrier concentration
[cm3]
> For ptype material
n is small drift current is
small
n can be big diffusion
current dominates
Drift
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Figure 3.1b) in: Pierret, Robert F.Semiconductor Device Fundamentals.
Reading, MA: AddisonWesley, 1996, p. 76. ISBN: 9780131784598.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  16
Outline
> Elements of circuit analysis
> Elements of semiconductor physics
> Semiconductor diodes and resistors
> The MOSFET and the MOSFET
inverter/amplifier
> Opamps
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  17
The semiconductor diode
> A pn junction has very different
concentrations of carriers in the two
regions, creating a diffusive driving
force
> At equilibrium diffusive driving force =
electric field in the vicinity of the
junction
ionized donors and acceptors are
relatively depleted of mobile carriers
near the junction the spacecharge
layer (SCL) or depletion region
+ + + + + +
+ + + + + +
+ + + + + +
 + + + + + +
 + + + + + +
 + + + + + +
E

Oxide
ntype substrate
> In order to set up this electric field, the
ptype region
ntype
ptype
 + + + + + +
 + + + + + +
 + + + + + +
xp0
xn0
XJ0
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
,
Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Adapted from Figure 14.1 in: Senturia
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 357. ISBN: 9780792372462.
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  18
The exponential diode
> An external voltage modifies the net
potential drop across the space charge
layer
p
Ec
> Forward bias reduces the barrier to
diffusion, leading to an increase in
current
Ev
Equilibrium
> Reverse bias increases the barrier, so
only current is due to minority carriers
generated in or near the spacecharge
layer
IN
Ec
Oxide
Metal
+
ptype region
ntype substrate
ID
Ev
VD
_
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 14.2 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 359. ISBN: 9780792372462.
IP
Forward bias
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figu
re 6.1 in: Pierret, Robert F. Semiconductor
Device Fundamentals. Reading, MA: AddisonWesley, 1996,
p. 236. ISBN: 9780131784598.
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  19
Ideal Exponential Diode Analysis
> Linear changes in
voltage lead to
exponential changes in
carrier concentrations
I D = I0 e
qeVD
k BT
Forward bias
0.005
Current (A)
The total current is
0.010
VB
0.000
Reverse blocking
0.005
Reverse breakdown
0.010
6
5
4
3
2
1
Voltage (V)
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 14.3 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 360. ISBN: 9780792372462.
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  20
The JunctionIsolated Diffused Resistor
> The structure is a diode, but with two
Oxide
Metal
contacts
> The diode action prevents currents
into the substrate provided the diode
is always reverse biased
ptype region
ntype substrate
> The conductivity is controlled by
resistor
doping
> The resistor value is determined by
geometry
desired
+

undesired
+

distributed
diode
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 14.7 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem
Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p.
363. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  21
Outline
> Elements of circuit analysis
> Elements of semiconductor physics
> Semiconductor diodes and resistors
> The MOSFET and the MOSFET
inverter/amplifier
> Opamps
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  22
MOSFET Structure
> The MOSFET exploits the concept of a fieldinduced junction
> The electric field between the gate and the channel region of the
substrate can either increase the surface concentration
(accumulation) or deplete the surface and eventually invert the
surface
Source
Gate
Drain
Oxide
D
Channels
ptype substrate
n+ regions
S
Body
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 14.10 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 366. ISBN: 9780792372462.
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  23
MOSFET qualitative operation
> With D & S grounded,
backtoback diodes
prevent current flow
between D & S
> To reduce barrier,
apply positive voltage
to G (w.r.t. D & S)
> At some threshold
voltage, this will form
an nchannel inversion
layer that will connect
D&S
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  24
MOSFET Characteristics
1000
> Need VGS>VT for device to turn on
between D & S
> As VDS increases, voltage between
triode
800
ID (A)
> As VDS increases, current will flow
VGS = 4 V
ID,sat
600
VGS = 3 V
400
G and D decreases
> When VDS gets too big, one side of
saturation
200
channel pinches off, preventing
further increases in current
VGS = 2 V
0
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 14.13 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 369. ISBN: 9780792372462.
S
e
e
VDS
S
e
e
S
e
e
nchannel
VDS=0
VDS>0
VDS>VGSVT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  25
Different kinds of MOSFETs
S
G
S
B
pchannel
Enhancement
Depletion
nchannel
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 14.11 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 367. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  26
Largesignal and smallsignal MOSFET models
D
> Electrical engineers use
circuit models to analyze
circuits involving MOSFETS
K/2(VGSVTn)
> Can use either full nonlinear
characteristics
Simple largesignal
model, in saturation
> Or linearized smallsignal
model
Different models include
different components
gm vgs
CGS
r0
+

S
Simple smallsignal
model, in saturation
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  27
Outline
> Elements of circuit analysis
> Elements of semiconductor physics
Semiconductor diodes and resistors
The MOSFET and the MOSFET inverter/amplifier
> Opamps
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  28
Operational Amplifiers opamps
> Let someone else design a highperformance amplifier
> Basic structure and transfer characteristic
v0
Vsat+
Signal path
vv+
Slope A0
v0
v+  v
+
Differential
amplifier
Highgain
amplifier
Output
amplifier
VsatDIP/SO Package
VS+
v
Output A 1
v0
v+
Inverting input A 2
Noninverting
input A
GND
VS
_A
+ +
B_
v+
Output B
Inverting input B
Noninverting
Input B
Top view
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figures 14.23 and 14.24 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers,
2001, p. 382. ISBN: 9780792372462.
LM158
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  29
Ideal and nonideal behavior
> We do first analysis using ideal
linear model
> Opamp data sheets have pages
and pages of limitations
> A sampling
Input offset voltage voff: zero
v0 ( s ) = A( s ) ( v+ ( s ) v ( s ) )
where
A( s ) =
A0 s0
s + s0
volts at input gives nonzero
output
Frequency limitations: opamps
can only amplify up to a
maximum frequency
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  30
The Inverting Amplifier
Assume opamp draws no
current
R2
R1
Vs
v
+

Use Nodal analysis:
Vo
v+
R1
+

vv+
+

Vs v v V0
=
R1
R2
V0 = A(0 v )
R2
Vs
KCL:
Vo
A(v+v)
Vo
R2
1
=
Vs
R1 1 R2
1 + 1 +
R1
A
A
Vo
R
= 2
Vs
R1
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  31
Short method for analyzing opamps
> Assume linear region operation
This implies that the two inputs are essentially at the same
voltage (but never exactly equal)
> Assume zero currents at both inputs
> Analyze the external circuit with these constraints
> Check to verify that the output is not at either
saturation limit (VS)
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  32
More opamp configurations
Vs
v = v+ = VS
+
V0
R1
R2
Vs = V0
R2 + R1
V0
R1
= 1+
VS
R2
R2
Noninverting
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 14.28 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 388. ISBN: 9780792372462.
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  33
More opamp configurations
R1
Is
_
V0
+
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 14.29 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 389. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Transimpedance amplifier
V0 = R1 I S
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  34
Integrator
C
R1
Vs
vC _
+
_
V0
+
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 14.30 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 389. ISBN: 9780792372462.
1
V0 =
Vs (t )dt
R1C
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  35
Differentiator
R1
C
Vs
+
_
V0
+
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 14.31 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 390. ISBN: 9780792372462.
The differentiator is less "ideal"
Vs
0 V0
=
1
R1
sC
V0
= sR1C
Vs
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E  36
Structures
Carol Livermore
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
* With thanks to Steve Senturia, from whose lecture notes some
of these materials are adapted.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  1
Outline
> Regroup
> Beam bending
Loading and supports
Bending moments and shear forces
Curvature and the beam equation
Examples: cantilevers and doubly supported beams
> A quick look at torsion and plates
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  2
Recall: Isotropic Elasticity
> For a general case of loading, the constitutive relationships
between stress and elastic strain are as follows
> 6 equations, one for each normal stress and shear stress
xy
1
x = x ( y + z )
E
1
y = y ( z + x )
E
1
z = z ( x + y )
E
yz
zx
Shear modulus G is given by G =
1
= xy
G
1
= yz
G
1
= zx
G
E
2(1 + )
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  3
What we are considering today
> Bending in the limit of small deflections
> For axial loading, deflections are small until something bad
happens
Nonlinearity, plastic deformation, cracking, buckling
Strains typically of order 0.1% to 1%
> For bending, small deflections are typically less than the
thickness of the element (i.e. beam, plate) in question
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  4
What we are NOT considering today
> Basically, anything that makes todays theory not apply (not as
well, or not at all)
> Large deflections
Axial stretching becomes a noticeable effect
> Residual stresses
Can increase or decrease the ease of bending
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  5
Our trajectory
> What are the loads and the supports?
1 m
Silicon
0.5 m
Cantilever
Pulldown
electrode
Anchor
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Rebeiz, Gabriel M. RF MEMS: Theory, Design, and
Technology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2003. ISBN: 9780471201694.
> What is the bending moment at point x along the beam?
M
> How much curvature does that bending moment create in the
structure at x? (Now you have the beam equation.)
> Integrate to find deformed shape
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  6
Outline
> Regroup
> Bending
Loading and supports
Bending moments and shear forces
Curvature and the beam equation
Examples: cantilevers and doubly supported beams
> A quick look at torsion and plates
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  7
Types of Loads
> Three basic types of loads:
Point force (an old friend, with its own specific point of
application)
Distributed loads (pressure)
Concentrated moment (what you get from a screwdriver, with
a specific point of application)
The forces and moments work together to make internal
bending moments more on this shortly
F=
point load
q = distributed load
M=
concentrated moment
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  8
Types of supports
> Four basic boundary conditions:
Fixed: cant translate at all, cant rotate
Pinned: cant translate at all, but free to rotate (like a hinge)
Pinned on rollers: can translate along the surface but not off
the surface, free to rotate
Free: unconstrained boundary condition
Fixed
Pinned
Free
Pinned on Rollers
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 9.5 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 207. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  9
Reaction Forces and Moments
> Equilibrium requires that the total force on an object be zero
and that the total moment about any axis be zero
> This gives rise to reaction forces and moments
> Cant translate means support can have reaction forces
> Cant rotate means support can have reaction moments
Point Load
F
x
MR
O
Total moment about support :
M T = M R FL
Moment must be zero in equilibrium :
M R = FL
Net force must be zero in equilibrium :
FR = F
FR
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 9.7 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design .
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 209. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  10
Internal forces and moments
> Each segment of beam must also be in equilibrium
> This leads to internal shear forces V(x) and bending moments
M(x)
For this case,
M (x ) = F ( L x)
V (x ) = F
Images by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 9.7 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 209. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  11
Some conventions
Moments
Positive
Negative
Moments:
Image by MIT OpenCou rseWare.
Adapted from Figure 9.8 in: Senturia, Stephen D.
Microsystem Design. Bo ston, MA: Kluwer Academic
Publishers, 2001, p. 210 . ISBN: 9780792372462.
Shears
Positive
Negative
Shears:
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 9.8 in: Senturia, Stephen D.
Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic
Publishers, 2001, p. 210. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  12
Combining all loads
> A differential beam element, subjected to point loads,
distributed loads and moments in equilibrium, must obey
governing differential equations
All Loads:
q
V
M+dM
V+dV
dx
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 9.8 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic
Publishers, 2001, p. 210. ISBN: 9780792372462.
FT = qdx + (V + dV ) V
dV
= q
dx
= ( M + dM ) M (V + dV ) dx
qdx
dx
2
dM
=V
dx
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  13
Outline
> Regroup
> Bending
Loading and supports
Bending moments and shear forces
Curvature and the beam equation
Examples: cantilevers and doubly supported beams
> A quick look at torsion and plates
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  14
Pure bending
> Important concept: THE NEUTRAL AXIS
> Axial stress varies with transverse position relative to the
neutral axis
dL = ( z )d
dx = d
Neutral Axis
Tension
z
MO
MO
d?
?
Compression
H/2
Tension
?x
Compression
H/2
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figures 9.9 and 9.10 in: Senturia, Stephen D.
Microsystem Design . Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic
Publishers, 2001, pp. 211, 213. ISBN: 9780792372462.
z
dL = dx dx
z
x =
zE
x =
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  15
Locating the neutral axis
> In pure bending, locate the neutral axis by imposing equilibrium
of axial forces
N = ( z )dA = 0
A
thickness
E ( z )W ( z )z
One material, rectangular beam
dz = 0
EW
z dz = 0
thickness
> The neutral axis is in the middle for a one material beam of
symmetric crosssection.
> Composite beams: if the beam just has a very thin film on it, can
approximate neutral axis unchanged
> Composite beams: with films of comparable thickness, change
in E biases the location of the neutral axis
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  16
Curvature in pure bending
Curvature is related to the internal bending moment M.
Internal Moment :
M = z x dA
A
x =
M =
zE
For a one  material beam,
M =
2
z
dA
A
Moment of inertia I :
I = z 2 dA
A
2
E
(
z
)
z
dA
M =
EI
In pure bending, the internal moment M equals the externally
M0
1
=
applied moment M0. Then
for one material; for two
EI
or more materials, calculate an effective EI.
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  17
Useful case: rectangular beam
W
M0
M0
For a uniform rectangular beam,
H /2
1
I = Wz dz = WH 3
12
H / 2
2
1
3 E
M = WH
12
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  18
Differential equation of beam bending
> Relation between curvature and the applied load
x
dx
x
?(x)
ds
w(x)
d 2w
M
=
2
dx
EI
and, by successive differentiation
d?
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 9.11 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, pp. 214. ISBN: 9780792372462.
ds =
dx
cos
dx
dw
= tan
dx
ds = d
d 1 d 2 w
=
dx dx 2
d 3w
V
=
dx 3
EI
d 4w q
=
dx 4 EI
For large  angle bending
1
w
=
1 + (w)2 3 / 2
Largeangle bending is
rare in MEMS structures
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  19
Anticlastic curvature
> If a beam is bent, then the Poisson effect causes
opposite bending in the transverse direction
z
x =
y = x
/v
Original
crosssection
which creates a y  directed internal moment
y =
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 9.12 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design .
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, pp. 219. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  20
Example: Cantilever with point load
d 2w F
=
( L x)
2
dx
EI
dw
F 2 FL
=
x +
x+ A
dx
2 EI
EI
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 9.7 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design .
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 209. ISBN: 9780792372462.
d 2w
M (x )
=
2
dx
EI
and
M (x ) = F ( L x)
V (x ) = F
F 3 FL 2
w=
x +
x + Ax + B
6 EI
2 EI
BC : w(0) = 0,
dw
=0
dx x =0
A= B=0
w=
FL 2
x
x 1
2 EI 3L
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  21
Spring Constant for Cantilever
> Since force is applied at tip, if we find maximum tip
displacement, the ratio of displacement to force is the
spring constant.
wmax
kcantilever
L3
F
=
3EI
3EI EWH 3
= 3 =
L
4 L3
For the same dimensions as the uniaxially loaded beam,
kcantilever = 0.2 N/m
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  22
Stress in the Bent Cantilever
> To find bending stress, we find the radius of
curvature, then use the purebending case to find
stress
1 d 2w F
Radius of curvature : = 2 =
( L x)
EI
dx
Maximum value is at support ( x = 0)
FL
1
=
max EI
Maximum axial strain is at surface (z = H/2 )
LH
6L
F= 2
max =
F
H WE
2 EI
6L
max = 2 F
HW
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  23
Tabulated solutions
> Solutions to simple situations available in introductory
mechanics books
Point loads, distributed loads, applied moments
Handout from Crandall, Dahl, and Lardner, An Introduction to
the Mechanics of Solids, 1999, p. 531.
> Linearity: you can superpose the solutions
> Can save a bit of time
> Solutions use nomenclature of singularity functions
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  24
Singularity functions
xa
xa
xa
= 0 if x a < 0
= ( x a ) if x a > 0
n
= what is variably called an impulse or a delta function
Integrate as if it were just functions of (xa); evaluate at the end.
Value: a single expression describes whats going on in different
regions of the beam
F
x
a
M (x ) = F a x
b
L
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  25
Overconstraint
> A cantilevers single support provides the necessary support reactions
and no more
> A fixedfixed beam has an additional support, so it is overconstrained
> Static indeterminacy: must consider deformations and reactions to
determine state of the structure
> Many MEMS structures are statically indeterminate: flexures, optical
MEMS, switches,
> What this means for us
Failure modes and important operational effects: stress stiffening,
buckling
Your choice of how to calculate deflections
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  26
Example: centerloaded fixedfixed beam
> Option 1: (general)
Start with beam equation in terms of q
Express load as a delta function
Integrate four times
d 4w q
=
4
dx
EI
Four B.C. give four constants
> Option 2: (not general)
Invoke symmetry
> Option 3: (general)
Pretend beam is a cantilever with as yet unknown moment and force
applied at end such that w(L) = slope(L) = 0
Using superposition, solve for deflection and slope everywhere
Impose B.C. to determine moment and force at end
Plug newlydetermined moment and force into solution, and youre
done
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  27
Integration using singularity functions
F
q
F
1
=
xL 2
EI EI
F
0
x L 2 + C1
EI
F
1
x L 2 + C1 x + C2
EI
dw F x L 2
=
2
dx EI
L/2
L/2
d 4w
=
4
dx
d 3w
=
dx 3
d 2w
=
2
dx
q=F xL 2
Use boundary conditions to find
constants: no displacement at
supports, slope = 0 at supports
C1 x 2
+
+ C2 x + C3
2
3
C1 x 3 C2 x 2
F xL 2
w( x ) =
+
+
+ C3 x + C4
EI
6
6
2
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  28
Comparing spring constants
> Centerloaded fixedfixed beam (same dimensions as previous)
F
16 EWH 3
k=
= 12.8 N/m
3
L
> Tiploaded cantilever beam, same dimensions
F
EWH 3
k=
= 0.2 N/m
3
4L
> Uniaxially loaded beam, same dimensions
F
EWH
k=
= 8000 N/m
L
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  29
Outline
> Regroup
> Bending
Loading and supports
Bending moments and shear forces
Curvature and the beam equation
Examples: cantilevers and doubly supported beams
> A quick look at torsion and plates
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  30
Torsion
The treatment of torsion mirrors that of bending.
Images removed due to copyright restrictions.
Figures 48 and 50 in: Hornbeck, Larry J. "From Cathode Rays to Digital Micromirrors: A History of
Electronic Projection Display Technology." Texas Instruments Technical Journal 15, no. 3 (JulySept ember 1998): 746.
Images removed due to copyright restrictions.
Figure 51 on p. 39 in: Hornbeck, Larry J. "From Cathode Rays to Digital Micromirrors: A History of
Electronic Projection Display Technology." Texas Instruments Technical Journal 15, no. 3 (JulySept ember 1998): 746.
Digital Light Processing Technology: Texas Instruments
Digital Light Processing is a trademark of Texas Instruments.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  31
Bending of plates
> A plate is a beam that is so
wide that the transverse
strains are inhibited, both
the Poisson contraction
and its associated
anticlastic curvature
> This leads to additional
stiffness when trying to
bend a plate
x =
x y
E
But y is constrained to be zero
0 = y =
y x
E
x =
2 x
1
Plate Modulus
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  32
Plate in pure bending
> Analogous to beam bending, with the limit on transverse strains
> Two radii of curvature along principal axes
1
2w
= 2
x x
x =
2w
= 2
y y
y =
> Stresses along principal axes
Ez
x =
1 2
Ez
y =
1 2
1
x = ( x y )
E
x
z
y =
1
+
x
y
y x
1
( y x )
E
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  33
Plate in pure bending
> Relate moment per unit width of plate to curvature
> Treat x and y equivalently
Mx
= z x ( z )dz
W thickness
1 H 2 2
z dz
y H 2
x
1
Mx
= D
+
W
x y
1 EH 3
where D =
2
12 1
Mx
E
=
1 2
W
flexural
rigidity
> Note that stiffness comes from flexural rigidity as for a beam
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  34
Plate in pure bending
> Recall that M is two derivatives away from a distributed load,
and that
2w
= 2
x x
1
2w
= 2
y y
1
> This leads to the equation for small amplitude bending of a plate
4w
4w
4w
D 4 + 2 2 2 + 4 = P( x, y )
x y
y
x
distributed load
> Often solve with polynomial solutions (simple cases) or
eigenfunction expansions
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  35
Where are we now?
> We can handle small deflections of beams and plates
> Physics intervenes for large deflections and residual
stress, and our solutions are no longer correct
> Now what do we do?
Residual stress: include it as an effective load
Large deflections: use Energy Methods
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7  36
Lumpedelement Modeling
with Equivalent Circuits
Joel Voldman
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  1
Outline
> Context and motivation
> Lumpedelement modeling
> Equivalent circuits and circuit elements
> Connection laws
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  2
Context
> Where are we?
We have just learned how to make structures
About the properties of the constituent materials
And about elements in two domains
structures and electronics
> Now we are going to learn about modeling
Modeling for arbitrary energy domains
How to exchange energy between domains
Especially electrical and mechanical
How to model dynamics
> After, we start to learn about the rest of the domains
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  3
Inertial MEMS
> Analog Devices Accelerometer
ADXL150
Acceleration
capacitance
Changes gap
electrical output
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Photograph of a circuit board.
Acceleration
Beam
Plate capacitances
Fixed plate
Anchor
Unit cell
Motio
1.3 Micron gap
125 Micron
overlap
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Micrograph of machined microchannels.
2 Microns thick
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  4
RF MEMS
> Use electrical signal to create mechanical motion
> Series RF Switch (Northeastern & ADI)
Cantilever closes circuit when actuated
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Figure 11 on p. 342 in: Zavracky, P. M., N. E. McGruer, R. H. Morrison,
and D. Potter. "Microswitches and Microrelays with a View Toward
Microwave Applications." International Journal of RF and Microwave
ComputerAided Engineering 9, no. 4 (1999): 338347.
1 m
Silicon
0.5 m
relay
Cantilever
Pulldown
electrode
Anchor
Imageby MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Rebeiz, Gabriel M.RF MEMS: Theory, Design, and Technology.
Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2003. ISBN: 9780471201694.
Zavracky et al., Int. J. RF Microwave CAE, 9:338, 1999, via Rebeiz RF MEMS
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  5
What wed like to do
> These systems are complicated 3D geometries
> Transform electrical energy
mechanical energy
> How do we design such structures?
Multiphysics FEM
Solve constitutive equations
at each node
Tedious but potentially
most accurate
> Is there an easier way?
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Distorted switch (Coventor)
That will capture dimensional dependencies?
Allow for quick iterative design?
Maybe get us within 1020%?
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  6
RF MEMS Switch
> What wed really like to know
What voltage will close the switch?
What voltage will open the switch (when closed)?
How fast will this happen?
What are the tradeoffs between these variables?
Actuation voltage vs. maximum switching frequency
> So lets restrict ourselves to relations between
voltage and tip deflection
Hah! we have lumped our system
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  7
Outline
> Context and motivation
> Lumpedelement modeling
> Equivalent circuits and circuit elements
> Connection laws
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  8
Lumpedelement modeling
> What is a lumped element?
A discrete object that can exchange energy with other
objects
An object whose internal physics can be combined into
terminal relations
Whose size is smaller than wavelength of the appropriate
signal
Signals do not take time to propagate
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  9
Lumped elements
> Electrical capacitor
> Spring
+
V

> Rigid mass
I =C
Push on it and it moves
Relation between force
dV
dt
and displacement
> Fluidic channel
Apply pressure and fluid
flows instantaneously
Relation between
pressure and volumetric
flow rate
Point Load
F
x
MR
L
FR
wmax =
1
kcantilever
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 9.7 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 209. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  10
Pros/cons of lumped elements
> Pros
Simplified representations that carry dimensional
dependencies
Can do equivalent circuits
Static and dynamic analyses
> Cons
Lose information
Deflection along length of cantilever
Will not get things completely right
Capacitance due to fringing fields
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  11
So how do we go about lumping?
> First, we need input/output relations
This requires solving physics
This is what we do in the individual domains
We have already done this in electrical and mechanical
domains
> For cantilever RF switch
What is relation between force and tip deflection?
Not voltage and deflection
Different energy domains
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  12
RF Switch mechanical model
> We have seen that there is a linear relation
between force and tip deflection
Cantilever behaves as linear spring k
CAVEAT: k is specific for this problem
Different ks for same cantilever but
Distributed force applied over whole
cantilever
Point force applied at end
Deflection of cantilever middle is needed
Etc.
F = kx
> Lesson: Dont just use equation out of a book
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  13
RF Switch mechanical model
> What else is needed for
model?
> Inertia of cantilever
Lumped mass
> Energy loss
Lumped
dv
d 2x
F = ma = m = m 2
dt
dt
dashpot
Due to air damping
dx
F = bv = b
dt
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  14
How do we connect these together?
> Intuition and physics
> Example: cantilever switch
Tip movement (x) stretches spring
And causes damping
Tip has mass associated with it
All elements have same displacement
F
m
b
x
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  15
Outline
> Context and motivation
> Lumpedelement modeling
> Equivalent circuits and circuit elements
> Connection laws
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  16
Why use equivalent circuits?
> One modeling approach
Use circuits for electrical domain
Solve via KCL, KVL
Use mechanical lumped elements in mechanical domain
Solve via Newtons laws
Connect two using ODEs or matrices or other representation
> Our approach
Lumped elements have electrical equivalents
Can hook them together such that solving circuit intrinsically
solves Newtons laws (or continuity relationships)
Now we have ONE representation for many different domains
VERY POWERFUL
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  17
Onward to equivalent circuits
> Each lumped element has one or
more ports
through
> Each port is associated with
two variables
A through variable
An across variable
across
> Power into the port is defined by
the product of these two variables
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  18
Onward to equivalent circuits
> In electrical circuits, voltage is physically across and current
is physically through
voltage
across
current
through
> What happens when we translate mechanics into equivalent
circuits?
force
across (V)
velocity
through (I)
OR
force
through (I)
velocity
across (V)
> Why does this matter?
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  19
What circuit element is the spring?
> It stores elastic energy
> Is it a capacitor or an inductor?
F = k xdt
force
across (V)
velocity
through (I)
F = kx
V
dV
I =C
dt
C=1
k
x= 1 F
k
dF
1
x =
k dt
I
L= 1
k
dI
V =L
dt
1
I = Vdt
L
force
through (I)
velocity
across (V)
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  20
Which is correct?
> Both are correct
> And both are used
> Velocity
beware!
voltage
Indirect or mobility analogy
Cleaner match between physical system and circuit
Velocity is naturally across (e.g., relative) variable
But stores mechanical PE in inductors, KE in capacitors
Springs Inductors
> Force
voltage
Direct analogy
This is
Always store PE in capacitors what we
Springs Capacitors
will use
> Circuit topologies are dual of each other
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  21
Generalized variables
> We want a consistent modeling approach across
different domains
> Can we generalize what we just did?
YES
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  22
Generalized variables
> Formalize terminal
relations
> Displacement q(t)
> Flow f(t): the derivative of
displacement
> Effort e(t)
> Momentum p(t): the
integral of effort
> Net power into device is
effort times flow
General
Mechanical
dq
f =
dt
dx
v=
dt
q = qo + fdt
0
x = xo + vdt
0
dp
F=
dt
dp
e=
dt
t
p = po + edt
0
p = po + Fdt
0
Pnet = e f
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  23
Examples
> Effortflow relations occur in MANY different energy domains
General
Electrical
Mechanical
Fluidic
Thermal
Effort (e)
Voltage, V
Force, F
Pressure, P
Temp. diff., T
Flow (f)
Current, I
Velocity, v
Vol. flow rate, Q
Heat flow
Displacement (q)
Charge, Q
Displacement, x
Volume, V
Heat, Q
Momentum (p)
Momentum, p
Pressure
Momentum,
Resistance
Resistor, R
Damper, b
Fluidic
resistance, R
Thermal
resistance, R
Capacitance
Capacitor, C
Spring, k
Fluid
capacitance, C
Heat capacity,
mcp
Inertance
Inductor, L
Mass, m
Inertance, M
Node law
KCL
Continuity of space
Mass
conservation
Heat energy
conservation
Mesh law
KVL
Newtons 2nd law
Pressure is
relative
Temperature is
relative
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  24
Other conventions
> Thermal convention: T becomes the across variable
(voltage) and heatflow becomes the through variable
(current)
Conserved quantity is heat energy
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  25
Building equivalent circuits
> Need power sources
> Passive elements
> Topology and connection rules
Figure out how to put things together
> What do we get?
An intuitive representation of the relevant physics
Ability to model many domains in one representation
Access to extremely mature circuit analysis techniques and
software
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  26
Oneport source elements
> Effort source and flow source
> Effort source establishes a
timedependent effort
independent of flow
Electrical voltage source
Pressure source
> Flow source establishes a
timedependent flow
independent of effort
Electrical current source
Syringe pump
f
+
e

+ e (t)
 0
effort source
+
e
f0(t)
flow source
f,I,v
Power IN
Power OUT
f0,I0,v0
e0
V0
F0
Power IN
e
V
F
Power OUT
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  27
Oneport circuit elements
> Three general passive elements
> Represent different functional relationships
Energy storage, dissipation
f
+
+
e
R

Relates e & f
Directly relates e & f
+
C
L

Relates e & q
Differentiates e
Integrates f
Relates f & p
Integrates e
Differentiates f
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  28
Analogies between mechanics and electronics
> Electrical Domain
> Mechanical Domain
A resistor
A damper (dashpot)
dQ
V = RI = R
dt
R=b
dx
F = bv = b
dt
> There is again a correspondence between
V and F
I and v
> Electrical Power = VI
Q and x
> Mechanical Power = Fv
R and b
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  29
Generalized resistor
> For the resistor,
e is an algebraic function of f
(or vice versa)
Can be a nonlinear function
f,I,v
Nonlinear resistor
f = f (e)
Linear resistor
I=1 V
R
v= 1 F
b
e,V,F
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  30
Analogies between mechanics and electronics
> Electrical Domain
> Mechanical Domain
A capacitor
A spring
Q = CV
dV
I =C
dt
1
C=
k
x= 1 F
k
dx
dF
1
= x =
k dt
dt
> There is again a correspondence between
V and F
I and v
> Electrical Power = VI
Q and x
> Mechanical Power = Fv
R and b
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  31
Generalized capacitance
> For a generalized capacitance, the effort e is a
function of the generalized displacement q.
Linear capacitor
Nonlinear capacitor
e = (q )
e,V,F
V = 1 Q = (Q)
C
(Q) = Q
C
e1,V1,F1
q1
Q1
x1
q
Q
x
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  32
Generalized capacitance
> Capacitors store potential energy
How much?
> Leads to concept of energy and coenergy
Coenergy
Energy
e1
W (e1 ) = qde
*
q1
q1
W (q1 ) = edq = (q )dq
e,V,F
e1
= 1 (e)de
0
e1,V1,F1
W ( q1 ) + W * ( e1 ) = e1q1
W * ( e1 ) = e1q1 W ( q1 )
q1
Q1
x1
q
Q
x
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  33
Parallelplate capacitor
> A linear parallelplate capacitor
> Its energy and coenergy are numerically equal
A
C=
+
V

V = (Q) = Q
Q1
Q1
W (Q) = (Q)dQ = Q dQ
C
W (Q) =
Q
2C
I
Q = 1 (V ) = CV
V1
V1
W * (V ) = 1 (V )dV = CVdV
2
CV
W * (V ) =
2
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  34
Analogies between mechanics and electronics
> Electrical Domain
> Mechanical Domain
An inductor
A mass
dI
d 2Q
V =L =L 2
dt
dt
dv
d 2x
L = m F = ma = m = m 2
dt
dt
> There is a correspondence between
V and F
I and v
> Electrical Power = VI
Q and x
> Mechanical Power = Fv
L and m
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  35
Generalized Inertance
> For a generalized inertance, flow f is a function of
momentum p.
> This once again leads to concepts of energy and coenergy
p1
W ( p1 ) = 0 fdp
f1
f,v
f1,v1
W ( f1 ) = 0 pdf
*
W ( p1 ) + W * ( f1 ) = f1 p1
p1
W * ( f1 ) = f1 p1 W ( p1 )
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  36
Outline
> Context and motivation
> Lumpedelement modeling
> Equivalent circuits and circuit elements
> Connection laws
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  37
Circuits in the e
V convention
> Elements that share flow (e.g., current) and
displacement (e.g., charge) are placed in series in an
electric circuit
> Elements that share a common effort (e.g., Voltage)
are placed in parallel in an electric circuit
.
x
k
1/k
F
m
F
b
x
Springmassdashpot system
+

+ ek  +
em
 eb + 
Equivalent circuit
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  38
Solving circuit solves the physics
> Apply force balance to springmassdamper system
k
F = ma
F kx bx = mx
b
x
> Solving KVL gives same result as Newtons laws!
F Fk Fm Fb = 0
Fk = kx, Fb = bx , Fm = mx
F = kx + bx + mx
.
x
+

1/k
+ Fk  +
Fm
 Fb + 
> Can also do this with complex impedances
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  39
Generating equivalent circuits
> Possible to go directly
But hard with e V analogy
See slide at end and text for details
> Easier to do via circuit duals
> Use convenience of f V convention, then switch to
e V
Force is current source
Each displacement variable is a node
Masses connected between nodes and ground
Other elements connected as shown in diagram
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  40
Example
F
k2
k1
m1
m2
b1
k1
a
k2
x1
x2
.
x2 1/k2
a
F
+

m2
.
x1
c
b1
m1
1/k1
e
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  41
Where does this leave us?
> A 2ndorder system is a 2ndorder system
> Analogies between RLC and SMD system
n =
k
1
1
=
=
m
LC
m1
k
> Use what you already know to understand the
intricacies of what you dont know
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  42
Energy coupling
> Where is coupling between domains?
> How does voltage
deflection?
> We need transducers
twoport elements that store
energy
> We will do this next time
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  43
Conclusion
> Can model complicated systems with lumped
elements
> Lumped elements from different domains have
equivalentcircuit representations
> These representations are not unique
We use the e
V convention in assigning voltage to the
effort variable
> Once we have circuits, we have access to
POWERFUL analysis tools
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  44
For more info
> Course text chapter 5
> H.A.C. Tilmans. Equivalent circuit representation of
electromechanical transducers
Part I: lumped elements: J. Micromech. Microeng. 6:157, 1996.
Part II: distributed systems: J. Micromech. Microeng. 7:285, 1997.
Errata: J. Micromech. Microeng. 6:359, 1996.
> R. A. Johnson. Mechanical filters in electronics
> Woodson and Melcher. Electromechanical Dynamics
> M. Rossi. Acoustics and electroacoustics
> Lots and lots of papers
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  45
Finding equivalent circuit: direct approach
> Find e V equivalent
circuit of following
k2
k1
m1
m2
> Note:
b1
k2 and m2 share same
x1
x2
displacement, caused
by F
.
x2
b1, and k1 share same
1/k2
.
x1
m2
displacement, x2 x1
If k1 , m2 and m1
share same
displacement
+

b1
m1
1/k1
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8  46
Energyconserving Transducers
Joel Voldman*
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
(*with thanks to SDS)
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  1
Outline
> Last time
> The twoport capacitor as a model for energyconserving transducers
> The transverse electrostatic actuator
> A look at pullin
> Formulating state equations
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  2
Last time: equivalent circuits
> Learned how to describe systems as lumped
elements and equivalent circuits
k
F
m
Images removed due to copyright restrictions. Figure 11 on p.
342 in: Zavracky, P. M., N. E. McGruer, R. H. Morrison, and D.
Potter. "Microswitches and Microrelays with a View Toward Microwave
Applications." International Journal of RF and Microwave ComputAided
Engineering 9, no. 4 (1999): 338347.
1 m
Silicon
0.5 m
b
x
.
x
Cantilever
Pulldown
electrode
Anchor
F
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Rebeiz, Gabriel M. RF MEMS: Theory, Design, and Technology
.
Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2003. ISBN: 9780471201694.
+

1/k
+ ek  +
em
 eb + 
b
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  3
Last time: equivalent circuits
> Saw that lumped elements in different domains all
had equivalent circuits
> Introduced generalized notation to describe many
different domains
dq
f =
dt
dp
e=
dt
t
p = po + edt
0
q = qo + fdt
0
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  4
Equivalent circuit elements
General
Electrical
Mechanical
Fluidic
Thermal
Effort (e)
Voltage, V
Force, F
Pressure, P
Temp. diff., T
Flow (f)
Current, I
Velocity, v
Vol. flow rate, Q
Heat flow,
Q
Displacement (q)
Charge, Q
Displacement, x
Volume, V
Heat, Q
Momentum (p)
Momentum, p
Pressure
Momentum,
Resistance
Resistor, R
Damper, b
Fluidic
resistance, R
Thermal
resistance, R
Capacitance
Capacitor, C
Spring, k
Fluid
capacitance, C
Heat capacity,
mcp
Inertance
Inductor, L
Mass, m
Inertance, M
Node law
KCL
Continuity of space
Mass
conservation
Heat energy
conservation
Mesh law
KVL
Newtons 2nd law
Pressure is
relative
Temperature is
relative
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  5
Todays goal
> How do we model an electrical force applied to the
cantilever?
> How can we describe converting energy between
domains?
> This leads to energyconserving transducers
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  6
Outline
> Last time
> The twoport capacitor as a model for energyconserving transducers
> The transverse electrostatic actuator
> A look at pullin
> Formulating state equations
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  7
General Considerations
> In MEMS, we are often interested in sensors and actuators
> We can classify sensors and actuators by the way they handle
energy:
Energyconserving transducers
Examples: electrostatic, magnetostatic, and piezoelectric
actuators
Transducers that use a dissipative effect
Examples: resistive or piezoresistive sensors
> There are fundamental reasons why these two classes must be
treated differently.
Energyconserving transducers depend only on the state variables
that control energy storage. Therefore, quasistatic analysis is OK.
Dissipative transducers depend, in addition, on state variables that
determine the rate of energy dissipation, and are more complex as a
result.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  8
An EnergyConserving Transducer
> By definition, it dissipates no energy, hence contains
no resistive elements in its representation
> Instead, it can store energy from different domains
this creates the transducer action
> Because the stored energy is potential energy, we
use a capacitor to represent the element, but because
there are both mechanical and electrical inputs, this
must be a new element: a twoport capacitor
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  9
Capacitor with moveable plate
> A charged capacitor has a force of attraction between
its two plates
> If one of the plates is moveable, one can make an
electrostatic actuator.
I
+
Moveable plate
V
g

z
Fixed plate
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 6.1 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsyst em Design . Boston, MA: Kluwer
Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 126. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  10
Various ways of charging
> Charging at fixed gap
An external force is required to
prevent plate motion
io
work
lifting
No electrical energy at zero gap
Must do mechanical work to lift
the plate
> Either method results in
stored energy
No movement No mechanical
> Charging at zero gap, then
Force
Charge at fixed gap
+
I
+
io
+Q
Q
Charge at zero gap, then....
Force
+
V

I
+Q
g
Q
Pull up
Imageby MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 6.2 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsy stem
Design.. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 127.
ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  11
Charging at Fixed Gap
> The stored energy is
obtained directly from the
definition for a linear
capacitor
W=
> Anticipating that the gap
might vary, we now
explicitly include the gap
as a variable that
determines the stored
energy
e V
qQ
Q
V=
C
Q
0 edq =0 VdQ = 0 C dQ
Q2 Q2 g
W (Q, g ) =
=
2C 2A
q
C=
A
g
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  12
Pulling Up at Fixed Charge
> Putting charge at zero gap stores no electrical energy
Q2
0
C W =
g 0
2C
> Once charge is applied, determining stored energy is a
mechanics problem.
> In determining the force, we must avoid doublecounting of
charge
E=
Efield of bottom plate
Q
2A
Q on top plate
+++++++
Q2
F = QE =
2A
g
W (Q , g ) = 0
Q2g
Fdg =
2 A

The final stored energy is same as before!
ONLY depends on Q and g, not the path!
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  13
Lossless transducers
> The energy in the system ONLY depends on the
STATE variables (e.g., Q, g) and NOT how we put the
energy in
The system is lossless/conservative
dW
= Pelectrical + Pmechanical
dt
= VI + Fg
dW
dQ
dg
=V
+F
dt
dt
dt
dW = VdQ + Fdg
I
+
V

C
W(Q,g)
+
F

Imageby MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 6.3 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design
.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 129. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  14
A Differential Version
> Since we can modify the stored energy either by changing the
charge or moving the plate, we can think of the stored energy as
defined differentially
dW = VdQ + Fdg
This leads to a pair of differential relations for the force and
voltage
W (Q , g )
F=
g
Q
W (Q , g )
V=
Q
g
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  15
Revisit charging the capacitor
> The energy only depends on Q, g
These are thus the STATE variables for this transducer
Q
2
Q g
W (Q, g ) =
2A
Charge, then move plates
Q1
Move plates, then charge
g1
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  16
The twoport capacitor
> This transducer is what will couple our electrical
domain to our mechanical domain
g
I
+
V

C
W(Q,g)
+
F

Imageby MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 6.3 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem De
. sign
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 129. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Q2 g
W (Q, g ) =
2A
W (Q, g )
Qg
=
V=
Q
A
g
W (Q, g )
Q2
=
F=
g
2A
Q
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  17
A different example
> What if the material in the gap could move?
x
+Q
0
Q
x0
C=
Q2
W (Q, x) =
2C
l
( 0 x + ( x0 x) )
g
Q2 g
W (Q, x)
1
F=
=
x
2l x ( 0 x + ( x0 x) )
Q
0
Q2 g
F=
2l ( 0 x + ( x0 x) )2
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  18
Outline
> Last time
> The twoport capacitor as a model for energyconserving transducers
> The transverse electrostatic actuator
> A look at pullin
> Formulating state equations
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  19
The Electrostatic Actuator
> If we now add a spring to the upper plate to supply
the external mechanical force, a practical actuator
results
> We are getting closer to our RF switch
.
Fixed support
+
V

Spring k
V
g
z
Fixed plate
C
W(Q,g)
+
F
1/k
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 6.4 in: Senturia,Stephen D. Microsystem Design..
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 130. ISBN: 978079237246.
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 6.4 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 130. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  20
Two methods of electrical control
> Charge control
Capacitor is charged from a current source, specifically
controlling the charge regardless of the motion of the plate
This method is analyzed with the stored energy
> Voltage control
Capacitor is charged from a voltage source, specifically
controlling the voltage regardless of the motion of the plate
This method is analyzed with the stored coenergy
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  21
Charge control
>
Following the causal path
1. Current source
determines the charge
2. Charge determines the
force (at any gap!)
3. Force determines the
extension of the spring
4. Extension of the spring
determines the gap
5. Charge and gap together
determine the voltage
in(t)
+
V

W(Q,g)
1/k
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
t
Adapted from Figure 6.5 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 131. ISBN: 9780792372462.
1)
2)
3)
z
Fixed plate
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 6.4 in: Senturia,Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 130. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Q = iin (t )dt
0
Spring k
Fixed support
I
4)
W
F=
g
Q2
=
2A
F
initial displacement
k
g = g0 z
z=
Q2
g = g0
2Ak
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  22
Charge control
> Lets get voltage, normalize and plot
W
V=
Q
Q2
Q g 0
2Ak
Qg
=
=
A
A
> Normalize variables to make easier to plot
First normalize V and Q to some nominal values
Introduce (normalized displacement) that goes from 0 (g=g0)
to 1 (g=0)
v =V
V0
q=Q
Q0
g g)
= zg =( 0
g0
0
Define Q0 and V0 using expression above
V0 =
Q0 g 0
A
Q02 = 2Akg 0
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  23
Charge control
> Now, plug in to nondimensionalize
Q2
Q g 0
2Ak
V=
A
2
(
qQ0 )
(qQ0 ) g 0
2Ak (qQ0 ) g 0 q 2 g 0
V=
=
A
A
Qg
V = 0 0 q (1 q 2 ) v = q (1 q 2 )
A
= 1 g g = 1 (1 q 2 ) = q 2
0
> Now we get expressions relating voltage and
displacement to charge
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  24
Charge control
> Actuator is stable at all
multivalued the
charge uniquely
determines the state
and thus the energy
W
Q
Q2
Q g 0
2Ak
Qg
=
=
A
A
0.4
normalized
voltage
> The voltage is
V=
normalized
displacement ( )
gaps the voltage
goes to zero at zero
gap
0.2
0
0
1
0.5
0.5
0
0
0.5
1
normalized charge (q)
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  25
CoEnergy
> For voltage control, we cannot use W(Q,g) directly, because we
cannot maintain constant charge. Instead we use the coenergy
So we change variables
Recall: W * (e1 ) = q1e1 W ( q1 )
W * (V , g ) = QV W (Q, g )
dW * (V , g ) = d (QV ) dW (Q, g )
dW * (V , g ) = [QdV + VdQ ] [VdQ + Fdg ]
dW * (V , g ) = QdV Fdg
W * (V , g )
Q=
V
g
W * (V , g )
F =
g
V
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  26
Voltage control
> Following the causal path
1. Voltage and gap (implicitly)
determines the force
1
A 2
W * (Vin , g ) = CVin2 =
Vin
2
2g
2. Force determines the
spring extension
3. And thus the gap
4. Voltage and gap together
AVin2
W *
1) F =
=
2g 2
g V
determine the charge
.
I
+
Vin(t)
+

V

g = g0 z
2)
z=
C
W*(V,g)
F
k
1/k
Imageby MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 6.6 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA:
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 132. ISBN: 9780792372462.
3)
4)
g = g0
Q=
A
g
AVin2
2kg 2
Vin = CVin
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  27
Outline
> Last time
> The twoport capacitor as a model for energyconserving transducers
> The transverse electrostatic actuator
> A look at pullin
> Formulating state equations
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  28
Forces and stability
> Lets examine the net force
FNet
on the actuator
= k ( g0 g )
AV 2
2g
=0
> Nondimensionalize again
= (g 0 g ) / g 0
v =V
2
PI
V =
VPI
8kg 03
27A
4v 2 g 02
=0
2
27 g
positive
force
increases
gap
normalized force
FNet = Fmech Felec = 0
Av 2 8kg 03
= kg 0
=0
2
2 g 27A
4v 2
=0
2
27(1 )
Spring force
Electrical force
0.8
0.6
0.4
Increasing v
0.2
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
normalized displacement ( )
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  29
Stability criterion
> At low voltage, there are
two intersections
Which is stable?
The position of the actuator
is stable only when there is a
net restoring force when the
system is disturbed from
equilibrium
> At higher voltages,
there are none
What is happening?
stable
unstable
Fnet
Fnet
g
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  30
Stability criterion
> We can plot the normalized NET force versus
normalized gap and check
FNet = Fmech Felec
= k ( g0 g )
normalized force
unstable
stable
0.5
1 =
g
g0
1
0
f net
Increasing v
0.5
1
normalized gap (g/g )
2g 2
4v 2
=
27(1 ) 2
0
0.5
AV 2
g0
= + 1
g
4v 2
g0
27
g
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  31
Stability criterion
> So what we want is a
negative slope
FNet = k ( g 0 g )
> In this example, this
means that the spring
constant must exceed a
critical value that varies
with voltage
Stability:
AV 2
2g 2
FNet
AV 2
<0
= k +
3
g
g
AV 2
<k
3
g
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  32
Stability criterion
> If the voltage is too
large, the system
becomes unstable, and
we encounter pullin
> Right at pullin, the
spring constant is AT
the critical value AND
static equilibrium is
maintained
k=
At pullin:
AVPI2
3
g PI
k ( g 0 g PI ) =
AVPI2
2
2 g PI
kg PI
k ( g 0 g PI ) =
2
8kg 03
VPI =
27 A
2
g PI = g 0
3
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  33
Stability analysis of pullin
> Plot normalized gap versus
normalized voltage
> Solve cubic equation
g = g0
AVin2
2kg 2
normalized gap
stable
In Matlab:
1
0.5
0
0
unstable
0.5
1
normalized voltage
g = fzero(@(g)(g  g0 + eps*A*V^2/(2*k*g^2)),g0);
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  34
Release voltage after pullin
> After pullin less voltage is
needed to keep beam down
> Find force when pulled down
> Equate to mechanical force to
get holddown voltage
> Is usually much less than pullin voltage
Normalize
to VPI
8kg 03
V =
27A
2
PI
g0
Felec
Fmech
g =
g =
AVin2
=
2 2
= k (g 0 ) kg 0
2
AVHD
= kg 0
2
2
2 2 kg 0
2
VHD =
A
VHD
27
< 1
=
4 g0
VPI
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  35
Macro pullin?
> Can we do a macroscopic
pullin demo?
> Use soft spring k = 1 N/m
> Use
A = 8.5 x 11 plates
g0 = 1 cm
8kg 03
VPI =
27 A
=
8(1)(0.01)3
27 ( 8.85 1012 ) 8.5 11 ( 0.0254 )
750 V
> Not easy this is why pullin is a MEMSspecific
phenomenon
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  36
Outline
> Last time
> The twoport capacitor as a model for energyconserving transducers
> The transverse electrostatic actuator
> A look at pullin
> Formulating state equations
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  37
Adding dynamics
> Add components to complete
Fixed support
Resistor
R
the system:
Source resistor for the voltage
Dashpot b
Mass m
Spring k
source
Inertial mass, dashpot
Vin
Fixed plate
> This is now our RF switch!
> System is nonlinear, so we
cant use Laplace to get
transfer functions
+
Vin
+
V

1/k
W(Q,g)
> Instead, model with state
equations
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 6.9 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 138. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Electrical domain
Mechanical domain
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  38
The System is Now General
> The addition of the source resistor breaks up the
distinction between voltagecontrolled and chargecontrolled actuation:
For small R, the system behaves like a voltagecontrolled
actuator
For large R, the system behaves like a chargecontrolled
actuator at short times because the impedance of the rest
of the circuit is negligible the voltage source delivers a
constant current V/R*
*See, for example, Castaner and Senturia, JMEMS, 8, 290 (1999)
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  39
State Equations
> Dynamic equations for general
system (linear or nonlinear) can be
formulated by solving equivalent
circuit
> In general, there is one state
variable for each independent
energystorage element (port)
Goal:
Q
> Good choices for state variables:
d functions of
g =
the charge on a capacitor
Q,g,g or constants
dt
(displacement) and the current in an
g
inductor (momentum)
> For electrostatic transducer, need
three state variables
Two for transducer (Q,g)
One for mass (dg/dt)
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  40
Formulating state equations
> Start with Q
+ eR  I
> We know that dQ/dt=I
> Find relation between I and
state variables and constants
KVL : Vin eR V = 0
Vin IR V = 0
dQ
1
= I = (Vin V )
dt
R
dQ 1
Qg
= Vin
dt R
A
Vin
+

W(Q,g)
eR = IR
V=
Qg
A
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  41
Formulating state equations
> Now well do
g
> We know that dg
.
g
dt
KVL :
F ek em eb = 0
F kz mz bz = 0
= g
ek = kz
em = mz
eb = bz
z = g 0 g z = g , z = g
.
z
1/k
+ ek  +
W(Q,g)
em
 eb + b
F k ( g 0 g ) + mg + bg = 0
1
[F k ( g 0 g ) + bg ]
m
dg
1 Q2
=
k ( g 0 g ) + bg
dt
m 2A
g =
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  42
Formulating state equations
> State equation for g is easy:
dg
= g
dt
> Collect all three nonlinear state equations
1
Qg
Vin
R
A
Q
=
g
g
dt
g 1 Q 2
m 2 A k ( g 0 g ) + bg
> Now we are ready to simulate dynamics (WED)
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  43
What have we wrought?
> We have modeled a complex multidomain 3D
structure using
Equivalent circuits
A twoport nonlinear capacitor
> What can we now get
Actuation voltage: VPI
Tip dynamics
> What have we lost
Images removed due to copyright restrictions.
Figure 9 on p. 17 in: Nguyen, C. T.C.
"Vibrating RF MEMS Overview: Applic ations to W i reless Communications."
Proceedings of SPI E Int Soc Opt Eng 5715 (January 2005): 1125.
I m ages rem oved due to copyright restrictions. Figure 11 on p.
342 in: Za vrack y, P. M ., N. E. Mc Grue r, R. H. Mo rris on, an d D.
Potter. "Mi crosw itches and Microrelays w i th a Vie w To w ard Micro w ave
Applications." Internati onal Journal of RF and Microw ave Com putAided
Engineering 9, no. 4 (1999): 338347.
Capacitor plates are not really parallel during actuation
Neglected fringing fields
Neglected stiction forces when beam is pulled in
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  44
Conclusions
> We can successfully model nonlinear transducers
with a new element: the twoport capacitor
> Know when to use energy or coenergy for forces
At best a sign error
At worst just wrong
> Under charge control, transverse electrostatic
actuator is wellbehaved
> Under voltage control, exhibits pullin
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9  45
LumpedElement System Dynamics
Joel Voldman*
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
*(with thanks to SDS)
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  1
Outline
> Our progress so far
> Formulating state equations
> Quasistatic analysis
> Largesignal analysis
> Smallsignal analysis
> Addendum: Review of 2ndorder system dynamics
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  2
Our progress so far
> Our goal has been to model multidomain systems
> We first learned to create lumped models for each
domain
> Then we figured out how to move energy between
domains
> Now we want to see how the multidomain system
behaves over time (or frequency)
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  3
Our progress so far
> The Northeastern/ADI RF Switch
> We first lumped the mechanical domain
Fixed support
Images removed due to copyright restrictions.
Figure 11 on p. 342 in: Zavracky, P. M., N. E. McGruer, R. H. Morrison,
and D. Potter. "Microswitches and Microrelays with a View Toward Microwave
Applications." International Journal of RF and Microwave ComputAided
Engineering 9, no. 4 (1999): 338347.
Dashpot b
+
V
1 m
Silicon
0.5 m
Cantilever
Pulldown
electrode
Anchor
Spring k
Mass m
z
Fixed plate
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 6.9 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem
Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p.
138. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Rebeiz, Gabriel M. RF MEMS: Theory, Design, and
Technology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2003. ISBN: 9780471201694.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  4
Our progress so far
> Then we introduced a twoport capacitor to convert
energy between domains
Capacitor because it stores potential energy
Two ports because there are two ways to store energy
Mechanical: Move plates (with charge on plates)
Electrical: Add charge (with plates apart)
The system is conservative: system energy only depends on
state variables
.
g
I
2
Q g
W (Q, g ) =
2A
+
V
1/k
+
C
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  5
Our progress so far
W (Q, g )
Q2
=
F=
g
2A
Q
> We first analyzed system
quasistatically
> Saw that there is VERY different
V=
W (Q, g )
Qg
=
Q
A
g
behavior depending on whether
Charge is controlled
stable behavior at all gaps
Voltage is controlled
dW = VdQ + Fdg
dW * = QdV Fdg
pullin at g=2/3g0
> Use of energy or coenergy
depends on what is controlled
Simplifies math
W *
Q=
V
=
g
A
g
Vin
AVin2
W *
=
F=
g V
2g 2
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  6
Todays goal
> How to move from quasistatic to dynamic analysis
> Specific questions:
How fast will RF switch close?
> General questions:
How do we model the dynamics of nonlinear systems?
How are mechanical dynamics affected by electrical domain?
> What are the different ways to get from model to
answer?
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  7
Outline
> Our progress so far
> Formulating state equations
> Quasistatic analysis
> Largesignal analysis
> Smallsignal analysis
> Addendum: Review of 2ndorder system dynamics
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  8
Adding dynamics
Fixed support
> Add components to complete
Resistor
R
the system:
Dashpot b
Mass m
Spring k
Source resistor for the voltage
Vin
source
Inertial mass, dashpot
Fixed plate
> This is now our RF switch!
> System is nonlinear, so we
cant use Laplace to get
transfer functions
> Instead, model with state
I
+
Vin
+
V

1/k
+
m
W(Q,g)
equations
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 6.9 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 138. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Electrical domain
Mechanical domain
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  9
State Equations
> Dynamic equations for general
system (linear or nonlinear) can be
formulated by solving equivalent
circuit
> In general, there is one state variable
for each independent energystorage
element (port)
> Good choices for state variables:
the charge on a capacitor
(displacement) and the current in an
inductor (momentum)
Goal:
Q
d functions of
g =
Q,g,g or constants
dt
g
> For electrostatic transducer, need
three state variables
Two for transducer (Q,g)
One for mass (dg/dt)
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  10
Formulating state equations
> Start with Q
+ eR  I
> We know that dQ/dt=I
> Find relation between I and
state variables and constants
KVL : Vin eR V = 0
Vin IR V = 0
dQ
1
= I = (Vin V )
dt
R
dQ 1
Qg
= Vin
dt R
A
Vin
+

W(Q,g)
eR = IR
Qg
V=
A
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  11
Formulating state equations
> Now well do
g
> We know that dg
.
g
dt
KVL :
F ek em eb = 0
F kz mz bz = 0
= g
ek = kz
em = mz
eb = bz
z = g 0 g z = g , z = g
.
z
1/k
+ ek  +
W(Q,g)
em
 eb + b
F k ( g 0 g ) + mg + bg = 0
1
[F k ( g 0 g ) + bg ]
m
dg
1 Q2
=
k ( g 0 g ) + bg
dt
m 2A
g =
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  12
Formulating state equations
> State equation for g is easy:
dg
= g
dt
> Collect all three nonlinear state equations
1
Qg
Vin
R
A
Q
g
g
=
dt
g 1 Q 2
m 2 A k ( g 0 g ) + bg
> Now we are ready to simulate dynamics
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  13
Outline
> Our progress so far
> Formulating state equations
> Quasistatic analysis
> Largesignal analysis
> Smallsignal analysis
> Addendum: Review of 2ndorder system dynamics
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  14
Quasistatic analysis
1
Qg
Vin
A
R
d
g = g
dt g 1 Q 2
k
g
g
b
g
(
)
+
0
m 2A
Fixedpoint
analysis
Given static Vin, etc.
State eqns
What is deflection,
charge, etc.?
(Just now)
.
Vin
+

W(Q,g)
1/k
+
m
Follow
causal path
(Wed)
Equivalent circuit
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  15
State equations
For transverse
electrostatic actuator:
State variables
Inputs
x = f (x, u)
y = g (x, u)
Outputs
State variables:
Q
x = g
g
Inputs:
u = [Vin ]
Qg
Vin
A
R
f (x,u) = g
1Q
m 2 A k ( g 0 g ) + bg
Outputs: y = [g ] = g (x, u)
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  16
Fixed points
> Definition of a fixed point
Solution of f(x,u) = 0
time derivatives 0
> Global fixed point
A fixed point when u = 0
Systems can have multiple global fixed points
Some might be stable, others unstable (consider a
pendulum)
> Operating point
Fixed point when u is a nonzero constant
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  17
Fixed points of the electrostatic actuator
> This analysis is analogous to what we did last time
Qg
1
0 = Vin
R
A
0 = g
1 Q2
0=
k ( g 0 g ) + bg
m 2A
Qg
A
Q 2 Vin 2 A
=
= k ( g0 g )
2
2 A
2g
Vin =
normalized gap
Operating point
stable
1
0.5
0
0
0.5
1
normalized voltage
Last time
g = g0
AVin2
2kg 2
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  18
Outline
> Our progress so far
> Formulating state equations
> Quasistatic analysis
> Largesignal analysis
> Smallsignal analysis
> Addendum: Review of 2ndorder system dynamics
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  19
Largesignal analysis
1
Qg
Vin
A
R
d
g = g
dt g 1 Q 2
k
g
g
b
g
(
)
+
0
m 2A
Integrate
state eqns
Given a step input
Vin(t)u(t)
State eqns
(Earlier)
.
Vin
+

W(Q,g)
What is g(t), Q(t), etc.?
1/k
SPICE
+
m
Equivalent circuit
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  20
Direct Integration
> This is a brute force approach: integrate the state
equations
Via MATLAB (ODExx)
Via Simulink
> We show the SIMULINK version here
Matlab version later
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  21
Electrostatic actuator in Simulink
Q
x = g , u = [Vin ]
g
1
Qg
V
in
A
R
f(x, u) = g
1 Q
m 2A k ( g 0 g ) + bg
(u[1]^2)/(2*e*A)
+
+
+
Electrostatic force
Spring
Sum2
1/m
Inertia
Damping
1
s
Velocity
gdot
1
s
Position
Atrest gap g _ 0
1/(e*A)
*
Qg
_
1
V_in
1/R
1
s
1/R
Charge
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 7.8 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer
Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 174. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  22
Electrostatic actuator with contact
<
Accel > 0 ?
+ +
g_min
>
g > g_min?
+
+
+
(u[1]^2)/(2*e*A)
Electrostatic force
1/m
1
s
Inertia
Switch
Spring
Sum2
Velocity
Damping
gdot
Zero
1
s
Position
Atrest gap g _ 0
1/(e*A)
*
Qg
_
1
V_in
1/R
1/R
1
s
Charge
1
Q
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 7.9 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001,
p. 175. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  23
Behavior through pullin
7 10 8
1.6
Drive (scaled)
Charge
6 10 8
1.4
1.2
5 10 8
Position
4 10 8
3 10 8
2 10 8
1.0
Pullin
0.8
0.6
0.4
1 10 8
0 10 0
Release
0.2
0
50
100
150
Time
200
250
300
0.0
50
100
150
200
250
300
Time
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 7.10 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001,
p. 176. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  24
Behavior through pullin
1.0
1.4
1.2
Release
0.0
Drive
1.0
Position
Velocity
0.5
Pullin
0.5
Release
0.8
0.6
Discharge
0.4
1.0
0.2
1.5
50
100
150
Time
200
250
300
0.0
Pullin
50
100
150
200
250
300
Time
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 7.11 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 177. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  25
Outline
> Our progress so far
> Formulating state equations
> Quasistatic analysis
> Largesignal analysis
> Smallsignal analysis
> Addendum: Review of 2ndorder system dynamics
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  26
Smallsignal analysis
Given O.P.
State eqns
Linearize
Linearized
state eqns
(Jacobians)
Time
response
Integrate
Take LT
n
ct
nf s
g e si
Ei aly
An
form TFs
Equivalent Linearize Linearized
circuit
circuit
What is g(t)
due to small
changes in
Vin(t)?
Form TFs
Transfer SSS Frequency
functions
response
poles &
zeros
Natural
system
dynamics
Given O.P.
How fast
can I wiggle
tip?
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  27
Smallsignal analysis
Given O.P.
State eqns
Linearize
Linearized
state eqns
(Jacobians)
Integrate
Time
response
What is g(t)
due to small
changes in
Vin(t)?
Given O.P.
Equivalent
circuit
How fast
can I wiggle
tip?
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  28
Linearization about a fixed point
> This is EXTREMELY common in MEMS literature
> This is also done in many other fields, with different
names
Smallsignal analysis
Incremental analysis
Etc.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  29
Linearization About an Operating Point
> Using Taylors theorem, a system can
x = f (x, u)
x (t ) = X 0 + x (t )
u(t ) = U0 + u(t )
be linearized about any fixed point
> We can do this in one dimension or
Operating point
many
f(x)
df/dx
~ f(X0+ x)
f( X0)=Y0
f
(
)
d
x
= f (X 0 , U0 ) + i
X 0 +
x
dt
j
X0
f ( X 0 + x ) f ( X 0 ) +
df
dx
d (x )
X 0 +
= f (X 0 + x, U0 + u)
dt
Multidimensional Taylor
x
X0
x (t ) + f i
u
X 0 ,U 0
j
u(t )
X 0 ,U 0
Cancel
d (xi (t ) ) f i
=
x
dt
j
x (t ) + f i
i
u
X 0 ,U 0
j
J1
u (t )
i
X 0 ,U 0
J2
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  30
Linearization About an Operating Point
x (t ) = J1x + J2u(t)
> The resulting set of
equations are linear, and
have dynamics described
by the Jacobians of f(x,u)
evaluted at the fixed point.
> These describe how much
a small change in one state
variable affects itself or
another state variable
>
>
f1
Q O.P.
f
J1 = 2
Q O.P.
f 3
Q O.P.
g 0
RA
Q
The O.P. must be evaluated d g = 0
dt
to use the Jacobian
g Q0
Example linearization of
mA
the voltagecontrolled
electrostatic actuator
Q0
RA
0
k
m
J1
f1
g
f 2
g
f 3
g
O. P.
O. P.
O.P.
f1
g
f 2
g
f 3
g
O. P.
O. P.
O. P.
1 R
(V )
g +
0 in
b g 0
m
J2
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  31
State Equations for Linear Systems
> Normally expressed with:
x: a vector of state variables
u: a vector of inputs
y: a vector of outputs
Four matrices, A,B,C, D
x = Ax + Bu
y = Cx + Du
> For us, Jacobian matrices take the place of A and B
> C and D depend on what outputs are desired
Often C is identity and D is zero
> Can use to simulate time responses to arbitrary
SMALL inputs
Remember, this is only valid for small deviations from O.P.
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  32
Direct Integration in Time
Charge (Q)
Charge
> Can integrate via Simulink
model (as before) or
MATLAB
500
> First define system in
0
2
> Can use MATLAB
commands step, initial,
impulse etc.
> Response of electrostatic
actuator to impulse of voltage
Parameters from text (pg
167)
Velocity
alternate method
Displacement
MATLAB
using ss(J1,J2,C,D) or
Impulse Response
1000
0
2
4
4
2
0
2
4
6
0
10
15
20
25
Time (sec)
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  33
Smallsignal analysis
Given O.P.
State eqns
Linearize
Linearized
state eqns
(Jacobians)
Integrate
Time
response
Take LT
What is g(t)
due to small
changes in
Vin(t)?
Form TFs
Transfer SSS Frequency
functions
response
poles &
zeros
Equivalent
circuit
Given O.P.
How fast
can I wiggle
tip?
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  34
Solve via Laplace transform
> Use Laplace Transforms
to solve in frequency
domain
Transform DE to algebraic
equations
Use unilateral Laplace to
allow for nonzero ICs
x = Ax + Bu
Unilateral Laplace
sX ( s ) x (0) = AX( s ) + BU( s )
sIX ( s ) x (0) = AX( s ) + BU( s )
(sI A )X( s) = x(0) + BU( s)
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  35
Transfer Functions
> Transfer functions H(s) are useful for obtaining
compact expression of inputoutput relation
What is the tip displacement as a function of voltage
> Most easily obtained from equivalent circuit
> But can also be obtained from linearized state eqns
Depends on A, B, C (or J1, J2, C) matrices
Can do this for fun analytically (see attachment at
end)
Matlab can automatically convert from s.s to t.f.
formulations
> For our actuator, we would get three transfer
functions
Q( s )
V
(
s
)
in
g( s)
H(s) =
(
s
)
V
in
g ( s )
(
s
)
V
in
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  36
Sinusoidal Steady State
> When a LTI system is
driven with a sinusoid, the
steadystate response is a
sinusoid at the same
frequency
> The amplitude of the
response is H(j)
u (t ) = U 0 cos(t )
Y ( j ) = H ( j )U ( j )
y sss (t ) = Y0 cos(t + )
> The phase of the response
relative to the drive is the
angle of H(j)
> A plot of log magnitude vs
log frequency and angle
vs log frequency is called
a Bode plot
Y0 = H ( j ) U 0
Im{H ( j )}
tan =
Re{H ( j )}
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  37
Bode plot of electrostatic actuator
command
bode with previously
defined system sys
> Evaluate only one of TFs
40
20
0
Magnitude (dB)
> Use
Bode Diagram
Matlab
40
60
80
100
g( s)
H(s) =
Vin ( s )
120
140
180
> This tells us how quickly
135
Phase (deg)
we can wiggle tip!
At a certain OP!
20
90
45
0
45
90
2
10
1
10
10
10
Frequency (rad/sec)
10
10
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  38
Smallsignal analysis
Given O.P.
State eqns
Linearize
Linearized
state eqns
(Jacobians)
Time
response
Integrate
Take LT
What is g(t)
due to small
changes in
Vin(t)?
Form TFs
Transfer SSS Frequency
functions
response
poles &
zeros
Equivalent
circuit
Natural
system
dynamics
Given O.P.
How fast
can I wiggle
tip?
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  39
Poles and Zeros
> For our models, system function is a ratio of polynomials in s
> Roots of denominator are called poles
They describe the natural (unforced) response of the system
> Roots of the numerator are called zeros
They describe particular frequencies that fail to excite any output
> System functions with the same poles and zeros have the
same dynamics
Q0
g( s)
ARm
H(s) =
=
Vin ( s )
1
Q02 1
b 2 1 b k 1 k
3
+ s +
+ s+
2 2
s +
RC
m
RC
m
m
RC
m
A
Rm
0
0
0
where C0 =
A
g 0
> MATLAB solution for poles is VERY long
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  40
Polezero diagram
> Displays information
tip velocity
Imaginary Axis
about dynamics of
system function
Matlab command
PoleZero Map
1
pole
zero
0.5
0
0.5
pzmap
1
9
8
7
6
> Useful for examining
4
3
2
1
3
2
1
R l Aaxis
i
Real
PoleZero Map
1
gap
Imaginary Axis
dynamics, stability,
etc.
5
0.5
0
0.5
1
9
8
7
6
5
4
Real Axis
Real axis
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  41
Smallsignal analysis
Given O.P.
State eqns
Linearize
Linearized
state eqns
(Jacobians)
Time
response
Integrate
Take LT
n
ct
nf s
g e si
Ei aly
An
Form TFs
Transfer SSS Frequency
functions
response
poles &
zeros
Equivalent
circuit
What is g(t)
due to small
changes in
Vin(t)?
Natural
system
dynamics
Given O.P.
How fast
can I wiggle
tip?
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  42
Eigenfunction Analysis
> For an LTI system, we can find the eigenvalues and
eigenvectors of the J1 (or A) matrix describing the internal
dynamics
For scalar 1storder system:
dx
= x
dt
x(t ) = K 0 e t + K1
If we try solution:
x (t ) = Ke t
Plug into DE:
Our linear (or linearized)
homogeneous systems look like:
x (t ) = J1x + J2u(t)
dx
= Ax
dt
d (x )
= J1x
dt
x = Ax
This is an eigenvalue
equation
If we find we can find
natural frequencies of
system
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  43
Eigenfunction Analysis
> These are the same as the poles si of the system
> Can solve analytically
Find from det(AI)=0
> Or numerically eig(sys)
8.9904
0.2627 + 0.8455i
0.2627  0.8455i
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  44
Linearized system poles
> We can use either i or si to
determine natural frequencies
of system
> As we increase applied
voltage
Stable damped resonant
Increasing voltage
> Plotting poles as system
frequency decreases
changes is a rootlocus plot
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  45
Spring softening
> Plot damped resonant frequency versus applied voltage
> Resonant frequency is changing because net spring constant
k changes with frequency
k'=k
AV 2
g
This is called
spring softening
Damped resonant frequency
> This is an electrically tuned mechanical resonator
1.00
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06
Voltage
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 7.5 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 169. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  46
Smallsignal analysis
Given O.P.
State eqns
Linearize
Linearized
state eqns
(Jacobians)
Time
response
Integrate
Take LT
n
ct
nf s
g e si
Ei aly
An
form TFs
Equivalent Linearize Linearized
circuit
circuit
What is g(t)
due to small
changes in
Vin(t)?
Form TFs
Transfer SSS Frequency
functions
response
poles &
zeros
Natural
system
dynamics
Given O.P.
How fast
can I wiggle
tip?
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  47
Linearized Transducers
> Can we directly linearize
our equivalent circuit?
YES!
> This is perhaps the most
Vin(t) +

common analysis in the
literature
> First, choose what is load
1/k
Fout
Source
Transducer
Load
Find OP
and what is transducer
Linearize
Here we include spring
with transducer
Vin(t)
+

+
V
Linearized
Transducer
+
Fout
Source
Load
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  48
Linearized Transducer Model
> First, find O.P.
V0 , g 0 , Q0
> Next, generate matrix to
relate incremental port
variables to each other
Start from energy and force
relations
Qg
A
Q2
=
k ( g0 g )
2 A
V=
Fout
Linearize (take partials)
g 0
V A
F = Q
out 0
A
Q0
A Q
g
k
> Recast in terms of port variables
I
Q
s
g = U
> Define intermediate variables
Q0
A
C0 =
, V0 =
g 0
C0
> Final expression
1
V sC0
F = V
out
0
sg
0
V0
sg 0 I
k U
s
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  49
Linearized Transducers
> Now we want to convert this relation into a circuit
> Many circuit topologies are consistent with this matrix relation
> THIS IS NOT UNIQUE!
i'
1/k'
1/k
u'
1:
'
Co
F'
2/
Co
Co
1/k
1:
1/k*
1:/2
i
+
Co
1_
1
k_/C
Co
+
o
F
_
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 5 on p. 163 in Tilmans, Harrie A. C. "Equivalent Circuit Representations of Electromechanical
Transducers: I. Lumpedparameter Systems." Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering 6, no. 1 (1996): 157176.
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  50
Linearized Transducers
> This is the one used in the text
V Z EB Z EB I
F = Z
U
Z
MO
out EB
Z MS
2 Z EB
= Z MO 1
Z MO
> Uses a transformer
Transforms port variables
Doesnt store energy
> What we want to do now is
identify ZEB, ZMS and , and
figure out what they mean
e2
=
f 2 0
0 e1
1 f
1
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  51
Linearized Transducers
V Z EB Z EB I
F = Z
U
Z
MO
out EB
2 Z EB
Z MS = Z MO 1
Z MO
1
V sC0
F = V
0
sg 0
Z MS
V0
sg 0 I
k U
s
2 1
2
k Q0 sC0 k Q0 1
= 1
= 1
k
s g 0 C0 k
s g 0
2
Q
k
Q02
0
= 1
k
k
=
'
s Akg 0
Ag
C0V0
g 0
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  52
Linearized Transducers
> C0 represents the
capacitance of the
structure seen from the
electrical port
> It is simply the capacitance
at the gap given by the
operating point
C0 =
A
g 0
> As Vin increases, C0 will
increase until the structure
pulls in
> This is a tunable capacitor
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  53
Linearized Transducers
> k represents the effective
spring
> A combination of the
mechanical spring k and
the electrical spring
> This is an electrically
tunable spring!
Spring softening shows up
Q02
k'= k
Ag 0
in k
> As Vin increases, k will
decrease from k (at Vin=0)
to 0 (at Vin=Vpi)
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  54
Linearized Transducers
> represents the
electromechanical
coupling
> Represents how much the
capacitance changes with
gap
> A measure of sensitivity
= V0
= V0
=
C
g
C0V0 Q0
=
g 0
g 0
= V0
O. P.
A
g g O. P.
A
g 02
C0V0
g 0
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  55
Transfer Functions
> Can use linearized
>
circuit to construct H(s)
using complex
impedances
Usually helpful to
eliminate transformer
> Transformer changes
impedances
Z2 =
Z1
1:
Z1
Z2
1:
Vin
U
m
+

C0
2/k
Vin
1/k
+

U
m/2
C0
b/
Can now get any transfer
function using standard
circuit analysis
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  56
Linearized Transducer Models
> Now we can understand Nguyens filter!
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Figure 9 on p. 17 in Nguyen, C. T.C. "Vibrating RF MEMS
Figure 12 on p. 62 in: Nguyen, C. T.C. "Micromechanical
Overview: Applications to Wireless Communications."
Filters for Miniaturized Lowpower Communications."
Proceedings of SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 5715 (January 2005): 1125.
Proceedings of SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 3673 (July 1999): 5566.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  57
Smallsignal analysis summary
Given O.P.
State eqns
Linearize
Linearized
state eqns
(Jacobians)
Time
response
Integrate
Take LT
n
ct
nf s
g e si
Ei aly
An
form TFs
Equivalent Linearize Linearized
circuit
circuit
What is g(t)
due to small
changes in
Vin(t)?
Form TFs
Transfer SSS Frequency
functions
response
poles &
zeros
Natural
system
dynamics
Given O.P.
How fast
can I wiggle
tip?
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  58
Conclusions
> We can now analyze and design both quasistatic and
dynamic behavior of our multidomain MEMS
> We have much more powerful tools to analyze linear
systems than nonlinear systems
> But most systems we encounter are nonlinear
> Linearization permits the study of smallsignal inputs
> Next up: special topics in structures, heat transfer,
fluids
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  59
Review: analysis of a 2ndorder linear system
> Springmassdashpot
.
x
+

1/k
+ ek  +
em
 eb + 
d x x
= 1
dt x m (F kx bx )
State
eqns
x = Ax + Bu
y = Cx + Du
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  60
Direct Integration in Time
> Example: Springmassdashpot step response
k=m=1;b=0.5;
Step Response
Amplitude
>> A=[0 1;1 0.5]; B=[0;1];
>> C=[1 0;0 1]; D=[0;0];
>> sys=ss(A,B,C,D);
>> step(sys)
Position
1.5
1
0.5
Velocity
0
1
0.5
0
0.5
0
10
15
Tim e (sec)
20
25
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  61
Transfer Functions
> Can get TFs from A,B,C matrices
Y ( s ) = CX ( s ) + DU( s )
Y ( s ) = C (sI A ) x (0) + (sI A ) BU( s ) + DU( s )
1
Assume transient has died out (XZIR=0)
No feedthrough (D=0)
1
Y( s ) = C ( sI A ) B U( s )
Y( s ) = H ( s )U( s )
1
H ( s ) = C ( sI A ) B
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  62
Transfer Functions
> Lets do analytically & via MATLAB
1
s 0 0
k
sI A =
s
0
m
m
1
s
= k
b
+
s
m
m
1 s + b m 1
1
(sI A ) = k
s
m
= s ( s + b m) + k m = s 2 + s b m + k m
1 0 1 s + b m 1 0
1
C(sI A ) B =
1
k
0 1 m s m
1
1 m
=
s
m
X( s )
1
F( s) 2
ms + sb + k
H( s) =
=
X( s )
s
ms 2 + sb + k
F( s)
s 2 + 0.5s + 1
H( s) =
2
s + 0.5s + 1
>> [n,d]=ss2tf(A,B,C,D)
n=
s1
s0
s2
0 0.0000 1.0000
0 1.0000 0.0000
d=
1.0000
0.5000
1.0000
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  63
Transfer Functions
> Can also construct H(s) directly
using complex impedances and
circuit model
.
1/k
x
+

+ ek  +
em
 eb + b
F ek em eb = 0
k
ek = kx = x
s
eb = bx
em = mx = msx
(s)
X
1
= H2 ( s ) =
F( s )
Z( s )
1
=
b + ms + k s
s
=
ms 2 + bs + k
( s ) sX( s )
X
=
F( s ) F( s )
1
X( s )
= H1 ( s ) =
ms 2 + bs + k
F( s )
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  64
Poles and Zeros
> For 2ndorder system, easy to get
poles and zeros from TFs
1
2
1 s + s b m + k m
H(s) =
s
m
s2 + s b m + k m
1 ( s s1 )( s s2 )
=
s
m
( s s )( s s )
1
2
where
2
b
k
b
s1,2 =
2m
2
m
m
these are the poles
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  65
Springmassdashpot system
> It is a second order system, with
two poles
> We conventionally define
Undamped resonant frequency
Damping constant
Damped resonant frequency
Quality factor
s2 + b
s+k
= s 2 + 2s + 02
k
m
b
=
2m
0 =
s1, 2 = 2 02
For underdamped systems ( < 0 )
s1, 2 = j d
where
d = 02 2
Quality factor :
Q=
0 m 0
=
2
b
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  66
Polezero diagram
> Displays information about dynamics of system
function
s
H2 ( s ) = 2
s + 0.5s + 1
s1, 2 = 0.25 j 1 1 = 0.25 j 0.97
16
PoleZero Map
2
1.5
pole
Imaginary Axis
1
0.5
zero
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2
1
0
Real Axis
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  67
SMDposition frequency response
1
1
H( j ) =
m ( 02 2 ) 2 + 4 2 2
Bode Diagram
0
10
20
30
40
360
Phase (deg)
H( j ) = atan 2
2
0
Magnitude (dB)
1
1
H( j ) =
m 2 + 2j + 02
10
315
270
225
180
1
10
10
Frequency (rad/sec)
10
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  68
Eigenfunction Analysis
> Find eigenvalues numerically using MATLAB and A matrix
1
0
A=
0
0
.
5
[ V , ] = eig( A)
0
1 0 0.25 + 0.97 j
=
=
0
0
.
25
0
.
97
j
0.707
0.707
V = [v1 v2 ] =
0.18 0.68 j 0.18 0.68 j
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10  69
Special Topics in Structures: Residual
Stress and Energy Methods
Carol Livermore
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
* With thanks to Steve Senturia, from whose lecture notes some
of these materials are adapted.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  1
Outline
> Effects of residual stresses on structures
> Energy methods
Elastic energy
Principle of virtual work: variational methods
Examples
> RayleighRitz methods for resonant frequencies and
extracting lumpedelement masses for structures
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  2
Reminder: Thin Film Stress
> If a thin film is adhered to a substrate, mismatch of thermal
expansion coefficient between film and substrate can lead to
stresses in the film (and, to a lesser degree, stresses in the
substrate)
> Residual stress can also come from film structure: intrinsic
stress
> Stresses set up bending moments that can bend the substrate
> When we release a residually stressed MEMS structure,
interesting effects can ensue
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  3
Reminder: Differential equation of beam bending
> Small angle bending:
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 9.11 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem
Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, pp. 214.
ISBN: 9780792372462.
> Beam equation:
q = distributed load
w = vertical displacement
x = axial position along beam
d 4w q
=
4
dx
EI
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  4
Example: Fixedfixed beam
> Fixedfixed beams are common in MEMS: switches, diffraction
gratings, flexures
> Example: Silicon Light Machines Grating Light Valve display
deflects a beam in order to diffract light
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Please see: Figure 1.4 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 7. ISBN: 9780792372462.
> Residual stress in beams can enhance or reduce response to an
applied load, and impact flatness of actuated beam
> Residual stress can be included in the basic beam bending
equation by the addition of an extra term
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  5
Residual Axial Stress in Beams
> Residual axial stress in a beam
>
contributes to its bending stiffness
Leads to the Euler beam equation
Thin beam
s0
s0
Images by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 9.15 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 227. ISBN: 9780792372462.
0 H
P0 =
which is equivalent to a distributed load
d 2w
q0 = P0W = 0WH 2
dx
Insert as added load into beam equation :
P0
s0WH
2WP0 = 20WH
s0WH
d 4w
EI 4 = q + q0
dx
d 4w
d 2w
EI 4 0WH 2 = q
dx
dx
Images by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 9.16 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 228. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  6
Example: Effect of tensile stress on stiffness
0.2
Displacement
0
s = 250 MPa
0.2
0.4
100
0.6
0.8
50
25
1
1.2
20
40
60
Position
80
100
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 9.17 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 232. ISBN: 9780792372462.
100 m long, 2 m wide, 2 m high fixedfixed silicon beam
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  7
Stress impacts flatness: leveraged bending
> Pullin is modified if the actuating electrodes are away from the
point of closest approach
1)
2)
with stressstiffening
3)
Figure 3 on p. 499 in: Hung, E. S., and S. D. Senturia. "Extending the Travel Range of Analogtuned Electrostatic Actuators."
Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 8, no. 4 (December 1999): 497505. 1999 IEEE.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  8
Buckling of Axially Loaded Beams
> If the compressive stress is too large, a beam will spontaneously
bend this is called buckling
> The basic theory of buckling is in Sec. 9.6.3
> The Euler buckling criterion:
Euler
2 EH 2
=
3 L2
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  9
Plates with inplane stress and membranes
> As with the Euler beam equation, in plane stress can be included
4w
4w
4w N x 2w N y 2w
= P ( x, y )
D 4 + 2 2 2 + 4
+
2
2
x y
y W x
W y
x
Axial stresses in x
and y directions
> When tensile stress dominates over flexural rigidity (thin,
tensioned plate), the plate may be considered a membrane
N x 2w N y 2w
= P
+
2
2
W y
W x
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  10
How about cantilevers?
> Example: residually stressed cantilever, where stress is
constant throughout structure
> Before release: stressed cantilever is attached to surface
> After release: cantilever relieves stress by expanding or
contracting to its desired length
> No bending of released structure
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  11
How about nonuniform axial stress?
> Nonuniform axial stress through the thickness of a beam creates
a bending moment
> It can arise from two sources
Intrinsic stress gradients, created during formation of the
cantilever material (e.g. polysilicon)
Residual stress in thin films deposited onto the cantilever
> The bending moment curls the cantilever
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  12
Example: Cantilever with stress gradient
> Think about it in three steps:
Relax the average stress to zero after release
Compute the moment when the beam is flat
Compute the curvature that results from the moment
Before release
After release
but before bending
H/2
x
o
Compression
H/2
z
Stress before release
H/2
1
Tension
1
x
Compression
H/2
z
Stress after release
but before bending
After bending
H/2
Tension
x
Compression
H/2
z
After bending
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 9.13 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic
Publishers, 2001, p. 223. ISBN: 9780792372462.
EI
1
1 EH
2
x =
M x = z x dA = WH 1 and x =
A
Mx
6
2 1
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  13
Example: Thin Film on Cantilever
> In this case, the curling does not relieve all the stress
After release
Before release
t
H/2
H/2
o
H/2
2
3
H/2
y
y
Stress before release
Stress after release
and after bending
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 9.14 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 224. ISBN: 9780792372462.
> See text for math
Barbastathis group, MIT
Courtesy of George Barbastathis. Used with permission.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  14
Outline
> Effects of residual stresses on structures
> Energy methods
Elastic energy
Principle of virtual work: variational methods
Examples
> RayleighRitz methods for resonant frequencies and
extracting lumpedelement masses for structures
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  15
Elastic Energy
> Elastic stored energy density is the integral of stress with
respect to strain
Elastic energy density :
When ( ) = E :
(x,y,z)
~
W(x,y,z) =
()d
0
1
~
2
W(x,y,z) = E [(x,y,z)]
2
> The total elastic stored energy is the volume integral of the
elastic energy density
Total stored elastic energy :
~
W = W(x,y,z)dxdydz
Volume
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  16
Including Shear Strains
> More generally, the energy density in a linear elastic medium is
related to the product of stress and strain
> A similar approach can be used for electrostatic stored energy
density (1/2)D*E and magnetostatic stored energy density
(1/2)B*H.
~ 1
For axial strains : W =
2
~ 1
For shear strains : W =
2
This leads to a total elastic strain energy :
W=
1
( x x + y y + z z + xy xy + xz xz + yz yz ) dxdydz
2 Volume
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  17
Concept: Principle of Virtual Work
> The question: how to determine the deformation that results
from an applied load
F
(F) = ??
> Known: the work done on an energyconserving system by
external forces must result in an equal amount of stored
potential energy
> Imposing this condition can provide an exact solution to many
problems
For example, if functional dependence between quantities is
known, and you just need to find what the actual values are
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  18
Concept: Principle of Virtual Work
> Can approach this from a guessing point of view
Guess values for ; whichever one best equates stored
energy and work done is the right answer
x
Stored energy work done
are guesses
is best guess
x
xx
Deformation
> What if you dont know the functional form of your
deformations/displacements does this still work?
> Yes! You can choose a plausible shape function for the
displacement with a few adjustable parameters and iteratively
guess the constants to best equate stored energy and work
done
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  19
Principle of Virtual Work
> Goal: a variational method for solving energyconserving
problems (a mathematical way of approaching the guessing)
> Define total potential U, including work and stored energy
U = Stored energy  Work done
> A system in equilibrium has a total potential U that is a minimum
with respect to any virtual displacement
No matter what you change, you wont get any closer to
matching work and stored energy
> Requirement: the virtual displacement must obey B.C.
> Nomenclature for small virtual displacements
In the x direction: u
In the y direction: v
In the z direction: w
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  20
Math: Principle of Virtual Work
> Consider all possible virtual displacements; evaluate change in
strains
u and xy = v + u
y
x
x
This implies changes in strain energy density
x =
>
~
W = x x + + xy xy +
> The principle of virtual work states that in equilibrium, for any
virtual displacement that is compatible with the B.C.,
~
Wdxdydz
Volume
(F
(F
s,x
u + Fs , yv + Fs , zw)dS
Surface
u + Fb , yv + Fb , zw)dxdydz = 0
b, x
Volume
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  21
Differential Version
> The previous equation is equivalent to the following:
~
Wdxdydz (Fs , x u + Fs , y v + Fs , z w )dS (Fb, x u + Fb, y v + Fb, z w)dxdydz = 0
Surface
Volume
Volume
This can be restated in the following form :
U = 0
where
~
U = Wdxdydz (Fs , x u + Fs , y v + Fs , z w )dS (Fb, x u + Fb, y v + Fb, z w)dxdydz
Volume
Surface
Volume
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  22
Variational methods
> Select a trial solution with parameters that can be varied
(x, y, z; c1, c2,cn) = trial displacement in x
v(x, y, z; c1, c2,cn) = trial displacement in y
(x,
y, z; c1, c2,cn) = trial displacement in z
> Formulate the total potential U of the system as functions of
these parameters
> Find the potential minimum with respect to the values of the
parameters
U
U
U
= 0,
= 0,....
=0
c1
c2
cn
> The result is the best solution possible with the assumed trial
function
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  23
Why Bother?
> Nonlinear partial differential equations are basically very nasty.
> Approximate analytical solutions can always be found with
variational methods
> The analytical solutions have the correct dependence on
geometry and material properties, hence, serve as the basis for
good macromodels
> Accurate numerical answers may require finiteelement
modeling
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  24
Analytic vs. Numerical
> Analytic variational methods and numerical finiteelement
methods both depend on the Principal of Virtual Work
> Both methods minimize total potential energy
> FEM methods use local trial functions (one per element).
Variational parameters are the nodal displacements
> Analytic methods use global trial functions
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  25
Outline
> Effects of residual stresses on structures
> Energy methods
Elastic energy
Principle of virtual work: variational methods
Examples
> RayleighRitz methods for resonant frequencies and
extracting lumpedelement masses for structures
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  26
Example: fixedfixed beam, small deflections
> Doublyfixed beam with a point load at some position along the
beam, in the small deflection limit
> Our present choice: use a fourth degree polynomial trial
solution
w ( x) = c0 + c1 x + c2 x 2 + c3 x 3 + c4 x 4
Boundary conditions : w = 0 and w = 0 at x = 0, L
> Apply boundary conditions:
c0 = c1 = 0 from BC at x = 0
BC at x = L eliminate two more constants
Result is a shape function with one undetermined amplitude
parameter
w ( x) = c4 L2 x 2 2 Lx 3 + x 4
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  27
Example: fixedfixed beam, small deflections
> Formulate total potential energy and find the minimum
> Calculate strain energy from bending
width of beam
total strain energy
d 2 w
= = z 2 = zc4 2 L2 12 Lx + 12 x 2
dx
EW
W=
2
1
3 5 2
=
dxdz
EWH
L c4
H / 2
30
H /2
> Calculate work done by external force applied at x0
(
> This yields total potential energy
Work = Fw ( x0 ) = Fc4 L2 x02 2 Lx03 + x04
1
U=
EWH 3 L5c42 L2 x02 2 Lx03 + x04 Fc4
30
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  28
Example: fixedfixed beam, small deflections
> Minimize total potential energy with respect to c4, determine c4,
and plug in to find variational solution for deflection w(x)
U
=0
c4
L2 x02 2 Lx03 + x04
c4 = 15
F
3 5
EWH L
L2 x02 2 Lx03 + x04 L2 x 2 2 Lx 3 + x 4
(
w = 15
)(
)F
EWH 3 L5
> Compare stiffness for the case of a centerapplied load
( )
3
15
L
wL =
F
2 256 EWH 3
256 EWH 3
EWH 3
k=
17
3
15
L
L3
Recall solution of beam equation
EWH 3
k = 16
L3
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  29
Properties of the Variational Solution
> Does it solve the beam equation? NO
> Is the point of maximum deflection near where the
load is applied? NOT IN GENERAL
> How can we determine how accurate the solution is?
TRY A BETTER FUNCTION
> Was this a good trial function? NO
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  30
A Better Trial Function
> Fifthorder polynomial allows both the amplitude and shape of
0.000
0.000
0.010
0.010
0.020
0.020
Vertical position
Vertical position
the deformation to be varied
0.030
0.040
0.050
0.060
Exact when xo = L/2
0.070
0.080
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.030
0.040
0.050
0.060
Exact when xo = L/2
0.070
0.8
Axial position
0.080
0.2
0.4
0.6
Axial position
0.8
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 10.1 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 248.
ISBN: 9780792372462. The artist's representation of the fourth and fifth degree polynomials is approximate.
Fourth degree polynomial
Fifth degree polynomial
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  31
What about large deflections?
> For small deflections, pure bending is a good approximation
The geometrically constructed neutral axis really does have
about zero strain
> For large deflections, the beam gets longer
Tensile side gets even more tensile
Compressed side gets less compressed
Neutral axis becomes tensile
> We can treat this as a superposition of two events
First, the beam bends in pure bending, which draws the end
of the beam away from the second support
Then, the beam is stretched to reconnect with the second
support
Quantify the stretching by the strain at the originally neutral
axis
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  32
Analysis of Large Deflections
> When deflections are large, on the order of the beam
thickness, stretching becomes important
As a result of stretching, the arc length increases
ds =
L/2
L/2
0
c
Deformed shape
of original neutral
axis
Segment of original neutral axis
x
x+dx
w(x)
[dx + u( x + dx ) u( x )]2 + [w( x + dx ) w( x )]2
Using the result that 1 + = 1 +
du 1 dw 2
+
ds = dx 1 +
2
dx
dx
The axial strain is given by
ds dx du 1 dw
x =
=
+
dx
dx 2 dx
The change in length is
L/2
w(x+dx)
u(x+dx)
Same segment after deformation
u(x)
L/2
ds dx
L =
dx = x dx
dx
L / 2
L / 2
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 10.2 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 250. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  33
Example: CenterLoaded Beam
> Potential energy has three terms:
Bending strain energy
Stretching strain energy
External work
L/2
L/2
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 10.2 in Senturia, Stephen
D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer
Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 250. ISBN: 9780792372462.
> Bending and external work already calculated for one trial
function
> Pick another trial function (same weakness as last attempt, but
easy to use) and include large deflections
c
2x
w = 1 + cos
L
2
Why not a ?
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  34
Example: CenterLoaded Beam
> First, calculate the strain due to stretching (aggregate axial
strain)
L
L2
1
=
a =
x dx
L L L 2
L/2
du 1 dw 2
1
a =
dx
+
L L / 2 dx 2 dx
L/2
1 dw 2
1 L L 1
a = u u + dx
L 2 2 L L / 2 2 dx
> Total strain = bending strain + aggregate axial strain
T = bending + stretching
d 2 w
T = z 2 + a
dx
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  35
Example: CenterLoaded Beam
> Calculate total stored elastic energy from total strain
EW
W=
2
H /2 L/2
EWH 4 8 H 2 + 3c 2 c 2
dxdz =
3
96
L
H / 2 L / 2
2
T
> Finally, potential energy
EWH 4 8 H 2 + 3c 2 c 2
U = W Fc =
Fc
3
96 L
> which we minimize with respect to c
U
4 EWH 3 4 EWH 3
=0
c + 3 c
F =
3
c
6 L 8 L
> Compare linear term with solution to beam equation: prefactor
16.2 instead of 16
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  36
Results from example
> Forcedisplacement relationship: an amplitudestiffened Duffing
spring
4 EWH 3 4 EWH 3
F =
c + 3 c
3
6
L
8 L
> Solution shows geometry dependence; constants may or may
not be correct
EWH 3
EWH 3
+
F = Cb
c
C
c
s
3
3
L
L
> Once youve found the elastic strain energy, finding results for
another load is easy
Work = Fc
L2
Work =
q( x)w (x )dx
L 2
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  37
Example: uniform pressure load P
> Adopt the elastic strain energy
> Calculate the work for a uniform pressure load
Work = WP
L/2
2x
c
WLPc
1
cos
dx
+
=
2
2
L
L / 2
> Minimize U to find relationship between load and deflection
4 EH 3 4 EH 3
P = 4 c + 4 c
3 L 4 L
> The geometry dependence appears!
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  38
Combining Variational and FEM Methods
> Use the analytic variational method to find a good functional
form for the result
> Establish nondimensional numerical parameters within the
solution
> Perform wellmeshed FEM simulations over the design space
> Fit the analytic solution to the FEM results
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  39
Residual Stress In Clamped Structures
> Must add a new term to the elastic energy to capture the effects
of the residual stress
a
~
W = d
~
W=
+ E )d
0
0
> Now there is a residual
stress term in the stored elastic energy
Wr = 0W
H /2
H / 2
L/ 2
dz
dx
a
L / 2
> For the fixedfixed beam example, the residual stress term is:
>
2 2
Wr = 0WLH 2 c
4L
This leads to a general form of the loaddeflection relationship
for beams, which can be extended to plates and membranes
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  40
Results for DoublyClamped Beam
For the case of a central point load :
2 0WH 4 EWH 3 4 EWH 3
+
F =
c + 8 L3 c
3
L
L
2
6
and for the pressure loaded case :
2 0 H 4 EH 3 4 EH 3
P = 2 + 4 c + 4 c
L 3 L 4 L
The general form for pressure loading, useful for fitting to FEM results, is :
0 H
EH 3
EH
P = Cr 2 + Cb 4 c + Cs 4 c 3
L
L
L
Finally, we note that the stress term dominates over bending when
EH 2
0 2
L
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  41
Outline
> Effects of residual stresses on structures
> Energy methods
Elastic energy
Principle of virtual work: variational methods
Examples
> RayleighRitz methods for resonant frequencies and
extracting lumpedelement masses for structures
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  42
Estimating Resonance Frequencies
> We have achieved part of our goal of converting structures into
lumped elements
We can calculate elastic stiffness of almost any structure, for
small and large deflections
But we still dont know how to find the mass term associated
with structures
> We can get the mass term from the resonance frequency and the
stiffness
> The resonance frequency comes from RayleighRitz analysis
In simple harmonic motion at resonance, the maximum kinetic
energy equals the maximum potential energy
Determine kinetic energy; equate its maximum value to the
maximum potential energy; find 0.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  43
Estimating Resonance Frequencies
> Guess a time dependent trial function from (x)
w ( x, t ) = w ( x) cos(t )
> Find maximum kinetic energy from maximum velocity
w ( x, t )
Maximum velocity :
t =
= w ( x )
2
1 2
mvmax
2
1
2
= m ( x ) 2 w (x )
2
Max kinetic energy, lumped : Wk ,max =
~
Max kinetic energy density : Wk ,max
Max kinetic energy : Wk ,max =
2
2
(
)
(
)
x
w
x
dxdydz
m
volume beam
> Calculate maximum potential energy from (x) as before
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  44
RayleighRitz
> The resonance frequency is obtained from the ratio of
potential energy to kinetic energy, using a variational
trial function
> The result is remarkably insensitive to the specific
trial function
=
2
0
Welastic
1
2
m ( x)w ( x)dx
2 Volume
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  45
Example: Tensioned Beam
> Compare two trial solutions:
Tensioned wire the exact solution (1/2 of a cosine)
Bent beam a very poor solution
0.00
Deflection
0.02
0.04
Bending solution
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.5
Tensioned wire
0.25
0
x/L
0.25
0.5
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 10.3 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 263. ISBN: 9780792372462.
> Resonant frequencies differ by only 15%
> Worse trial functions yield higher stiffness, higher resonant
frequencies
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  46
Extracting Lumped Masses
> Use variational methods to calculate the stiffness
> Use RayleighRitz with the same trial function to calculate
the resonant frequency 2
> Extract the mass from the relation between mass, stiffness,
and resonant frequency.
2 = k/m
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11  47
Dissipation and
The Thermal Energy Domain Part I
Joel Voldman*
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
*(with thanks to SDS)
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  1
Outline
> Thermal energy domain: why we love it and why we
hate it
> Dissipative processes
Example: Charging a capacitor through a resistor
> The Thermal Energy Domain
Governing equations
> Equivalentcircuit elements & the electrothermal
transducer
> Modeling the bolometer
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  2
Thermal MEMS
> Everything is affected by temperature
> Therefore, anything can be detected or measured or
actuated via the thermal domain
> Sometimes this is good
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  3
MEMS Imagers
> A bolometer heats up due to
Poor residual stress control
incoming radiation
> This results in a temperature
change that changes the
resistance across the pixel
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Figure 1 on p. 55 in: Leonov, V. N., N. A. Perova, P. De Moor, B. Du Bois,
C. Goessens, B. Grietens, A. Verbist, C. A. Van Hoof, and
J. P. Vermeiren. "Micromachined PolySiGe Bolometer
Arrays for Infrared Imaging and Spectroscopy."
Proceedings of SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 4945 (2003): 5463.
Silicon nitride and
vanadium oxide
50 m
0.5 m
IR
Radiation
Ymetal
Better design
2.5 m
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
B
E
Xmetal
Monolithic bipolar
transistor
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Figure 2 on p. 56 in: Leonov, V. N., N. A. Perova, P. De Moor, B. Du Bois,
C. Goessens, B. Grietens, A. Verbist, C. A. Van Hoof, and
J. P. Vermeiren. "Micromachined PolySiGe Bolometer
Arrays for Infrared Imaging and Spectroscopy.
Proceedings of SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 4945 (2003): 5463.
Honeywell
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  4
MEMS Imagers
> This application illustrates key features of thermal
MEMS
Excellent thermal isolation creates excellent sensitivity
Response is proportional to thermal resistance
Low thermal mass creates fast response time
Response time is proportional to thermal capacitance
Easy integration with sense electronics
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  5
Thermal flow sensing
> A timeofflight flowrate sensor
> One resistor creates a heat pulse
> A downstream resistor acts as a
temperature sensor
> Time for heat pulse to drift
downstream is inversely related to
Figure 1 on p. 686 in: Meng, E., and Y.C. Tai. "A Parylene MEMS Flow Sensing Array.
flowrate
Technical Digest of Transducers'03: The 12th International Conference on SolidState
> This example illustrates the
important benefit
materials
Sensors, Actuators, and Microsystems, Boston, June 912, 2003. Vol. 1. Piscataway, NJ:
IEEE Electron Devices Society, 2003, pp. 686689. ISBN: 9780780377318. 2003 IEEE.
of MEMS
Large range in thermal
conductivities
From vacuum (~0) to metal (~100s
W/mK)
Figure 3 on p. 687 in: Meng, E., and Y.C. Tai. "A Parylene MEMS Flow Sensing Array.
Technical Digest of Transducers'03: The 12th International Conference on SolidState
Sensors, Actuators, and Microsystems, Boston, June 912, 2003. Vol. 1. Piscataway, NJ:
IEEE Electron Devices Society, 2003, pp. 686689. ISBN: 9780780377318. 2003 IEEE.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  6
MEMS flow sensing: commercial
> OMRON flow sensor uses measures
temperature distribution around a
heat source
> Convection alters temperature
Image removed due to copyright restrictions. OMRON flow sensor.
profile in a predictable fashion
Flow
Calm
Thermopile B
Heater
Temperature distribution
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  7
The Thermal Domain
Academic
> Sometimes this is bad
> Reason #1
Everything is a temperature sensor
Evaluation of MEMS devices over
temperature is often critical to
success
Figure 12 on p. 115 in: Takao, H., Y. Matsumoto, and M. Ishida. "A Monolithically
> Reason #2
Integrated Threeaxis Accelerometer Using CMOS Compatible Stresssensitive
Differential Amplifiers." IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 46, no. 1 (1999):
109116. 1999 IEEE.
Commercial
As we will see, we can never
0.179
Sensitivity (V/g)
0.180
transfer energy between domains
perfectly
The extra energy goes into the
thermal domain (e.g., heat)
We can never totally recover that
heat energy
0.178
0.177
0.176
0.175
0.174
0.173
0.172
0.171
0.170
30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
ADI ADXL320
Temperature (oC)
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  8
Outline
> Thermal energy domain: why we love it and why we
hate it
> Dissipative processes
Example: Charging a capacitor through a resistor
> The Thermal Energy Domain
Governing equations
> Equivalentcircuit elements & the electrothermal
transducer
> Modeling the bolometer
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  9
Charging a capacitor
> We will transfer energy from a power supply to a
capacitor
> Ideally, all energy delivered from supply goes to
capacitor
> In actuality, there is ALWAYS dissipation
And this is true for ALL domains
> Thus, we will lose some energy
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  10
Example: Charging a Capacitor
> Use step input
VS
> Voltage source must supply
Vc
twice the amount of energy as
goes into the capacitor
> One half the energy is
dissipated in the resistor,
independent of the value of R!
I
R
+
VS
+
C

VC

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
VC = VS (1 e t / RC )
I =C
dVC VS t / RC
= e
dt
R
VR
time
1
Energy stored in capacitor: WC = CVS2
2
Energy delivered by power supply:
VS2 t / RC
PS (t ) = IVs =
e
R
Ws = Ps dt =CVS2
0
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  11
Power Considerations: Joule Heating
> The extra energy is lost
to Joule heating in the
resistor
VR2
PR = IVR = I R =
R
For normal "positive" resistors
PR 0
2
> Globally, the power
entering a resistor is
given by the IV
product.
> Locally, there is power
dissipation given by
the product of the
charge flux and the
electric field.
This means
[ ]/m3
2
P%
R = J eE = eE
For normal positive conductivity
P% 0
R
and, one is the integral of the other
PR =
3
P%
d
r
R
Volume
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  12
Outline
> Thermal energy domain: why we love it and why we
hate it
> Dissipative processes
Example: Charging a capacitor through a resistor
> The Thermal Energy Domain
Governing equations
> Equivalentcircuit elements & the electrothermal
transducer
> Modeling the bolometer
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  13
Thermal Energy Domain
> It is easier to put ENERGY
INTO than get WORK OUT of
thermal domain
> All domains are linked to
thermal domain via
dissipation
> Thermal domain is linked to
all domains because
temperature affects
constitutive properties
Elastic
Magnetic
Electric
Chemical
Fluids
Thermal energy domain
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 11.2 in Senturia, S tephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 271. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  14
Thermal Energy Domain
> Heat engines convert heat into
mechanical work, but not
perfectly efficiently, just like the
charging of a capacitor cannot be
done perfectly efficiently
> This is a statement of
irreversibility: the 2nd Law of
Thermodynamics
Courtesy of Zyvex Corporation. Used with permission.
Electrical energy
> Zyvex heatuator
One skinny leg and one fat leg
Run a current and skinny leg will
heat up
Structure will bend in response
Thermal energy
Lost to thermal
reservoir
Strain energy and
deflection
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  15
Governing Equations
> Some introductory
notation
> Be careful with units
and normalizations
X ~
=X
V
Q
Thermal energy [J]
~
Q
Thermal energy/volume [J/m3]
Q&= I
Q
Heat flow [W]
J Q Heat flux [W/m2]
CV =
CP =
Q
Heat capacity at constant volume (J/K)
T Volume
Heat capacity at constant pressure (J/K)
Q
T
Pressure
CV = C P = C
~ C
C=
V
~ C~
Cm =
Are the same for incompressible materials
Heat capacity/unit volume (J/Km3)
Heat capacity/unit mass (J/Kkg) AKA specific heat
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  16
Governing Equations
> Like many domains,
conservation of energy
leads to a continuity
equation for thermal
energy
n
S
generation
+
of
stuff
in
volume
d
bdV = F ndS + gdV
dt
Get point relation
Divergence theorem and
bring derivative inside
net stuff
d stuff in
= entering
dt volume
volume
b
t dV = FdV + gdV
b
= F + g
For heat
t
~
transfer
dQ
~
+ JQ = P
sources
dt
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  17
Types of Heat Flow
> Flow proportional to a temperature
gradient
Heat conduction
J Q = T
> Convective heat transfer
A subject coupling heat transfer to
fluid mechanics
Often not important for MEMS, but
J Q = hc (T2 T1 )
sometimes is
Talk more about this later
> Radiative heat transfer
Between two bodies (at T1 and T2)
StefanBoltzmann Law
Can NEVER turn off
J Q = SB F12 T24 T14
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  18
The HeatFlow Equation
> If we assume linear heat conduction, we are led to the heatflow
equation
J Q = T
J Q = (T )
~
Q
~
= (T ) + Psources
t
dQ% %
=C
For homogeneous materials, with
dT
T 2
1 ~
= ~ T + ~ P
t C
C sources
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  19
Thermodynamic Realities
> The First law of thermodynamics implies that entropy is a
generalized displacement, and temperature is a generalized
effort; their product is energy
> The Second Law states that entropy production is 0 for any
process
In practice it always increases
> Entropy is not a conserved quantity.
> Thus, it does not make for a good generalized variable
> Therefore, we use a new convention, the thermal modeling
convention, with temperature as effort and heat flow (power)
as the flow. Note that the product of effort and flow is no
longer power!!!
But heat energy (thermal displacement) is conserved
Just like charge (electrical displacement) is conserved
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  20
Outline
> Thermal energy domain: why we love it and why we
hate it
> Dissipative processes
Example: Charging a capacitor through a resistor
> The Thermal Energy Domain
Governing equations
> Equivalentcircuit elements & the electrothermal
transducer
> Modeling the bolometer
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  21
Thermal sources
> Heat current source IQ is
represented with a flow
source
IQ
> Temperature difference
source T is represented
with an effort source
+

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  22
Thermal equivalentcircuit elements
> Use direct analogy again
Thermal
conductivity
J Q = T
Electrical
conductivity
Relation between
effort and flow
T 2
~
= ~ T +P
sources
t C
2T = 0
T2 = T1
No heat
storage
(J
n )1 = (J Q n )2
Laplaces Eqn.
Continuity of effort
Continuity of flow
J E = e E = eV
2V = 0
V2 = V1
No
charge
2 storage
(J E n )1 = (J E n )
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  23
Thermal equivalentcircuit elements
> Therefore we can derive a thermal resistance
IQ
RT
1 L
RT =
[K/W]
A
For bar of uniform
crosssection
> Plus, heat conduction and current flow obey the same
differential equation
> Thus, we can use exactly the same solutions for
thermal resistors as for electrical resistors
Just change to
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  24
Thermal equivalentcircuit elements
> What about other
T1
types of heat flow?
> Convection
IQ
> Use linear resistor
T2
J Q = hc (T2 T1 )
I Q = hc A (T2 T1 ) = hc AT
RT ,conv
1
=
hc A
IQ
RT,conv
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  25
Thermal equivalentcircuit elements
> Radiation
Nonlinear with temperature
Largesignal model
IQ
 T1
T2 +
J Q = SB F12 T24 T14
I Q = SB F12 A T24 T14
IQ
T2
T1
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  26
Thermal equivalentcircuit elements
> Radiation
Many ways to linearize
We show two approaches
T2>>T1
I Q = SB F12 A (T24 T14 )
T2T1
I Q SB F12 AT24
I Q = ( 4 SB F12 AT23 ) T
IQ
RT,rad
I Q SB F12 A (T1 + T ) T14
4
I Q = ( 4 SB F12 AT13 ) T
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  27
Thermal equivalentcircuit elements
> What about energy storage?
> Just like electrical capacitors
Q
CE =
V
store charge (Q),
> We can store thermal energy (Q)
Q
CT =
T
~
CT = Cm mV
> No thermal inductor /
IQ
CT
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  28
Electrothermal transducer
> In electromechanical energy transduction, we introduced the twoport capacitor
Energystoring element coupling the two domains
Capacitor because it stores potential energy
> What will we use to couple electrical energy into thermal energy?
In the electrical domain, this is due to Joule dissipation, a loss
mechanism
Therefore it looks like an electrical resistor
In the thermal domain it looks like a heat source
Therefore it looks like a thermal current source
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  29
Electrothermal transducer
> Our transducer is a resistor and a
dependent current source
The thermal current source depends
on R and I in the electrical domain
> We reverse convention on direction of
port variables in thermal domain
OK, because IQT does not track
power
Reflects fact that heat current will
always be positive out of transducer
IQ
+
V
IR
R
+
T
> This is not energyconserving
Dissipation is intrinsic to transducer
> This is not reciprocal
Heat current does not cause a voltage
> Thermal domain can couple back to
the electrical domain
See next time
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  30
Outline
> Thermal energy domain: why we love it and why we
hate it
> Dissipative processes
Example: Charging a capacitor through a resistor
> The Thermal Energy Domain
Governing equations
> Equivalentcircuit elements & the electrothermal
transducer
> Modeling the bolometer
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  31
Different heat transfer components
> How does one know which heat transfer processes are
important for thermal modeling?
Silicon nitride and
vanadium oxide
50 m
0.5 m
IR
Radiation
Ymetal
2.5 m
B
E
Xmetal
IQ
Monolithic bipolar
transistor
CT
RT
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
> Heat input is a current
> Heat loss is a resistor
RT I Q
1
=
T = I Q RT //
CT s 1 + RT CT s
> Heat storage in mass is a capacitor
Tss = RT I Q
= RT CT
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  32
Implications
> Increasing RT increases response
This means better thermal isolation
There is always some limiting value determined by radiation
> Given a fixed RT, decreasing CT improves response
time
This means reducing the mass or volume of the system
Tss = RT I Q
= RT CT
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  33
Thermal resistance
> What goes into RT?
> RT is the parallel combination of all loss terms
Conduction through the air and legs
Convection
Radiation
> We can determine when different terms dominate
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  34
Conduction resistance
> Conduction
Si is too thermally
conductive
SiO2 is compressively
stressed
Try SiN
11 L
2 A
(50 m )
2(20 W/m  K )(0.5 m )(5 m )
RT ,legs = 5 105 K/W
Material
(W/mK)
Silicon
148
Silicon Nitride
RT ,legs =
20
Thermal Oxide 1.5
Air (1 atm)
0.03
Air (1 mtorr)
105
RT ,air =
1 L
A
2.5 m )
(
=
(105 W/mK ) ( 50 m )( 50 m )
RT ,air = 108 K/W
Conduction through legs dominates
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  35
Other resistances
> Convection
RT ,rad =
At low pressure, there
will be no air movement
Convection will not exist
> Radiation
There is transfer
between plate and body
RT ,rad =
1
4 SB F12 AT13
1
3
4 5.67 10 8 W/m 2 K 4 (0.5)(50 m )(50 m )(300 K )
RT ,legs = 1.3 108 K/W
Leg conduction dominates loss
Use case where bodies
are close in temp
Radiation negligible
> Very fast time constant
~ms is typical for
thermal MEMS
CT = C%m mV
= ( 700 J/kgK ) ( 3000 kg/m3 ) ( 50 m )( 50 m )( 0.5 m )
= 3 109 J/K
RT CT = 1.5 ms
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  36
Improving the design
> How can we make
Silicon nitride and
vanadium oxide
responsivity higher?
> Change materials
50 m
0.5 m
IR
Radiation
Ymetal
2.5 m
B
> Decrease thickness or
width of legs, or increase
length
This reduces mechanical
Xmetal
Monolithic bipolar
transistor
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
rigidity
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  37
Does convection ever matter?
> Usually not
> But it can come into play in
microfluidics
> The key is whether energy is
transported faster by fluid flow or
heat conduction
> Well analyze this a bit better after
we do fluids
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  38
The Next Step
> When dealing with conservative systems, we found
general modeling methods based on energy
conservation
> With dissipative systems, we must always be coupled
to the thermal energy domain, and must address
timedependence
> This is the topic for the next Lecture
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12  39
The Thermal Domain II
Joel Voldman*
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
*(with thanks to SDS)
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  1
Outline
> Review
> Lumpedelement modeling: selfheating of resistor
> Analyzing problems in space and 1/space
The DC Steady State the Poisson equation
Finitedifference methods
Eigenfunction methods
Transient Response
Finitedifference methods
Eigenfunction methods
> Thermoelectricity
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  2
The generalized heatflow equation
> Last time we generated
a general conservation
equation
> Include a flux that
depends on a force
gradient
> And a capacity
b
= F + G
t
~
dQ
~
+ JQ = P
sources
dt
n
F
S
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
relation
J Q = T
Q
=C
T
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  3
The generalized heatflow equation
> We get a generalized
conduction equation
Assume homogeneous
region
> Applies to
Heat flow
Mass transport (diffusion)
Squeezedfilm damping
> Provides a rich set of
solution methods
T
2T = P
sources
t
1
T
D 2T = P
t
C sources
[m2/s]
D= ~
C
[W/mK]
[J/Km3]
Thermal diffusivity
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  4
Thermal domain lumped elements
> Thermal resistor
Resistance to heat flow
Three types
Conduction
Convection
Radiation
IQ
RT
IQ
CT
CT = Cm mV
> Thermal capacitor
Store thermal energy
Specific heat volume
> Electrothermal transducer
Converts electrical dissipation
IQ
density
into heat current
1 L
RT =
A
+
V
IR
R
+
T
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  5
Outline
> Review
> Lumpedelement modeling: selfheating of resistor
> Analyzing problems in space and 1/space
The DC Steady State the Poisson equation
Finitedifference methods
Eigenfunction methods
Transient Response
Finitedifference methods
Eigenfunction methods
> Thermoelectricity
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  6
Measuring temperature with the bolometer
> So far, we know how to
convert an input heat flux
into a temp change
Silicon nitride and
vanadium oxide
50 m
0.5 m
IR
Radiation
Ymetal
2.5 m
> How do we convert that
temp change back into
the electrical domain?
CT
Xmetal
Monolithic bipolar
transistor
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
RT I Q
1
=
T = I Q RT //
CT s 1 + RT CT s
+
IQ
RT
Tss = RT I Q
= RT CT
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  7
TCR
> Resistance changes with
temperature (TCR)
Beware, TCR is not constant!
> We can use resistor as a
R (T ) = R0 [1 + R (T T0 ) ]
R R0
R =
= R T
R0
hotplate or a temperature
sensor
V2O5
200
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  8
Coupling back into the electrical domain
> We can define a
transducer that uses
TCR to convert back
into electrical domain IQ
> In order to measure
electrical R, we need
to introduce a voltage
& current
+
T CT
RT
R( T) V
R(T ) = R0 (1 + R T )
> This current will
couple back and
induce its own T
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  9
Thermo electrical coupling
> This is our prior
electrothermal transducer
IQ
+
V
IR
R
+
IQ
+
T CT
RT
R( T) V
2
I
> We can add in the current R
source due to Joule heating
> The current source is
IQ
T CT
RT
R( T) V
dependent on R, which is
dependent on T, and so on
> What we will want is for IQI2R
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  10
Example: Selfheating of a resistor
> First, assume input IQ=0
+
> Two ways to drive the resistor,
V R( T)
current source or voltage
source it sometimes matters
RT
T
=
I Q 1 + RT CT s
T (1 + RT CT s ) = I Q RT
dT
T +
RT CT = I Q RT
dt
I Q = I 2 R = I 2 R0 (1 + R T )
RT
CT
temp change is output
IQ=I2R
> Now, electrical port is input,
Currentsource drive
Expand out
into D.E.
T +
d T
RT CT = I 2 R0 (1 + R T ) RT
dt
Plug in for
IQ
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  11
Example: Selfheating of a resistor
> Firstorder system with feedback results
d T
RT CT = T (1 I 2 R0 R RT ) + I 2 R0 RT
dt
2
I
R0 R RT ) I 2 R0
1
(
d T
+ T
=
dt
RT CT
CT
dy
+ ay = b
dt
I =
RT CT
1 I 2 R0 R RT
TSS , I
)
)
Recognize
D.E. form
Pick out quantities
of interest
I 2 R0
R0 RT I 2
CT
=
=
1 I 2 R0 R RT
1 R R0 RT I 2
RT CT
Collect terms
and rearrange
This blows up when
I2 =
1
R R0 RT
For R>0
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  12
Example: Selfheating of a resistor
> What changes for voltagedrive?
V R( T)
RT
dT
T +
RT CT = I Q RT
dt
+

T (1 + RT CT s ) = I Q RT
Same
T.F.
IQ=I2R
RT
T
=
I Q 1 + RT CT s
IQ is now
different
V2
V2
IQ =
=
R R0 (1 + R T )
IQ
Voltagesource drive
V
(1 R T )
R0
This leads to
negative feedback
for R>0
TSS ,V
RT V 2 / R0
=
1 + R RT V 2 / R0
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  13
CT
Results of modeling
> A positive TCR resistor driven from a current source can go
unstable fuse effect
> When dealing with the electrostatic actuator, we observed that
very different behavior was found depending on whether the
system was voltagedriven or currentdriven
> Here we see that, depending on the way the electrical domain
couples to the thermal energy domain, it is also important to
look at the drive conditions of a system.
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  14
Back to the bolometer
> Assume we want to measure
IQ=1 nW with 1% accuracy
> This limits current one can use
for measurement
TSS , I
R0 RT I 2
2
=
R
R
I
0 T
1 R R0 RT I 2
TSS ,V
RT V 2 / R0
2
=
R
V
/ R0
T
2
1 + R RT V / R0
> For Honeywell bolometer,
Rmeas
R0~50 k, R~2%/K, RT~107
K/W
Rsignal = R RT I Q
> Input signal will create T=10
mK
> This produces Rsignal=2x104,
Rmeas
V2
= R RT
0.01 R RT I Q
R0
I Q R0
or a 10 resistance change
> Voltage must be < 0.7 mV
V2
= R RT
R0
100
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  15
Outline
> Review
> Lumpedelement modeling: selfheating of resistor
> Analyzing problems in space and 1/space
The DC Steady State the Poisson equation
Finitedifference methods
Eigenfunction methods
Transient Response
Finitedifference methods
Eigenfunction methods
> Thermoelectricity
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  16
Space and reciprocal space
> We have thus far focused on big lumpedelement
modeling to design and analyze systems
> This isnt the only way to proceed
> We can chop up the model into many small lumped
elements discretize in space
> Or we can approximate the answer using series
methods discretize in reciprocal space
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  17
DC Steady State
> The Poisson Equation
> Boundary conditions
T
1
2
D T = P
t
C sources
Dirichlet sets value on
At steady state
boundary
Fixes T (r ) boundary
Neumann sets slope on
boundary Flux
Fixes
dT
dn
1 ~
D T = ~ P
C sources
2
boundary
Mixed sets some function of
value and slope
> The Poisson Equation is linear
Can use superposition methods
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  18
FiniteDifference Solution
1 ~
D 2T = ~ P
C sources
d 2T
1 ~
D 2 = ~P
dx
C sources
> We can generate an equivalent
circuit by discretizing the
equation in space
> A numerical algorithm with a
circuit equivalent
> In 1D, divide bar into N
segments and N+1 nodes
Ie
0
A
T=0
L
x
d 2T
dx 2
xn
T ( xn + h) + T ( xn h) 2T ( xn )
h2
x1
x2
xn1
xn
xn+1
h
xN+1
x
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  19
Equivalent Circuit
> Can create an equivalent
circuit for this equation
T ( xn + h) + T ( xn h) 2T ( xn )
P ( xn )
=
2
h
2 P ( xn )
(Tn+1 Tn ) + (Tn1 Tn ) = h
I2
n1
~
I S ,n = (hA)P ( xn )
I1
Rn  1
IS,n
Rn
IS,n + 1
n+1
Rn + 1
Define local
current source
(Tn+1 Tn ) + (Tn1 Tn ) = h
IS,n + 2
(Tn+1 Tn ) + (Tn1 Tn ) + I
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 12.1 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 302. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Rn
Rn 1
I S ,n
A
S ,n
=0
This is KCL at a node
Define local
resistance
Rn = Rn 1 =
1 h
A
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  20
Equivalent Circuit
> Lets apply this to 1D
selfheated resistor
x1
x2
xn1
xn
Gn=1/Rn
xn+1
h
xN+1
x
Gn=Gn+1
At node N:
(Tn+1 Tn ) + (Tn1 Tn ) = I
Rn
Rn 1
S ,n
Gn (Tn +1 Tn ) + Gn 1 (Tn 1 Tn ) = I S ,n
GTn +1 + 2GTn GTn 1 = I S ,n
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  21
Example: Selfheated resistor
> Set up conductance
matrix
> Solve
> Very appropriate for
MATLAB
> Can even generate
the conductance
matrix with MATLAB
scripts
> At edges, impose
B.Cs
0 ...
1 0
 G 2G  G ...
0  G 2G
0
2G  G 0
 G 2G  G
0
0
0  G 2G
0 T1
0
0 T2
1
1
0 T3
1
0 Tn 1
~
0 Tn = hAPo 1
0 Tn +1
1
2G  G 0 TN 1
1
1
 G 2G  G TN
0 0 1 TN +1
0
G = P
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  22
Eigenfunction Solution
> This is a standard method for solving linear partial differential
equations
> It leads to what amount to series expansion solutions, discretized in
reciprocal space
> Typically problems converge with only a few terms THIS IS WHY IT IS
USEFUL
2T =
P ( x)
d 2 i
Eigenfunctions of :
=
i i
2
dx
Can use any linear combination of e jkx , including s in( kx) and cos( kx)
Values of k are determined by the boundary conditions
2
Eigenfunctions can be made orthonormal
*
j i dx = ij
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  23
Eigenfunction Expansion
Ie
n ( x) = cn sin ( kn x )
sin( k n L) = 0 k n =
Apply BC at x=0, L:
T=0
n
for n = 1,2,3,...
L
1 = ( x)dx = cn2 sin 2 (k n x)dx
0
Plug into DE:
n =1
Eigenfunctions
for this problem:
Normalize:
T ( x) = An n ( x)
Assume:
2
n
L
x
2
sin(k n x)
L
d 2T
P( x)
=
2
dx
P( x)
2
kn An n ( x) =
1
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  24
Eigenfunction Expansion
2
k
n An n ( x) =
1
Multiply by
orthogonal
eigenfunction and
integrate:
~
P ( x)
2
k
n An n ( x) m ( x)dx =
0
k Am =
2
m
Am =
1
k m2
~
P ( x)
m ( x)dx
2
mx ~
sin
P ( x)dx
L L
2
mx ~
sin
P ( x)dx
L0 L
L
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  25
Eigenfunction Expansion
For uniform
power density:
~
L
P0 2
mx
Am = 2
sin
dx
k m L 0 L
~
P0 2
n
An = 3
1 ( 1)
k n L
T ( x) = An n ( x)
n =1
~
P
2
2
nx
n
T ( x) = 30
1 ( 1)
sin
L
L L
n =1 k n
~
4 L2 P0
1
nx
T ( x) = 3 3 sin
n odd n
L
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  26
The Details
Final answer: T ( x) =
Power density:
At x=L/2:
Tmax
4 Po L2
n odd
sin ( n x / L )
n3
I e2 R
I e2
=
Po =
volume e A2
2 2
4 Ie L
= 3
2
e A
1 1
1 33 + 53 +
Even if we consider only the first term in the expansion, we find
Tmax
2 2
1 Ie L
=
2
7.75 e A
2 2
1 Ie L
compared to the exact solution of
2
8 e A
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  27
Outline
> Review
> Lumpedelement modeling: selfheating of resistor
> Analyzing problems in space and 1/space
The DC Steady State the Poisson equation
Finitedifference methods
Eigenfunction methods
Transient Response
Finitedifference methods
Eigenfunction methods
> Thermoelectricity
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  28
Transient Modeling
> Finitedifference method
Simply add a thermal capacitance to ground at each node of
the finitedifference network. These circuits can be analyzed
with SPICE or other circuit simulators.
n2
IS,n  2
Rn  2
IS,n  1
n1
Rn  1
Rn
IS,n
IS,n + 1
n+1
Rn + 1
n+2
IS,n + 2
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
C = hA mCm
Adapted from Figure 12.1 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 302.
ISBN: 9780792372462.
Node volume
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  29
Transient Modeling
> Finitedifference method
What does the matrix representation look like now?
Tn1
Tn
Rn1
IS,n
Rn
Tn+1
Cn
I S ,n + Gn 1 (Tn 1 Tn ) + Gn (Tn +1 Tn ) CnTn = 0
Gn 1 (Tn 1 Tn ) Gn (Tn +1 Tn ) + CnTn = I S ,n
G + CT = P
T = AT + BP
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  30
Transient Modeling (continued)
> Eigenfunction method:
T ( x, t ) = T ( x)Y (t )
Spatial response same
as before
dT
1 ~
2
D T = ~ P
dt
C sources
Use impulse response in
time to eventually get
Laplace transfer function
Use separation of
variables to separate
space and time
~
~
P ( x, t ) = Q0 ( x) (t )
Separate
variables
dT
D 2T = 0
dt
[J/m3]
t>0+
2
dY
(
t
)
d
T ( x)
T ( x)
DY (t )
=0
2
dt
dx
1 d 2T ( x)
1 dY (t )
=
=
D
2
Y (t ) dt
T ( x) dx
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  31
Transient Modeling (continued)
> Eigenfunction method:
Time response is a sum
of decaying
exponentials
Time and space are
linked via eigenvalues
1 d 2T ( x)
1 dY (t )
= =
D
2
Y (t ) dt
T ( x) dx
Y (t ) = e t
T ( x, t ) = T ( x)e t
d 2T
D 2 = T
dx
2
T ( x) = An
sin (k n x )
L
n
n
2
2
kn D = kn = =
D L
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  32
Transient Modeling (continued)
> Eigenfunction method:
Match I.C. at t=0 to get
T ( x, t ) = An
n
series coefficients
T(x,0) is related to
instantaneous heat input
and heat capacity
T ( x,0) = An
n
~
Q0
An = ~
C
An ,odd
2
sin (k n x )e nt
L
~
Q0
2
sin (k n x ) = ~
L
C
2
sin (k n x )dx
L0
~
~
Q0 2 2 Q0 2 2 L
= ~
= ~
C L k n C L n
~
4 Q0
n t
(
)
sin
k
x
e
T ( x, t ) =
~
n
n
C
n , odd
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  33
Example: Impulse Response
> Uniformly heated bar, an impulse in time
> Result is a series of decaying exponentials in time
z
Uniform internal heat generation
x
y
L
Heat flow from ends
W
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 12.3 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 308. ISBN: 9780792372462.
~
Q
T ( x, t ) = ~0
C
where
n odd n
nx nt
sin
e
L
n 2 2 D
n =
L2
lower spatial frequencies
decay slower
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  34
Using the Eigenfunction Solution
> We can go from solution to
equivalent circuit
> First, we will lump
Heat current conducted out
as output
Choose heat current
source as input P = Q0 (t )
> Then take Laplace
W H T
I Q =
0 0 x
T
dzdy
x
x =0
0 0
~
Q
8
I Q (t ) = WH e nt ~0
L n odd
C
WH
8WH
1
I Q ,n ( s) =
nL 1+ s
Y (s) =
> Then identify equivalent
1
1+ s
This is NOT unique
~
Q0
~
C
X (s)
circuit for 1st order system
X(s)
dzdy
x=L
Y(s)
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 12.4 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 310. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  35
Using the Eigenfunction Solution
> Each term in the
eigenfunction solution has a
simple circuit representation
> This means that if the
eigenfunction solution
converges with a few terms,
the lumped circuit is very
simple
+
Q0,n(s)
Tn
Cn
Rn
IQ,n(s)
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 12.4 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 310. ISBN: 9780792372462.
~
Cn = (mode shape )(volume)C
2
~
~
nx
Cn = C sin
LHWC
dxdydz =
n
L
0 0 0
HW L
n 2 2 D
1
= n =
RnCn
L2
1
Rn =
n
Q0,n ( s ) =
L/2
WH
8WH Q0 8WHL Q0
= 2 2
n L C
n D C
8
Q0,n ( s ) = 2 2 (WHL ) Q0
n
8
Q0,n (t ) = 2 2 (WHL ) Q0 (t )
n
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  36
A ThreeMode Equivalent Circuit
> For the first three terms in the eigenfunction
expansion, we combine the three singleterm circuits
appropriately
100
C3
IS,2(t)
R3
C2
IS,1(t)
101
R2
R1
IQ
C1
Magnitude
IS,3(t)
102
103
104
103
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 12.5 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 312. ISBN: 9780792372462.
1 Term
3 Terms
100 Terms
102
101
100
101
102
103
R1C1
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 12.6 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 313. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  37
Outline
> Review
> Lumpedelement modeling: selfheating of resistor
> The DC Steady State the Poisson equation
Finitedifference methods
Eigenfunction methods
> Transient Response
Finitedifference methods
Eigenfunction methods
> Thermoelectricity
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  38
Microscale temperature measurement/control
> We have seen that a resistor can be used as
a temperature sensor and hotplate
> There are other techniques to measure or
control temperature at microscale
Couple temperature to material properties
> Sensors
TCR: temperature resistance change
Thermal bimorph: temperature deflection
Thermoelectrics: temperature induced voltage
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  39
Coupled Flows
> In an ideal world, one driving
force creates one flux
> In our world, multiple forces
create multiple fluxes
J Q = T
J e = e
Driftdiffusion in
semiconductors or
electrolytes
> In general, all the different
fluxes are coupled
> If you set it up right, the Lij
J e = z n qe Dnn qe n n
n
J i = Lij F j
j =1
matrix is reciprocal
The Onsager Relations
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  40
Quantities in the Onsager Relations
> To explain thermoelectrics,
J e = L11 L12T
we must look at coupling
between heat flow and
electric field
JQ
T
= L21 L22T
> This is written in a standard
form
Resistivity
Seebeck coefficient
= e J e + S T
J Q = J e T
Peltier coefficient
Thermal conductivity
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  41
Thermocouples
> Analyze the potential gradient around
a closed loop under the assumption
of zero current (Je=0)
> Thermocouple voltage depends on
the difference in Seebeck Coefficient
between the two materials, integrated
from one temperature to the other
> It is a BULK EFFECT, not a junction
effect
Isothermal voltmeter
Hot
S,1
S,2
a
Cold
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 11.10 in Senturia, Stephen D.
Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic
Publishers, 2001, p. 294. ISBN: 9780792372462.
= S T
Tb
Vab = S (T )dT
Ta
> It is possible to make thermocouples
by accident when using different
materials in MEMS devices in regions
that might have temperature
gradients!
Go around the loop
VTC =
TH
S ,2
S ,1 ) dT
TC
VTC = ( S ,2 S ,1 ) T
For small temp rises
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  42
MEMS Thermocouples
> Many thermocouples in series
create higher sensitivity (V/K)
> These are known as thermopiles
> In MEMS thermopiles, often use
Al/Si or Al/polySi
> Able to get good thermal
isolation of sensing element
Courtesy of Thermometrics Corporation. Used with permission.
Thermometrics commercial
Si thermopile
> Number of thermocouples is
limited by leg width
Increasing leg width decreases
thermal resistance and thus
temperature response
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  43
Conclusions
> The thermal domain is a great way to transfer energy
around
Except that you have to pay the tax
> We can model thermal problems using
Equivalent circuits via lumped element models in space
Big and small
Equivalent circuits via lumped element models in reciprocal
space
For Further Information
> Introduction to Heat Transfer, Incropera and DeWitt
> Analysis of Transport Phenomena, William Deen
> SolidState Physics, Ashcroft and Mermim
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13  44
Fluids A
Joel Voldman*
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
*(with thanks to SDS)
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  1
Outline
> Intro to microfluidics
> Basic concepts: viscosity and surface tension
> Governing equations
> Incompressible laminar flow
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  2
Microfluidics
> The manipulation and use of fluids at the microscale
> Most fluid domains are in use at the microscale
Explosive thermofluidic flows
Inkjet printheads
We will not cover this regime
Highspeed gas flows
Microturbomachinery
We will not cover this regime
Lowspeed gas flows
Squeezefilm damping
Well do a bit of this to get b for SMD
Liquidbased slow flow
This will be the focus
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
3D cutaway of a micromachined microengine.
Photograph by Jonathan Protz.
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  3
Microfluidics
> This has been one of the most important domains of
MEMS
Even though most microfluidics is not MEMS
And there are few commercial products
> The overall driver has been the life sciences
Though the only major commercial success is inkjets
> The initial driver was analytical chemistry
Separation of organic molecules
> More recently, this has shifted to biology
Manipulation of DNA, proteins, cells, tissues, etc.
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  4
Microfluidics examples
> Hfilter
Developed by Yager and colleagues
at UWash in mid90s
Being commercialized by Micronics
> An intrinsically microscale device
Uses diffusion in laminar flow to
separate molecules
Yager et al., Nature 2006
Courtesy of Paul Yager, Thayne Edwards, Elain Fu, Kristen Helton,
KjellNelson, Milton R. Tam, and Bernhard H. Weigl.
Used with permission.
Courtesy of Paul Yager, Thayne Edwards, Elain Fu, Kristen
Helton, KjellNelson, Milton R. Tam, and Bernhard H. Weigl.
Used with permission.
Yager, P., T. Edwards, E. Fu, K. Helton, K. Nelson,
M. R. Tam, and B. H. Weigl. "Micro fluidic Diagnostic
Technologies for Global Public Health." Nature 442
(July 27, 2006): 412418.
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  5
Microfluidics
> Multilayer elastomeric microfluidics
(Quake, etc.)
Use low modulus of silicone
elastomers to create hydraulic valves
Move liquids around
Use diffusivity of gas in elastomer to
enable deadend filling
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Please see: Figure 3 on p. 582 in: Thorsen, T.,
S. J. Maerkl, and S. R. Quake. "Microfluidic LargeScale
Integration." Science, New Series 298, no. 5593 (October 18,
2002): 580584.
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Images removed due to copyright restrictions.
Fluidigm
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  6
Goals
> To design microfluidics we need to understand
What pressures are needed for given flows
How do I size my channels?
What can fluids do at these scales
What are the relevant physics?
What things get better as we scale down
Mixing times, reagent volumes
What things get worse, and how can we manage them
Surface tension
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  7
Outline
> Intro to microfluidics
> Basic concepts: viscosity and surface tension
> Governing equations
> Incompressible laminar flow
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  8
Viscosity
> When a solid experiences shear stress, it
U
h
and, in the differential limit
deforms (e.g., strains)
Shear Modulus relates the two
> When a fluid experiences shear stress, it
Viscosity relates the two
> Constitutive property describing relationship
between shear stress [Pa] and shear rate [s1]
> Units: Pas
Kinematic Viscosity
* =
Water: 0.001 Pas
Air: 105 Pas
U x
y
A related quantity :
deforms continuously
=*
( mU x )
y
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 13.1 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer
Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 318. ISBN: 9780792372462.
[m2/s]
This is a diffusivity
for momentum
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  9
Surface Tension
> A liquid drop minimizes its free energy by minimizing its
surface area. The effective force responsible for this is
called surface tension () [J/m2 = N/m]
> The surface tension creates a differential pressure on the
two sides of a curved liquid surface
2r
(2r ) = P (r 2 )
solving for P
2
P =
r
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 13.2 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA:
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 320. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  10
Capillary Effects
> Surface forces can
2r
actually transport
liquids
> Contact angles
determine what
happens, and these
depend on the wetting
properties of the liquid
and the solid surface.
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 13.3 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 321. ISBN: 9780792372462.
m gh (r 2 ) = 2r cos
2 cos
h=
m gr
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  11
Capillary Effects
> A hydrophobic
valve
Hydrophobic barrier
Fill
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Stop
Burst
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  12
Surface tension
> The scaling as 1/r is what makes
dealing with surface tension
HARD at the microscale
> Solutions
Prime with lowsurface tension
liquids
Methanol (=22.6 mN/m) vs.
water (=72.8 mN/m)
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Or use surfactants
Use CO2 instead of air
Dissolves more readily in water
Zengerle et al., IEEE MEMS 1995, p340
Use diffusivity of gas in PDMS
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  13
Outline
> Intro to microfluidics
> Basic concepts: viscosity and surface tension
> Governing equations
> Incompressible laminar flow
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  14
Fluid Mechanics Governing Equations
> Mass is conserved Continuity equation
> Momentum is conserved NavierStokes equation
> Energy is conserved Euler equation
> We consider only the first two in this lecture
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  15
Continuity equation
> Conservation of mass
> In this case, for a control or
fixed fluid volume
both S and V are constant in time
> Point conservation relation is
valid for fixed or moving point
m=
m dV
volume
d
m dV = surface
m U n dS
dt volume
m
dV + m U n dS = 0
t
volume
surface
Apply the divergence theorem:
d
bdV = F ndS + gdV
dt
n
F
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
b
= F + g
t
U
(
)
m
t
dV = 0
volume
which implies
m
+ ( m U ) = 0
t
m
+ U m + m U = 0
t
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  16
Material Derivative
> The density can change due
to three effects:
An explicit time dependence
m
(e.g. local heating)
t
Flow carrying fluid through
time
changing density regions
Divergence of the fluid
velocity
> The first two of these are
U m
grouped into the material
derivative
Rate of change for an
observer moving with the
fluid
m ( U )
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  17
Material Derivative
> The first two of these
are grouped into the
material derivative
Incompressible
m
+ U m + m U = 0
t
If we define
D m m
=
+ U m
t
Dt
or. more generally, define the operator
D
= + U
Dt t
we can write the continuity equation as
D m
+ m U = 0
Dt
If the density is uniform, then in steady state
U = 0
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  18
Momentum Conservation
> We want to write
Newtons 2nd Law for
fluids
> We start with a volume
that travels with the fluid
contains a constant
amount of mass
Material volume
dp d (mU)
=
dt
dt
d
F=
m UdVm
velocity of
dt Vm (t )
F=
surface
> Then go to an arbitrary F = d
m UdV + m U ( U U s ) n dS
dt V ( t )
control volume
S (t )
Must account for flux of
momentum through
surface
flux of mU thru surface
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  19
Momentum Conservation
> Pull time derivative into integral
> Cancel terms
> Apply divergence theorem
d
F=
m UdV + m U ( U U s ) n dS
dt V (t )
S (t )
=
m UdV + m U [ U s n ] dS + m U ( U U s ) n dS
t
V (t )
S (t )
S (t )
Leibnizs rule
m UdV + m UU ndS
=
t
V (t )
S (t )
a ndS = adV
S (t )
V (t )
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  20
Momentum Conservation
> Final result does not
depend on control volume
=
m UdV + m UUdV
t
V (t )
V (t )
m
= U
+ m U + m
+ U U dV
t
V (t )
DU
F = m
dV
Dt
V
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  21
Momentum Conservation
> Add in force terms
> Include body forces
(e.g., gravity)
Fb = m g dV
V
Fs =
s(n)dS
S (t )
> And surface forces
(i.e., stresses)
s(n) = n
Fs =
n dS
S (t )
s(n)
Fs =
dV
V (t )
DU
= mg +
m
Dt
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  22
NavierStokes Equations
> Substitute in for
= Pn +
= P +
stress tensor
> Compressible
Newtonian fluid
constitutive relation
> Compressible
NavierStokes
equations
P* = P m g r
U x
y
2 U + ( U )
3
DU
2
= P + U + ( U ) + m g
m
Dt
3
DU
= P * + 2 U + ( U )
m
Dt
3
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  23
NavierStokes Equations
> Terms in
compressible NS
equations
timedependence
pressure
compressibility
2
+ U U = P + U + ( U ) + m g
m
3
t
inertial
viscous stresses
gravity
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  24
Dimensionless Numbers
> Fluid mechanics is full of nondimensional numbers that help
classify the types of flow
> Reynolds number is most
important
> Reynolds number:
The ratio of inertial to viscous
~ ~~
~ ~ ~2~
Re U U = ( A)P + U
Nondimensionalized
steady incompressible flow
m L0U 0 L0U 0
U0
=
=
Re =
* *
L0
effects
Ratio of convective to diffusive
momentum transport
Small Reynolds number means
neglect of inertia
Flow at low Reynolds number is
laminar
See Deen, Analysis of Transport Phenomena
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  25
Outline
> Intro to microfluidics
> Basic concepts: viscosity and surface tension
> Governing equations
> Incompressible laminar flow
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  26
Incompressible Laminar Flow
> The NavierStokes
equation becomes very
heatflowequationlike,
although the presence of
DU/Dt instead of U/t
makes the equation
nonlinear, hence HARD
NavierStokes becomes
DU
m
= P * + 2 U
Dt
to obtain a "diffusionlike" equation:
DU
m
= 2 U P *
Dt
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  27
As aside on heat convection
> Our heatflow equation looked like
> Compare to incompressible NS eqn
> If we allow fluid to moveto
convectwe can include
convection in our heat conservation
> At steady state, we get a relation
that allows us to compare
convective heat transport to
conduction
> This is the Peclet number
> For microscale water flows, L~100
m, U~0.1 mm/s, D~150x106 m2/s
T
1 %
2
= D T + P
t
C% sources
DU
m
= 2 U P *
Dt
DT
1 %
2
= D T + P
Dt
C% sources
1 %
2
U T = D T + P
C% sources
4
4
LU (10 m )(10 m / s )
Pe =
~ 0.1
=
2
6
D
0.15 10 m
s
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  28
Couette or Shear Flow
> Pure shear flow with a
>
The flow is onedimensional
U = U x ( y )n x
linear velocity profile
No pressure gradient
dU
+ U U = 2 U P *
dt
> Relative velocity goes to
zero at the walls (the socalled noslip boundary
condition)
NS Eqns collapse to the Laplace eqn
U
W
W
2U x
=0
2
y
U x = c1 y + c2
B.C.'s: U x (0) = 0,U x (h) = U
Ux
y
Ux = U
h
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 13.4 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 327. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  29
Poiseuille Flow
> Pressuredriven flow through a pipe
In our case, two parallel plates
> Velocity profile is parabolic
> This is the most common flow in microfluidics
Assumes that h<<W
y
h
high P
low P
W
Umax
Ux
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 13.5 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 329. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  30
Solution for Poiseuille Flow
> Assume a uniform pressure
gradient along the pipe
> Assume xvelocity only
depends on y
> Enforce zeroflow boundary
conditions at walls
> Maximum velocity is at center
> Volumetric flowrate is
dP
= K
dx
2U x
K
=
2
y
1
Ux =
y ( h y ) K
2
U max
h2
=
K
8
Wh3
K
Q = W U x dy =
12
0
h
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  31
Lumped Model for Poiseuille Flow
> Can get lumped resistor
using the fluidic convention
> Note STRONG dependence
on h
> This relation is more
complicated when the aspect
ratio is not very high
P = effort = KL
12L
Q
P =
3
Wh
12L
RPois =
Wh 3
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  32
Development Length
> It takes a certain characteristic length, called the
development length, to establish the Poiseuille velocity
profile
> This development length corresponds to a development
time for viscous stresses to diffuse from wall
> Development length is proportional to the characteristic
length scale and to the Reynolds number, both of which
tend to be small in microfluidic devices
L
* Re
U
LD (time)U Re L
2
L
time
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  33
A note on vorticity
> A common statement is to say
that laminar flow has no vorticity
> What is meant is that laminar flow
has no turbulence
> Vorticity and turbulence are
different
> Can the pinwheel spin?
Then there is vorticity
> Demonstrate for Poiseuille flow
1
[ y(h y )]K
Ux =
2
= U
U x
U x
= ny
nz
z
y
K
= n z
(h 2 y )
2
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14  34
Fluids  B
Joel Voldman
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  1
Outline
> Review of last time
> Poiseuille flow
> Stokes drag on a sphere
> Squeezedfilm damping
> Electrolytes & Electrokinetic separations
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  2
Last time
> Surface Tension
Force at a liquidfluid interface
U x
y
> Viscosity
Constitutive property relation
D
= + U
Dt t
shear stress to shear rate
> Material Derivative
Time derivative taking into effect
convection
> Mass continuity
> NavierStokes Equation
Fundamental relation for
D m
+ m U = 0
Dt
DU
2
m
= P + U + ( U ) + m g
Dt
3
Newtonian fluids
> Reynolds Number
The MOST IMPORTANT
dimensionless number
m LU
Re =
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  3
Outline
> Review of last time
> Poiseuille flow
> Stokes drag on a sphere
> Squeezedfilm damping
> Electrolytes & Electrokinetic separations
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  4
Poiseuille Flow
> Pressuredriven flow through a pipe
In our case, two parallel plates
> Velocity profile is parabolic
> This is the most common flow in microfluidics
Assumes that h<<W
y
h
high P
low P
W
Umax
Ux
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 13.5 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 329. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  5
Solution for Poiseuille Flow
> Assume
Incompressible
Steady
2
m
+ U U = P + U + ( U ) + m g
3
t
Ux only depends on y
Ignore gravity
> Assume a uniform pressure
gradient along the pipe
> Result is Poissons eqn
> Boundary conditions:
dP
= K
dx
2U x
K
=
2
Relative velocity goes to zero
at the walls
noslip boundary
condition
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  6
Solution for Poiseuille Flow
> Integrate twice to get solution
> Maximum velocity is at center
> Can get linear flowrate [m/s] and
>
volumetric flowrate [m3/s]
Can get lumped resistor using the fluidic
convention
> Note STRONG dependence on h
> This relation is more complicated when
1
Ux =
y ( h y ) K
2
U max
h2
K
=
8
Wh3
Q = W U x dy =
K
12
0
h
the aspect ratio is not very high
y
h
Umax
Ux
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 13.5 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 329. ISBN: 9780792372462.
P = effort = KL
12L
Q
P =
3
Wh
12L
RPois =
Wh 3
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  7
Development Length
> It takes a certain characteristic length, called the
development length, to establish the Poiseuille velocity
profile
> This development length corresponds to a development
time for viscous stresses to diffuse from wall
> Development length is proportional to the characteristic
length scale and to the Reynolds number, both of which
tend to be small in microfluidic devices
L
* Re
U
LD (time)U Re L
2
L
time
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  8
A note on vorticity
> A common statement is to say
that laminar flow has no vorticity
> What is meant is that laminar flow
has no turbulence
> Vorticity and turbulence are
different
> Can the pinwheel spin?
Then there is vorticity
> Demonstrate for Poiseuille flow
= U
Vorticity
1
[ y(h y )]K
Ux =
2
U x
U x
nz
= ny
z
y
K
(h 2 y )
= n z
2
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  9
Outline
> Review of last time
> Stokes drag on a sphere
> Squeezedfilm damping
> Electrolytes & Electrokinetic separations
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  10
Stokes Flow
> Steadystate flow in which
inertial effects can be neglected,
Re0
> The result is a vector Poisson
equation
DU
When m
can be neglected
Dt
> Also called creeping flow
> Action is instantaneous
No mass in system
Incompressible: no springs
2 U = P *
> This is a typical approximation
made in microfluidics
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  11
Stokes drag on a sphere
> In creeping flow, one can solve for
the flow field around a sphere
placed in an initially uniform flow
field
> This can be used to find the
stresses on the sphere and sum
them to find the total drag
> This is called the Stokes drag
> This is often the predominant
particle force in microfluidic
systems
> See Deens text for derivation
Vz = U
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Fd = 6RU
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  12
Stokes drag on a sphere
> This is strictly valid ONLY in a uniform
flow
> These are hard to make
> Instead, we can use Ux(y) of the
parabolic flow profile to calculate a
heightdependent drag force
> This approach fails when the particle is
too big
> Instead, take advantage of published
solutions
Shear flow: Goldman et al., Chem. Eng.
Sci. 22, 653 (1967).
U ( y)
Poiseuille flow: Ganatos et al. J. Fluid
Mech. 99, 755 (1980).
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  13
Outline
> Review of last time
> Stokes drag on a sphere
> Squeezedfilm damping
> Electrolytes & Electrokinetic separations
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  14
SqueezedFilm Damping
> This is how we will get our b (or R) for the parallelplate actuator
> The result of motion against a fluid boundary
If the fluid is incompressible, there can be a large pressure rise, so
large back forces result
If the fluid is compressible, it takes finite motion to create a
pressure rise
> In either case, the dissipation due to viscous flow provides a
damping mechanism for the motion
> This is related to lubrication theory
F
Moveable
h(t)
Fixed
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 13.6 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 333. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  15
The Reynolds Equation
> Assumptions for compressible
isothermal squeezedfilm
damping
Onedimensional pressure
gradient: P(r,t) = P(y,t) only
No pressure gradient in z or
along plate (x)
Stokes flow
Poiseuille flow profile in the plane
Ideal gas law
Isothermal (temperature rise due
to compression is small, and heat
flow to the walls is rapid)
Noslip BCs
Rigid plate: h(r,t) = h(t) only
> The result is a version of the
( Ph) h3 1 2 2
=
P
t
12 2
z
y
x
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 13.7 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 334. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Reynolds equation
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  16
Example: Rigid Plate Damping
> Now, assume small motions
Linearize
> The result is (guess what!) the
heatflow equation
( Ph) h3 1 2 2
=
P
t
12 2
If we linearize:
h = h0 + h P = Po + P
z
y
x
Normalize: =
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 13.7 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 334. ISBN: 9780792372462.
y
W
p =
P
Po
h02 Po 2 p h
p
=
2
2
ho
t 12W
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  17
Suddenly Applied Motion
> We already solved a very
similar problem
Impulse of heat into 1D
resistor
96 LW 3
F ( s) =
4 3
ho
n =
> Now we have a velocity
impulse: sudden change of
height
1 1
sz ( s )
4
s
n odd n
1+
n
2 2
n ho Po
= n
2
12W
n=1
96 LW 3
b=
4 ho3
> We get a series of 1storder
terms, as before
2 ho2 Po
c =
12W 2
> Only need 1st term, which
is an RC circuit
> R for viscous damping
> C for gas compressibility
> Details are in the book
R=b
C=
1
bc
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 13.8 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 337. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  18
Outline
> Review of last time
> Stokes drag on a sphere
> Squeezedfilm damping
> Electrolytes & Electrokinetic separations
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  19
Electrokinetic Phenomena
> It is a coupleddomain problem in which electrostatic forces
result in fluid flow (and vice versa)
> Start with electrolytes, move into double layer, and finally show
how to manipulate the double layer
> It is the driver behind ALOT of early microTAS work
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  20
Electrolytes
> Electrolytes: liquids with
mobile ions
Ion mobility (cm2/Vs)
zi
Ni =
ui Ci E Di Ci
zi
Flux (cm2s1)
Examples: water, PBS
> Ions can move via
concentration gradients
(diffusion) or electric fields
(drift)
> Macroscopically, the liquid is
approximately chargeneutral
(called quasineutrality)
Valence
Diffusivity (cm2/s)
Concentration (cm3)
e = zi qeCi 0 in the bulk
i
In neutral regions: 2 =
=0
N + = u+ C+ E D+ C+
For a binary electrolyte
(e.g., NaCl in water)
N = uC E DC
e = qe (C+ C ) 0
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  21
Electrolytes
> Surfaces with fixed
charge can lead to net
space charge in the
liquid
> Diffusion competes
with drift, and at
equilibrium, Boltzmann
distribution follows
> This leads to the
PoissonBoltzmann
equation
Glass
OOOOOO
Glass
OOOOOO
+ + +
+ + + + + + + +
+  + +
+ + +
C+ C
+ +
+ +  + +
+ +
+ +
+ + + +  + + + +
C+
C
Ni =
zi
ui Ci E Di Ci = 0 at equilibrium
zi
Ci ( x ) = Ci ,o e
Near the wall: 2 = e
zi qe ( ( x ) o )
k BT
2 =
zqC
i e
i ,o
zi qe ( o )
k BT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  22
Diffuse Double Layer
Express in terms of = 0 :
2 =
zqC
i e
i ,o
zi qe
k BT
Expand for small potential variations
2
q
2
e
zi qeCi ,o +
z
C
i
i ,o
i
k BT i
Assuming the reference region is charge neutral
1
2 = 2
For binary
LD
monovalent
/
z
L
electrolyte
= e D
2
LD
Debye
Length
(e.g., NaCl)
2qe2Ci ,o
qe2
1
2
=
z C = k T
k BT i i i ,o
LD
B
LD=1 nm for
LD ~ 1
Ci ,o 0.1 M NaCl
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  23
Doublelayer charge
> We can calculate the total charge in the double layer
> It must balance the charge at the wall
Near the wall:
= w e
z
LD
T he charge density is
=
e = 2
LD
2
Total charge per unit area
LD
in diffuse layer
d = e dz =
0
DL charge/area
[C/cm2]
w
LD
w LD L
e
=
= w
wall charge/area
[C/cm2]
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  24
Actual Double Layers
> The actual situation is MUCH more complicated
> Some ions are tightly or specifically adsorbed, forming the Stern layer
and screening the wall charge
> The rest distribute in a diffuse doublelayer: the GouyChapman layer
> This is an active area of research
Stern layer
(up to ~0.2 nm)
GouyChapman layer
(~120 nm)
Potential
Shear boundary
Zeta potential
0
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Phase
boundary
(Nernst)
potential
GouyChapman (up to several
potential hundred mV)
Distance from interface
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  25
Electroosmotic Flow
> An axial electric field exerts a
force on the charge in the
diffuse double layer, which
drags the fluid down the pipe
Insulating solid
Electric field
Electrolyte
Net charge in diffuse layer
Insulating solid
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 13.11 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 343. ISBN: 9780792372462.
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  26
Analysis of Electroosmotic Flow
> Assume
Creeping flow
One dimensional flow Ux(z)
No pressure drop
Electrical body force
2U x = e Ex
> Express charge density in
terms of wall surface charge
density
e =
> Set up differential equation
=
z
d Ux
w LD
e
=
2
dz
LD
2
LD
w
LD
z
LD
Ex
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  27
Analysis of Electroosmotic Flow
> This leads to a PLUGFLOW
profile
~3LD
d 2U x w LzD
=
e Ex
2
dz
LD
Integrate twice, and use boundary conditions:
Ux ( z = ) = 0
Ux(z)
dU x
dz
( ) =
w LD L
L
Ux =
e e
z
z
w LD L
( z ) =
e
=0
h/2
Ex
Plug flow
Ux
~3LD
U0
Ux =
Ex
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 13.12 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 344. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  28
Analysis of Electroosmotic Flow
> This leads to a PLUGFLOW
profile
> Flow depends on zeta
potential
The potential at the slip
plane
Which is in a different place
than the wall, the Stern layer,
or LD
It is what is measured
Ux =
Ex
w LD L
U0 =
e Ex =
E
x
D
for z > 3LD
experimentally
For h>>LD, one typically
assumes
=0
w =
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  29
Electrophoresis
> This is just electroosmosis
around a solid surface
> Each ionic species has its own
mobility
U ep =
E x = epE x
> Therefore, in an electrolyte in
which there is a net electric field,
ions will drift at various rates
> This is the basis of a separation
technology called electrophoretic
separation
For a
large
particle
More
generally
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  30
Electrokinetic separation
> This was THE original driver for microTAS
TAS = total analysis systems
> Create fully integrated microsystems that would
go from sample to answer
> The KEY enabler was the integration of nonmechanical valves with the separation column
This creates extremely narrow sample plugs
> Also important is the ability to multiplex
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
> The actual sample prep was (and is) usually
ignored
> This is/was the raison dtre of Caliper & Aclara
> Aclara died, unclear if Caliper will succeed
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  31
Electrokinetic separation
> We use a channelcrossing
structure to select a sample
plug
> Then we switch voltages to
drag the plug down a
separation column
> In one approach, EO and EP co
Ls
EO
EP,1
EP,2
exist, but EO dominates
> Different species travel at
different rates separation
Ls = t sep EP ,1 EP , 2 E x
Separation time
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  32
Schematic Illustration
> The key discovery was that
liquid samples could be
controlled with voltages
V1 (+)
VJ
Injection
V3 > VJ
> This allows one to valve
V4 > VJ
V2 = 0
and pump liquids
V1 < VJ
Create small sample plugs
Injected sample plug
V3 (+)
V4 = 0
U0
V2 < VJ
V1 < VJ
V3 (+)
ORNL movie
Slower component
U0
V2 < VJ
U0
V4 = 0
Faster component
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  33
Electrokinetic separation
> The macro technology is
conventional capillary
electrophoresis
Most notably used in the
human genome project
Ls
> Sample loading is the problem
> To separate two species
(ignoring diffusion), we need
> Smaller starting W means we
Ls W
can use a shorter channel
> And get a faster separation
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  34
Electrokinetic separation
> Conventional capillaries
Richard Mathies (UCB)
have larger W because
injection is not integrated
Though this is always
getting better
> This thus requires a
longer channel
> Microfab also allows for
integration
Courtesy of Richard A. Mathies. Used with permission.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  35
An aside on electrodes
> Current in the electrolyte is carried by ions
> Current in the wire is carried by electrons
> At the surface, something must happen to transfer
this current
> This is electrochemistry and the typical byproduct are
gases bubbles
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  36
Electrokinetics
> That is just the beginning
> Dielectrophoresis
Force on dipoles in nonuniform electric fields
Can use AC fields
Can hold things in place
> Other phenomena
Electrohydrodynamics
Electrowetting
Inducedcharge electrophoresis/electroosmosis
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  37
Comparing EOF & pressuredriven flow
> If you are designing a chip that needs to move liquids
around, which method is best?
> Issues to consider
Flowrate scaling
Liquid composition
System partitioning
Materials
Species Transport
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  38
Comparing EOF & pressuredriven flow
> Flowrate
Water in rectangular SiO2 channel
h varies, W=1000 m, L=2 cm, =800, =50 mV
Drive with Ex=100 V/cm, P=5 psi
Ex
hW
Q = U 0 hW =
Ex
U0 =
Wh3
P
Q=
12 L
Q
h2
P
U0 = =
A 12 L
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  39
Comparing EOF & pressuredriven flow
> Scaling
Pressuredriven flow
2
larger in large channels
10
Due to cubic
10
dependence of flow
resistance
2
channels
Q (l/s)
EO flow larger in small
10
EO
4
10
> Both scale equivalently
with channel length
Larger L requires more
voltage and higher
pressure to get same flow
6
10
Poiseuille
8
10 6
10
5
4
10
10
3
10
h (m)
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  40
Comparing EOF & pressuredriven flow
> Other issues typically matter more
> Valving
EOF has builtin valving using Efields
Poiseuille needs mechanical valves
> Liquid limitations
Poiseuille flow can pump any liquid
EOF ionic strength limits
Debye length depends on 1/C0
Increasing ionic strength decreases LD and thus
EOF
Typically use ~10100 mM salt buffer
EOF pH limits
pH affects wall charge affects EOF
Typically use pH ~7 buffers
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  41
Comparing EOF & pressuredriven flow
> Materials issues
Poiseuille flow can use any material
EOF requires defined (and stable) surface charge
Best is silica (or at least glass)
Polymers are more difficult
Surface charge can change as molecules
adsorb, etc.
> System partitioning
Both approaches involve offchip components
Electrodes for EOF
Pumps for Poiseuille flow
Integrating complete labonachip usually BAD idea
EOF: Easier to use external electronics
Poiseuille: Pumps hard to make onchip
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  42
Comparing EOF & pressuredriven flow
> Transport limitations
EOF
Will separate molecules as they are convected
downstream
Species in flow must tolerate Efields (DNA/proteins
OK, cells not so good)
Plugs remain plugs
Poiseuille flow
Will not separate molecules
Objects in flow must tolerate shear/pressure
(DNA/proteins OK, cells OK depending on
shear/pressure)
Will distort plugs
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  43
Whats next
> We will discuss the behavior of the stuff in the liquids
> How to manipulate that stuff at the microscale
> And then we head into systemlevel issues
Feedback, Noise, etc.
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15  44
Mass Transport in liquids
Joel Voldman
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  1
Outline
> Chemical potential
> Species conservation including convection
> Hfilter design & eigenfunction expansion
> Taylor dispersion, the microfluidicists enemy
> Mixing
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  2
Chemical potential
> It comes from
thermodynamics
> Chemical potential
gradients are the driving
force for the movement of
molecules
> It is the electron Fermi level
T ,V
For an ideal solution:
i ( x) = i0 + k BT ln
ci ( x)
ci0
in semiconductors
> At equilibrium, there are no
gradients in
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  3
Chemical potential
> We can derive Ficks first law
from the chemical potential
> First, note that there are two
concentration units
> Relate flux to velocity
> Then relate the velocity to a
force f, using a mobility M
> Then the force to a potential
(P ) gradient
[m2/Vs]
U = n E =
[m/s]
[V/m]
ci = N ACi
# # mol
m 3 = mol m 3
J i = ciU i = N ACiU i
U i = Mf = M
P
x
[s/kg]
n
qe
( qe E ) =
n
qe
( qe )
[N]
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  4
Chemical potential
> Finally, find flux due to a
chemical potential
gradient
> Can relate diffusivity to
mobility
D
k BT =
M
Einstein Relation
i ( x) = i0 + k BT ln
ci ( x)
ci0
i
c ( x)
= ci Mk BT ln i 0
x
x
ci
J i = ci Mk BT ( ln ci ( x ) ln ci0 )
x
J i = Mk BTci ( ln ci ( x ) )
x
1 ci
J i = Mk BTci
ci x
J i = ci M
ci
ci
= D
J i = Mk BT
x
x
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  5
Outline
> Chemical potential
> Species conservation including convection
> Hfilter design & eigenfunction expansion
> Taylor dispersion, the microfluidicists enemy
> Mixing
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  6
Species conservation equation
> One more conservation
equation
V
d
bdV = F ndS + gdV
dt
> Flux now includes
convection and diffusion
> Incompressible flow
b
= F + g
t
n
F
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
ci
= J i + RVi
t
convection
J i = Di ci + ci U i
diffusion
ci
= ( Di ci + ci U i ) + RVi
t
ci
= Di 2 ci ci U i U i ci + RVi
t
ci
+ U i ci = Di 2 ci + RVi
t
Dci
= Di 2 ci + RVi
Dt
ConvectionDiffusion Equation
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  7
Convective term
> We have seen this equation
before
> We can compare the convective
to diffusive flux terms, and get a
Peclet number again
Now for diffusive vs. convective
mass transport
> For BSA (66 kDA) in microscale
flows, L~100 m, U~1 mm/s,
D~7x1011 m2/s
> Convection is important because
times
molecular diffusivity is
slower than heat diffusivity and
105 times slower than momentum
diffusivity
107
ci
+ U i ci = Di 2 ci + RVi
t
c
convection U i ci U L LU
~
~
~
2
c
diffusion
Di ci D 2
D
L
)(
LU 10 4 m 10 3 m / s
3
Pe =
=
~
10
11 m 2
D
7 10
s
Dheat
~104 m2/s for water
Dmomentum~106 m2/s for water
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  8
Diffusivities
> How can we get diffusivities for
different objects?
> Use mobility due to Stokes drag
> Result is StokesEinstein
relation
> Larger particles have smaller
diffusivity
> Often used to get an effective
Ui
k BT
D = Mk BT =
f
Ui
1
=
f = 6RU i
f
6R
D = Mk BT =
k BT
6R
R=45 nm
Rh=44.8 nm
radius (Rh) for a species
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  9
Outline
> Chemical potential
> Species conservation including convection
> Hfilter design & eigenfunction expansion
> Taylor dispersion, the microfluidicists enemy
> Mixing
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  10
Hfilter
> What are the minimum
diffusivity differences that
we can separate?
> How to choose channel
width, length, flowrate
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Courtesy of Paul Yager, Thayne Edwards, Elain Fu, Kristen Helton,
Kjell Nelson, Milton R. Tam, and Bernhard H. Weigl.
Used with permission. Please see:
Yager, P., T. Edwards, E. Fu, K. Helton, K. Nelson, M. R. Tam,
and B. H. Weigl. "Microfluidic Diagnostic Technologies for Global
Public Health." Nature 442 (July 27, 2006): 412418.
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  11
Hfilter
> First, lets try a quick and
dirty diffusion calculation
> Assume 1D diffusion
across width of channel
> Ignore convection effects
along length of channel
> No generation terms
> Result suggests that
separation will go as D
ci
+ U i ci = Di 2 ci + RVi
t
ci
2 ci
= Di 2
t
x
ci
ci
~ Di 2
~ Di
~ Di
L
U
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  12
Hfilter
> Can we do better?
> Yes, using eigenfunction
analysis
> Assumptions
Ignore convection
No generation
No concentration gradients
along channel height or
length
ci
+ U i ci = Di 2 ci + RVi
t
ci
= Di 2 ci
t
c
2c
=D
t
x 2
1D diffusion
L
One dilute component in
solvent
h
W
y
x
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  13
Hfilter
> Initial condition
Solute initially fills part of
channel
> Boundary condition
No solute flux through walls
Initial condition:
c0
x
0
c0 for 0 < x < d
c( x,0) =
0 for d < x < W
Boundary condition:
c
x
= 0 for all t
x = 0 ,W
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  14
Hfilter
> First, separate variables
> Time response is exponential
> Spatial eigenfunctions are
Y
= Y Y = e t
t
sinusoids
d 2C
D 2 = C
dx
> Must include DC term in series
2
2
C ( x) = a0 + An
sin kn x + Bn
cos kn x
W
W
n =1
c
2c
=D 2
t
x
c( x, t ) = C ( x)Y (t )
kn2 =
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  15
Hfilter
> Sine does not meet BCs
c
x
> Cosine does
x =0
dC
=
dx
=0
x =0
2
2
0 = An kn
cos kn 0 Bn kn
sin kn 0
W
W
n =1
An = 0
2
2
sin kn x + Bn
cos kn x
C ( x) = a0 + An
W
W
n =1
c
x
x =W
dC
=
dx
0 = Bn kn
n =1
n
kn =
W
=0
x =W
2
sin knW
W
for n = 1, 2,3,
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  16
Hfilter
> Finally, use eigenfunction expansion to
meet initial concentration profile
c( x, t ) = a0 + Bn
n =1
2
cos kn x e nt
W
t=0
c( x, 0) = a0 + Bn
n =1
c0 for 0 < x < d
2
cos kn x =
W
0 for d < x < W
multiply both sides by eigenfctn & integrate
2
2
2
2
=
+
c
x
k
xdx
a
k
xdx
B
k
x
(
,
0)
cos
cos
cos
cos km xdx
0
m
m
n
n
0
W
W
W
W
n =1 0
0
extract coefficient
W
Bn = c( x, 0)
0
2
cos ( kn x ) dx
W
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  17
Hfilter
> Get coefficients and
Bn = c( x, 0)
DC term
2
cos ( kn x ) dx
W
d
W
2
Bn =
c0 cos ( kn x ) dx + 0 cos ( kn x ) dx
W 0
d
d
2 c0
Bn =
sin ( kn x ) 0
W kn
Bn =
2 c0
sin ( kn d )
W kn
for n = 1, 2,3,...
cd
1
a0 = c( x, 0)dx = 0
W 0
W
W
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  18
Hfilter
> Can plot time evolution
for d=W/2
> Lowestorder mode
(n=1) is dominant
2c0 nd nx nt c0 d
sin
cos
e +
W
W W
n =1 n
c ( x, t ) =
n
n = D
W
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  19
Hfilter
> What wed like to
know is how
separation scales
with D, t, etc.
cout
> We can determine the
concentration of
solute in output
channel
> Solve for case of
d=W/2
1
c( x, t )dx
=
W d d
cout
2
=
W
W /2
2c0
n
sin
2
n =1 n
c ( x, t ) =
c( x, t )dx
n x nt c0
cos
e +
2
n +1
2c0
n x nt c0
2
1
cos
c ( x, t ) =
( )
e +
2
W
n odd n
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  20
Hfilter
> Only focus on 1st mode
Simplifies math
Is dominant mode
c ( x, t )
> First mode has error at
x
cos e
2c0
Dt
W
c0
2
2c
Dt
x
c
0
0
+
cout =
e
dx
cos
t=0
W W /2
2
W
Need other terms to meet
2
I.C.
W
Dt
c
W
x
2 2c0W
cout = 2 sin e W + 0
W
4
W W
2
cout
2 2c0W W
=
e
2
W
cout
Dt
c0
8 W
= 1 2 e
2
c0W
+
4
Dt
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  21
Hfilter
> Can also look at all modes
at short time
> Result is that increases as
Dt for short times
2c0
n
sin
2
n =1 n
c ( x, t ) =
n x nt c0
cos
e +
2
Take average over
output channel
cout =
c0 4c0
2
2
1 n t
e
2
n odd n
?
cout
Dt
1.1
W2
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  22
Hfilter design implications
> Since cout scales with both D and t, cout,1/cout,2 will be
independent of time at short times
> If D1>>D2, then increasing time and decreasing W
cout
0.3
helps
Minimum W is set by
0.25
Pressure drop increases 0.2
Clogging and bubbles
1st mode
0.15
Dt approx
0.1
0.05
0
0
Complete solution
0.5
1
time
1.5
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  23
Outline
> Chemical potential
> Species conservation including convection
> Hfilter design & eigenfunction expansion
> Taylor dispersion, the microfluidicists enemy
> Mixing
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  24
Taylor dispersion
> Was ignoring convection OK?
Not really
> One can solve the 1D
convectiondiffusion problem
> This is called Taylor Dispersion
Axial convection + transverse
diffusion
> The result is that the plug
spreads out faster than from
simple diffusion
> The apparent diffusivity is K
> EOF does NOT suffer from
Taylor dispersion
Uniform flow field
Pe 2
U 2h2
= Di 1 +
K i = Di +
210 Di
210
Parallelplate flow channel
U 2h2 h
K i = Di +
f
210 Di W
Rectangular flow channel
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  25
Taylor dispersion
> Can determine Ki for
8.5hW
h W
f
2
2
W h h + 2.4hW + W
rectangular channels
> As h/W0, f(h/W) ~7.95
NOT 1
Because of 2D profile at
10
wall
> But this means a smaller
channel crosssection
and higher U, therefore
possibly more dispersion
Chatwin solution
Approximate model
Twodimensional result
Isotropic etch profile
Double etch profile
9
8
> This implies that for a
f (h/W)
given h, bigger h/W is
better area small
Approximation
6
5
4
Exact solution
3
2
Parallel plate sol'n
1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
h/W
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  26
Convection, diffusion, and mixing
> We can use convection for good as well as evil
> At steady state, fluid mixing time turns into distance
> Short distances from inlet, two fluids appear not to mix
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  27
Outline
> Chemical potential
> Species conservation including convection
> Hfilter design & eigenfunction expansion
> Taylor dispersion, the microfluidicists enemy
> Mixing
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  28
Mixing
> Mixing is driven by diffusion
> Macroscale mixing uses
turbulence (e.g., stirring) to
reduce length for diffusive mixing
> In liquid microfluidics, there is no
turbulence to decrease mixing
lengths
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Cover of Science 285, no. 5425 (July 2, 1999): 1156.
THEREFORE,
> Microfluidic mixing is EASY
> Microfluidic mixing is HARD
> Mixing length scales with Pe
W2
L ~U
~ Pe W
D
2.5 s for a 50 m channel ( D = 10 5 cm 2 /s)
40 s for a 200 m channel ( D = 105 cm 2 /s)
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  29
Mixing
> How does one define mixing?
> No universal definition
> One definition:
When concentration profile is
cmax = c(0, t ) c(W , t )
uniform to within 1% (or 5%)
> For our rectangular channel,
concentration difference is
biggest between x=0 and x=W
2c
nd nx nt c0 d
c( x, t ) = 0 sin
cos
e +
n
W
W
W
n =1
2c0 nd
n
t
=
sin
1 ( 1) e n
W
n =1 n
4c0 nd nt
sin
e
W
n odd n
d
sin e
W
cmax
= 0.01
d
c0
W
W 2 1 400 W
d
2 ln
=
sin
W
d
D
cmax
Tmix
Dt
W
4c0
n
n = D
W
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  30
Mixing
2
Tmix
relative
to W
mixing
time relative
to h2/D
/D
> Mixing time scales as expected for semiinfinite diffusion
Tmix
W 2 1 400 W
d
2 ln
=
sin
W
d
D
Tmix
W 2
0.5
D
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
d/W
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  31
Mixing
> At the microscale various
approaches exist for
reducing diffusion lengths
Depends on how fast you
need to mix
> Approaches trade off
fabrication complexity,
generality, mixing time, etc.
> All find ways to laminate
two fluids
Figure 2 on p. 249 in Miyake, R., T. S. J. Lammerink, M. Elwenspoek, and J. H. J.
Fluitman. "MicroMixer with Fast Diffusion." In Micro Electro Mechanical Systems,
1993, MEMS '93: An Investigation of Micro Structures, Sensors, Actuators,
Machines and Systems, February 710, 1993. New York, NY: Institute of Electrical
and Electronics Engineers, 1993, pp. 248253. ISBN: 9780780309579. 1993 IEEE.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  32
Mixing
> 3D split and recombine
lamination
> Complicated fab
> Typical of early designs
that focused on Si
Figure 1 on p. 442 in Branebjerg, J., P. Gravesen, J. P. Krog, and C. R. Nielsen, C.R. "Fast Mixing by Lamination."
In Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, 1996, MEMS '96: An Investigation of Micro Structures, Sensors, Actuators,
Machines and Systems, February 1115, 1996. New York, NY: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,
1996, pp. 441446. ISBN: 9780780329850. 1996 IEEE.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  33
Mixing
> Laminate in one level of
channels by moving complexity
from fab to packaging
Images removed due to copyright restrictions.
Figures 2 and 4 on pp. 266267 in Jackman, R. J., T. M. Floyd, R. Ghodssi, M. A. Schmidt, and K. F. Jensen.
"Microfluidic Systems with Online UV Detection Fabricated in Photodefinable Epoxy."
Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering 11, no. 3 (May 2001): 263269.
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  34
Passive chaotic micromixer
> Fairly simple to make
pw
> Uses simple pressure
driven flow
pw
m
x
d
c u
}
}
u c
> Anisotropic boundary
induces anisotropic
flow
> Stroock et al., Science
295(2002):647
w
h
2/q
B
z
0 Cycles:
1/2 Cycle:
x
1 Cycle:
x
100 m
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare. Adapted from Figure 2 on p. 648 in Stroock, A. D., S. K. W. Dertinger,
A. Ajdari, I. Mezic, H. A. Stone, and G. M. Whitesides. "Chaotic Mixer for Microchannels." Science
New Series, 295, no. 5555 (January 25, 2002): 647651.
'
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  35
Passive chaotic micromixer
> Mixing length
A
y = 3 cm
scales with ln(Pe)
Rather than Pe in
pure diffusive
mixing
Cycles 15:
0.2 cm
1.9
y = 3 cm
y90 (cm)
100 m
1.7
1.5
1.3
1.1
0.9
0.7
0.5
200 m
10
11
12
13
Cycle 15:
14
In(Pe)
Images by MIT OpenCourseWare. Adapted from Figure 3 on p. 649 in Stroock, A. D., S. K. W. Dertinger, A. Ajdari, I. Mezic, H. A. Stone, and
G. M. Whitesides. "Chaotic Mixer for Microchannels." Science New Series, 295, no. 5555 (January 25, 2002): 647651.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  36
More info
> Microfluidic flow
Viscous fluid flow, F. White
Low Reynolds Number Hydrodynamic, Happel & Brenner
Gravesen et al., Microfluidics, A Review, JMME 3(1993) 168
Includes lumped resistances for turns, constrictions, etc.
Life at Low Reynolds Number, E.M. Purcell
http://brodylab.eng.uci.edu/%7Ejpbrody/reynolds/lowpurcell.html
Stone et al., Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 36(2004) 381.
> Transport
Analysis of Transport Phenomena, W. Deen
Transport Phenomena, Bird, Stewart & Lightfoot
> Taylor Dispersion
Dutta & Leighton, Anal. Chem., 73(2001), 504
Chatwin & Sullivan, J. Fluid Mech., 120(1982), 347
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16  37
Feedback
Joel Voldman*
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
*(with thanks to SDS)
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007.
MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  1
Outline
> Motivation for using feedback
> The uses of (linear) feedback
> Feedback on Nonlinear Systems
Quasistatic systems
Oscillators
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007.
MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  2
Why use feedback?
> For actuators, how do you
know when you have
actuated?
You can calibrate/calculate/etc.,
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
but what about drifts?
> Adding a sensor can tell you
where you are
> Combining the sensor +
actuator with feedback can
keep you where you are
An optical attenuator
that uses
MEMS actuator
Senses optical output
Uses feedback to
control attenuation
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007.
MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  3
Why use feedback?
> For sensors, feedback can
be used to enhance sensor
response
E.g., keep sensitivity constant
> Must add an actuator to do
this
An accelerometer that
uses
MEMS tunneling sensor
Electrostatic actuation
Uses feedback to control
tunneling current (and
thus gap)
Figure 1 on p. 426 in: Liu, C.H., and T. W. Kenny. "A Highprecision,
Widebandwidth, Micromachined Tunneling Accelerometer." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 10, no. 3 (September 2001): 425433.
2001 IEEE.
Figure 3a) on p. 426 in: Liu, C.H., and T. W. Kenny. "A Highprecision,
Widebandwidth, Micromachined Tunneling Accelerometer." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 10, no. 3 (September 2001): 425433.
2001 IEEE.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007.
MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  4
Feedback in MEMS
> Since MEMS is often concerned with making sensors
for measurements or actuators to do something,
feedback is integral to the subject
> Here we will examine some of the basic uses of
feedback
Limit sensitivity to variations
Speed up system
Stabilize unstable systems
> At the end, we will look at feedback in nonlinear
systems, which is useful for making oscillators
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007.
MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  5
Outline
> Motivation for using feedback
> The uses of (linear) feedback
> Feedback on Nonlinear Systems
Quasistatic systems
Oscillators
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007.
MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  6
Example: A MEMS hotplate
> Used for gas sensor
Membrane
lowstress SiNx, 2x 500 nm
> Heat up active material, which
reacts with gas and changes
resistance
Heater coil, bond pad
TiN/Ti, 200/10 nm
Wet SiO2
1 mm
Si wafer
> Thermal MEMS is used because
Low power
Fast
Arrayable
0.33 mm
330 m
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Image removed due to
copyright restrictions.
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007.
MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  7
The Canonical Feedback System
> In controls, terminology refers to the plant, the controller, the
state sensor, and the comparison point
1
Set point
+
_
Error
Sum
K(s)
Control
Actual Output
H(s)
Plant
Controller
Sensed output
1
Output
M(s)
Sensor
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 15.1 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 397. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Example: micro hotplate
1
Set point
temp
+
_
Sum
Heater resistor
External amp
Error
K(s)
Voltage
Controller
Measured temperature
Temperature
H(s)
1
Output
Plant
M(s)
Sense resistor
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 15.1 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 397. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007.
MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  8
Adding Noise and Disturbances
> Noise corrupts the sensor output
> Disturbances modify the control input to the plant
> In some cases, what we want to measure is the disturbance (a
feedbackcontrolled accelerometer)
Convection
Disturbance 2
+
_
Error
Set point
Sensed output
temp
(noisy)
K(s)
Controller
Voltage
M(s)
Sense resistor
+
+
Hotplate
Disturbed resistor
control
H(s)
Actual
output
Plant
+
_
1
Output
Temperature
3
Johnson noise
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 15.2 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 398. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007.
MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  9
Linear Feedback: Blacks Formula
> For a LTI system, we can use Laplace transforms to create an
algebraic closedloop transfer function
Assume sensor has (perfect) unity transfer function
X in ( s ) X out ( s )
X in (s ) 1
Set point
+
_
Error
K ( s ) [ X in ( s ) X out ( s )]
K(s)
1
H(s)
1
Control
X out ( s ) = H ( s ) Feedback
K ( s ) [XPath
in ( s ) X out ( s ) ]
X out ( s ) =
H ( s) K ( s)
X in ( s )
1 + H (s) K (s)
Blacks formula
1
Output
X out (s )
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 15.3 in Senturia, Stephen D.
Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic
Publishers, 2001, p. 399. ISBN: 9780792372462.
X out ( s ) forward gain
=
X in ( s ) 1 loop gain
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  10
OpenLoop Operation
> Control hot plate via calibration
Remember
Assume hotplate has 1storder response
with s0~400 rad/s (f0~65 Hz)
IQ
Assume controller has no dynamics
As
H ( s) = 0 0
K (s) = K0
s + s0
or drifts in system
Any deviations cause steadystate error
Troom
Tset
Tcal
RT
T
=
=
I Q 1 + RT CT s 1
RT CT
RT CT
+s
+

RT
RT 1
> Works great if there are no disturbances
>
CT
K(s)
H(s)
Thotplate
+
Thotplate = Troom + H ( s ) K ( s )(Tset Tcal )
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  11
OpenLoop Operation
> Response is sensitive to variations in controller,
plant, and disturbances
Troom=23 C, K0=1.2
40
A0=1
Tcal=23 C
Troom=25 C, K0=1
38
Troom=23 C, K0=1
36
Temp (C)
34
32
30
28
Tset=37 C
26
24
22
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
tim e (s)
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  12
Feedback use #1: limit sensitivity to variations
Troom
> Add in term
proportional T
set
to error
> This is called
proportional
control
+
K(s)
H(s)
Thotplate
+
HK
1
Tset +
Troom
1 + HK
1 + HK
A0 s0
K0
s + s0
1
=
Tset +
Troom
A0 s0
A0 s0
K0
K0
1+
1+
s + s0
s + s0
Thotplate =
Closedloop TF Thotplate =
A0 K 0 s0
s + s0
Tset +
Troom
s + s0 (1 + A0 K 0 )
s + s0 (1 + A0 K 0 )
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  13
Close the loop
> Error 0 as K0 increases,
despite
Variations in device (A0)
Variations in plant (K0)
Disturbances (Troom)
Openloop
40
Setpoint
38
Temp (C)
36
> In limit of large K0, system
responds perfectly
Though DC error never goes
exactly to zero
42
K0=10
34
32
K0=1
30
28
Heater A0=1.2
Troom=25 C
26
24
0
0.05
0.1
tim e (s)
0.15
Tset=37 C
Steadystate (DC) Error
( s ) s =0 = Tset Thotplate =
0.2
1
1
Tset
Troom
1 + A0 K 0
1 + A0 K 0
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MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  14
Feedback use #2: increase system bandwidth
42
> Settling time goes down
Thotplate
Tset
A0 K 0 s0
= H cl ( s )
s + s0 (1 + A0 K 0 )
36
Temp (C)
A0 s0
s + s0
K0=10
34
32
K0=1
30
28
Heater A0=1.2
Troom=25
26
24
0
s0 s0 (1 + A0 K 0 )
Setpoint
38
> Bandwidth goes up
H ( s) =
Openloop
40
0.05
0.1
tim e (s)
0.15
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  15
0.2
Controlling a 2ndorder system
> Vibration sensor
Really just an zaxis accelerometer
> Use feedback to keep gap constant
> In this case, control signal
measures vibration
> Mechanical plant is a SMD
Figure 4 on p. 435 in: Bernste in, J., R. Miller, W. Kelley, and P. Ward.
"Lownoise MEMS Vibration Sensor for Geophysical Applications." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 8, no. 4 (December 1999): 433438.
1999 IEEE.
X out ( s ) 1
1
=
F (s)
k s 2 + 1 s + 1
Q
m0
where: s = s , 0 = k , Q =
m
b
0
H ( s) =
Set Q=1/2 (critically damped)
Set k=1 for convenience
Figure 6 on p. 435 in: Bernste in, J., R. Miller, W. Kelley, and P. Ward.
"Lownoise MEMS Vibration Sensor for Geophysical Applications." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 8, no. 4 (December 1999): 433438.
1999 IEEE.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007.
MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  16
Proportional control of 2ndorder system
> Use ideal controller K(s)=K0
X out ( s )
H ( s) K ( s)
=
=
> This gives us two overall poles:
Two from SMD H(s)
None from controller K(s)
X in ( s )
1 + H (s) K (s)
order system
Q of closedloop response
increases with increasing DC
gain
1.5
K0=100
> This means that our critically
damped system is now
underdamped
1
s + ( K 0 + 1)
Q
Qcl = Q K 0 + 1
Decreasing DC error as K0
> Some differences:
s 2 +
0,cl = K 0 + 1
> Some results are same as 1stincreases
System speeds up
K0
K0=10
0.5
This can be bad or fatal for our
system
0
0
10
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  17
Control of complex systems
> Dynamics of closedloop system are determined by
H(s)K(s)
> Thus, behavior seen with 2ndorder SMD system will
also occur with 1storder thermal system coupled to
1storder controller
> What happens when we add an additional pole?
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  18
SinglePole Controller (Real amp)
> Take SMD and control
with
1storder
controller
> The system now has
three poles
> When going to large K0,
the system goes
unstable
This happens if one of
the roots has real
positive part
> Routh test can be used
K0
K ( s) =
1 + s
= 0
controller
time constant
X out ( s)
K0
= 3
X in ( s ) s + (1 + 2 )s 2 + (2 + )s + K 0 + 1
Routh test for third  order system :
a3 s 3 + a2 s 2 + a1s + a0
All coefficients ( an ) must have same sign
AND a2 a1 > a0 a3
to find maximum gain
K0 <
11
1
+ +
QQ
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007.
MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  19
2ndorder vs. 3rdorder systems
> Stable system at all loop
> Unstable system at
gains
sufficiently high loop
gain
5
15
^ = 1
Imaginary
Imaginary
10
0
5
10
15
3
2
1
Real
5
6
5 4 3 2 1
Real
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 15.6 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 403. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 15.5 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 402. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007.
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  20
Effect of controller bandwidth
> Controller bandwidth < Plant
bandwidth causes controller to
dominate overall response
=1
Phase (deg)
Magnitude (dB)
Bode Diagram
=100
Bode Diagram
50
50
50
100
100
0
45
90
135
180
225
270
102
Q=1/2
0=1
K0=6
101
100
Frequency (rad/sec)
101
Controller
150
0
45
90
135
180
225
270
2
10
104
Plant
102
100
Frequency (rad/sec)
102
Overall
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechan
ical Devices, Spring 2007.
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  21
Effect of controller bandwidth
> Controller bandwidth > Plant
bandwidth causes plant to
dominate overall response
=1
Q=1/2
0=1
K0=6
Phase (deg)
Magnitude (dB)
Bode Diagram
Bode Diagram
50
0
50
50
100
150
100
0
45
90
135
180
225
270
102
=0.01
101
100
Frequency (rad/sec)
101
Controller
102
200
0
45
90
135
180
225
270
102
Plant
100
102
Frequency (rad/sec)
104
Overall
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  22
PI control
Proportional  Integral (PI) Control :
> Add pole at s=0
K ( s ) = K 0 1 +
s
> This gives K(0)
And thus no DC error
> Benefits
As long as 0, will get
perfect DC tracking, but
it may take awhile
1.8
1.6
K0=100, =0
1.4
1.2
K0=1, =2
Completely insensitive
0.8
to changes in plant at
DC
0.6
K0=1, =0.1
K0=1, =0
0.4
> Drawbacks
Additional pole means
possibility of ringing
and instability
0.2
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  23
PID control
> Final generic term is to
Proportional  Integral  Differential (PID) Control :
K ( s ) = K 0 1 + + s
s
add in differential
feedback
Anticipate future
10
8
instability due to
integral and
proportional control
> Methods exist to tune
PID controllers
Imaginary Axis
> Tame ringing and
= 0.03
= 2.2
=0
= 2.2
0
2
4
6
8
10
1.5
1
0.5
Real Axis
0.5
Imag e by MIT OpenCourseWare.
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  24
Stabilization of unstable systems
Piyabongkarn (2005), IEEE Trans. Control Systems Tech.
> Use of feedback
#3: Stabilize an
unstable system
> Stabilize
Figure 2 on p. 139 in: Piyabongkarn, D., Y. Sun, R. Rajamani, A. Sezen, and B. J. Nelson. "Travel Range
Extension of a MEMS Electrostatic Microactuator." IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology 13, no. 1
(January 2005): 138145 2005 IEEE.
.
electrostatic
actuator beyond
pullin
> Most approaches
use feedback to
approximate
charge control
Figure 6 on p. 140 in: Piyabongkarn, D., Y. Sun, R. Rajamani, A.
Sezen, and B. J. Nelson. "Travel Range Extension of a MEMS
Electrostatic Microactuator." IEEE Transactions on Control Systems
Technology 13, no. 1 (January 2005): 138145. 2005 IEEE.
no feedback
Figure 11 on p. 144 in: Piyabongkarn, D., Y. Sun, R. Rajamani, A.
Sezen, and B. J. Nelson. "Travel Range Extension of a MEMS
Electrostatic Microactuator." IEEE Transactions on Control Systems
Technology 13, no. 1 (January 2005): 138145. 2005 IEEE.
with feedback
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  25
Stabilization of unstable systems
> However:
All potentially unstable modes must be both observable and
controllable
Observable means that the sensor provides state information
about the mode
Controllable means that the control inputs can modify the
mode
If a mode has both attributes, it can be stabilized (at least in
theory) with feedback
> Adding sensors to a system improves observability of
modes
> Adding actuators improves controllability
> This can be generalized from unstable to unwanted
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  26
Control for MEMS
> Electrostatic traps for cells
Exploded Pixel
> The goal is to trap single cells at
IMD hole
Metal 2
Assembled Pixel
each site
PECVD SiO2
Metal 1
> System is currently run open loop
Thermal SiO2
Silicon
> Could we do better if we ran closedloop?
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
> Need to sense: optical or electrical
> Need to actuate
Bead
This is hard
Cell
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
100 m
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  27
Control for MEMS
> Many MEMS devices/systems are run open loop
why?
> Open loop
Does not need additional sensors or actuators
These increase fab complexity, chip size, cost, etc.
But is sensitive to perturbations
> Closed loop
Requires extra complexity
More stable performance
> If you dont need closedloop control, dont use it
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007.
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  28
Outline
> Motivation for using feedback
> The uses of (linear) feedback
> Feedback of Nonlinear Systems
Quasistatic systems
Oscillators
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  29
Feedback in Nonlinear Systems
> Can no longer use nice algebraic forms
> However, the same idea still holds:
The controller predistorts the control signal so as to compensate
for nonlinearities in the plant
X/X0
F
X out = X 0 tan 1
F0
/2
/2
20 15 10 5
1
Error
Error
C ontrol
F=K0(XinXout)
C ontrol
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 15.11 in Senturia, Stephen
D. Microsystem Design . Boston, MA: Kluwer
Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 412.
ISBN: 9780792372462.
K0
Xin
In1
0 5 10 15 20
F/F0
f(u)
Plant
1
Out1
Xout
Controller
Feedback Path
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  30
Feedback in Nonlinear Systems
> Controller linearizes in nonlinear system
> This also occurs in opamps
1.0
K ( X X out )
X out = X 0 tan 1 0 in
F
0
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.5
X in X out
0.0
Error
X
F0
tan out
K0
X0
0 for K 0 >> F0
X in X out =
Xout
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.5
0.03
1.0
1
0.5
0.5
0.04
Xin
Imag e by MIT OpenCourseWare
Adapted from Figure 15.12 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,MA:
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 413. ISBN: 9780792372462.
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  31
Resonators, Oscillators and Limit Cycles
> Resonator: a passive element that exhibits underdamped
oscillatory behavior
> Oscillator: a resonator plus an active gain element that
compensates the resonator losses and results in steady
oscillatory behavior
> Limiting: a required nonlinearity in either the resonator or gain
element
> Limit Cycle: stable closed path in state space
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007.
MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  32
Example: Resonant RLC Circuit
> While a linear amplifier can theoretically produce an undamped
linear system, it cannot create an oscillator
+ vC 
vs
+

iL
vo
L
R
+ vC C
iL
+
L
R
dvC 1
= iL
dt
C
dvC 1
= iL
dt C
diL 1
= (vS vC iL R )
dt L
v
diL 1
= ( v0 vC v0 ) = C
dt L
L
vo
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007.
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  33
Example: Resonant RLC Circuit
> No stable limit cycle
> Vary gain A of opamp circuit
2000
Vc
20
A>1
1000
10
1000
10
2000
2000
20
20
20
2000
20
A=1, Vc0=11.5
10
10
10
10
20
20
20
20
20
IL
A<1
20
A=1, Vc0=5
20
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  34
Adding a limiter creates an oscillator
> Add in arctangent
state
eqns.
limiter
v
vs = V1 tan 0
V2
1
dvC 1
= iL
dt C
Ai R
diL 1
= V1 tan 1 L vC iL R
dt L
V2
For
+ Vc+
iL
Amplifier
Limiter
V5
V0
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 15.15 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 416. ISBN: 9780792372462.
AV1
>1
V2
iL R
Ai R
V1 tan 1 L
V2
Net gain
Net loss
iL R
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  35
Marginal Oscillator
15.0
> Gradual limiting leads to
nearly sinusoidal
waveforms for weakly
damped resonators
iL
5.0
10.0
15.0
90
4
10
Damped
92
94
96
98
100
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 15.17 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design
.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 418. ISBN: 9780792372462.
103
102
15.0
101
10.0
100
101
102
0
0.5
1.5
2
Frequency (Hz)
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
2.5
Capacitor voltage
Power spectral density
0.0
5.0
105
103
Damped
10.0
5.0
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
15
10
Adapted from Figure 15.18 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston,MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 419. ISBN: 9780792372462.
5
10
15
Inductor current
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  36
Oscillator Parting Comments
> Do not confuse a resonator with an oscillator
> The oscillator is the combined result of a resonator
with a suitably designed circuit
> The oscillator is intrinsically nonlinear
> The limit cycle obeys its own dynamics, which can be
discovered by analyzing the perturbation of a limit
cycle and the time required to recover
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  37
Conclusions
> When properly designed, feedback can
Reduce sensitivity to variations
Decrease response time of system
Control output with zero DC error
Stabilize unstable systems
> But it may be too complicated or unnecessary for
your MEMS part a systems issue
> All elements in the feedback path have poles, and
these can cause instabilities
> Numerous methods exist to analyze control systems
in frequency, time, rootlocus, and statespace
domains
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17  38
Noise
Carol Livermore
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
* With thanks to Steve Senturia, from whose lecture notes some
of these materials are adapted.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  1
Outline
> Where does noise come from?
> Interference and how to deal with it
> Noise definitions and characterization
> Types of noise
Thermal noise
Shot noise
Flicker noise
> Examples
Electronics (diodes, amplifiers)
Resistance thermometer
> Modulation
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  2
What limits measurements?
> Fundamental physics of the sensing mechanism, or interactions
among parts of your sensor
> Example: using a resistor to sense temperature
Apply a voltage across a resistor and measure the current,
which tells you resistance
Relate change in resistance to change in temperature
But measuring resistance dissipates some heat in the
resistor, thereby changing the temperature
> Solutions:
Make sure that the temperature change that you impose is
less than the temperature change that you need to measure
Or, use a different sensing technique
> But how low can you lower the voltage and still get enough
signal?
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  3
An Example: Tunneling Accelerometer
Figure 1 on p. 236 in Liu, C.H.,
A. M. Barzilai, J. K. Reynolds, A.
Partridge, T. W. Kenny, J. D. Grade,
and H. K. Rockstad. "Characterization
of a Highsensitivity Micromachined
Tunneling Accelerometer with
Microg Resolution." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 7,
no. 2 (June 1998): 235244.
1998 IEEE.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  4
Tunneling accelerometer
Figure 2 on p. 236 in Liu, C.H., A. M. Barzilai, J. K. Reynolds,
A. Partridge, T. W. Kenny, J. D. Grade, and H. K. Rockstad.
"Characterization of a Highsensitivity Micromachined
Tunneling Accelerometer with Microg Resolution." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 7, no. 2 (June 1998): 235244.
1998 IEEE.
Figure 6 on p. 239 in Liu, C.H., A. M. Barzilai, J. K. Reynolds,
A. Partridge, T. W. Kenny, J. D. Grade, and H. K. Rockstad.
"Characterization of a Highsensitivity Micromachined Tunneling
Accelerometer with Microg Resolution." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 7, no. 2 (June 1998): 235244.
1998 IEEE.
Tunneling current is exponentially sensitive to separation of
tip and substrate. WITH FEEDBACK, this offers very
sensitive measurements of acceleration.
How sensitive? Must consider sources of NOISE.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  5
Types of Noise Sources
> Device noise: statistical fluctuations in devices
Johnson noise, shot noise, 1/f or flicker noise
These noise sources seem immensely unlikely in the face of
our usual assumptions, but they are real and limit results.
> Interference: corruption of the signal of interest by
interference from another signal
Power line, radio stations, TV stations, ground loop inductive
effects
> Drifts: variations in device characteristics
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  6
Sources of noise in the tunneling accelerometer
> Amplifier noise
> Electrons are quantized, so
tunneling current is inherently
digitized
An apparently constant
current really isnt gives
noise
> The air molecules in the gap
arent perfectly evenly
distributed (Brownian motion)
Can build up a force from
fluctuations
Figure 2 on p. 236 in Liu, C.H., A. M. Barzilai, J. K. Reynolds,
A. Partridge, T. W. Kenny, J. D. Grade, and H. K. Rockstad.
"Characterization of a Highsensitivity Micromachined
Tunneling Accelerometer with Microg Resolution." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 7, no. 2 (June 1998): 235244.
> Drifts? Interference? Air
currents? Package creep?
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  7
Outline
> Where does noise come from?
> Interference and how to deal with it
> Noise definitions and characterization
> Types of noise
Thermal noise
Shot noise
Flicker noise
> Examples
Electronics (diodes, amplifiers)
Resistance thermometer
> Modulation
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  8
Interference and noise are different
> Interfering signals:
When an external signal couples into your circuit in an
unintended way
Capacitive pickup of power line signal, input feeding directly
through to output, etc.
Often reflects a circuit design problem that you can prevent
or remedy
Math looks like superposition and mixing of signals
> Random noise:
Random noise is random!
Statistical fluctuations in voltages, currents, forces,
pressures, etc.
Math is simpler with random, uncorrelated signals
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  9
The Interference Problem
> Powerline interference can result from grounding
problems or capacitive coupling
Capacitive coupling through
powerline transformer
60 Hz power line
DC Power
Supply
Powerline
ground
Stray capacitance
V0
+
_
Signal ground
R0
Amp
Load
Rc
Amplifier ground Load ground
(same as power line)
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 16.1 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 426. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  10
Shields
> A shield is a grounded conductor that surrounds the space
being shielded
> But where to connect the ground?
Amplifier shield
60 Hz power line
DC power
supply
Source shield
V0
+
_
Signal ground
Rc
R0
Amp
Load
Rs
Potential difference
Amplifier ground
(power line)
Load ground
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 16.2 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 427. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  11
Ground Loops
> Multiple grounds
create ground loops
> Large inductive
V0
+
_
Rc
R0
Amp
Rs
EMFs can be
created
Ground loop
V0
+
_
Rc
R0
Amp
Rs
Ground strap
(low resistance and low inductance)
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 16.3 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA:Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 428. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  12
Guards
> A guard is a shield driven at the commonmode
potential of the signal of interest
> Guards can be used to intercept surface currents or
to nullify the effect of wiring capacitance
Signal line
+
_
Oxide
pType substrate
n Diffusion
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 16.4 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 429. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  13
Interference in the tunneling accelerometer?
Figure 1 on p. 236 in Liu, C.H.,
A. M. Barzilai, J. K. Reynolds, A.
Partridge, T. W. Kenny, J. D. Grade,
and H. K. Rockstad. "Characterization
of a Highsensitivity Micromachined
Tunneling Accelerometer with
Microg Resolution." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 7,
no. 2 (June 1998): 235244.
1998 IEEE.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  14
Outline
> Where does noise come from?
> Interference and how to deal with it
> Noise definitions and characterization
> Types of noise
Thermal noise
Shot noise
Flicker noise
> Examples
Electronics (diodes, amplifiers)
Resistance thermometer
> Modulation
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  15
Noise characterization
> Consider a timevarying, random noise
voltage vn(t)
> Also have a signal vs(t)
> Random noise has zero
average, but a nonzero
meansquare average
> The mean square noise
from uncorrelated
noise sources adds
vs (t ) = signal
vn (t ) = noise
t / 2
1
vn = lim
vn (t )dt = 0
t t
t / 2
t / 2
1
2
2
[
]
(
)
vn = lim
v
t
dt 0
t t n
t / 2
v = v s + vn
v = vs
v 2 = vs2 + vn2
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  16
SignaltoNoise Ratio
> Signaltonoise ratio: a
power ratio
> Normally expressed in
logarithmic coordinates
> Decibels is usual unit
> Can use power ratio, or
rms amplitude ratio
S/N =
vs2
v
2
n
(linear scale)
decibel scale :
vs2
S/N = 10 log 2
v
n
vs ,rms
S/N = 20 log
v
n
,
rms
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  17
Spectral Density Function
> We imagine an ideal narrowband filter that allows all frequency
content within a small band around a selected frequency to pass
> The mean square output of this filter is assumed to be
proportional to the bandwidth, provided the bandwidth is small
enough. This is equivalent to saying that the spectral content of
the signal of interest has no impulses in it (hence, is not a perfect
sine wave)
> The spectral density function expresses that proportionality
vo2 ( f o , f ) = Sn ( f o )f
vn2 = Sn ( f ) df
0
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  18
Noise in Linear Systems
> The spectral density function at the output is the
spectral density at the input times the squared
magnitude of the transfer function
2
S o ( f ) = H ( j 2 f ) S n ( f )
Vn
+
_
H (s)
+
V0
_
v02 = H ( j 2f ) Sn ( f ) df
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 16.7 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 436. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  19
Outline
> Where does noise come from?
> Interference and how to deal with it
> Noise definitions and characterization
> Types of noise
Thermal noise
Shot noise
Flicker noise
> Examples
Electronics (diodes, amplifiers)
Resistance thermometer
> Modulation
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  20
Thermal Noise
> Imagine a damped harmonic oscillator that is not driven
mx + bx + kx = 0
> Any initial motion will be damped out
> BUT this cannot be an accurate description of reality
> Equipartition: in thermal equilibrium, each energy storage
mode has an average energy kBT/2
> Energies mv2/2 and kx2/2 cannot be zero!
> Correct equation has a noise force
mx + bx + kx = f n (b, t )
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  21
Thermal Noise (Johnson Noise)
> Any dissipative process coupled to a thermal reservoir results
in fluctuations, even in equilibrium
> Example: thermomechanical noise force
> Example: electrical resistors have a fluctuating zeroaverage
noise voltage
> The spectrum of Johnson noise is white (at least at all
frequencies of interest)
R (noiseless)
R (noisy)
+
_
Vn
Sn ( f ) = 4k BTR
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 16.8 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 437. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  22
Noise Bandwidth
> The noise bandwidth, when noise sources are white,
measures the magnitude of the meansquare noise.
vn2 = S n ( f ) df
0
Consider an ideal filter of bandwidth f
The mean  square noise from a resistor that can pass this filter is
vn2 = 4k BTRf
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  23
Thermal Noise: Other Domains
> Our lumped element view of the world makes this very easy to
apply to other domains
> Electrical (R = electrical resistance):
Sn ( f ) = 4k BTR
vn2 = 4k BTRf
> Mechanical (b = damping):
S n ( f ) = 4k BTb
f n2 = 4k BTbf
> Fluidic (R = fluidic resistance):
S n ( f ) = 4k BTR
pn2 = 4k BTRf
A good reference: T. Gabrielson, IEEE Trans. Elec. Devices, 40 (1993).
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  24
Noise on Capacitors
> When a capacitor is connected
to a resistor that is connected
to a thermal reservoir, the
meansquare noise on the
capacitor is kBT/C
vC2 = SC ( f ) df
0
> Applies to capacitance
VC (s )
1
H (s ) =
=
Vn (s ) 1 + sRC
equivalents: k(kBT) noise in a
spring
R(noiseless)
R
(noisy)
Vn
+
_
vC2 = H ( j 2f ) S n ( f )df
v =
2
C
Vc
_
1
4k BTRdf
2
1 + (2fRC )
1 k BT
v = 4k BTR
=
4 RC C
2
C
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 16.9 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 438. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  25
Noise bandwidth
> Can define a noise bandwidth
H ( s) =
for the capacitor noise
1
VC ( s )
=
Vn ( s ) 1 + sRC
> Noise source white
1
f =
df
2
0 1 + (2 fRC )
> Transfer function not flat
R(noiseless)
R
(noisy)
Vn
+
_
Vc
_
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 16.9 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 438. ISBN: 9780792372462.
1
f =
4 RC
k T
vC2 = B
C
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  26
Thermomechanical noise in the tunneling accelerometer
> Wide plates (7mm x 7mm), narrowly spaced (50 m): consider
squeezefilm damping
> Squeezefilm damping holes: estimate about 30 holes, covering
between 1% and 10% of the plate area
Solid plates, at atmosphere :
bsolid
96LW 3
=
0.2 Ns
4 3
m
h0
Disk  shaped plates, one perforated, at 1 atm :
Aholes
0.01 Ns
b perf =
F
3
m
N holesh0 Aplate
Approximate net damping :
2
12Aplate
Figure 1 on p. 236 in Liu, C.H.,
A. M. Barzilai, J. K. Reynolds, A.
Partridge, T. W. Kenny, J. D. Grade,
and H. K. Rockstad. "Characterization
of a Highsensitivity Micromachined
Tunneling Accelerometer with
Microg Resolution." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 7,
no. 2 (June 1998): 235244. 1998 IEEE.
bnet bsolid b perf =
b perf bsolid
bsolid + b perf
0.01 Ns
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  27
Thermomechanical noise in the tunneling accelerometer
> Estimate noise at room temperature
S n ( f ) = 4k BTb 1.7 10
So noise is 1.3 10 11 N
22
N2
Hz
Hz
> Given a proof mass of 30 mg, relate noise force to noise
acceleration
Thermal noise in acceleration : 4.4 10 7 g' s
Hz
With a 1 kHz bandwidth, this is 1.4 g' s sensitivity
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  28
Thermal noise from the electronics?
> Electronics always contribute noise, and frequently are the
dominant noise source
> Amplifiers have some resistive elements in them; hence they
have thermal noise
> Amplifiers have other kinds of noise, too, such as 1/f noise: stay
tuned until we have the tools
> Electronics noise turns out not to be dominant for the tunneling
accelerometer
Tunneling is exponentially sensitive: high change in current for
small change in distance (x3 for 0.1 nm motion near operating point)
High change in current for small acceleration
Compare with small change in capacitance for 0.1 nm motion
Here, electronics introduce noise when signal is already huge
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  29
Shot noise
> The granularity of the electronic charge leads to a noise
associated with the flow of electric current
t
Discrete charge,
no noise
t
Constant
current
Charge
vs. time
t
Discrete charge,
with noise
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  30
Shot noise
> The spectral density function of shot noise is white
(at least at all frequencies of interest)
i (t ) = I DC + in (t )
The shot  noise spectral density function is :
Si ( f ) = 2qe I DC
in2 = Si ( f ) df
0
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  31
Shot noise in the tunneling accelerometer
> Linearize about operating point: output ~ 5 x 105 A/g
Not grams acceleration of gravity
Current depends exponentially on tunneling distance
Acceleration changes linearly with position
> Tunneling current ~ 1 nA
Si ( f ) = 2qe I DC 3 10
28
A2
Hz
Current noise is about 2 1014 A
Hz
Acceleration noise is about 4 1010 g' s
Hz
> Thermomechanical noise is three orders of magnitude larger
than shot noise!
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  32
Flicker Noise (1/f noise)
> Noise with a 1/f spectral density shows up in many systems
and is caused by a wide variety of phenomena
Diodes, earthquakes, biological systems, material creep/relaxation,
sand piles,
> Although the exponent is not always exactly 1, it is generally
called simply 1/f noise or flicker noise
> Important point: 1/f noise shows up a low frequencies
> At higher frequencies, white noise dominates
> The main problem with 1/f noise is that it is often hard to model,
except empirically. You may not know that you have a noise
problem until you measure it.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  33
1/f noise in the tunneling accelerometer
> The earlier tunneling accelerometer papers classify noise
according to type: thermomechanical noise, shot noise, and
excess noise
> 1/f tunneling noise
Migration of atoms on the surface of the tunneling tip
Mobility of adsorbed contaminant molecules
> 1/f mechanical noise
Package relaxation
Thermal creep
Thermal bimorph (metal over the silicon hinge of the proof
mass)
> How to fix it? Through luck or design, find and control the
factors that correlate with the noise.
> In this case, control fluctuations in environmental temperature
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  34
Outline
> Where does noise come from?
> Interference and how to deal with it
> Noise definitions and characterization
> Types of noise
Thermal noise
Shot noise
Flicker noise
> Examples
Electronics (diodes, amplifiers)
Resistance thermometer
> Modulation
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  35
Noise in a Diode
> Charge carriers are trapped in
and released from trap states in
the semiconductor
> Trap and release times depends
on energy of trap state
> A uniformish distribution of
states leads to a 1/fish spectral
density function
rs
rd
contacts and diode neutral regions.
rd is incremental resistance of
exponential diode.
1 dI D qe I D
=
=
rd dVD k BT
There is normal Johnson noise
associated with rs
and a combined shot  noise flicker  noise
spectrum associated with rd
+_ vn
ID
rs is incremental resistance of
Si ( f ) = 2qe I D
in
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 16.10 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 440. ISBN: 9780792372462.
a
(
ID )
+K
f
The exponent a is in the range 0.5  2
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  36
Amplifier Noise
> MOSFETs have relatively high 1/fnoise corner frequencies
> One way to model the noise in a MOSFET is to refer all noise
sources back to one equivalent input noise source
> Noise at first stage is most important, because it is amplified in
successive stages
gate
Vn
_
+
Vin
id
Cgd
Cgb
_
_ source
Vbs
Cgs
+
Vgs
drain
gmbVbs
gmVgs
ro
_
Csb
+ body
Cdb
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Kf
2
(1 + Fn ) +
Sn ( f ) = 4k BT
WLC ox f
3g m
Adapted from Figure 16.11 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 441. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  37
Example: Resistance thermometer
> Toy resistance thermometer system
Use thermometer as one of the resistors for an inverting
amplifier
Assume a metal film resistor: ~ 3 x 103 K1
> We create a noise model for a resistance thermometer by adding
Johnson noise source for the resistor itself
Two inputreferred amplifier noise sources for the opamp
Johnson noise source for the feedback resistor
> We calculate the transfer function for each noise source, and
using its square, find the contribution to the total meansquare
noise
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  38
Transfer function of system
> Contains four terms, one for each noise source.
> We can calculate the minimum detectable temperature change by
computing the rootmeansquare noise
RF
Vs
RT
VnT
_
Vn1
_
Cin
Vn3
_
+
+
_
Signal portion of output :
V0
V0, s =
RF
Vs
RT
Incremental signal in response
Vn2
to a temperature change T
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 16.12 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 443. ISBN: 9780792372462.
V0 =
RF
(VS + vnT + vn1 ) + 1 + RF vn 2 + vn 3
RT
RT
vo , s =
RFVS R
T
RT
Need to compare this to mean  square noise
and, for that, we need the spectral density function
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  39
Noise Spectral Density Function
> We assume uncorrelated noise sources; hence, we can add
spectral density functions
R
S n.o ( f ) = F
RT
R
[S n ,T ( f ) + S n ,1 ( f )] + 1 + F
RT
S n , 2 ( f ) + S n ,3 ( f )
Assume RF = 100 RT and RT = 1 k
Input transistor noise is as follows :
S n ,1 = S n , 2
Kf
2
= 4kbT
+ WLC f
g
3
m
ox
Resistor noise is as follows :
S n ,T = 4kbTRT
S n , F = 4kbTRF = 400kbTRT
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  40
Noise Spectral Density Function
> Noticing that RF/RT >> 1 simplies things
R
S n.o ( f ) = F
RT
R
[S n ,T ( f ) + S n ,1 ( f )] + 1 + F
RT
S n , 2 ( f ) + S n ,3 ( f )
For the FET, we assume L = 2 microns, W = 30 microns, tox = 15 nm
We assume an operating point for the input transistors of 100 microamps,
which sets g m to 300 microSiemens (about 3 k).
2K f
R0
4
+
S n.o ( f ) = 10 4k BT R0 +
+
g
3
100
WL
C
f
m
ox
S n.o ( f ) = 8.9 x 10
13
7.2 x 10 8
+
f
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  41
Outline
> Where does noise come from?
> Interference and how to deal with it
> Noise definitions and characterization
> Types of noise
Thermal noise
Shot noise
Flicker noise
> Examples
Electronics (diodes, amplifiers)
Resistance thermometer
> Modulation
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  42
Two methods of measuring temperature
> Use a DC source:
Result is that the minimum detectable temperature change is
inversely proportional to the source voltage.
But selfheating increases with source voltage
There clearly will be an optimum value of source voltage to
use
> Modulation (use an AC source followed by
synchronous detection)
Shifts the measurement to the white noise portion of the
spectrum
S/N ratio improves by a factor of 100 or so
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  43
DC Source
> Need to assume some finite bandwidth to filter the signal after
amplification. We assume a singlepole filter, with noise
bandwidth 1/4b (recall the noise bandwidth for the RC filter.)
v
2
n ,o
8.9 1013
7.2 108
=
+
df
2
4 b
1 /tm f 1 + (2 f b )
where the lower limit is set by the measurement time
tm
1
1 tm
=
+
df
ln
ln
1
2 2 b
f 1 + (2f b )
2 b
1 / m
For this example assume b = 50 ms, then vo ,rms = 290 V
Assuming R = 3 103 , the final sensitivity for unity S/N is
Tmin
9.7 104
=
VS
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  44
AC Source
> If we use an AC source, the signal appears within a bandwidth
Log noise
about the source frequency, and limits of integration of the
spectral density function to twice the noise bandwidth about that
frequency
Same noise bandwidth, but
lower spectral density at the
higher carrier frequency
Log frequency
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
vo2,n =
Sn ( fo )
= 7.2 10 10 V 2 which corresponds to 27 V rms
2 b
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  45
Modulation Doesnt Always Work
> If the resistor itself has a
fluctuation in value due, for
example, to temperature
fluctuations, these
fluctuations always show up
directly in the same band as
the signal
> If these fluctuations have 1/f
character, then even the
modulated and then
demodulated signal will
show the 1/f spectrum
RT = R0 [1 + (t ) + R T ]
R V
1
V0 (t ) = F S
R0 [1 + (t ) + R T ]
RFVS
[1 (t ) R T ]
V0 (t )
R0
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  46
Conclusions
> Many noise calculations are easily integrated into our existing
approach to modeling, so you can (and should) consider noise
constraints from the earliest stages of design
> The dominant noise sources vary widely from system to system,
so dont make any assumptions
> 1/f noise is less easily dealt with in advance, but careful
debugging and circuit design can help
> Working at a higher frequency (modulation) can sometimes buy
you a lot a device sensitivity
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18  47
Packaging
Carol Livermore*
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
*With thanks to Steve Senturia, from whose lecture notes some of
these materials are adapted
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  1
Outline
> Evolution of the packaging dilemma
> How to approach the challenge of getting a working
system, including:
Packaging
Partitioning
Test
Calibration
> Some common tools and considerations
> Examples
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  2
Package requirements
> Man the gates: let the right things in and out and prevent
other things from entering or leaving
> Protect the die
> Make it easy to interface the die with the rest of the world (outer
layer of packaging must conform to industry expectations)
> Be as inexpensive as possible
> The details can vary greatly
> Some elements that are often seen:
Fabrication/packaging crossover, with first level packaging
occurring at the wafer scale, in the fab
Die attach into a package
Die encapsulation
Making connections
The need to plan for calibration and test!
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  3
Evolution of the MEMS package challenge
> MEMS micromachining and packaging began as answers to a
practical question: If I want to take advantage of silicon
piezoresistivity to measure pressure, what does the rest of the
product look like?
> Subsequent products adapt what they can from the earlier
approach and develop specific solutions where they must
Problem: no universal solutions
Must solve the details for every device design, and the solutions are
almost always different
> Enthusiasm for MEMS grows: packaging often neglected with
painful results
High costs (package cost 10x device cost!), devices that must be
redesigned
Devices cant make the jump to market!
> Present drive to create more widelyapplicable packaging solutions
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  4
A diversity of devices to package
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Motorola accelerometer.
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Hymite/MEMSCAP packaged invivo magnetic switch.
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Ultrasonic transducer array made by Siemens Corporation.
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Motorola manifold absolute pressure sensor.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  5
Outline
> Evolution of the packaging dilemma
> How to approach the challenge of getting a working
system, including:
Packaging
Partitioning
Test
Calibration
> Some common tools and considerations
> Examples
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  6
Key Ideas
> Concurrent design
Design the device and the package at the same time
Often companies have different teams for the two parts
> Partition carefully
Which functionalities go in the chips, and which
functionalities go in the package?
How many chips will it have?
Which functionality goes on each chip?
How will the chips be connected together, and to the
package?
How will the way we partition it affect the way that we have to
test it?
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  7
The question of electronics
> Partitioning electronics and MEMS
Ask yourself honestly if integrating electronic functionality
monolithically with the MEMS device is worth it
It is difficult to optimize two different things simultaneously
Separating fab processes into preelectronics and postelectronics can limit your options severely
Two chips separately are often cheaper than one integrated
chip (remember the Nmasks*Adevice rule?)
A cute, monolithically integrated device that doesnt work
because of unintended interactions between the MEMS
function and the electronics is useless
Some successful commercial products are monolithically
integrated
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  8
Designing for testability
> If the device is expensive, the package is expensive, and the
process of attaching the two is expensive, how much testing
should you do before committing a device to a package?
> There is no universal answer to this question, but it must be
considered for every device. Do a cost analysis with your best
estimates of costs and yields to balance risk and cost.
> The package/test procedure will have a significant impact on the
ultimate cost of building the part, and on its economic viability
> Many systems cant be tested at all without some form of
packaging
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  9
Planning for variations
> Given the many variations possible from fabrication and
packaging (both random and systematic), how do you ensure a
working device at the end?
> Aim for a perfect asfabricated device and no shifts from the
package?
> Aim for a device that is perfect once it has interacted with the
package?
> Admit that you cant control all the factors and simply trim the
hardware once its packaged?
> Admit that you cant control all the factors and simply calibrate
whatever you get in the software?
> All of these are expensive do you want to put a lot of
resources into getting the fab just right, or into fixing each and
every part after its made?
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  10
Checklist before detailed design
> Youre ready to do the detailed design of the system and all of
its components when you have the following:
Complete specifications for both the chip(s) and the package
Specifications for all interconnections
A list of all of the parasitics that you can think of, and some
assessment of their effect on the system operation
Provision for calibration and test
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  11
To do list: the detailed design
> For the MEMS device
A process flow
A mask set
The corresponding device geometry and materials
A model supporting predicted performance
Specification of the test and calibration method
> For the package
Artwork
Specification of components and how they are made (or where
purchased)
Acceptance procedures for packages
> Full assembly
The packaging procedure
Test, acceptance, and calibration
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  12
Outline
> Evolution of the packaging dilemma
> How to approach the challenge of getting a working
system, including:
Packaging
Partitioning
Test
Calibration
> Some common tools and considerations
> Examples
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  13
Die separation
> Multiple dies fabricated on the same wafer must be separated in
order to be packaged and sold
> Die saw common
> Die saw blades are of order 30 m to 250 m thick
> High speed blade rotation, cooled by a flow of water
> Lots of debris, vibrations, and general dirt
> How to protect the device?
Release etch after die saw
Wafer bonding as firstlevel packaging, before the die saw step
Die saw the device upside down
Dont die saw: etch mostly through and crack chips apart
> Question: do you need to do any testing before you separate the
dies?
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  14
Die attach
> Whether ICs or MEMS devices, dies must be attached to a
package
> Package: application specific
> Solder as adhesive: commonly soft solder (lower melting
temperature, about 100 C 400 C)
> Epoxy as adhesive: crosslink when heated (about 50 175 C)
> Polyimide or silicone as adhesive
> Adhesive application: dispense through a nozzle, screen print
> Can use pick and place tools to position dies on top of
adhesive in the package
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  15
Plastic packaging
> The integrated circuit standard
> Very inexpensive, pennies per electrical connection pin
> A thermosetting plastic is melted (ballpark 175 C) and injected
into a mold
> The plastic cools and hardens
> The least expensive approach:
Attach the die to a metal lead frame with an adhesive
Injection mold the plastic around it
Question: will your device and electrical connections survive
this?
Question: will encapsulation in plastic impair its
functionality?
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  16
Plastic packaging
> Second approach: a more flexible, more expensive, gentler
approach to plastic packaging
> Injection mold the package around a lead frame before the die is
attached
> Attach the die with an adhesive
> Cap the package
> Applications:
Fragile devices or electrical connections
Achieving connections that are not standard in IC packages,
such as fluid connections or optical transparency
Special requirements are integrated into the package cap
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  17
Ceramic packaging
> Collections of particles are sintered at temperatures ranging
from 800 C to 1600 C to form the package (often alumina, Al2O3)
> Ceramic packages are often processed as laminates
Individual layers can have screen printed electric
interconnects, metal film resistors, and even interlayer via
connections
Anneal the package; braze pins to package
Make electrical connection between die and package
Cap and seal the package (applicationspecific)
Resistors on the outer layer can be trimmed after the die is
packaged
> Durable, potentially wellsealed (hermetic)
> Higher cost (ballpark a few tens of dollars vs. less than a dollar)
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  18
Metal packaging
> A solution for harsh environments or relatively quick
prototyping
> Can be wellsealed (hermetic)
> Common materials: Kovar or stainless steel
> When features are more important than cost, can simply
machine the package with the needed features
> Example: a pressure sensor for environments that silicon
cannot tolerate
Package a Si pressure sensor in a stainless steel package
Cap the package in part with a thin stainless steel diaphragm
Fill the gap between Si and steel with oil to transfer the
pressure
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  19
Making electrical connections
> Techniques adopted from IC packaging
> Wire bonding connects electrical contact pads on die to
electrical contact pads in package
An ultrasonic sewing machine that stitches with wire
Heat + pressure + ultrasonic energy joins wire to contact pad
Frequency considerations: ultrasound may excite a
resonance
Thickness of bond pads
> Flipchip bonding
Chip turns upside down; solder bumps attach it directly to
package
Heat to flow solder (think about temperature)
Smaller connections/lower inductance than with wirebonding
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  20
Making fluid connections
> Not standardized
> Techniques at the laboratory scale
Oring seals and conventional tubing
Glue a tube in a hole (includes more sophisticated
approaches)
Stick a needle through a polymer structure, and inject
through it
> For labonachip applications: various proposals for the world
to chip interface
> For a pressure sensor: protect the membrane with a cap layer
and route a hole in the package to the connector of your choice
(ie screw thread)
> For your application?
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  21
Packaging in the fab why do it?
> Your structure will become so fragile when you do the release etch that
you will no longer be able to package it
> Your device wont survive die saw unless the fragile parts are
encapsulated
> You want to minimize the package size
> You cant afford to have any particulates on your device, so it needs to
be encapsulated before it leaves the cleanroom
> Its less expensive in your case
> You expect the quality of the seal to be better in a microscale process
such as anodic bonding than in a macroscale process such as gluing
> You want to create a sealed cavity with vacuum inside
> You want to create a sealed cavity with a controlled atmosphere inside
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  22
Sealing
> Vacuum operation
Device needs to operate at vacuum, or some fixed pressure,
without ever being pumped out again
Examples: measuring absolute pressure, high Q resonators
Typically accomplished in the fabrication process rather than
in packaging
Approaches: wafer bonding, deposited films as sealants
Concern: outgassing
> Isolation from environment
> Hermetic packaging
Device doesnt need to operate at vacuum, but if water gets
inside, the device will eventually be destroyed
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  23
Vacuum sealing by anodic bonding
> Anodic bonding to seal a pressure sensor
> Fabricate on a Si wafer; dissolve it away at the end
Figure 4 on p. 582 in: Chavan, A. V., and K. D. Wise. "BatchProcessed, VacuumSealed Capacitive Pressure Sensors.
Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 10, no. 4 (December 2001): 580588. 2001 IEEE.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  24
Vacuum sealing by fusion bonding
> An ultrasonic transducer (a microphone, essentially) sealed by
silicon fusion bonding
> Contact in vacuum; risk of outgassing on anneal
Figure 1 on p. 130 in Huang, Y.,
A. S. Ergun, E. Haeggstrom, M. H. Badi, and
B. T. KhuriYakub. "Fabricating Capacitive
Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers with
Waferbonding Technology." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 12, no. 2
(April 2003): 128137. 2003 IEEE.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  25
Vacuum sealing by film deposition
> An ultrasonic transducer sealed by a deposited film
> Using the stringer effect for a good cause
> Could worry about outgassing
Figure 16 on p. 106 in Jin, X., I. Ladabaum, F. L. Degertekin, S. Calmes, and B. T.
KhuriYakub. "Fabrication and Characterization of Surface Micromachined
Capacitive Ultrasonic Immersion Transducers. Journal of Microelectromechanical
Systems 8, no. 1 (March 1999): 100114. 1999 IEEE.
Figure 2 on p. 101 in Jin, X., I. Ladabaum, F. L. Degertekin, S. Calmes,
and B. T. KhuriYakub. "Fabrication and Characterization of Surface
Micromachined Capacitive Ultrasonic Immersion Transducers." Journal
of Microelectromechanical Systems 8, no. 1 (March 1999): 100114.
1999 IEEE.
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  26
Resonator with thin film vacuum packaging
Figure 10 on p. 290 in Lin, L., R. T. Howe, and A. P. Pisano. "Microelectromechanical Filters for Signal Processing."
Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 7, no. 3 (September 1998): 286294. 1998 IEEE.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  27
Resonator with thin film vacuum packaging
Figure 11 on p. 291 in Lin, L., R. T. Howe, and A. P. Pisano. "Microelectromechanical Filters for Signal Processing."
Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 7, no. 3 (September 1998): 286294. 1998 IEEE.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  28
Isolation from the environment
> Example: an automotive pressure sensor
The membrane must be able to feel the pressure
But, the environment is not inert
Solution: coat the business part to protect it while not
compromising the functionality
> Example: bioMEMS, especially in the body
Biocompatible but functional
> Parylene is useful here
Conformal material, deposition near room temperature
Minimal structural impact
Resistant to water, many organic solvents, weak acids/bases,
salt, fuel but it is not invulnerable.
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  29
Hermetic packaging
> Moisture is bad and can lead to corrosion in the most benign of
circumstances
> Electronics and MEMS often last much longer and are more
reliable if moisture is kept out
> Definition of hermetic: prevents the diffusion of helium, with a
definition for the maximum allowable helium leak rate
Perfect hermeticity does not exist in practice
> Working definition of hermetic: keeps the moisture out
> Good material choices: silicon, metal, ceramic, thick glass (mm
thickness or above)
> Bad material choices: plastics, organic materials
> All connectors must also be hermetically sealed
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  30
Permeability chart
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  31
Considerations when selecting packaging
> First, everything that you need to think about in designing the
device itself
> Electrical parasitics
> Stress: will your package squeeze your device and change its
characteristics?
> Will you be able to calibrate and test your device? When and
how? All significant packageinduced variations must occur
before that point, or else be accounted for in advance.
> Other concerns: fragility, range of temperature operation and
CTE, etc.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  32
Outline
> Evolution of the packaging dilemma
> How to approach the challenge of getting a working
system, including:
Packaging
Partitioning
Test
Calibration
> Some common tools and considerations
> Examples
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  33
Labscale packaging: micro rocket
> If Im just trying to get a degree, and I dont plan on selling this
device, do I still have to design the package with the device?
> YES!!! (You want the degree, right?)
Courtesy of Adam London. Used with permission.
Courtesy of Adam London. Used with permission.
Source: Adam London, MIT.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  34
Labscale packaging: micro turbine
> Micro turbine device, with fluidic and electrical connections
> Fluid connections: seal acrylic plate to die via orings
> Questions to think about BEFORE sending out the masks: will
the pressure distort the die? Is there room for the orings?
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  35
Pressure Sensor Case Study
> A Motorola manifoldabsolutepressure (MAP) sensor
> Silicon micromachined diaphragm with piezoresistive sensing
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Motorola manifold absolute pressure sensor.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  36
Device and Package Concept
> Monolithic pressure sensor with circuitry in a custom bipolar
process mounted on silicon ($$$) support mounted in plastic
package
Silicone gel die coat
Pressure
Stainless steel cap
Wire bond
Sensor on
backplate
Lead frame
Premolded plastic case
Silicone die bond
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Motorola. Sensor Device Data/Handbook. 4th ed. Phoenix, AZ: Motorola, Inc., 1998.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  37
The Arguments for Monolithic
> Smaller overall system
> More reliable interconnect
> Solves a customers problem:
Does away with a circuit board
Therefore, may be a cheaper total solution for the customer
even if the integrated sensor by itself is more expensive than
the hybrid sensor
> Its a business decision.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  38
Define Interfaces
> Electrical interface: how many pins?
The sensor needs only three pins
> Mechanical interface: a stainless steel lid on the package
> When to calibrate? Before or after packaging?
Things to consider
Packageinduced stress
Gelseal induced shift in calibration
> The decision: Calibrate after bonding into the package, but
before the gelseal.
Cost: EXTRA PINS ON THE PACKAGE
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  39
Waferlevel packaging
> Cant use fusion bonding
Silicon
(circuitry cant stand it)
> What about anodic bonding?
Glass frit
> Bonding to silicon backplane
Silicon
using a glassfrit bond (more
forgiving of deviations from
wafer flatness)
WD7
> Firing temperature between 450
and 500 C.
> Must be void free and more
Die attach
pure than standard glass frits
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  40
Details and headaches
> Package material and molding process: avoiding leaks
> Die attach
Originally used RTV (roomtemperature vulcanized) silicone
adhesives
Now use a gellike silicone or fluorosilicone that requires 150 C cure
(rubbery material transfers low stress to the chip)
Biggest problem: batch to batch variation of the dieattach material
> Wire bonding
With the chip sitting on a gel base, how can you wire bond to it?
Heat transfer through the gel is poor
Mechanical support is soft
Motorola developed custom tooling to apply heat directly to the chip
during wire bonding
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  41
More details and headaches
> Final gel encapsulant
Must wire bond before trimming, but
cannot put final gel coat on until after
trimming
Gel does produce a small shift in
response
Calibration targets must be predistorted to anticipate the effect of the
gel coat
Batch to variations in gel materials can
then create problems
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
> Next level assembly: keeping
customers happy
Market fragmentation
Different customers want different
nextlevel assemblies (Ford doesnt
want a Chrysler package)
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  42
Example: a newer capping technology
> Disclaimer:
This is not a sales pitch. This particular technology is described
here simply because it is welldescribed in the literature. Flexible
packaging techniques are of wide interest.
> Concept: bulkmicromachined silicon caps with integrated
interconnects, assembled onto dies at the waferscale
> Electrical connections and hermetic package seal made by flipchip solder bonding and throughcap interconnects
> Small overall package sizes possible
> Clean (no particles from ceramic components), CTE matched to
minimize damage and packagedevice interaction
> Reference: Elger et al., presented at IMAPS 04, cap technology
by Hymite
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  43
Application for this example
> MEMS switch for in vivo use, to be switched by an external
magnetic field
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  44
Details
> Caps made by standard KOH/electroplating bulk
micromachining process
SOI substrate, KOH etched from both sides
> Including interconnects in device would lower yield and affect
device process flow
> Throughcap interconnects permit flipchip bonding to device
and to outside world with minimal disturbance to device process
> Silicon caps can be cleaned with chips before assembly to
minimize unwanted material in sealedcavity
> Moderately low melting solder with no flux (no organic
contamination)
> Pick and place assembly, or wafer to wafer transfer; heat in the
pick and place tool to prevent caps from sliding
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  45
Bottom line
> People are actively trying to create and sell techniques like this
that can package a greater (though still not infinite) set of MEMS
devices with a single process and vendor
> This may make the life of the MEMS designer easier, permit
smaller packages, and (hopefully some day) smooth the trip to
market for some MEMS devices
> But there is still no universal solution: what if you need optical
access, fluidic access?
> And you still have to design the device and the packaging
process together, even as the number and convenience of
available tools increases
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  46
Where to learn more
> Nadim Maluf, An Introduction to Microelectromechanical
Systems Engineering, Artech House, 2000.
> Handbooks of microelectronics packaging, such as:
R.R. Tummala and E.J. Rymaszewski (eds.), Microelectronics
Packaging Handbook, Reinhold, 1989.
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19  47
6.777J/2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices
Spring Term 2007
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
InClass Design Exercise
April 25, 2007
Accelerometers are starting to be deployed for consumer applications such as cell phones. Accelerometers in
this market do not need high precision or accuracy, but they must occupy a smallvolume, lowprofile
package. Below is a simplified schematic for the accelerometer that we will consider in this exercise. Youll
later find out that they are fancier than this, but for now, this is quite challenging enough.
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Specifications
Area of capacitive fingers: 100,000 m2
Mass of proof mass: 3 g (Si=2300 kg/m3)
Max area of system: 15 mm2
Max height: 2.0 mm
Number of bond pads: 4
Onchip bond pad size: 50 m x 50 m (unless using CSP, in which case use those dimensions)
Spacing between onchip bond pads: 50 m (unless using CSP)
Packaged device must withstand reflow temperatures for flip chip mounting of packaged device.
Packaged in vacuum.
Electrical connection from proof mass fingers to 4 bond pads.
Your task is to design a fabrication process flow and a package process to create an accelerometer that meets
the above specs. You should determine the important dimensions of your device and package. Youre free
to use bulk micromachining or surface micromachining, to start your packaging at the wafer scale or not, etc.
You need to consider everything: when the wafer is diced, when the proof mass is released, attachment into
the package, etc. Be sure to think about unintended interactions, such as thermal mismatch. Make sure that
you meet the specs above; within those constraints, your goal is to come up with the smallest packaged device
that can be mounted on a circuit board.
Cite as: Carol Livermore and Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and
Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare
(http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
Packaging options
Waferlevel chipscale packaging (CSP)
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Hermetic: Dictated by chip.
Package thickness: Equal to chip thickness + 100 m for solder bumps.
Maximum chip thickness: none
Note: solder bumps are applied at the wafer level. The wafer must be able to withstand
electroplating of a 5 m Cu seed layer onto the pads, screen printing a solder paste, and
then reflowing the paste at 225 C to form bumps.
Dimensions:
e
e
a
c
a
c,d
e
(mm)
0.18
0.5
0.32
a
b
c,d
e
f
g
(mm)
0.64
1.27
1.27
1.27
1.0
1.8
Leadless ceramic chip carrier (LCCC)
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Hermetic: Yes.
Package thickness: 1.8 mm
Maximum chip thickness: 800 m
Dimensions:
d
a
c
Die
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Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare
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Dual flat nolead package (DFN)
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Hermetic: No.
Package thickness: 0.9 mm
Maximum chip thickness: 350 m
Dimensions:
d
a,b
c
d
e
f
g
a
c
(mm)
0.5
1.0
1.5
0.5
0.8
0.9
Die
Cite as: Carol Livermore and Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and
Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare
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Design choices: MEMS actuators
Carol Livermore
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
With thanks to Prof. S. Mark Spearing, from whose work some of
this material is obtained.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  1
Outline
> Sorting through design options
> Actuator characteristics, examples of actuators, and
theoretical and practical limits
Electrostatic
Thermal
Piezoelectric
Magnetic
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  2
Motivation
> We now have lots of domain knowledge that we can apply to
decide whether a particular design is good enough for a
particular application
> How do you develop your intuition about which approaches are
likely to meet the needs of a given application?
Experience?
Literature search?
> One approach: borrow the concept of design charts, a tool
commonly used at the macroscale for basic design choices
(which material to choose?)
> D.J. Bell, T.J. Lu, N.A. Fleck, and S.M. Spearing, MEMS Sensor
and Actuator Selection: Database and Case Study, J.
Micromechanics and Microengineering, v 15, p. S153, 2005.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  3
Sample Materials Comparison Chart
1000
Youngs modulus E
(G = 3E/8 ; K = E.)
Be
MFA:8891
Youngs modulus, E (GPa)
12
10
Engineering
composites
104
Parallel
to grain
Balsa
Wood
Products
Woods
1.0
3x10
ASH
OAK
PINE
FIR
Lower E limit
for true solids
Perpendicular
to grain
Spruce
3x102
0.01
0.1
Mg
Alloys
Polymers foams
0.3
ZrO2
BeO
Porous
ceramics
Engineering
alloys
Engineering
polymers
Polyesters
PP
HDPE
Hard
BUTYL PU
Silicone
Soft
BUTYL
1.0
Guide lines for
minimum weight
design
PTFE
E
=C
Plasticised D
PVC
103
Cork
Sialons
MEL
PC
Epoxies
PS
PMMA
PVC
Nylon
LDPE
Balsa
0.1
KFRP
ASH
OAK
PINE
FIR
Aluminas
Mo WAlloys
Alloys
Si
Ni Alloys
CFRP Glasses
Steels
UNIPLY
3e
Cu Alloys
Pottery Ti Alloys
Zn Alloys
KFRP
Al Alloys
GFRP
CFRP
Tin Alloys
Rock, stone
Cement, concrete
Laminates
GFRP
Lead alloys
100
) E ) (m/s)
WCCo
Engineering
Ceramics
Diamond
B SIC Sl2N4
1. ModulusDensity
Elastomers
1
E 2
=C
1
E 3
=C
Density, (Mg /m3)
10
30
Material Selection in
Mechanical Design,
M.F Ashby, Pergamon
Press, Oxford, 1995.
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Ashby, M. F. Material Selection in Mechanical Design. Boston, MA: ButterworthHeinemann,
1995. ISBN: 9780750627276.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  4
Different criteria for different actuator applications
> Nanopositioners
Speed, resolution, range, repeatability, robustness against
disturbances, ability to sense as well as actuate
> Micro mechanical testing apparatus
Range of motion, force, ability to sense as well as actuate,
speed
> RF MEMS
Speed, range of motion, force, power dissipation, voltage
required, ability to sense as well as actuate
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  5
RF MEMS Approach
> Active RF circuit components
Implement through CMOS compatible circuits
> Reconfigurable system that allows multiple functionalities
MEMS ohmic contact switches with low losses and good
isolation and linearity
MEMS variable capacitors (instead of CMOS capacitors)
> Integrate passive components in place, saving space in the
overall system
> Some issues:
Reliability can be an issue for MEMS switches (accumulated
damage to contacting surface)
Limited capacitance range for MEMS variable capacitors,
though losses are low, and linearity and high power
performance are good
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  6
RF MEMS Components
> Switches and relays open circuits, close circuits, or connect
signals to ground
Includes RF signal electrodes and actuating electrodes
If the actuating signal and the RF signal exist on the same
pair of electrodes, its a switch
If the actuating signal and the RF signal exist on different
sets of electrodes, its a relay
> Variable capacitors can be tuned continually over their range
> Switchable capacitors can switch between two discrete
capacitance values
> Resonators vibrate at a particular (often tunable) frequency and
>
are useful for filters
Components use a common set of actuation mechanisms
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  7
The Wish List for RF MEMS
> Low power operation
> Fast switching
> High force (especially for making electrical contact)
> Large analogcontrollable actuator travel
> Simple fabrication
Few masks
Standard, CMOScompatible processes and materials
Ability to be fabricated on the same chip as circuits
> Low voltage
> Robust operation, not prone to failures
> Ability to sense as well as actuate
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  8
Outline
> Sorting through design options
> Actuator characteristics, examples of actuators, and
theoretical and practical limits
Electrostatic
Thermal
Piezoelectric
Magnetic
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  9
Major Classes of MEMS Actuators
> Electrostatic
Attraction between oppositely charged
conductors
Figure 1 on p. 222 in Agrawal, V. "A Latching MEMS Relay for DC and RF
Applications." Electrical Contacts2004: Proceedings of the 50th IEEE Holm
Conference on Electrical Contacts; The 22nd International Conference on
Electrical Contacts, Seattle, WA. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2004, pp. 222225.
ISBN: 9780780384606. 2004 IEEE.
> Thermal
Displacement due to thermal
expansion
> Piezoelectric
Displacement due to strain induced by
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Figure 11 on p. 342 in Zavracky, P. M., N. E.
McGruer, R. H. Morrison, and D. Potter.
"Microswitches and Microrelays with a View
Toward Microwave Applications." International
Journal of RF and Microwave ComputerAided
Engineering 9, no. 4 (1999): 338347.
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
4 actuators displayed sidebyside to show
how small they are.
an electric field
> Magnetic
Displacement due to interaction among
various magnetic elements:
permanent magnets, external magnetic
Figure 8 on p. 43 in De Los Santos, H. J., G. Fischer, H. A. C. Tilmans, and J. T. M.
fields, magnetizable material, andvan
Beek. "RF MEMS for Ubiquitous Wireless Connectivity. Part I. Fabrication." IEEE
Mirowave Magazine 5, no. 4 (December 2004) 3649. 2004 IEEE.
currentcarrying conduct
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  10
Recessed Actuation Electrodes
Spring
Upper capacitor plate
Lower capacitor plate
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  11
Gaining Additional Travel with Leveraged Bending
> Pullin is modified if the actuating electrodes are
away from the point of closest approach
1)
2)
Figure 3 on p. 499 in Hung, E. S., and S. D. Senturia.
"Extending the Travel Range of Analogtuned Electrostatic Actuators."
Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 8, no. 4 (December 1999):
497505. 1999 IEEE.
with stressstiffening
3)
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  12
Zipper electrostatic actuators
Figure 1 on p. 29 in Ionis, G. V., A. Dec, and K. Suyama. "A Zipperaction
Differential Micromechanical Tunable Capacitor." MEMS 2001: 2001
Microelectromechanical Systems Conference, Berkeley, CA, August, 2426,
2001. New York, NY: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2002.
ISBN: 9780780372245. 2002 IEEE.
Curved electrode actuators
Variable capacitor for RF
Figure 10 on p. 263 in Legtenberg, R., J. Gilbert, S. D. Senturia, and M.
Elwenspoek. "Electrostatic Curved Electrode Actuators." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 6, no. 3 (September 1997): 257265.
1997 IEEE.
Figure 2 on p. 30 in Ionis, G. V., A. Dec, and K. Suyama. "A Zipperaction
Differential Micromechanical Tunable Capacitor." MEMS 2001: 2001
Microelectromechanical Systems Conference, Berkeley, CA, August, 2426,
2001. New York, NY: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2002.
ISBN: 9780780372245. 2002 IEEE.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  13
Comb Drive Application: Variable Capacitor
Images removed due to copyright restrictions.
Figure 2 on p. 126 in Yao, J. J., S. Park, and J. DeNatale. "High Tuningratio MEMSbased Tunable Capacitors for RF
Communications Applications." 1998 Hilton Head Workshop on SolidState Sensors and Actuators, Technical Digest 98TRF0001.
Areatuning capacitor made by deep reactive ion etching.
Tuning with area rather than gap promotes stability and tuning
range, but fabrication is more challenging and expensive.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  14
Electrostatic inchworm actuatorss
Figure 4d on p. 332 in Yeh, R., S. Hollar,
and K. S. J. Pister. "Single Mask, Large
Force, and Large Displacement
Electrostatic Linear Inchworm Motors."
Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
11, no. 4 (August 2002): 330336. 2002 IEEE.
Figure 5 on p. 333 in Yeh, R., S. Hollar, and K. S. J. Pister. "Single Mask, Large Force, and
Large Displacement Electrostatic Linear Inchworm Motors." Journal of Microelectromechanical
ystems 11, no. 4 (August 2002): 330336. 2002 IEEE.
Inchworm (more travel by
repeated motion)
Figure 4c on p. 332 in Yeh, R., S. Hollar, and K. S. J. Pister. "Single Mask,
Large Force, and Large Displacement Electrostatic Linear Inchworm Motors."
Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 11, no. 4 (August 2002): 330336.
2002 IEEE.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  15
Electrostatic distributed actuators
Figure 1 on p. 122 in Minami, K., S. Kawamura, and M. Esashi. "Fabrication of Distributed Electrostatic Micro
Actuator (DEMA)." Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 2, no. 3 (September 1993): 121127. 1993 IEEE.
Distributed actuators (more force and distance by series and parallel
combination)
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  16
Electrostatic scratch drive actuators
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Figure 1 on p. 737 in Li, L., J. G. Brown, and
D. Uttamchandri. "Study of Scratch Drive
Actuator Force Characteristics." Journal of
Micromechanics and Microengineering 12,
no. 6 (November 2002): 736741.
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Figure 4 on p. 738 in Li, L., J. G. Brown, and
D. Uttamchandri. "Study of Scratch Drive
Actuator Force Characteristics." Journal of
Micromechanics and Microengineering 12,
no. 6 (November 2002): 736741.
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Figure 2 on p. 737 in Li, L., J. G. Brown, and
D. Uttamchandri. "Study of Scratch Drive
Actuator Force Characteristics." Journal of
Micromechanics and Microengineering 12,
no. 6 (November 2002): 736741.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  17
10000
10000
1000
1000
Breakdown voltage
Breakdown field
100
100
10
10
10
100
1000
Breakdown field (V/m)
Breakdown voltage (V)
Limits on electrostatic actuators: Paschens curve
1
10000
SeparationPressure (matm)
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
J. Judy, masters thesis, Berkeley.
Original reference: F. Paschen, Ann. Physik, 273 (1889) pp. 6996.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  18
Electrostatic actuators: force and distance
1 mN
1 m
1 mm
Courtesy of S. Mark Spearing. Used with permission.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  19
Electrostatic actuators: frequency and force
1 MHz
1 kHz
1 Hz
1 mN
Courtesy of S. Mark Spearing. Used with permission.
Max frequency reflects reported values and resonant frequencies.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  20
Electrostatic Actuators and the Wish List
> Low power operation
> Fast switching (electrical RC times, maybe resonance)
> High force (obtain N to maybe mN if heroic)
> Large analogcontrollable actuator travel
> Simple fabrication
Few masks
Standard, CMOScompatible processes and materials
Ability to be fabricated on the same chip as circuits
> Low voltage
> Robust operation, not prone to failures (stiction, dust)
soso
> Ability to sense as well as actuate
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  21
Thermal Actuation
> Heat up a moveable structure; when it expands, you get force
and displacement
> A variety of different structures can take advantage of this type
of actuation (example: thermal bimorph in a circuit breaker)
> Good features:
High force, moderate displacement
Lower actuation voltages
Relatively simple fabrication
> Not so good features:
Slower switching speeds (hundreds of microseconds)
Higher power dissipation: continuous current needed to
maintain displacement unless structure latches
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  22
Thermal bimorph actuator
Images removed due to copyright restrictions.
Figure 1 on p. 411 and Figure 4a) on p. 412 in Sehr, H., I. S. Tomlin, B. Huang, S. P. Beeby, A. G. R. Evans, A.
Brunnschweiler, G. J. Ensell, C. G. J. Schabmueller, and T. E. G. Niblock. "Time Constant and Lateral Resonances
of Thermal Vertical Bimorph Actuators." Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering 12, no. 4 (July 2002): 410413.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  23
Buckle Beam Thermal Actuator
> Concept:
Run a current through a
Vshaped beam
Power dissipation heats
beam and makes it
expand
Prebuckled shape
ensures that point of V
moves outward
> Uniform heat dissipation in
beam
Figure 1 on p. 652 in Girbau, D., A. Lazaro, and L. Pradell. "RF MEMS
Switches Based on the Bucklebeam Thermal Actuator." 33rd
European Microwave Conference, 2003, Munich, Germany,
October 79, 2003: Conference Proceedings 2 (2003): 651654. 2003 IEEE.
> Center heats up more
because its more isolated
from the supports
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  24
Buckle Beam Thermal Actuator
> Force increases linearly when
actuators are connected in
parallel
> Displacement is unchanged
> Used here to close RF
switches in series and
parallel configurations
> One consideration: it can be
harder to get low contact
resistance for contact
between vertical sidewalls
than for contact between
horizontal surfaces
Figures 6 and 7 on p. 653 in Girbau, D., A. Lazaro, and L. Pradell.
RF MEMS Switches Based on the Bucklebeam Thermal Actuator.
33rd European Microwave Conference, 2003, Munich, Germany,
October 79, 2003: Conference Proceedings 2 (2003): 651654. 2003 IEEE.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  25
Electrothermal Actuator: Heatuator
Basic heatuator with one wide
and one narrow beam
Figure 1 on p. 222 in Agrawal, V. "A Latching MEMS Relay
for DC and RF Applications." Electrical Contacts2004:
Proceedings of the 50th IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical
Contacts; The 22nd International Conference on Electrical
Contacts, Seattle, WA. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2004, pp. 222225.
ISBN: 9780780384606. 2004 IEEE.
Modified heatuator: two narrow
beams and one unheated signal beam
Figure 2 on p. 222 in Agrawal, V. "A Latching MEMS Relay for DC and RF
Applications." Electrical Contacts2004: Proceedings of the 50th IEEE Holm Conference on
Electrical Contacts; The 22nd International Conference on Electrical Contacts, Seattle, WA,
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2004, pp. 222225. ISBN: 9780780384606. 2004 IEEE.
> Analogous to a thermal bimorph, except bimaterial
sandwich is replaced by a wide signal beam (cold)
and narrow beams (hot).
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  26
Electrothermal Relay with Mechanical Latch
Mechanical latch reduces
power consumption after
switching and closes the
relay.
Figure 3 on p. 223 in Agrawal, V. "A Latching MEMS Relay for DC and RF Applications." Electrical
contacts2004: proceedings of the 50th IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts; the 22nd
International Conference on Electrical Contacts, Seattle, WA. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2004, pp. 222225.
ISBN: 9780780384606. 2004 IEEE.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  27
Thermal actuators: force and distance
1N
1 mN
1 m
Courtesy of S. Mark Spearing. Used with permission.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  28
Thermal actuators: frequency and force
1 kHz
1 mN
1N
Courtesy of S. Mark Spearing. Used with permission.
Max frequency reflects reported values and thermal time constants.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  29
Thermal Actuators and the Wish List
> Low power operation
> Fast switching
soso
> High force (N to N, mN typical)
> Large analogcontrollable actuator travel (1100 um)
> Simple fabrication (is possible, at least)
3
Few masks
Standard, CMOScompatible processes and materials
Ability to be fabricated on the same chip as circuits
> Low voltage
> Robust operation, not prone to failures
> Ability to sense as well as actuate
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  30
Piezoelectric Actuation
> Apply an electric field across a piezoelectric material;
deformation (strain) results, along with actuator
deflection and force
> Different piezoelectric geometries are possible
> Good features:
High force
High switching speeds
Low power dissipation
> Not so good features:
Small strains must be engineered into useful displacements
Complex fabrication and nontrivial materials
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  31
Piezoelectric Actuators
___________________ Used with permission. Figure 1a on p. 92 in
Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., http://www.sciencedirect.com.
Zhang, Q. Q., S. J. Gross, S. Tadigadapa, T. N. Jackson, F. T. Djuth, and S. TrolierMcKinstry. "Lead
Zirconate Titanate Films for d33 Mode Cantilever Actuators." Sensors and Actuators A, Physical 105,
no. 1 (June 2003): 9197.
> PZT layer is fabricated on top of cantilever, sandwiched between
electrodes, and poled in the vertical direction
> Electric field is applied between top and bottom electrodes,
parallel to polarization
> d31: PZT develops a negative strain in the transverse direction;
>
rest of cantilever does not
Cantilever bends up
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  32
Piezoelectric Actuators
___________________ Used with permission. Figure 1a on p. 92 in
Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., http://www.sciencedirect.com.
Zhang, Q. Q., S. J. Gross, S. Tadigadapa, T. N. Jackson, F. T. Djuth, and S. TrolierMcKinstry. "Lead
Zirconate Titanate Films for d33 Mode Cantilever Actuators." Sensors and Actuators A, Physical 105,
no. 1 (June 2003): 9197.
> If electric field is opposite to the polarization, the cantilever will
deflect in the opposite direction, up to a point
> Consequence: stronger restoring forces and faster responses
possible than with an unactuated return
> If antiparallel electric field is too large, PZT will repole in the
other direction
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  33
Piezoelectric Actuators
Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., ____________________
http://www.sciencedirect.com. Used with permission. Figure 1b on p. 92 in
Zhang, Q. Q., S. J. Gross, S. Tadigadapa, T. N. Jackson, F. T. Djuth, and S. TrolierMcKinstry. "Lead
Zirconate Titanate Films for d33 Mode Cantilever Actuators." Sensors and Actuators A, Physical 105,
no. 1 (June 2003): 9197.
> PZT layer is fabricated on top of cantilever, under interdigitated
electrodes
> Electric field is in the plane; PZT is poled in the plane
> d33: With E parallel to poling, PZT develops a positive strain in
the direction of its length; cantilever bends down
> Again, antiparallel E has opposite effect within limits
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  34
Piezoelectric RF MEMS Switch
> Piezoelectric cantilever driven by
interdigitated electrodes, d33
> Cantilever is multilayer stack,
both for film stress compensation
(so the cantilever starts out flat)
and for maximum actuation force
and deflection
> Cantilever layers, from the
bottom: 50 nm oxide barrier, 500
nm SiN structural layer, 50 nm
oxide adhesion layer, 300 nm
zirconia, 230 nm PZT, Cr/Au
electrodes and contacts
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Figures 1a and 1b on p. 175 in Gross, S. J., S. Tadigadapa,
T. N. Jackson, S. TrolierMcKinstry, and Q. Q. Zhang.
"Leadzirconatetitanatebased Piezoelectric Micromachined
Switch." Applied Physics Letters 83, no. 1 (July 2003): 174176.
> Few microsecond switching
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  35
Thin Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator (FBAR)
> Suspended structure: a sandwich
of piezoelectric material between
electrodes
> Apply an AC signal to electrodes
at the proper frequency, and the
piezoelectric resonates
mechanically
Figure 1 on p. 1687 in Wang, K., P. Bradley, and M. Gat.
"Micromachined Bulk Acousticalwave RF Filters." In 2004
7th International Conference on SolidState and Integrated
Circuits Technology proceedings, ICSICT 2004: October
1821, 2004, Beijing, China, edited by Ru Huang. Piscataway,
NJ: IEEE Press, 2004, pp. 16871690. ISBN: 9780780385115.
2004 IEEE.
> Air interfaces minimize acoustic
losses into surrounding medium
> In commercial use (sold by Agilent
for cell phones)
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  36
Thin Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator (FBAR)
> Materials challenges:
Repeatability of piezoelectrics
properties (choose AlN and work
the process until it is repeatable)
Low acoustic losses and low
electrical losses (choose
Figure 2 on p. 814 in Ruby, R. C., P. Bradley, Y. Oshmyansky, A. Chien, and J. D. Larson, III. "Thin
molybdenum)
Film Bulk Wave Acoustic Resonators (FBAR) for Wireless Applications." In 2001 IEEE Ultrasonics
proceedings, an international symposium: October 710, 2001, Omni Hotel, Atlanta,
> Fabrication challenges: Symposium
Georgia, edited by Donald E. Yuhas and Susan C. Schneider. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2001,
pp. 813821. ISBN: 9780780371774. 2001 IEEE.
Precise control of layer thickness
Process compatibility (with IC and
piezoelectric)
Structure built over an oxidefilled
cavity in the substrate; oxide
removed at end to release
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
4 actuators displayed sidebyside to show how small they are.
Packaging in the fab, by wafer
bonding
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  37
Piezoelectric Actuators and the Wish List
> Low power operation
> Fast switching
> High force (10 N to mN)
> Large analogcontrollable actuator travel (<0.1 m to mm) soso
> Simple fabrication
2
Few masks
Standard, CMOScompatible processes and materials
Ability to be fabricated on the same chip as circuits
> Low voltage
soso
> Robust operation, not prone to failures
> Ability to sense as well as actuate
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  38
Magnetic Actuation
> Many variations on the magnetic actuators theme
Permanent magnets interacting with an external field
Permanent magnets interacting with currentcarrying coils
Current carrying conductors interacting with an external field
Variable reluctance devices
> An important good feature: high force
> Not so good features:
Current drive means high power dissipation
Fabrication complexity and severe materials challenges
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  39
Electromagnetic actuators
Figure 3 on p. 79 in Cho, H. J., and C. H. Ahn. "A Bidirectional
Magnetic Microactuator Using Electroplated Permanent Magnet
Arrays." Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 11, no. 1
(February 2002): 7884. 2002 IEEE.
Figure 1 on p. 79 in Cho, H. J., and C. H. Ahn. "A Bidirectional
Magnetic Microactuator Using Electroplated Permanent Magnet
Arrays." Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 11, no. 1
(February 2002): 7884. 2002 IEEE.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  40
External magnetic field actuators
Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., ____________________
http://www.sciencedirect.com. Used with permission.
Figure 1 on p. 260 in Khoo, M., and C. Liu. "Micro Magnetic Silicone Elastome
Membrane Actuator. Sensors and Actuators A, Physical 89, no. 3 (April 2001):
259266.
Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., ____________________
http://www.sciencedirect.com. Used with permission.
Figure 6 on p. 262 in Khoo, M., and C. Liu. "Micro Magnetic Silicone Elastome
Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., ____________________
http://www.sciencedirect.com. Used with permission. Membrane Actuator. Sensors and Actuators A, Physical 89, no. 3 (April 2001):
Figure 2 on p. 260 in Khoo, M., and C. Liu. "Micro Magnetic Silicone Elastome 259266.
Membrane Actuator. Sensors and Actuators A, Physical 89, no. 3 (April 2001):
259266.
External magnetic field actuator
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  41
Variable Reluctance Actuator Concept
> High permeability magnetic
deformable and fixed
structures form a magnetic
circuit that flux penetrates
> Increasing current through coil
increases magnetic flux
> Increasing magnetic flux
through the circuit narrows
actuator gap and draws
structures together
Figure 8 on p. 43 in De Los Santos, H. J., G. Fischer,
H. A. C. Tilmans, and J. T. M. van Beek. "RF MEMS for
Ubiquitous Wireless Connectivity. Part I. Fabrication."
IEEE Microwave Magazine 5, no. 4 (December 2004): 3649.
2004 IEEE.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  42
Variable Reluctance Relay
Figure 2 on p. 26 in Tilmans, H.A.C., E. Fullin, H. Ziad, M. D. J. Van de Peer, J. Kesters, E. Van Geffen,
J. Bergqvist, M. Pantus, E. Beyne, K. Baert, and F. Naso. "A Fullypackaged Electromagnetic Microrelay."
MEMS '99: Twelfth IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems technical digest:
Orlando, Florida, USA, January 1721, 1999. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 1999, pp. 2530. ISBN: 9780780351943.
1999 IEEE.
> Twowafer, flipchip bonded implementation of variable
>
reluctance concept; thick electroplated structures
Switching speed > 500 Hz, operated at 2 V and 8 mA, 2 mN force
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  43
Variable Reluctance Relay
Figure 5 on p. 27 in Tilmans, H. A. C., E. Fullin, H. Ziad, M. D. J. Van de
Peer, J. Kesters, E. Van Geffen, J. Bergqvist, M. Pantus, E. Beyne, K.
Baert, and F. Naso. "A Fullypackaged Electromagnetic Microrelay.
MEMS '99: Twelfth IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro
Mechanical Systems technical digest: Orlando, Florida, USA, January
1721, 1999. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 1999, pp. 2530. ISBN: 9780780351943.
1999 IEEE.
Figure 6 on p. 27 in Tilmans, H. A. C., E. Fullin, H. Ziad, M. D. J.
Van de Peer, J. Kesters, E. Van Geffen, J. Bergqvist, M. Pantus,
E. Beyne, K. Baert, and F. Naso. "A Fullypackaged Electromagnetic
Microrelay. MEMS '99: Twelfth IEEE International Conference on Micro
Electro Mechanical Systems technical digest: Orlando, Florida, USA,
January 1721, 1999. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 1999, pp. 2530. ISBN:
9780780351943. 1999 IEEE.
> Wafer 1: a magnetic substrate with thick plated coils, poles, and
>
infrastructure for flipchip packaging
Wafer 2: a silicon substrate with a plated armature and
provision for electrical contact and packaging
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  44
Issues with Magnetic Actuation
> Fabrication challenges:
Thick conductors and magnetic features
Standard approach: plating into a mold
Plating often produces surfaces that are not flat
planarization required
> Material limitations:
Not all magnetic materials can be deposited with MEMS
fabrication techniques
> Process limitations:
Not CMOS compatible
Minimize temperature during processing to avoid Curie
temperature
Eliminates some process steps from consideration and
modifies many others
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  45
Magnetic Actuators and the Wish List
> Low power operation (but latching can help)
> Fast switching
soso
> High force (approaching mN)
> Large analogcontrollable actuator travel (large gaps)
> Simple fabrication
2
Few masks
Standard, CMOScompatible processes and materials
Ability to be fabricated on the same chip as circuits
> Low voltage
> Robust operation, not prone to failures
> Ability to sense as well as actuate
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  46
Force and distance
108
106
MACRO
Magnetostrictive
Electroactive polymer
Maximum force (N)
104
Thermal bimorph
Piezoelectric
Pneumatic
102
Hydraulic
SMA
State change
Topology optimized
State change
Fluid expansion
1
Magnetostrictive
102
Electromagnetic
Magnetic relay
Solid expansion
Piezoelectric expansion
104
SMA
External field
Scratch drive
Comb drive
Inchworm
Curved electrode
Thermal bimorph
ParallelPlate
Impact actuator
106
108
Electrostatic relay
Thermal relay
Piezoelectric bimorph
Distributed actuator
Repulsive force
Electromagnetic
107
106
105
104
103
102
101
Maximum displacement (m)
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 1 on p. S155 in Bell, D. J., T. J. Lu, N. A. Fleck, and S. M. Spearing. "MEMS Actuators and
Sensors: Observations on Their Performance and Selection for Purpose." Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering
15 (June 2005): S153S164.
Not all macro actuators have micro versions, and
not all micro actuators have macro versions!
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  47
Frequency and displacement
109
108
Magnetostrictive
MACRO
ParallelPlate
Maximum frequency (Hz)
106
Piezoelectric
Piezoelectric bimorph
Electrostatic relay
Magnetic relay
Curved electrode
Repulsive force
Piezoelectric expansion
Electromagnetic
104
External field
Solid expansion
Electroactive polymer
Comb drive
102
Magnetostrictive
Hydraulic
Thermal bimorph
Thermal relay
Electromagnetic
Thermal bimorph
Fluid expansion
Topology optimized
Pneumatic
State change
State change
SMA
SShaped actuator
SMA
Inchworm
Distributed actuator
102
Scratch drive
Impact actuator
104
107
106
105
104
103
102
101
Maximum displacement (m)
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 3 on p. S157 in Bell, D. J., T. J. Lu, N. A. Fleck, and S. M. Spearing.
"MEMS Actuators and Sensors: Observations on Their Performance and Selection for Purpose."
Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering 15 (June 2005): S153S164.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  48
Different Options Have Different Advantages
Electrostatic
Thermal
Piezo
Magnetic
Low power
Fast switch
High force
Large travel
Simple fab
Low voltage
Robustness
Sense/actuate
> What is most important for your application?
> What suboptimal parameters can your application tolerate?
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  49
Conclusions
> An awareness of the options can give you a head start in
designing a device or process, and improve your device
intuition
Literature awareness
Design charts
> Other factors come into play as well:
Ease of fabrication
Materials compatibilities
Resolution
Calibration
Robustness
Power consumption
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21  50
Case Study: Power MEMS
Carol Livermore
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Thanks to the MIT microengine team, past and present, for many of
these materials. Thanks also to A. Forte, J. Yoon, and T. Lyszczarz of
Lincoln Laboratory.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22  1
Outline
> Brief overview of power MEMS
> MIT microengine
What to make it from, and how?
High speed rotation
Combustion
Motors and generators
Putting it all together
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22  2
Motivation for power MEMS
> MEMS are well established for many sensing and actuation
applications (accelerometers, pressure sensors, fine positioning
of small components)
> Many useful macroscale systems have high power requirements
and typically use macroscale, nonMEMS solutions
Electric power generation
Propulsion
Cooling
Lasers
> When the performance of high power macroscale systems
limits the system performance, look for solutions wherever they
may be!
Sometimes scaling favors MEMS
and sometimes it doesnt.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22  3
What to expect today
> No commercial case study today
Consider portable power your laptop still uses batteries!
But, the market is there for a truly improved systemlevel
solution
> What we hope to get out of this
Contrast with the common temptation to focus on some parts
of a design and assume that a solution exists for the
remaining parts
This is a failure often seen in packaging
But, power MEMS tend to push against all limits at the same
time: thermal limits, strength of materials, breakdown
voltages, thermal
See examples in which these were (or werent) successfully
considered
Working within fabrication limits
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22  4
Options for electric power generation
> Macroscale heat engines
A clear win when you can find a wall to plug into, because you have
dense energy storage in combustible fuels and efficient generation
in large scale systems
> Batteries
The usual portable power solution, but they can be cumbersome for
high power/long usage applications
> Fuel cells
Hydrogen + oxygen = water + electricity
One concern: size of total system required to make it work
> Power MEMS
Fuel burning systems: miniature heat engines of various types,
micro fuel cells, thermally driven systems (i.e. thermoelectric)
Energy harvesters: vibrations and other motions, waste heat can
provide low levels of power
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22  5
Extractable energy
Portable power metrics
batteries
fueled generator
System weight
hardware weight
Other metric: power level vs. system weight
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22  6
Piezoelectric energy harvester
Piezoelectric cantilever converts strain
energy to electric energy.
Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., http://www.sciencedirect.com.
___________________ Used with permission. Figure 3
on p. 18 in Jeon, Y. B., R. Sood, J.h. Jeong, and S.G. Kim. "MEMS Power Generator with
Transverse Mode Thin Film PZT." Sensors and Actuators A, Physical 122, no. 1 (July 2005): 1622.
1 W power output
Fabrication and stress control are not
trivial!
___________________ Used
Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., http://www.sciencedirect.com.
with permission. Figure 11 on p. 21 in Jeon, Y. B., R. Sood,
J.h. Jeong, and S.G. Kim. "MEMS Power Generator with
Transverse Mode Thin Film PZT." Sensors and Actuators A,
Physical 122, no. 1 (July 2005): 1622.
___________________ Used with permission. Figure 5 on p. 19 in
Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., http://www.sciencedirect.com.
Jeon, Y. B., R. Sood, J.h. Jeong, and S.G. Kim. "MEMS Power Generator with Transverse Mode
Thin Film PZT." Sensors and Actuators A, Physical 122, no. 1 (July 2005): 1622.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22  7
MEMS fuel processor
Figure 1 on p. 601 in Arana, L.R., S. B. Schaevitz, A. J. Franz, M. A. Schmidt, and
K. F. Jensen, "A Microfabricated Suspendedtube Chemical Reactor for Thermally Efficient
Fuel Processing." Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 12, no. 5 (2003): 600612.
2003 IEEE.
Figure 2 on p. 602 in Arana, L. R., S. B.
Schaevitz, A. J. Franz, M. A. Schmidt, and K.
F. Jensen, "A Microfabricated Suspendedtube
Chemical Reactor for Thermally Efficient
Fuel Processing." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 12, no.
5 (2003): 600612. 2003 IEEE.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22  8
MEMS fuel processor
Figure 4 on p. 605 in Arana, L. R., S. B. Schaevitz, A. J. Franz,
M. A. Schmidt, and K. F. Jensen. "A Microfabricated Suspendedtube
Chemical Reactor for Thermally Efficient Fuel Processing."
Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 12, no. 5
(2003): 600612. 2003 IEEE.
Figure 5 on p. 606 in Arana, L. R., S. B. Schaevitz, A. J. Franz, M. A. Schmidt,
and K. F. Jensen, "A Microfabricated Suspendedtube Chemical Reactor for
Thermally Efficient Fuel Processing." Journal of Microelectromechanical
Systems 12, no. 5 (2003): 600612. 2003 IEEE.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22  9
Outline
> Overview of power MEMS
> MIT microengine
What to make it from, and how?
High speed rotation
Combustion
Motors and generators
Putting it all together
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22  10
Detailed case study: MIT microengine project
> Goal: an electric generator driven by a miniature gas turbine
engine, with overall performance exceeding that of the best
batteries
> Unlikely to compete favorably with macroscale gas turbines
lower efficiency
> But, hydrocarbon fuels have high energy density (of order
13,000 Whr/kg), so even a lower efficiency may outperform
batteries (up to ~200 Whr/kg for rechargeables) on overall
energy density
> Other consideration: hardware size
> Similar considerations for all fuelburning power generators
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22  11
Micro gas turbine engine
Starting air in
Compressor
P3
Inlet
3.7 mm
Exhaust
21 mm
Combustor
Turbine
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Thrust = 11 g
Turbine inlet temp = 1600K (2421F)
Fuel burn = 16 g/hr
Rotor speed = 1.2 x 106 RPM
Engine weight = 2 grams
Exhaust gas temp = 970C
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22  12
Portable compact power sources
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
> Approach
Simple cycle gas turbine
Direct drive generator (1.2M RPM)
MEMS fabrication
> Nearterm performance goals
5% efficiency (chemical to electrical)
110 watts output
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22  13
What to make the microengine from?
> Considerations:
Combustion and high temperature
Stresses from high rotational speed
Need for highlycontrolled feature geometries
> Candidate materials:
Nothing from the polymer family
Conventionallymachined but tiny metal parts (known to be okay
from high T/strength point of view, not limited to 2D patterns,
possibly easier to machine, likely harder to assemble)
Single crystal silicon (high T OK, readily micromachined, strength?)
Other microfabricationcompatible materials, such as silicon
carbide (better high T performance, not so easy to micromachine)
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22  14
Design choice: micromachined structure
> Silicon has deep reactive ion etching (DRIE)
> DRIE exists for silicon carbide as well, but it is slower and does
not give as good a profile
> Conclusion: to start out, we are stuck with silicon or nothing.
So can silicon do the job?
Good news: single crystal silicon has close to zero defects, so it
will have few points of inherent weakness
More good news: silicon is lightweight, so it will have less
tendency to tear itself apart than a heavier material would
Bad news: silicon is brittle, so if something bad happens, it will
likely involve catastrophic failure
> Parallel approach chosen: demonstrate engine in silicon,
measure silicons properties, and look into silicon carbide
technology
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22  15
Microfabricated vs. conventional materials for high
temperature structures
Static Structure
Rotating Structure
Courtesy of H. Moon, L. Anand, and S. Mark Spearing. Used with permission.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22  16
Other structural concerns
> Factors affecting the strength of
micromachined silicon devices:
Surface finish of etched surfaces (etch
defects can initiate fracture)
Fillet radius
roughness control
Strength of wafer bonds
Courtesy of S. Mark Spearing andcompany. Used with permission.
Deep etch profiles: does base have a
fillet radius or a notched undercut?
> Manufacturability and performance of silicon
carbide structures
Rotor FEM
Courtesy of S. Mark Spearing and company.
Used with permission.
CVD SiC Moulding
TEM of CVD SiC/Si
Courtesy of S. Mark Spearing and company. Used with permission.
Courtesy of S. Mark Spearing and company. Used with permission.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22  17
Fabrication approach: DRIE and wafer bonding
1. Pattern front side of Si wafer using
photolithography
2. Etch deep, straightwalled etch with an
anisotropic deep reactive ion etcher
3. Pattern back side of wafer, aligning to
front side features
4. Deep reactive ion etch the back side of
wafer
5. Align and fusion bond first patterned
wafer to a second patterned wafer
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22  18
Patterning of sixwafer engine stack
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].
C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22  19
Pros and cons of fabrication approach
> To first order, in plane complexity is free
Just use a more complicated mask
> DRIE can produce high aspect
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