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6.777J/2.

372J: The MEMSclass


Introduction to MEMS and MEMS Design
Joel Voldman
(with ideas from SDS)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 1

Outline

> Class odds and ends


> Intro to MEMS
> The challenge of MEMS Design
> Course outline
> Design projects

and then, Microfab Part I

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 2

Handouts

> General Information Handout

Lecturers: Carol Livermore, Joel Voldman


Text: Senturias Microsystem Design
Beware: Errata on website

> Schedule
> Student Information Sheet

VERY IMPORTANT
Fill out and hand back at end of class

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 3

Handouts

> Lecture notes

Handed out at beginning of class


Extra copies available at Carols office

> Library Orientation NEXT FRIDAY FEBRUARY 16


Learn how to use online databases, journals, etc.
This will be VERY useful for Problem Set 2
and for life!

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 4

Course overview
> Course is broken into two halves
> First half

MEMS design and modeling


Seven problem sets
Differing lengths and complexity
Due on due date IN CLASS

> Second half

Case studies
Design projects

> Grading

15% Problem sets


Regrades on psets must be requested promptly
35% Take-home design problem
50% Final project

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 5

Course conduct and ethics


> See policy on cooperation in General Info handout
> We encourage teamwork during the psets
Literature solutions are OK
Students must follow ethical guidelines
All students must write up their own pset
List those you work with on problem set
Cite any literature solutions used
Some behavior is patently unacceptable
Use of prior years homework solutions

>
>
>
>
>

Cooperation is essential in final design project


No cooperation is allowed on take-home design problem
Any breaches will be dealt severely, with no warnings
Please consult us before doing anything questionable
web.mit.edu/academicintegrity/handbook/handbook.pdf

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 6

Course overview

> What makes this course challenging?


> Relevant physics in lots of fields must be grasped
quickly
We teach a great deal of material in ~2/3 semester

> Every student will learn new concepts


> Design projects

Complex open-ended design problems


Team dynamics

> All of you can learn MEMS design, and we will try to
make it easier and fun!
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 7

Outline

> Class odds and ends


> Intro to MEMS
> The challenge of MEMS Design
> Course outline
> Design projects

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 8

What are MEMS?

> Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems


> Microsystems
> Microfabrication

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

> Microtechnology
> Nanotechnology
> Etc.

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Lucas Novasensor
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 9

What are MEMS?

> Microfabrication is a manufacturing technology


A way to make stuff
Adapted from semiconductor industry
With changes
Therefore, MANY standard design principles hold

> But has unique elements

New materials: SU-8, PDMS


New ways to shape them: DRIE
New material properties
Bulk vs. thin film
Different physics regimes
Si at small scales

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Sandia
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

What are MEMS?

> Definitions vary

Usually made via semiconductor batch fabrication


Usually small
Some important dimension is <1 mm
Ideally, useful
Used to be actual electro-mechanical systems
Sensors: Something moves and is sensed electrically
OR

Actuators: An electrical signal moves something

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

What are MEMS?

> Now, many MEMS have no


E or M
Static microfluidic structures
But often are multi-domain
Electroother domain is very

Aluminum
heater

Silicon

e.g., ElectroThermalFluidic

pumps

Pumping
chamber

Nozzle valve

Dual bubble

Duty = 5%
Duty = 10%
Duty = 15%

5
4
3
2
1
0

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Diffuser valve
Electric connection
through hole

6
Volume flow rate (l/min)

Microbubble

Liquid inlet

Liquid outlet

popular
actuation

Pyrex glass

(B)
Images by MIT OpenCourseWare.
0

100

200

300

Pulse frequency (Hz)

400

500

Liwei Lin (UCB)

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

MEMS: Starting points

> Some starting points:

1961 first silicon pressure sensor (Kulite)


Diffused Si piezoresistors mounted onto package
to form diaphragm

Dr. Kurtz (founder) is MIT graduate, of course

Mid 60s: Westinghouse Resonant Gate Transistor


H.C. Nathanson, et al.,

The Resonant Gate Transistor,


IEEE Trans. Electron Devices,
March 1967, 14(3), 117-133.

Figure 1 on page 119 in: Nathanson, H. C., W. E. Newell, R. A. Wickstrom,


and J. R. Davis, Jr. "The Resonant Gate Transistor." IEEE Transacationson
Electron Devices 14, no. 3 (1967): 117-133. 1967 IEEE.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

MEMS: Important early work

> Stanford Gas


Chromatograph (1975)
SC Terry, JH Jerman and JB
Angell, IEEE Trans Electron
Devices ED-26 (1979) 1880

WAY ahead of its time

> 70s to today: Ken Wise

Figure 3 on page 1882 in: Terry, S. C., J. H. Jerman, and J. B.


Angell. "A Gas Chromatographic Air Analyzer Fabricated on a
Silicon Wafer." IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 26,
no. 12 (1979): 1880-1886. 1979 IEEE.

(Michigan) neural probes

> 70s Inkjet printheads


> 70s Start of TI DMD
project
Courtesy of Kensall D. Wise. Used with permission.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

MEMS: Important early work

> MEMS blossomed in the 80s


> 1982 Kurt Petersen Silicon as a
mechanical material
Proc. IEEE, 70(5), 420-457, 1982.

> Mid-80s BSAC folks (Howe, Muller,


etc.) polysilicon surface
micromachining

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

T. Lober, MIT

R. T. Howe and R. S. Muller,


Polycrystalline silicon micromechanical
beams, J. of the Electrochemical
Society, 130, 1420-1423, (1983).

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

MEMS: Important early work

> Electrostatic Micromotors


Introduced in 1988-1990
MIT and Berkeley

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

> Microchip capillary


electrophoresis and lab-on-achip
Introduced ~1990-1994
A. Manz, D.J. Harrison,

Fan et al., IEDM 88, p 666.

others

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.


Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Harrison et al., Science 261:895, 1993


Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

MEMS: Some current hot topics

> Optical MEMS

Switching of optical signals


Big boom in the late 90s
Big bust in the early 00s

Muller et al., Proc. IEEE, 8:1705, 1998.


Fig. 1 on page 1706 in: Muller, R. S., and K. Y. Lau. "SurfaceMicromachined Microoptical Elements and Systems." Proceedings
of the IEEE 86, no. 8 (August 1998): 1705-1720. 1998 IEEE.

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Lucent micromirror
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

MEMS: Some current hot topics

> RF MEMS

Smaller, cheaper, better


way to manipulate RF
signals

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.


Figure 9 on p. 17 in: Nguyen, C. T.-C. "Vibrating RF MEMS
Overview: Applications to Wireless Communications."
Proceedings of SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 5715 (Jan. 2005): 11-25.

Reliability is issue, but


getting there

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Figure 15 on p. 64 in: Nguyen, C. T.-C."Micromechanical Filters for Miniaturized


Low-power Communications." Proceedings of SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 3673 (July 1999): 55-66.

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07. MIT

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

MEMS: Some current hot topics

> BioMEMS

Shows promise for


diagnostics

Next era of quantitative


biology

No commercial winners
yet

Wise (UMich)

Courtesy of Kensall D. Wise. Used with permission.

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Voldman (MIT)
Courtesy of Joel Voldman. Used with permission.

Chen (UPenn)

Mathies (UCB)
Courtesy of Richard A. Mathies.
Used with permission.

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

MEMS: Commercial success

> This isnt just academic curiosity

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

> There are products you can actually buy

Pressure sensors in your car & in your body


Accelerometers EVERYWHERE
Gyroscopes

HP

Ink-jet print heads


Texas Instruments micro-mirror array
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Motorola Razr

Nintendo Wii

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

MEMS: Commercial success

> The major successes have been


pressure and inertial sensors
Why?
Most mature: 40+ years
Huge initial market: automotive
Recent access to huger
commercial market
Easy access to physical signal
Smaller than alternatives
Cheaper than alternatives
In medical market, that
means disposable
Can be integrated with
electronics

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Honeywell microswitch

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.


Analog Devices pressure sensor.

Moderately precise & accurate


Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

Outline

> Class odds and ends


> Intro to MEMS
> The challenge of MEMS Design
> Course outline
> Design projects

JV: 2.372/6.777 Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 22

MEMS Design

> For our purposes, design means

Create a device or system


With quantitative performance parameters (e.g., sensitivity)
Subject to constraints
Size, price, materials, physics
Some clearly defined some not

> This is hard no matter what the device is

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

MEMS Design

> MEMS design is hard because

The manufacturing technology is actually quite imprecise


10% tolerance on in-plane dimensions is typical
Out-of-plane tolerances may be much better

or much worse
Fabrication success is NOT a given AND is tied to the design
The material properties are unknown or poorly known
The physics are often different
Not the traditional size scales
The system must be partitioned
Which parts to integrate on-chip?
Packaging is non-trivial
NOT like ICs

All these questions should be answered early on


Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

Some solutions to this challenge


> Approach #1

Make something easy or not useful, etc.

> Approach #2

Do incorrect back-of-the-envelope design and then proceed

> Approach #3 (grad student favorite)

Create a large range of structures One of them will work, hopefully

> Approach #4 (the MEMS class way)

Predictive design of all you know to enable chance of 1st round

success
Determine necessary modeling strategies for a given problem
From analytical to numerical
In THIS class we concentrate on analytical and tell you where it
fails
Be aware of what you dont know, cant control, and what your
assumptions are

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

MEMS Design

> Different levels of design

Analytical design
Abstracted physics
ODEs, Scaling, Lumped-element models
Numerical design
Intermediate approach between physical and analytical

design
Physical level:
3-D simulation of fundamental physics
PDEs, finite-element modeling, etc.

> Tradeoff between accuracy and effort/time


> Always limited by fundamental knowledge of
properties or specifications
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

Outline

> Class odds and ends


> Intro to MEMS
> The challenge of MEMS Design
> Course outline
> Design projects

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

Course goal

> Course goal: Learn how to design any


microfabricated device/system

> Learn how to

Understand the design process


Partition the system
Determine and model relevant physics
Evaluate different designs & fabrication technologies
Understand the linkage between fabrication and design

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

Course outline

> First up: fabrication and material properties (4.5 lectures)


> MEMS fabrication is intimately coupled with design
Not true of many other worlds
Example: diaphragm pressure sensor
Would like to use Si because of

piezoresistors
Material choice sets fabrication
technology: KOH
Fabrication technology determines
shapes and physical limits:
diaphragm thickness
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
This in turn affects performance Photograph of Motorola MPX200 x-ducer.
deflection ~ (thickness)-3

> Material properties also matter greatly

MEMS material properties are often poorly characterized

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

Course outline

> Fabrication lectures will focus on MEMS process


development
Unit processes
Order-of-operations
Front-end and back-end processing

> These themes will be broadcast throughout the term

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

Course outline
> Next we introduce the electrical and mechanical domains (2
lectures)

> This gives us something concrete to design


> Split class into two groups for Lectures 6 & 7
> Group 1: Basic Elasticity and Structures
> Group 2: Basic Electronics (Circuits, Devices, Opamps)
> Goal is to teach fundamentals at a slower pace without boring
experts

> Rejoin at Lecture 8


Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

Course outline

> Split sessions


> Which session should I attend?
> Go for material you are less familiar with
MEs go to Electronics
EEs go to Elasticity/Structures

> Notes for both lectures will be available to all


> What if you dont know either subject?

We will hold makeup lectures of Elasticity/Structures


Please let us know ASAP if you need a makeup

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

Course outline

> Next we present an approach to design (3 lectures)


Lumped-element modeling
Different energy domains all use common language
Electrical, Magnetic, Structural, Fluidic, Thermal
Therefore, when you encounter a new domain, you can
quickly attach it to existing knowledge

Enables quick design


But has limits

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

Course outline

> Then we explore additional energy domains (6


lectures)
Structures, Thermal, Fluids & Transport
What physics are relevant?
Not all of fluids, just low-Reynolds-number flows
How do we extract lumped-element or analytical models?
What is the resistance of a microfluidic channel?

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

Course outline

> Systems issues (4 lectures)

Noise, feedback, packaging, design tradeoffs

> Partitioning

A major theme of the course


Cant design device with process
Also cant design device without package
Should you put any electronics on-chip?
Can you design MEMS to make read-out easier?
What are the trade-offs between different choices

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

Course outline

> Finally, case studies

Integrate everything we have up to now to learn about design


process of actual devices

Analog Devices accelerometer


TI micro-mirror
BioMEMS such as integrated PCR devices

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

Outline

> Class odds and ends


> Intro to MEMS
> The challenge of MEMS Design
> Course outline
> Take-home and team design projects

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

Design projects

> Design is the heart of this course


> We will have short design problems on the psets
> In March, we will have a take-home graded design
problem
Multifaceted: fabrication, electromechanical analytical design
Students will prove their design to staff

> In April, team design projects start

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

Design projects

> Projects, projects, projects

Teams of 4-6 people


Chosen by US, with input from you
Only students taking class for CREDIT can participate
All teams have a mentor

> Paper design of a MEMS-based device

Quantitative system-level specifications


Analytical design, finite-element modeling, fabrication,

packaging, electronics, calibration, etc.


Final project grade 50% due to team, 50% due to individual

> Lectures will focus on case studies


> Almost no more homeworks
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

Design projects

> Project timeline

Short description March 9


Your preferences March 23
Teams assigned April 4
Preliminary report

Is team functioning and has it started?

Intermediate report
Is team functioning and is it going to finish?
Final presentations and report
~30-min presentation in front of judges
20-pg manuscript-quality report
Significant prize to winning team
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

Design projects

> Use to illustrate course approach


> A piezoresistive sensor for biomolecular recognition
(2003)
The goal of this project is to create cantilever-based device
that detects stress induced by molecular binding.

Two cantilevers (operated differentially) will be created out of


Si with integrated poly-Si piezoresistors.

The packaged device will be used in a hand-held point-ofcare diagnostic monitor and so must be robust, small, and
connected to a circuit that gives an output proportional to the
logarithm of the concentration ratio.

> Show slides from presentation to illustrate design


process
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 -

Images removed due copyright restrictions.


Student final presentation: Gerhardt, Antimony L., Saif A. Kahn, Adam D. Rosenthal,
Nicaulas A. Sabourin, and Keng-Hoong Wee. "A Piezoresistive Molecular Binding Detector."

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

Microfabrication for MEMS: Part I


Carol Livermore
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

* With thanks to Steve Senturia, from whose lecture notes


some of these materials are adapted.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 1

Outline
> A way to think about process design
> Surface and bulk micromachining concepts
> Next class: substrates, lithography and patterning, and thin
films

> Class #3: etching, wafer bonding (including bulk


micromachining), surface micromachining and process
integration

> Class #4: in class process design exercise


> Class #5: fabrication for the life sciences and material
properties

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 2

Learning to speak fab


> There are huge lists of things that you can and cant do in
microfab (vocabulary)

> There are limits on how you can combine steps together to form
a process (grammar)

> An experienced microfabricator knows most of these


capabilities and limits from long experience (fluency)

> A beginning microfabricator must struggle to master details and


rules

> Our goal: teach enough vocabulary and grammar to get you
started (today starts with grammar)

> Only practice will make you fluent!


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 3

The promise and the pain


> Microfabrication can produce a near infinite array of structures
> But making your particular structure can be very difficult!
> Youd think it would be easy
Functional requirements dictate materials and geometry

> but its not! Fabrication processes are not ideal.


Materials property variability
Geometric variability

> Early phase design must seek a self-consistent solution to the


question of what will I make and how will I make it?

> But for that, we must be familiar with our tools and how they
work

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 4

Crayon Engineering
> At the early stages of MEMS design, conceptual process design
rather than highly detailed process design is required

> It is necessary to obey


The laws of physics
Constraints on temperatures
Constraints on chemical compatibility
Design rules on geometry
> But we can draw our processes with crayons
Hence the phrase crayon engineering
> As we approach the final design, we need CAD tools

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 5

Making integrated circuits


Wafers in

1. The Front End (creating


transistors, etc.):
Hot processes: growing
defect-free oxides, diffusing
dopants to create
transistors
Clean processes: Junk will
diffuse in, too, if you let it

2. The Back End (wiring up


the system):
Cooler processes:
depositing metal interconnects, separating layers
with less perfect insulators
Not-so-clean processes:
Dirt is still bad, but you can
wash it off

Integrated circuits out


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 6

Things to remember about IC fab


> A LOT of effort has gone into designing IC processes so that
they achieve the desired result and dont violate the laws of
physics

> Why these processes are hard to design and improve:


What if the circuit would be better if it included feature A, but
making feature A requires a back end step followed by a front end
step?

Typical solutions: omit feature A or create a back end version of


the front end step

An unacceptable solution: just go from the back end process into


the front end tool. This will contaminate the fab line and may melt
your back end features in the process.

> Bottom line: IC processing is always done the same way, with a
few variants
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 7

Things to remember about MEMS fab


> You are subject to many of the same restrictions as the IC
designers

Laws of physics
Restrictions imposed by vendors: you cant do x because it would
contaminate my tools from the point of view of my other customers

> but you have additional challenges and advantages


Often there is no baseline process to work from (though the
literature can often give you a good start)

There is no guarantee that conventional processes and tools can


produce your part

The MEMS tool kit is significantly broader than the IC tool kit (so
theres more available, but its up to you to figure out how to turn
the raw material into a functional process)

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 8

The MEMS tool kit

The Front End


(with some front
end-compatible
MEMS additions)

The Back End


(with some back
end-compatible
MEMS additions)

Everything else:
Soft lithography (polymers, stamping,
microcontact printing)
Electroplating
Electron beam lithography
Spin-cast materials (e.g. spin-on glass)
Piezoelectrics
Magnetic materials
Anodic bonding of glass to silicon

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 9

An important caveat
> MEMS processes also basically flow from the front end to the
back end

> The lines between front end and back end processes are not set
in stone they depend on your tolerance for risk/contamination.

How clean is clean?


How hot is hot?

> We will present unit processes according to whether they are


roughly front end, back end, or everything else processes, but
it is up to you, the process designer, to consider the actual
temperatures, contamination, and materials compatibilities that
are involved. What is clean for my application may not be clean
enough for yours.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 10

Implementation of rules is lab-specific (MTL example)

Chart removed due to copyright restrictions.

Complete chart is at http://www-mtl.mit.edu/services/fabrication/ptc_matrix.html


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 11

Outline
> A way to think about process design
> Surface and bulk micromachining concepts
> Next class: substrates, lithography and patterning, and thin
films

> Class #3: etching, wafer bonding (including bulk


micromachining), surface micromachining and process
integration

> Class #4: in class process design exercise


> Class #5: fabrication for the life sciences and material
properties

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 12

Fundamentals of Surface Micromachining


Surface Micromachining

> A technique for fabricating micromechanical devices by


selectively depositing and etching thin films on the surface of a
substrate

> Structural layers are the thin films that form the final structure
> Sacrificial layers are thin films that support a MEMS structure
during fabrication, until it is released (that is, until the sacrificial
layer is etched away)
Important techniques for surface micromachining

> Lithography and patterning


> Wet and dry etching
> Deposit thin films by CVD, PECVD, thermal oxidation,
evaporation, etc.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 13

Sandia: surface micromachined gear chain

Courtesy of Sandia National Laborator


i
es, SUMMiT Technologies, www.mems.sandia.gov

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 14

Texas Instruments Digital Mirror Display


> One MEMS example:
inside the projector

Images removed due to copyright restrictions.


Figures 48 and 50 in Hornbeck, Larry J. "From Cathode Rays to Digital Micromirrors: A History of Electronic Projection Display
Technology." Texas Instruments Technical Journal 15, no. 3 (July-September 1998): 7-46.

http://www.dlp.com/
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 15

Berkeley: surface micromachined microphotonics

Figure 5 on page 316 in: Friedberger, A., and R. S. Muller. "Improved Surface-micromachined Hinges
for Fold-out Structures." Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 7, no. 3 (1998): 315-319. 1998 IEEE.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 16

Fundamentals of Bulk Micromachining


Bulk Micromachining

> Selectively etch bulk substrate to create microelectronic or


micromechanical structures

> Remaining material forms the device structure


> Moving structures, trenches, and membranes possible
Important Techniques for Bulk Micromachining

> Lithography and patterning


> Wet and dry etching
Etch rate and profiles are important
Selectivity and masking materials, too!
> Wafer bonding
A process for permanently attaching two wafers together
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 17

MEMS energy harvester

Figure 5 on page 67 in: Meninger, S., J. O. Mur-Miranda, R. Amirtharajah,


A. Chandrakasan, and J. H. Lang. "Vibration-to-electric Energy Conversion."
IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems 9, no. 1
(2001): 64-76. 2001 IEEE.

Designed for microWatts.

Mur-Miranda, Jose Oscar. "Electrostatic Vibration-to-Electric


Energy Conversion." Doctoral diss., Massachusetts Institute
of Technology, 2004, p. 88.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 18

MIT: bulk micromachined microengine

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.


3-D cutaway of a micromachined microengine. Photograph by Jonathan Protz.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 19

NIST: bulk micromachined micro-heater

Polysilicon microheater suspended


above silicon substrate

Figure 1 on page 57 in: Parameswaran, M., A. M. Robinson, D. L. Blackburn, M.


Gaitan, and J. Geist. "Micromachined Thermal Radiation Emitter from a Commercial
CMOS Process." IEEE Electron Device Letters 12, no. 2 (Feb. 1991): 57-59. 1991 IEEE.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 20

Preview: Unit Processes and Integration


> Next class we will start to fill in the details of the front end, back
end, and everything else with a set of unit process steps out of
which processes can be built (vocabulary)
Oxidation
Implantation and Diffusion
Lithography
Selective Etching
etc.

> But always remember to consider compatibility of the steps in


the overall, integrated process sequence (grammar) this is
critical to the success of the MEMS device

> Also remember that theoretical compatibility isnt enough! The


process sequence must be available at your facility or your
vendors facility in order for you to use it!
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 1 - 21

Microfabrication for MEMS: Part II

Carol Livermore
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

* With thanks to Steve Senturia, from whose lecture notes some of


these materials are adapted.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 1

Outline
> Substrates
> Lithography and patterning
> Doping
> Thin films

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 2

Silicon Wafers
> Silicon is a diamond-structure cubic crystal
> Comes with different amounts of either n-type or p-type doping
z

Simple cubic crystal


z

(100) Plane
z

(110) Plane

(111) Plane
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Adapted from Figure 3.1 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,


MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 31. ISBN: 9780792372462.
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 3

Notation
> A direction in crystal coordinates is denoted by square brackets, e.g.
[100]

> The set of symmetrically equivalent directions is written with braces,


e.g. <100>

> The plane perpendicular to a direction is denoted with parentheses,


e.g. (100)

> The set of symmetrically equivalent planes is written with curly


brackets, e.g. {100}

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 4

Diamond Structure
> The diamond structure is two face-centered cubic lattices shifted by
of the body diagonal. There are four silicon atoms per cubic unit
cell.

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 3.2 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 32. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 5

Wafer orientation

(110) plane
(100) plane

45

(100) planes
(110) primary flat
(100) type wafer
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from: Maluf, Nadim. An Introduction to M icroelectromechanical Systems Enginee ring.
Boston, MA: Artech House, 2000. ISBN: 9780890065815.

Picture from N. Maluf, An Introduction to Microelectromechanical


Systems Engineering
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 6

Other substrates
> Silicon wafers with embedded layers, such as silicon-oninsulator (SOI) wafers
device layer
buried oxide layer
substrate

Initial purpose: build ICs on device layer, and buried oxide


minimizes stray capacitance to substrate

Common MEMS purpose: bulk micromachine top layer into


moveable structures with well-controlled thickness

$$$$
> Quartz wafers
Single crystal
Fused quartz amorphous quartz wafers
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 7

Other substrates
> Glass (cheap, high impurity content)
Inexpensive base for soft lithography
Transparent for optical access
Can be very strongly attached to silicon wafers via anodic bonding

> Compound semiconductors (III-Vs, II-VIs)


Optical applications

> Sapphire
Strong, wear resistant, transparent, insulating substrate
Compatible with CMOS (so transparent CMOS MEMS)
Expensive, hard to etch

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 8

Substrate summary
Substrate

Front end
compatible

Back end
compatible

Everything else
compatible

Silicon

yes +

yes

yes, but only use


if needed

Silicon on
insulator (SOI)

yes +

yes

yes, but only use


if needed

Quartz

yes

yes

yes, but only use


if needed

Glass (pyrex)

no

yes, sometimes

yes +

Compound
semiconductor

no

yes

yes, but only use


if needed

Sapphire

yes, but only use yes, but only use yes, but only use
if needed
if needed
if needed

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 9

Outline
> Substrates
> Lithography and patterning
> Doping
> Thin films

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 10

Optical Lithography
Spin-cast a photosensitive
resist layer; bake out solvent

Collimated UV exposure
through a mask; resist either
cross-links or becomes
soluble

positive
negative

Develop by dissolving the


exposed/unexposed
(positive/negative) resist; can
now transfer pattern to
substrate

Alignment fiducials permit alignment of subsequent masks.


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 11

Methods of optical lithography I


> Contact

Mask touches wafer


Inexpensive
Contact degrades mask
No die size limit
Resolution: down to 1 micron nervously; down to several
microns comfortably

> Proximity

Mask of order 10 microns from wafer


Inexpensive
Less mask damage
Diffraction means lower resolution
No die size limit
Resolution: down to several microns nervously, somewhat
larger comfortably

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 12

Projection Lithography
> Projection lithography, especially
when combined with an optical
imaging system that reduces the
image size, is used for high-resolution
patterning (submicron to very
submicron)

> Larger mask features, no contact with


mask

UV Light

Condensing
Lens

Mask

Projection
Optics

Wafer

> Wafer steppers expose one die at a


time, assuring good focus and
registration

> Something to consider: if your device

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 3.15 in: Senturia, Stephen D.
Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer
Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 53.
ISBN: 9780792372462.

needs fine features, a stepper may be


required. But steppers have limits on
die size of about 1 cm.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 13

Mask making
> Highest quality chromium on fused quartz written with an electron
beam exposing an electron-beam resist (PMMA)

Also very high quality: laser-writing


> Photographic emulsion on fused quartz exposed with UV light flashes
through a programmable aperture

> Patterns printed from an AutoCAD file on transparencies with a veryhigh-resolution printer low resolution, but cheap and fast

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 14

Positive thin resist


> Spin cast
> Thickness of order 1 micron
> Developer removes exposed resist
> Creates sloped profile at resist edge
> Some applications
Wet etching
Shallow dry etching

> Front end standard

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 15

Negative/image reversal photoresists


> Spin cast
> Thickness of order 1 micron
> Developer removes unexposed resist
> Creates a re-entrant profile
> Typical application: liftoff processes
(in acetone), often seen in back end
processing

> Rule of thumb: resist thickness should


be 3x thickness of layer to be lifted off

> Not a standard front end material, but


not inherently incompatible with it
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 16

Positive thick photoresist


> Spin cast
> Thicknesses of order 10 microns
> Sloped profiles
Slope somewhat controllable
through process conditions

> Some planarizing capability


> Typical applications:
Prolonged or low selectivity dry
etch

Deep reactive ion etch


Masking any etch over topography

> Not a standard front end material,


but not inherently incompatible
Courtesy of Reza Ghodssi. Used with permission.
with it
5 m thick
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 17

Double-sided aligned lithography


> Goal: align features on the back of the wafer to features on the
front

Common requirement in bulk micromachining


Not a standard IC capability
Functionality more common as market grows
> What you need:
Double side polished wafer
Double sided alignment tool
IR alignment, registration to global fiducials in the tool,
through holes, etc.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 18

Special purpose lithographic techniques I


> X-ray lithography
One application: making molds for LIGA
Requires an x-ray source and x-ray mask
> Electron beam lithography
High resolution (tens of nanometers)
NEMS (NanoElectroMechanical Systems)
A slow, serial process
> Lithographic techniques that are rarely seen in front end
processing

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 19

Special purpose lithographic techniques II


> Shadow masking
Direct evaporation or sputtering through physical holes in a
shadow mask (think stencils)

Back end/everything else process


Last ditch technique for patterning surfaces that cannot be
coated with resist (large topography, fragile features)

> Soft lithography (Whitesides, Harvard)


Using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, a rubber material) as a

physical mold to replicate structures


Advantages:
Patterning curved surfaces
Rapid, inexpensive fabrication
A set of everything else processes
More on this later

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 20

Very thick photoresists


> SU-8 epoxy
Spin cast
Negative resist, optical
exposure

SU-8 epoxy photograph.


Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Can planarize extreme


topographies

Can be structural, not easily


dissolved

> Polyimide
Spin cast
Can planarize topographies
Humidity sensitive

500 micrometer SU-8 epoxy within deep silicon trench.


Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

> Classified as everything else


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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 21

Details that matter for lithographic patterning


> Existing topography: if your existing feature heights are comparable
to or greater than the thickness of the resist that you are putting
down, you will not have good coverage

Incompletely covered sidewalls, holes full of resist, resist that never

enters a hole at all


Solutions: eliminate the topography, thicker resist, alternate coating
technology (spray on, electrophoretic photoresist?), use of a previously
patterned hard mask instead of a resist mask

> Patterned resist does not have a square profile can affect the
topography of whatever you pattern with the resist

> Resist adhesion


If the surface of the wafer is hydrophilic (like SiO2), the resist might peel
during subsequent wet processing steps

Surface preparation is key (e.g. dehydration bake and HMDS coating to


render surface hydrophobic)
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 22

Cleaning!
> When we say (for example) that positive thin resist is compatible with
front end processing, we do not mean that you can have resist on
your wafer during most front end processes!

> Must remove resist and clean wafer thoroughly before high
temperature processes

> Always include cleaning in process flows, starting at the crayon


engineering level

> Resist removal techniques:


O2 plasma ash
Chemical removal of organics: piranha clean (3:1 H2SO4:H202) or
Nanostrip (a weaker version of piranha)

Solvents (acetone)
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 23

More cleaning!
> Additional cleans typically needed at specified points in the flow
> Example: RCA clean before very high temperature processing (as in furnace
for front end processing)

Step 1: Organic clean, 5:1:1 H2O:H2O2:NH4OH at 75 - 80C


Step 2: Thin oxide removal, 50:1 H2 O:HF
Step 3: Metal/ionic contamination removal, 6:1:1 H2O:H2O2: HCl at 75
80C

> Example: remove organics before moderately high temperature, fairly clean
processing (upper part of back end processing)
Piranha clean (3:1 H2SO4:H202)

> Materials compatibility (what cleans your structures can tolerate) often
determine what processes you can and cant use

> If you wait until the last minute to put cleans into your process flow, you will
likely be redesigning your device and process at the last minute
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 24

Another important detail: process bias


> The feature drawn on the mask is not the same size as the
feature produced on the wafer

> Exposed area usually extends beyond clear area on mask


> Resist selection impacts process bias
Resist thickness
Resist tone

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 25

Design Rules
After Mask 1

> Alignment of one


pattern to the next is
critical to device
fabrication

> Design rules are


created to assure that
fabrication tolerances
do not destroy devices

Feature on
Mask 1
Mandatory
Overlap
Design Rule
Feature on
Mask 2

After Mask 2:

Desired alignment

Barely acceptable misalignment

Unacceptable misalignment
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 3.16 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 54. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 26

Outline
> Substrates
> Lithography and patterning
> Doping
> Thin films

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 27

Doping

> Doping is the introduction of a controlled amount of


impurities to change the conductivity type and degree of a
semiconductor

> In silicon, boron is a p-type dopant (creating holes), while


phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony are n-type dopants
(creating conduction electrons)

> Some doping incorporated in initial silicon melt


> All modern thin film doping is done with ion implanation
> Doping doesnt add a new thin film, but it modifies the
properties of a thin film at the surface of existing material
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 28

Ion implantation
> A high-voltage accelerator is used to shoot ions at the wafer.
> The beam must be rastered and the wafer must be rotated to achieve
uniform dose

> Usually a thin protective layer, such as oxide, is used to prevent


sputtering of the surface and to reduce channeling

> The depth of the implant dose depends on energy


> Activation anneal after implantation allows dopants to reach proper
positions in crystal

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 29

Effective range

> The effective range measures the location of the


peak concentration of an implanted species.
10

Projected range (m)

rus

ho
osp

Ph
0.1

ron

Bo

enic

Ars

0.01

0.001
10

100
Energy (keV)

1000

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


This image is for illustration purposes only; it should not be used for design calculations.
Adapted from Figure 3.6 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA:
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 39. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 30

Masking of implants

> Control of which regions of a wafer receive the


implant is achieved with masking layers
Ions

Photoresist
Oxide
Silicon
Location of implanted ions
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 3.7 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 39. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 31

Diffusion
> After implantation, ions are driven deeper into the substrate by

6
5

Implant dose

x j = (4 Dt ) ln

N D Dt

Junction depth (microns)

>

diffusion, a high-temperature process


The junction depth is the point at which the implanted ion
concentration is equal (but of opposite type) to the substrate doping

4
3
2
1

Background doping
concentration

0
103

104

105

Time (seconds)

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


This image should not be used for design calculations. Adapted from Example 2.2 in:
Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers,
2001, p. 43. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 32

Outline
> Substrates
> Lithography and patterning
> Doping
> Thin films

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 33

Creating thin (and thick) films


> Many techniques to choose from
> Differences:
Front or back end processes
Quality of resulting films (electrical properties, etch

selectivity, defects, residual stress)


Conformality
Deposition rate, cost

> Physical techniques


Material is removed from a source, carried to the substrate,
and dropped there

> Chemical techniques


Reactants are transported to the substrate, a chemical
reaction occurs, and the products deposit on the substrate to
form the desired film
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 34

Taxonomy of deposition techniques


> Chemical
Thermal Oxidation
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)
Low Pressure (LPCVD), Atmospheric Pressure
(APCVD), Plasma Enhanced (PECVD)

Epitaxy
Electrodeposition (Electroplating)
> Physical
Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)
Evaporation
Sputtering
Spin-casting
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 35

Oxidation I
> Silicon forms a high quality, stable oxide
> How it works:
Oxygen diffuses through oxide to Si/oxide interface
Si + O2 + high temperature (~1100 C) furnace SiO2
Some Si is consumed
tox

0.46 tox
> Rate determined by diffusion of oxygen through oxide
> Diffusion limits practical oxide thickness to < 2 m
> A key front end process

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 36

Oxidation II
> Dry oxidation (O2)
High quality, slow oxidation rate, smaller maximum thickness
(i.e. gate oxide)

> Wet oxidation (steam)


H2 to speed the diffusion
Lower quality, faster oxidation rate
> The Deal-Grove model describes the kinetics of oxidation quite
well for oxides greater in thickness than about 30 nm.

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 37

Deal-Grove Model
For oxides greater than about 30 nm thick:

4 B DG
x final = 0.5 ADG 1 + 2 (t + DG ) 1
ADG

where

DG =

x
B

2
i

DG

x
B

DG

/ ADG

(Constants are given in the text; beware units


of BDG, m2/hour)
Growth goes approximately as t for short times, and
approximately as t for long times.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 38

Local Oxidation
> Oxidation can be masked locally by an oxidation barrier, such as
silicon nitride

> Oxide undercuts edge of mask layer to form a birds beak


> Oxidation followed by oxide etch can also be used to sharpen silicon
features.
Oxidation barrier

Silicon wafer

Birds beaks

After oxidation

Senturia, Microsystem Design.


Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 3.5 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 37. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 39

Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)


> How CVD works:
Gaseous reactants, often at low pressure
Long mean free path; reactants reach substrate
Reactants react and deposit products on the substrate
Unlike oxidation, does not consume substrate material
> Energy sources facilitate CVD reactions:
High temperature, plasma, laser
> Processing temperatures vary widely
> Commonly deposited films: Oxide, silicon nitride, polysilicon
> CVD results depend on pressures, gas flows, temperature
Film composition, uniformity, deposition rate, and electrical and
mechanical characteristics can vary

> Near the boundary between front and back end, depending
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 40

Some reasons to use CVD


> Oxide formation:
To get a thicker layer than thermal oxidation can provide
To create oxide on a wafer that cant withstand high

temperatures (for example because of metal features)


To create oxide on top of a material that is not silicon

> For film formation in general:


To tailor the film properties (like film stress) by adjusting

pressures, flow rates, external energy supply, ratios of different


precursor gases (to adjust proportions of different materials in
the final product)
Conformality: (more or less) even coating on all surfaces

> Drawbacks
Films deposited at low temperature are often lower quality than

high temperature versions, and have less predictable properties


Flammable, toxic, or corrosive source gases

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 41

Thick Film Formation


> Chemical vapor deposition is a common MEMS tool for creating thick
films on the wafer surface

In practice, film stress limits thickness (film delamination or cracking, or

curvature of underlying structures)


Can deposit thick oxides; nitrides are still typically submicron
Must anneal deposited oxides for some applications lose low stress
property on anneal

> Example: PECVD deposition (350-400C) of 10 to 20 m oxides

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

25 m thick cracked oxide, X.


Zhang et al., Hilton Head 2000

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

18 m thick oxide insulation for a


microgenerator w/ Pt features

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 42

CVD enables conformal coating

MEMS-based fuel processor.

Figure 4 on p. 605 in: Arana, L.R., S. B. Schaevitz, A. J. Franz,

Figure 5 on p. 606 in: Arana, L.R., S. B. Schaevitz, A. J. Franz,

M. A. Schmidt, K. F. Jensen, "A Microfabricated Suspended-tube

M. A. Schmidt, K. F. Jensen, "A Microfabricated Suspended-tube

Chemical Reactor for Thermally Efficient Fuel Processing." Journal


of Microelectromechanical Systems 12, no. 5 (2003): 600-612.

Chemical Reactor for Thermally Efficient Fuel Processing." Journal


of Microelectromechanical Systems 12, no. 5 (2003): 600-612.

2003 IEEE.

2003 IEEE.

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 43

LPCVD Polysilicon
> Amorphous at lower deposition temperatures and higher
deposition rates

Typical temperature: ~ 590 C


> Polycrystalline at higher deposition temperatures and lower
deposition rates

Typical temperature: ~ 625 C


> Grain size and structure depend on detailed deposition
conditions

e.g. thicker films larger grains


> Structure, electrical properties, and mechanical properties also
vary with post-deposition thermal processing

Grain growth
Dopant activation or diffusion
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 44

Polysilicon stress depends on deposition details

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.


Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Kurt Petersen, Trans Sensory Devices

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Lober, Theresa Ann. "A Microfabricated Electrostatic


Motor Design and Process." Masters thesis, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, 1988. 132 pages.

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 45

Epitaxy
> CVD deposition process in which atoms move to lattice sites,
continuing the substrates crystal structure

Homoepitaxy: same material, i.e. Si on Si


Heteroepitaxy: different materials, i.e. AlGaAs on GaAs
> How it happens
Slow deposition rate (enough time to find a lattice site)
High temperature (enough energy to move to a lattice site)
> Selective epitaxy is possible through masking
> Can grow a doped Si layer of known thickness

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 46

Electroplating: basics
> Pass a current through an aqueous metal solution
Anode is made of the metal that you want to deposit
Cathode is the conductive seed material on your wafer
Positive metal ions travel to the negatively charged cathode on
your wafer and deposit there

> Preparing your wafer


If you want to plate metal in some places and not in others, you will
need a patterned metal seed layer (and typically a sticky metal
adhesion layer under that)

For very short features, just plate onto the seed layer
For taller features, need to plate into a mold
Molds can be photoresist, silicon, SU-8, etc., depending on the
needs of your device
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 47

Electroplating

Electroplating for LIGA

40 m thick films of
nickel fabricated by
electroplating into a mold

This picture belongs to Professor Reza Ghodssi (University of Maryland) and was published in the following reference:
Ghodssi, R., D. J. Beebe, V. White, and D. D. Denton. "Development of a Tangential Tactor Using a LIGA/MEMS Linear
Microactuator Technology." Proceedings of the 1996 ASME Winter Annual Mtg., Symposium on Micro-Mechanical Systems,
Atlanta, Georgia, pp. 379-386, November 17-22, 1996.
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 48

Electroplating realities

Test run w/ bump


plating - perfect
Real device forms
keyholes different
loading pattern
Courtesy of Dariusz Golda. Used with permission.

Solution: Cu damascene
fill, with additives/agitation
to promote fill at bottom

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 49

Conformality and keyholes


> To lowest order, conformal films coat sidewalls and horizontal
surfaces at the same rate.

> But high aspect ratio trenches are prone to keyholes (CVD,
electroplating, etc.)
What you want:

What you get:

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 50

Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)


> Remove material from a solid source
> Transport material to substrate
> Deposit material on substrate
> Differences among PVD techniques
How material is removed from source
Directionality when it arrives at substrate
Cleanliness of deposition
> A family of quick, low temperature processes
> All back end processes or worse
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 51

Thermal Evaporation

Rsource

> Source is resistively heated in high vacuum


Typical source: metal
> Hot source atoms are emitted in all directions and stick where
they land

> Substrate receives a directional flux of source material


Good for liftoff processes, otherwise poor conformality
> Possible contamination from generalized heating
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 52

E-beam Evaporation
electron
gun
V

esource

> Electron beam heats source in high vacuum


Typical source: metal
> Hot source atoms are emitted in all directions and stick where
they land

> Substrate receives a directional flux of source material


Good for liftoff processes, otherwise poor conformality
> Heating is less generalized less contamination
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 53

Sputtering
= Ar ion
target

> Unreactive ions (i.e. Ar) knock material off a target by momentum
transfer

> Targets: metals, dielectrics, piezoelectrics, etc.


> Different methods of obtaining energetic ions
Magnetron, plasma
> Low pressure, but not high vacuum
> Less directional and faster than evaporation
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 54

Etching, liftoff, and adhesion layers


> Films are patterned differently depending on whether the material in
question tends to react with other materials

> Materials that react (for example, aluminum):


Deposit a blanket film (sputtering good for better conformality), do
photolithography, and etch it into the desired shape

> Materials that dont react readily (for example, noble metals):
Hard to etch: typically use liftoff instead
Pattern resist, then deposit metal on top with a directional deposition tool
Not very sticky: typically need an adhesion layer to stick the noble metal
to what lies beneath

Example: use a few hundred A thick layer of Cr or Ti to adhere Au to an


underlying oxide (deposited without breaking vacuum between layers)

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 55

Is this all you can do with deposited films?

> No!
> Spin-casting: put the stuff that you want to deposit in a
liquid, spin it onto the surface like resist, and bake out the
solvent (spin on glass, PZT piezoelectrics)

> Other forms of vapor deposition designed for a particular


purpose (depositing the inert polymer parylene by vapor
deposition followed by polymerization)

> Lamination of free-standing resist films onto surfaces


> Self assembled monolayers
>
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 2 - 56

Microfabrication for MEMS: Part III


Carol Livermore
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

* With thanks to Steve Senturia, from whose lecture notes some of


these materials are adapted.
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 1

Outline

> Etching
> Wafer bonding
> Surface micromachining
> Process integration

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 2

Etching

> Wet etching


Isotropic
Anisotropic (for crystals only)

> Dry etching using plasma reactors


Isotropic plasma etching at relatively high gas pressures
Anisotropic reaction-ion etching at relatively lower gas
pressures

> Sputter etching or ion-beam milling


Not very selective

> A useful reference (what etches what and how fast):


Williams, Gupta, and Wasilik, Etch Rates for Micromachining
Processing Part II, JMEMS 12, 761-778 (2003).
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 3

Considerations for etching


> Isotropic
Etch rate the same in all crystal directions
> Anisotropic
For wet etches, rate depends on crystal plane
For dry etches, directionality determined by process
> Selectivity
Etch rate of substrate vs. etch rate of mask
> Mask adhesion (for wet etching)
Increased etching along mask/substrate interface
> Temperature
Reaction rate limited?
> Stirring
Mass transfer limited?
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 4

Isotropic etching
> Etch rate is independent of orientation
> Isotropic etch profile
Assume a well-adhered mask with infinite selectivity
Mask undercut, rounded etch profile

> Applications:
Flow channels
Removal of sacrificial layers in surface micromachining

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 5

Isotropic etching
> Some wet etches:

Si

mixture of nitric, acetic, and hydrofluoric acid

SiO2

buffered HF (BOE), also HF vapor

SiN

hot phosphoric acid

PolySi

KOH

Al

PAN etch (phosphoric, acetic, nitric acids)

> Some dry etches:


Si
XeF2 vapor
Organics O2 plasma

> Mostly clean enough for front end, with the exception of
KOH, which is a contamination risk for very high T
processes. XeF2 vapor is often used as a final release etch.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 6

Anisotropic wet etching


> Depends on having a single-crystal substrate
> The effect depends on the different etch rates of different
exposed crystal planes

> Silicon etchants for which <111> planes etch slowly


Strong bases (KOH, NaOH, NH4OH)
TMAH
Ethylene diamine pyrochatechol
Hydrazine

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 7

Making a Trench with KOH


Before Etching
[110]

Masking Layer

Top
View

> A rectangular
(100) Silicon Substrate

Cross Section

After Etching
[110]
Top
View

[111]

[100]

pattern is aligned
to a [110]
direction on a
<100> silicon
wafer

54.70

Cross Section
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 3.20 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 62. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 8

Making a V-groove

> The previous etch is allowed to go to termination,


i.e. the slowing of etch rate when only {111} planes
are exposed
[110]
Top
View

54.7 0

Cross Section

54.7 0

Cross Section
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 3.21 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 63. ISBN: 9780792372462.

> Can also make a square, pyramidal hole


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 9

Convex corners
[110]

> Convex corners


become
undercut, as
there is no single
slow-etching
(111) plane to
stop on

Masking Layer

[100]

[110] Silicon

Cross Section
[110]

Convex corners are


rapidly undercut

[110]

[100]

Cross Section

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 3.23 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 64. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 10

Corner Compensation

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.


Figure 3 on p. 143 in: Enoksson, Peter. "New Structure for Corner Compensation in Anisotropic KOH Etching." Journal
of Micromechanics and Microengineering 7, no. 3 (September 1997): 141-144.

A common approach to corner compensation as shown in Enoksson,


J. Micromech. Microeng. 7 (1997), 141-144.

> To etch a convex corner with KOH, add extra material at corner
> Amount of material is chosen so that it will etch away just when
the overall etch reaches the desired depth

> Extra material protects convex corner from attack


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 11

Arbitrary shapes

> Any mask feature, if etched long enough, will result in


a V-groove tangent to the mask along <110>
directions
[110]

Boundary of
rectangular pit

Masking Layer
[100]

Undercut
Regions
Cross Section
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Figure 3.24 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 64. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 12

Misalignment

> Misalignment of the mask relative to the [110]


direction always results in a larger etched region

[110]

Boundary of
Rectangular Pit

50 misalignment

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Figure 3.25 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 65. ISBN: 9780792372462.

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 13

Selectivity and etch masks for KOH etches


> Deep etches are long selectivity matters
> Mask must last long enough to bring the etch to completion
> Sidewall erosion must be at an acceptably slow rate
> Etch rate of {111} planes is finite but small
Condition-dependent, of order 400:1 for {100} rate/{111} rate
> Etch rate of mask
Si:SiO2 selectivity about 100:1
Si:LPCVD SiN selectivity at least 1000:1
PECVD SiN not effective (low quality)
Dont use photoresist!

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 14

Etch stops
> When etching into a wafer to leave a specific
thickness of material, it is necessary to have some
kind of etch stop.

> Example: diaphragm pressure sensor


Termination on {111} planes? (V-grooves only)
Prayer and a stop watch?
Usually gives poor thickness control
Chemical etch stop
An unetched material, e.g. oxide or nitride
Heavily boron doped silicon, p+, as etch

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Motorola

stop for strong bases


(etches several orders of magnitude
more slowly than lightly doped if
concentration > 5 x 1019 cm3)

Electrochemical etch stop


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 15

Dry (Plasma) Etching


> At reduced pressure, a glow discharge is set up in a reactive gas
environment

> This produces


Ions that can be accelerated by the electric fields at the
bounding edges of the plasma so that they strike the surface
these can be quite directional in their impact

Free radicals (uncharged) that can diffuse to the surface and


undergo reaction

> Etching depends on reaction followed by creation of a gaseous


byproduct which is pumped away

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 16

Applicability
> Most materials can be plasma etched
Oxide
Nitride
Silicon
Most metals (not the noble metals)
Polymers
> The art is in achieving suitable selectivity both for masking
layers and to layers that lie beneath the layer being etched

Known recipes (gas mixtures, plasma conditions) with


desired selectivity

End-point detection is an important part of best practice


when using plasma etching

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 17

Shape

> The higher the pressure, the more isotropic the etch
because reactants are scattered many times before
reaching the surface (this is called plasma etching)

> To achieve directional anisotropy, one must go to low


pressure to achieve long mean-free paths for the ions
(this is called reactive-ion etching or RIE)

> Deep reactive ion etching is another thing altogether

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 18

Deep Reactive Ion Etching (The Bosch Process)


> Photoresist mask: selectivity about 50:1
> Oxide mask: selectivity > 100:1
1. Pattern photoresist

2. Reactive ion etch in SF6

3. Deposit passivation (C4F8)


(produces a teflon-like
polymer)

4. Etch and repeat cycle


(directional ions clear passivation
from bottom only)

Figure 1 on p. 265 in: Chen, K.-S., A. A. Ayon, X. Zhang, and S. M. Spearing. "Effect of process parameters on the
surface morphology and mechanical performance of silicon structures after deep reactive ion etching (DRIE)." Journal
of Microelectromechanical Systems 11, no. 3 (2002): 264-275. 2002 IEEE.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 19

Depth depends on features and layout


> Features of different width etch at different rates (recipe
dependent)

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.


Figure 3.28 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers,
2001, p. 70. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 20

Multi-level Etching
> Making multi level etches can be challenging
> For through etches with two different depths, simply etch from
both sides of the wafer, with double-sided alignment

Pattern side 1

Etch side 1

Flip wafer and


pattern side 2
Etch side 2
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 21

Multi-level Etching with Nested Masks


> Etching two sets of deep (> about 10 m) features on the same
side of the wafer requires a nested mask

1. Grow oxide mask

5. Etch to first depth

2. Define resist mask

6. Strip resist mask

3. Etch oxide to form mask

7. Using oxide as a mask,


etch to second depth

4. Strip resist; pattern


with new resist mask

8. Strip oxide mask

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 22

DRIE with Etch Stop

> SOI substrate


> Buried oxide acts as an etch

stop

> Charging can lead to


footing
+ + +

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 23

Outline

> Etching
> Wafer bonding
> Surface micromachining
> Process integration

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 24

Fundamentals of Wafer Level Bonding


>

Two separate and distinct steps

The wafers are aligned to each other in a bond aligner with


a possible alignment accuracy of one micron or less

The bond fixture is loaded into a vacuum bond chamber


where the wafers are contacted together

>

Three most prevalent types

Direct or fusion wafer bonding (high temperature, ~ 1000 C)


Anodic or field-assisted bonding, ~ 500 C
Bonding with an intermediate glue layer

Gold (thermocompression), ~ 300 C


Polymer or epoxy layer

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 25

Direct Wafer Bonding


Si

Hydrate
surface

Contact and
Anneal

Optional: Thin
top wafer

Si

Spontaneous bonding reduces


surface energy; compensates
some strain energy cost.
Si to Si, Si to oxide, oxide to
oxide.
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

A high quality Si to Si bond


can have bulk strength.

DRIE and wafer bonding, London et al.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 26

IR visualization of bond formation

Kevin Turner, 2003.


Courtesy of Kevin Turner. Used with permission.

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 27

Silicon-on-insulator

> Bonding to oxidized wafers is also possible, leading


to silicon-on-insulator wafers
Si

Hydrate
surface
Si

Contact and
Anneal

device layer

Thin top wafer

buried oxide layer


substrate
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 28

Wafer Geometry Impacts Bonding


> Spontaneous wafer bonding reduces surface energy
Two smooth, clean, perfectly flat wafers will bond
spontaneously

> When wafers are not perfectly flat, bonding requires them to
bend
Strain energy increases

> How far will two wafers bond?


Wafers bond until the surface energy reduction equals the
strain energy cost

> Important factors


Wafer thickness
Radius of curvature
Wafer bow innate or from stressed films
Waviness locally greater curvature
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 29

Wafer Geometry Impacts Bonding


> Bonding order and strain energy
For given total stack thickness, the strain energy accumulates
fastest for wafers of equal thickness (goes as thickness cubed)

K.T. Turner and S.M. Spearing, J. App. Phys., 92 (12) 2002,


7658-66.

To bond n wafers, add them one at a time


+

+
BAD

GOOD

> Etched features


Shallow etch hinders bonding (less interaction area)
Deep etch aids bonding (less stiffness)
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 30

Wafer bonding and yield


> Yield in MEMS can require a whole-wafer outlook, unlike IC
processing

> A micron-scale defect can create a mm- to cm-scale defect


Amplification by wafer stiffness
> Can have a die yield of 100% on individual wafers and not get
any devices if defects outside the die area prevent wafer
bonding

> Cleanliness (particulates, organics) is critical to prevent defects;


organics can outgas on anneal.

> Adjust process to minimize stiffness in bonding


At least one of the wafers should be thin (and therefore relatively
pliable) when going into the bonding process
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 31

Anodic bonding
> The mobility of sodium ions in the glass drives anodic bonding
> The wafers are heated to temperatures of about 500C; a positive
voltage (300 V 700 V) applied to the Si repels sodium ions from
the glass surface

> Suspectible to particulates, but less so than direct bonding


> Commonly used as a packaging step

+
_

Silicon
Heater
Heater
Glass

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 32

Designing process flows for cleanliness


> If you are planning to do a fusion bond, design your process
flow to prevent exposure of bonding surfaces to junk
Cleanliness is a good idea for anodic bonding, too, but
anodic bonding is less picky

> Some junk washes off easily, but some doesnt


> Example: deep reactive ion etchings passivation layer is
reluctant to come off (ashing helps somewhat but isnt perfect)

> Work around: if possible, start your process by coating your


wafer with a protective layer, like oxide. When you remove it
right before bonding, it carries the junk away with it.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 33

Outline

> Etching
> Wafer bonding
> Surface micromachining
> Process integration

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 34

Surface Micromachining
> Surface micromachining refers to the selective removal of
sacrificial layers beneath structural layers to create suspended
structures

> Many materials choices possible


> Structural polysilicon and sacrificial PSG oxide is welldeveloped, fully characterized, and available as a foundry
service

> Why use surface micromachining?


Complex multi-layer structures are possible without the need
for wafer bonding

Structure thickness is controlled by thickness of deposited


film, not by etch
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 35

Illustrating surface micromachining

> Example
Structural layer:
polysilicon
Sacrifical layer:
Oxide
Etchant
HF

Top View

Cross Section

Substrate

Deposit
sacrificial layer
design

Deposit
structural layer
design

Remove
sacrificial layer

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 3.19 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 59. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 36

Surface Micromachining

In-plane processing; potentially out of plane structures.


Courtesy of Sandia National Laboratories, SUMMiT Technologies, www.mems.sandia.gov

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 37

Solder assembly of surface micromachined parts


> Build surface micromachined parts
> Place solder over the joint
> Melt solder; surface tension bends part up until it hits limiter

Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., http://www.sciencedirect.com.


Used with permission.
Figure 10 on p. 242 in: Harsh, K. F., V. M. Bright, and
Y. C. Lee. "Solder Self-assembly for Three-dimensional
Microelectromechanical Systems." Sensors and Actuators
A: Physical 77, no. 3 (Nov. 1999): 237-244.

Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., http://www.sciencedirect.com.


Used with permission.
Figure 11 on p. 243 in: Harsh, K. F., V. M. Bright, and
Y. C. Lee. "Solder Self-assembly for Three-dimensional
Microelectromechanical Systems." Sensors and Actuators
A: Physical 77, no. 3 (Nov. 1999): 237-244.

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 38

Introduction to MUMPs

Courtesy of MEMSCAP, Inc. Used with permission.

PolyMUMPs (Multi-User MEMS Process) is a three-layer polysilicon


surface micromachining commercial process established in BSAC and
now available from MEMSCAP.
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 39

MUMPs Process

Courtesy of MEMSCAP, Inc. Used with permission.

Cross section before sacrificial etch


Structural layers: Poly 0, Poly 1, Poly 2
Sacrificial layers: Oxide 1, Oxide 2 (phosphosilicate glass)
LPCVD nitride acts as passivation, electrical isolation layer
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 40

MUMPS Process: Step 1

Courtesy of MEMSCAP, Inc. Used with permission.

4 100 silicon wafers, 1-2 resistivity


600 nm LPCVD Si3N4
500 nm LPCVD polysilicon (Poly-0)
Lithography poly-0 (Hole 0) and RIE poly-0
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 41

Step 2

Courtesy of MEMSCAP, Inc. Used with permission.

2.0 m LPCVD PSG (oxide-1) and 1050 C anneal


Lithography Dimples and RIE PSG (750 nm)

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 42

Step 3

Courtesy of MEMSCAP, Inc. Used with permission.

Lithography Anchor1 and RIE PSG

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 43

Step 4

Courtesy of MEMSCAP, Inc. Used with permission.

2.0 m LPCVD polysilicon (poly-1)


Lithography Poly-1 (Hole 1) and RIE poly-1

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 44

Step 5

Courtesy of MEMSCAP, Inc. Used with permission.

0.75 m LPCVD PSG(oxide 2 ) and 1050 C anneal

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 45

Step 6

Courtesy of MEMSCAP, Inc. Used with permission.

Lithography poly 2-poly1-via and RIE PSG (oxide 2)

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 46

Step 7

Courtesy of MEMSCAP, Inc. Used with permission.

Lithography Anchor 2 and RIE PSG (oxide-2 and oxide-1)

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 47

Step 8

Courtesy of MEMSCAP, Inc. Used with permission.

1.5 m LPCVD polysilicon (poly-2)

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 48

Step 9

Courtesy of MEMSCAP, Inc. Used with permission.

Lithography poly-2 (Hole 2) and RIE poly-2

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 49

Step 10

Courtesy of MEMSCAP, Inc. Used with permission.

0.5 m Cr/Au evaporation (Metal)


Lithography Metal (HoleM) and lift off

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 50

Step 11

Courtesy of MEMSCAP, Inc. Used with permission.

Releasing
1.5-2 min 49% HF sacrificial oxide etch at room temp.
CO2 critical point drying
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 51

Limitations of Surface MM

Images removed due to copyright restrictions.

Stiction

> Permanent adhesion between movable structures or structure


and substrate

> Caused mainly by van der Waals forces due to hydrogen content
or moisture on surface and close proximity of movable
structures (due to thin films used)
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 52

Dealing with stiction


> Thin structures are susceptible
Deposited films
Narrow, deep-etched structures
> Prevention is key
> Options
Low surface tension liquid rinse after sacrificial etch
Surface roughening or surface coating (hydrophobic)
Critical point CO2 or sublimation drying to prevent meniscus
formation

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 53

One release recipe


Acetone soak to remove photoresist (30 min)
Isopropanol soak to remove acetone (30 sec)
Rinse in water to remove isopropanol (1 min)
Soak in 49% HF (3:30 min)
Soak in 4:1 methanol/water (9 min)
CO2 supercritical release. Liquid CO2 is used to flush the
methanol. The CO2 is then heated and will subliminate around
35 C.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 54

HF only removes the oxide that it can reach

Holes in plates
are important!
Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., http://www.sciencedirect.com.
Used with permission.
Figure 11 on p. 243 in Harsh, K. F., V. M. Bright, and Y. C. Lee.
"Solder Self-assembly for Three-dimensional Microelectromechanical
Systems." Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 77, no. 3
(November 1999): 237-244.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 55

Outline

> Etching
> Wafer bonding
> Surface micromachining
> Process integration

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 56

Concerns in designing a process and mask set


> We know that we have to obey the laws of physics and the
vendors constraints when designing a process flow

> Its easier to design a robust, effective process if youve


designed your device well

Selecting your device architecture wisely if you dont


design an unbuildable structure, you wont have to build it

Designing the package and packaging process during the


device design

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 57

One concern: accumulated topography


> Successive steps of lithography and etching or deposition
create non-planar surface topography

> This can interfere with further fabrication:


Getting good coverage with photoresist
Depth of focus of lithographic tool
Wafer bonding
Stringers left over from etching
> Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) can be used to remove or
reduce unwanted topographic features

> Other techniques available for special cases

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 58

Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP)


> Often used to planarize interlayer dielectric insulators
> Typical surface roughness less than of 1 nm (but waviness can
be much bigger)

> Combination of mechanical polishing and chemical etching


> Using an abrasive slurry dispersed in an alkaline solution
> High, narrow features polish faster than low, uniform features

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 59

Stringers
> Stringers form when a conformal film that covers topographic
features is etched directionally, e.g. with RIE or dilute plasma

Conformal coating
over steps

Stringers remain
after directional
plasma etch.

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 3.34 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 74. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 60

A Bad Stringer Location


> The material in the cusp is almost impossible to remove by
etching

> Using a thicker white layer and polishing it back with CMP cures
the stringer problem (so part of the cure is dont let it happen in
the first place a good lesson to remember)

Stringer location

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 3.35 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 75. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 61

System partitioning
> You know that the overall system requires a set of functionalities.
How many of them should you put on the MEMS chip? This will
govern your fab process!

> Prime example: electronics


If you have a tiny signal that you cant detect without amplifying it as
soon as its produced, then you need at least first stage amplifying
electronics

If on-chip electronics are not functionally required, you must choose


whether it will save you money (fewer chips to make and package
together) or cost you money (more ways to ruin your MEMS chip in
the fab, and fewer process options) to include electronics on chip

> Some commercially successful devices are made with on-chip


electronics

> More commonly, they are not


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 62

Die separation
> Usually you use single MEMS chips, rather than whole wafers
> When and how to cut the chips apart?
> If youre going to slice them apart with a (very ungentle) die saw,
you must identify where in the process you will do it without
breaking your structures

> One alternate approach: include etch features on your mask


that will separate the dies most of the way so they snap apart at
the end

> Either way, must think about this when creating your process
flow

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 63

Design MEMS device and package together!


> You cant make the microfabricated part without photomasks
> The photomasks include interfaces to package:
Electrical bond pads, access required for MEMS function
> Until you make the system partitioning decision, you dont know
the bond-pad requirements.

> Until you design the package, you dont know what the
constraints on the physical access will be

> Therefore, until you make the system partitioning decision and
design the package, you cant make the masks!

> Second order package-device interactions:


High temperature packaging step can affect device: thermal
stresses, outgassing, etc.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 64

Process design philosophy


> People publish their fab accomplishments
> Students read the papers and take home the wrong message
They published X. X must be straightforward, and my process can
probably count on accomplishing even a little more than X.

W, X, Y, and Z have all been demonstrated. I cant count on doing


any better than W, X, Y, and Z, but Im sure I can accomplish all of
them simultaneously.

> Some advice:


Dont design your processes on the hairy edge of impossibility.
Including a very difficult process may be unavoidable, but a) dont
include a lot of them and b) be prepared to put a lot of work into
making that process robust.

On the design projects, we will know if your process is too


ambitious. In your thesis or in your job, Mother Nature will know if
your process is too ambitious.
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 3 - 65

Process Flow Design Challenge: Thermal Pneumatic Actuator


A thermal pneumatic actuator consists of a sealed cavity bounded on one side by a
deformable, corrugated (wavy) membrane and on the other side by a surface with an
ohmic heater. When the heater is turned on, the air inside the cavity heats up, expands,
and makes the deformable membrane bulge out. Your teams job is to design a
fabrication process flow to create such a device. The cross sections are shown below.
The membrane is 2 m thick, 4 mm on a side, and is patterned out of a 450 m thick
silicon wafer. The cavity depth is 5 m. You may choose the detailed cross-sectional
profile of the corrugations, but they should be concentric circles with a wavelength of
250 m and a depth of 10 m. The heater should be made of gold and patterned on a
Pyrex wafer.
With your team, first sketch out a process flow and mask set; then fill in the details as far
as possible. After each team has a chance to work on the process flow, a team or teams
will be chosen to present their solution(s) to the class. If your team is not chosen to
present its design, your job will be to critique the process that is presented.

Top view of silicon wafer containing


corrugated membrane

Cross section of complete device

Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., http://www.sciencedirect.com. Used with permission.


Figure 1a) on p. 63 in: Jeong, O. C., and S. S. Yang. "Fabrication of a Thermopneumatic
Microactuator with a Corrugated p+ Silicon Diaphragm." Sensors and Actuators A:
Physical 80, no. 1 (2000): 62-67.

Close up cross-section of silicon wafer containing


corrugated membrane
Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., http://www.sciencedirect.com. Used with permission.
Figure 2 on p. 63 in: Jeong, O. C., and S. S. Yang. "Fabrication of a Thermopneumatic
Microactuator with a Corrugated p+ Silicon Diaphragm." Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 80,
no. 1 (2000): 62-67.

This problem is based on a real device written up in the following paper; the cross
sections are from the paper as well.
Cite as: Carol Livermore and Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical
Devices, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on
[DD Month YYYY].

Soft Lithography and


Materials Properties in MEMS

Carol Livermore
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

* With thanks to Steve Senturia and Joel Voldman, from


whose lecture notes some of these materials are
adapted.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 1

Outline

> Soft Lithography


Materials and processes
Patterning biomaterials

> Material Properties in MEMS


Role of material properties in MEMS
Some examples
Determining material properties

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 2

SU-8 Epoxy
> Near-UV photosensitive epoxy that acts as a negative resist
> High aspect ratio structures possible (20:1), up to mm
> BUT it is not readily removed like photoresist would be
> Can be a structural material or a mask/mold for other materials
> Multilayer processing for thicker structures or two layer
structures, including enclosed flow paths

> Hydrophobic (adheres best to hydrophobic materials)


> Challenges:
Mechanical stress, cracking
When used as a mask, difficult to remove

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 3

Sample process: multilayer SU-8 microfluidics

> Spin coat, prebake, expose, and


postbake first layer

> Spin coat, prebake, expose, and


postbake second layer

> Develop both layers


> Cap with SU-8 coated transparent plate
> Expose to crosslink SU-8 glue, final
bake

Described in Jackman, J. Micromech. & Microeng. 11, 2001, 263.


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 4

Multilayer SU-8 options


> Challenge: suspended structures
Unintended exposure of first layer can destroy undercut

> Some demonstrated options:


Deposit metal on top of undeveloped first layer to protect it
from second exposure

Develop first layer channels and fill with a sacrificial polymer


to be removed later

Expose only the upper layer of SU-8 by controlling dose


and/or focal depth

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 5

Cracking in SU-8
> SU-8 shrinks in developer, causing cracks and loss of
adhesion

cracks

100 m
Courtesy of Joel Voldman. Used with permission.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 6

SU-8 Removal
> When using SU-8 as a resist and not a structural material, it must
be removed!
Enduring challenge best option is not to strip the SU-8

> Postbaked material extremely chemically resistant


Wet
Piranha, also removes other materials
Nanostrip, but much slower
Organic SU-8 removers
Work by swelling and peeling, not dissolution

Dry
O2 plasma for cleanup, too slow for bulk removal
Sacrificial layer: Omnicoat
Organic layer, O2 plasma patternable
Spin-coat sacrificial layer, process SU-8 on top
Sacrificial layer permits SU-8 liftoff
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 7

PDMS
> Polydimethylsiloxane
> Flexible elastomer
> Used to replicate topography from a master (Si, SU-8, etc)
> Used as a conformable stamp for patterning onto other surfaces
> Good for sealing microfluidic devices; can be sealed to many
materials

> Can be spin-coated


> Possible to dry etch
> Low cost pattern replication

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 8

PDMS
CH3
CH3

CH3
O

Si
CH3

Si
CH3

CH3
Si

> Upon treatment in oxygen


CH3

n CH3

plasma, PDMS seals to itself,


glass, silicon, silicon nitride,
and some plastic materials.

Plasma oxidation

Air (~ 10 min)

contact PDMS
surfaces

irreversible seal:
formation of
covalent bonds

Courtesy of Hang Lu and Rebecca Jackman. Used with permission.


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 9

Pattern replication by molding


> Master can be silicon, SU-8,
Master
apply

photoresist, or elastomer

> Apply prepolymer liquid to master


> Cure (by baking) and peel off

Prepolymer

Master
cure and peel

> When molding with PDMS, can


exploit PDMS sealing to form
enclosed microchannels

Master
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 10

Sample PDMS Process


Unexposed
SU-8 (50 m)

Si

Surface treatment &


casting PDMS

photolithography

PDMS

UV light

Si

mask

removing elastomer from


master

Si

PDMS

development

seal against glass after plasma


treatment and insert tubing

Si

master
tubing

Courtesy of Hang Lu. Used with permission.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 11

Microcontact printing
Stamp

> Apply ink to an elastomer stamp


> Bring stamp in contact with surface
(need not be flat because stamp can
deform)

Stamp

> Ink transfers to surface of substrate


> Can be used to mask etches,
depositions, etc

> Inks:
Stamp

SAMs (alkanethiols for coating on


noble metals), organics, proteins,
etc.

> Size scale: submicron to


millimeters
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 12

Microcontact printing on non-planar surfaces

Figure 2 on p. 186 in Rogers, J. A., R. J. Jackman, and G. M. Whitesides. "Constructing Single- and
Multiple-helical Microcoils and Characterizing Their Performance as Components of Microinductors
and Microelectromagnets." Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 6, no. 3 (Sept. 1997): 184-192.
1997 IEEE.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 13

Pattern replication by imprinting


Master
deformable

> Imprint in a thermoplastic material


by heating and applying pressure

> Typical material: PMMA


(polymethyl-methacrylate)
Master

> Or imprint in UV-curable fluid, like


polyurethane

> Process usually leaves trace


Master

material in clear areas, which may


be removed by dry etch

> Can replicate nanoscale features


(nanoimprinting, S. Chou)
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 14

Parylene
> A vapor-deposited polymer that provides very conformal
coatings

> Thickness range: submicron to about 75 microns


> Chemically resistant, relatively inpermeable
Component encapsulation

> Low friction film can act as a dry lubricant


> Low-defect dielectric insulating layer
> Relatively biologically inert
> Thin films nearly transparent
> Low stress minimizes interaction with components
> Can be dry etched
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 15

Some other useful materials


> Polyurethane
UV-curable is particularly useful, can be used for molding
process

> Special purpose polymers (not all terribly mainstream, but an


active and useful area of development):

Photodefinable polycarbonate that decomposes at 250C (ie


Unity Sacrificial Polymer)

Avatrel, a polymer material through which decomposed Unity


can diffuse

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 16

Outline

> Soft Lithography


Materials and processes
Patterning biomaterials

> Material Properties in MEMS


Role of material properties in MEMS
Some examples
Determining material properties

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 17

Biomaterials processing

> Biomolecules DNA, proteins, cells


Needed for biosensors, cell arrays, etc.
Challenge is integrating fragile molecules with
semiconductor processing

Multiple methods
Micro-contact printing
Microfluidic patterning
Lift-off
Stencils

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 18

Biomaterials processing by microcontact printing


> Microcontact printing
Developed by Whitesides at
Harvard Univ.

Xia & Whitesides, Annu.


Rev. Mater. Sci. 28:153,
1998.

No harsh solvents needed


Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., http://www.sciencedirect.com. Used with permission.
Figure 4 on p. 601 in: Blawas, A. S., and W. M. Reichert. "Protein Patterning.
Biomaterials 19, nos. 7-9 (April 1998): 595-609.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 19

Biomaterials processing by microfluidic patterning

> Microfluidic patterning

Attach PDMS stamp to substrate


Add biomolecule to solution
Flow solution through channels
Attachment via adsorption

Courtesy of Annual Reviews. Used with permission.


Figure 1c) on p. 230: in Folch, A., and M. Toner. "Microengineering
of Cellular Interactions." Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
2 (August 2000): 227-256.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 20

Biomaterials processing by liftoff

> Lift-off
Use standard photoresist lift-off
Molecules must withstand acetone
or other solvent

Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., http://www.sciencedirect.com. Used with permission.


Figure 1 on p. 597 in: Blawas, A. S., and W. M. Reichert. "Protein Patterning.
Biomaterials 19, nos. 7-9 (April 1998): 595-609.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 21

Biomaterials processing by stencils

> Stencils

Use PDMS stamps as dry resists


Physically pattern biomaterials
Can use with most any substrate
Potential damage to cells
on feature periphery

PDMS stencil
A Folch, Univ. Washington

a)
b)
c)
d)

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.


Figure 3 on p. 351 in: Folch, A., B. -H. Jo, O. Hurtado, D. J.
Beebe, M. Toner. "Microfabricated Elastomeric Stencils for
Micropatterning Cell Cultures." Journal of Biomedical Materials
Research 52, no. 2 (2000): 346-353.

Attach stencil to substrate


Add cells
Let cells attach to substrate
Remove stencil

Courtesy of Albert Folch. Used with permission.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 22

Outline

> Soft Lithography


Materials and processes
Patterning biomaterials

> Material Properties in MEMS


Role of material properties in MEMS
Some examples
Determining material properties

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 23

Material properties and coupled domains

> The basic functionality of many MEMS devices is in


coupling one domain to another, and this coupling is
typically described by material properties
Mechanical to electrical
Electrical to thermal
Thermal to fluids

> The failure modes of many MEMS devices are in


coupling one domain to another
For example, package stress interacting with piezoresistor

> Some properties of MEMS materials are exceptional


Pronounced piezoresistivity of silicon
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 24

Off-label use of materials

> MEMS devices often depend on material properties


that are less important for other uses of the material

> Fracture strength of Si


> Biocompatibility of Si-based materials

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 25

Process dependence
> Some microelectronic materials, like single crystal silicon, have
highly predictable and repeatable constitutive properties

> Most microelectronic materials, however, exhibit some degree of


process dependence in their material properties, especially
deposited or thermally formed thin films

> Some properties, like thin-film residual stress, can be wildly


dependent on deposition conditions, even changing sign from
compressive to tensile

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 26

Planning around material properties


> Well-controlled material properties can pose a design challenge
Many factors, may point design in opposite directions
> Poorly-controlled material properties are worse
Every device has specifications, which must be met by either
getting it right the first time or employing some combination
of trim (fixing the hardware later) and calibration
(compensating through software)

Getting it right includes both materials and geometry


The greater the variation in properties, the greater the
headache and the greater the cost

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 27

Constitutive Properties
> Constitutive properties are normally expressed as relationships
between applied loads (causes) and resulting responses
(effects).

> It is not always clear which is which. If the functional relation


can be inverted, it doesnt actually matter.

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 28

Examples of constitutive properties


Load

Response

Property

Distributed mechanical
force

Acceleration

Mass density

Temperature rise

Increase in internal energy


per unit volume

Specific heat per unit


volume

E-field

D-field

Dielectric permittivity

H-field

B-field

Magnetic permeability

Stress

Strain

Elastic compliance

E-field

Current density

Electrical conductivity

Temperature gradient

Heat flux

Thermal conductivity

Shear stress

Shear rate

Inverse of viscosity

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 29

Scalar properties

> Scalar properties are those which involve no


orientation-dependent or direction-dependent effects

> Examples:
Mass density
Specific heat
Viscosity of a gas or unoriented liquid (i. e. not a liquid
crystal)

And, for isotropic materials: permittivity, permeability,


electrical and thermal conductivity

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 30

Tensor properties
> Properties that involve directions, either the relative directions of
applied vector loads and vector responses, or the orientation of
loads and/or responses relative to internal (crystalline) axes,
require tensors for their specification

> Examples:
Permittivity, permeability, index of refraction and conductivity

of non-cubic solids are second-rank tensors


Piezoelectric responses which couple stress and strain to
electric fields are described with third-rank tensors
Elastic constants and piezoresistive responses require fourthrank tensors

> Because constitutive properties have lots of symmetry, we can


usually boil these higher-order tensors down to something
manageable.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 31

Outline

> Soft Lithography


Materials and processes
Patterning biomaterials

> Material Properties in MEMS


Role of material properties in MEMS
Some examples
Determining material properties

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 32

Which properties to consider?


> One of the challenges for the MEMS designer is knowing what
you should care about.

> One course goal is acquiring domain knowledge, which gives


you some insight into which material properties are important in
a given situation.

> Today: a sneak preview of what you might worry about


> A useful resource:
A previous years assignment involved looking up material
properties for many MEMS materials.

Results are posted on the web site.


Buyer beware! This is the work of 20 + students and surely
contains some errors.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 33

Electrical Conductivity
> Relates electric field to current density; Ohms law minus the
geometry.

> Importance: circuits, sensors


> Elemental metals: observed values can vary from tabulated bulk
values, depending on deposition method.

Example: a factor of two variation in metals printed as


nanoparticles in a solvent and then annealed.*

> Other materials: variations much more pronounced


Polysilicon conductivity depends on grain size, doping:
orders of magnitude with relatively small process variations.

> Characterize by four-point measurement of test structures with


known geometry.
* Fuller et al, JMEMS, vol. 11, p. 54 (2002).
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 34

Breakdown Strength
> The maximum electric field that an insulating material in the gap
between two flat electrodes can withstand without suffering
dielectric breakdown

> Depends on the size of the interelectrode gap


> Importance: high voltage actuators, maximum performance
> Can vary with film composition, defect density
> Tabulated values are sufficient if the design does not push the
limits; otherwise characterization is necessary.

> One test approach: fabricate a capacitor and fill gap with
material in question. Match gap thickness to actual device.
Detect onset of breakdown both optically and by current flow.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 35

Elastic constants
> Relate stress (how hard you push or pull on something in a
given direction, per unit area) to strain (the resulting fractional
change in the objects length or shape)

> Importance: how far will your cantilever or membrane deflect?


> Single crystal materials: good reproducibility
> Deposited materials: must be characterized
> Characterizing elastic constants in MEMS is a significant
challenge. Stay tuned for some sample approaches at the end.

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 36

Residual film stress


> Stress in a film deposited on a Si wafer, in the absence of
external loading.

> Two flavors:


Intrinsic stress: related to structure
Thermal stress: accumulated from a change in temperature

> Residual stress is a VERY VARIABLE PROPERTY, and must be


measured.

> Can play games, such as adjusting deposition conditions to


ensure that intrinsic and thermal stresses cancel out at given T

> One basic characterization: wafer curvature in the presence of a


blanket film

> More advanced approaches later in lecture


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 37

Known problems from residual stress


> Deformation of free, moveable structures
Compressive film on a wafer
Wafer bows
Compressive membrane or beam
Buckling
Operational deflection can be enhanced
Tensile film on a wafer
Wafer bows
Tensile membrane or beam
Operational deflection can be reduced
> Film cracking and delamination
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 38

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE)


> Fractional change in length per unit temperature change
> Importance: CTE mismatch plus high T processing or operation
creates stress (and deformation and/or destruction)

> Examples:
Bonding glass (quartz or Pyrex) to Si
Thermal stress in a film that is deposited at high T

> CTE is tabulated, and one of the less variable material


properties.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 39

Piezoresistance
> Straining the silicon lattice shifts the band-edge energies of the
conduction band and the valence band
The conduction band, in particular, consists of multiple
minima and, depending on the direction of the strain, some
go up more than others
This shifts the relative electron population in some minima
compared to others and modifies scattering rates

> Result: an orientation-dependent shift in the conductivity


> For historical reasons, the piezoresistive coefficients relate
resistivity to stress.

> Piezoresistivity is good for strain sensors, and sometimes


changes the resistance of otherwise perfectly good resistors.

> Coefficients are material, orientation, temperature, and doping


dependent
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 40

Analytic Formulation of Piezoresistance

> The electric field E is a vector (first-rank tensor)


> The current density J is a vector (first-rank tensor)
> Therefore, the resistivity e (and/or conductivity) is a
second-rank tensor, as is the stress

> The piezoresistive effect is described by a fourth-rank


tensor

E = [e + ] J
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 41

The Details
> Good news: in cubic materials, there are just three independent
non-zero piezoresistance coefficients, 11, 12, 44.
Effect of stress along
direction of E

Effect of stress
perpendicular to E

Ohms law

Effect of
shear stress

E1

= [1 + 11 1 + 12 ( 2 + 3 )]J1 + 44 ( 12 J 2 + 13 J 3 )

E2

= [1 + 11 2 + 12 ( 1 + 3 )]J 2 + 44 ( 12 J1 + 23 J 3 )

E3

= [1 + 11 3 + 12 ( 2 + 1 )]J 3 + 44 ( 13 J1 + 23 J 2 )

where

e 11 = 1111 , e 12 = 1122 , e 44 = 2 2323


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 42

Piezoresistivity in Silicon
> Coefficients depend on doping, and decrease rapidly above
about 1019 cm-3

> Coefficients are functions of temperature


> Typical values
Type
Units
n-type
p-type

Resistivity
-cm
11.7
7.8

11
10-11 Pa-1
-102.2
6.6

12
10-11 Pa-1
53.4
-1.1

44
10-11 Pa-1
-13.6
138.1

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 43

Piezoelectricity
> Ionic crystals that lack a center of inversion symmetry can
exhibit a net polarization within each unit cell. Materials which
have this at zero strain are called ferroelectrics. Materials in
which the dipole results from strain are called piezoelectrics

> Examples
Quartz
Zinc oxide
Lithium niobate
Lead zirconate-titanate (PZT)
Aluminum nitride
poly (vinylidene fluoride)

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 44

Piezoelectricity
> Piezoelectrics can have a net electric polarization which
interacts with mechanical strain

Applying a voltage across a piezoelectric creates strains


both parallel and perpendicular to the applied electric field
(actuation)

Straining a piezoelectric creates an electric field both parallel


and perpendicular to the imposed strain (sensing)

> Interaction between stored mechanical energy and stored


electrostatic energy

Permits both sensing and actuation


Unlike piezoresistivity, which is purely dissipative (no
actuation)

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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 45

Piezoelectric coefficients
> The piezoelectric tensor links the stress tensor to the electric
polarization tensor

> There are four variables: stress, strain, electric field, and
electric displacement

> Simplification by symmetry: the behavior can be captured by


either the d coefficients (when stress and electric field are the
independent variables) or by the e coefficients (when strain
and electric field are the independent variables)

> The d coefficients (units C/N) relate strain to electric field


Consider an electric field in the z direction
Strain in the x or y direction = d31*Electric field in the z direction
Strain in the z direction = d33*Electric field in the z direction
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 46

Piezoelectric materials
> Some piezoelectrics have no net polarization at zero strain
Quartz
Zinc oxide
Quartz and ZnO are stiff materials, with low strain

> Some materials have a net polarization at zero strain

Common example: PZT (Lead zirconate titanate)


Higher strain ceramic material for larger deflections
Common choice for MEMS devices
Fabrication: deposited in layers by a sol-gel (spin on) process,
thermally cured, then poled in an electric field

> Piezoelectric polymers


Example: poly (vinylidene fluoride)
Very high strains
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 47

Examples of piezoelectric coefficients


> Zinc oxide
d31 = - 5.4 pC/N
d33 = 11.7 pC/N
Note: expansion along the field corresponds to contraction
in the transverse direction

> PZT
Coefficients depend on exact PZT material, on underlying
material, on frequency, and on electric field

- d31 is in the ballpark of 100 pC/N to several hundred pC/N


d33 is in the ballpark of several hundred pC/N to 1000 pC/N
Again, expansion along the field corresponds to contraction
in the transverse direction

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 48

Variation over temperature


> Electrical conductivity
> Thermal conductivity
> Specific heat
> Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE)
Variations in the coefficient itself
> Piezoresistive coefficients
> Piezoelectric response (pyroelectricity)
> Youngs modulus

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 49

Outline

> Soft Lithography


Materials and processes
Patterning biomaterials

> Material Properties in MEMS


Role of material properties in MEMS
Some examples
Determining material properties

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 50

The bottom line


> You need to use test structures to characterize materials with
variable properties

> Measuring electrical properties requires electrical test devices


> Measuring mechanical properties requires a mechanical test
device

Basically a MEMS device designed to help you measure a


particular property value or values

Fabrication of test device must accurately reflect fabrication


processes that you will use to create your real device

> Measuring material properties requires as much careful design


and fabrication as is required to create a device

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 51

Whats Hard?
> Knowing the geometry of the test device well enough to be able
to make good measurements of the constitutive properties and
their repeatability

Lateral and vertical dimensions not too difficult


Sidewall angles, mask undercut are harder
> Modeling the test device accurately enough so that the accuracy
of the extracted properties are limited by geometric errors

A good procedure is to make a family of test structures with


a systematic variation in geometry, and extract constitutive
properties from all of the data.

> Preventing systematic errors in the measurement

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 52

Membrane Load-Deflection Example


> The problem: residual stress and stiffness of membranes affect
their deflection under load

> Example: pressure sensors


d
2a

Pressure (p)
> Approach:
Apply different pressures and measure resulting deflections
Fit to an energy-based model for large membrane deflections
Ideal rigid boundary conditions are a benefit
> Weakness:
Deflection is very sensitive to variations in membrane
thickness and edge length, so metrology errors appear

How to get a family of test geometries?


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 53

Pull-in of beams: M-Test Example


> The problem: elastic constants and residual stress affect the
actuation of mechanical MEMS structures

> Approach:
Fabricate an array of microbeams of different lengths
Measure the voltage at which they pull in, and fit to models
Excellent agreement with known values when boundary
Gap Between Plates

conditions are ideal


g
2
g
3

Stable Region

Unstable
Region

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.


Figure 10 on page 116 in: Osterberg, P. M., and S. D. Senturia. "M-TEST:
A Test Chip for MEMS Material Property Measurement Using
Electrostatically Actuated Test Structures." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 6, no. 2 (1997): 107-118.

Pull-In
Instability

Applied Voltage

VPI

Courtesy of Joel Voldman. Used with permission.

> Weakness: surface micromachined beams often have some


support compliance
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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CL: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 5 - 54

Electronics A

Joel Voldman
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 1

Outline

> Elements of circuit analysis

TODAY

> Elements of semiconductor physics


Semiconductor diodes and resistors
The MOSFET and the MOSFET inverter/amplifier

> Op-amps

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 2

Elements of circuit analysis

> There are many ways to analyze circuits


> Here well go over a few of them

Elements laws, connection laws and KVL/KCL


Nodal analysis
Intuitive approaches
Superposition

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 3

Lumped elements in circuits

> Circuit elements (R, L,

closed
surface

C) are lumped
approximations of
complex devices

EA = Q

> The electrical capacitor


between Q and V?

E(r, t ) = V (r, t )
b

V (b) V (a) = V = Eg

A
+
V
-

E = 0

V (b) V (a ) = E dl

What is the relation

E da = Q

Q = AV

g
A
C=
g

E =V

V = CV

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 4

Lumped elements in circuits

> The electrical capacitor


We can replace all of field theory with terminal relations
And introduce an element with an element law
As long as capacitor size << wavelength of electrical signal
In general, MEMS are small
e.g., =50 m 600 GHz

Q = CV
dQ d
I=
= (CV )
dt dt
dV
I =C
dt

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 5

Elements and element laws


> Do this with all three basic

elements

> Resistor

> Capacitor
> Inductor

V
V = RI

V
dV
I =C
dt

dI
V =L
dt

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 6

Source elements

> We need elements to provide energy into the circuit


> Two common ones are voltage source and current
source

I
+
+
V V0
V = V0

I
+
V I0
I = I0

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 7

KVL and KCL

> These are continuity laws that allow us to solve


circuits

> Kirchhoffs voltage law


The oriented sum of voltages around a loop is zero

> Kirchhoffs voltage law


The sum of currents entering a node is zero

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 8

Complex impedances

> For LTI systems, use


complex impedances
instead
Implicitly working in

1
V = IZ C = I
Cs
-

frequency domain

> Much easier circuit

+
I

analysis

the same, like


resistors

> All elements treated

V
Z

V = IZ L = ILs
V = IZ R = IR

V (s) = I ( s) Z ( s)

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 9

Lets analyze a circuit

1. Figure out what are


you trying to determine

+
V0
-

2. Replace elements with


3. Assign across and
4. Use KVL
5. Substitute in element
laws

6. Solve

L
R

complex impedances

through variables

iV

i C + VC -

+
VV V0+
-

ZC
ZL
ZR

- VR +

VL
+
iL

iR

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 10

Lets analyze a circuit

1. Figure out what are


you trying to determine

2. Replace elements with


complex impedances

iV

i C + VC -

+
VV V0+
-

ZL
ZR

- VR +

3. Assign across and


through variables

ZC

VL
+
iL

iR

VV VC + VL VR = 0

4. Use KVL

V0 iC Z C + iL Z L iR Z R = 0

5. Substitute in element

iC = iL = iR

laws

6. Solve
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 11

Lets analyze a circuit

1. Figure out what are

iV

you trying to determine

+
VV V0+
-

2. Replace elements with


complex impedances

3. Assign across and


through variables

4. Use KVL
5. Substitute in element
laws

i C + VC ZC
ZL
ZR

- VR +

VL
+
iL

iR

V0 iR Z C iR Z L iR Z R = 0
iR =

V0
=
ZC + Z L + Z R 1

V0
Cs

+ Ls + R

Cs
iR =
V0
2
LCs + RCs + 1

6. Solve
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 12

Example #1

> Solve for VL


+
V0
-

C
L
R

VL
-

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 13

Nodal analysis

> Element law approach becomes tedious for circuits


with multiple loops

> Nodal analysis is a KCL-based approach

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 14

Nodal analysis

1. Figure out what are you

VC

trying to determine

2. Replace elements with


complex impedances

V0

+
-

3. Assign node voltages &


ground node

4. Write KCL at each node


5. Solve for node voltages
6. Use node voltages to

v2

v1
V0

+
-

C
R

find what you care about


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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 15

Nodal analysis

1. Figure out what are you


trying to determine

2. Replace elements with


complex impedances

i1

v1
V0

i2
i3

+
-

v2
L

3. Assign node voltages &


ground node

4. Write KCL at each node


5. Solve for node voltages
6. Use node voltages to

Node 1:
Node 2:

v1 = V0
i1 + i2 + i3 = 0

v1 v2 0 v2 0 v2
+
+
=0
ZC
ZL
ZR

find what you care about


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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 16

Nodal analysis

1. Figure out what are you


trying to determine

2. Replace elements with


complex impedances

i1

v1
V0

+
-

i2

v2

i3

C
R

3. Assign node voltages &

1
1
1 V0
v2
+
+
=
ZC Z L Z R ZC
4. Write KCL at each node
v2 ( Z L Z R + Z C Z R + Z L Z C ) = V0 Z L Z R
ground node

5. Solve for node voltages


6. Use node voltages to

ZLZR
v2 = V0
Z L Z R + ZC Z R + Z L ZC

find what you care about


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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 17

Nodal analysis

1. Figure out what are you


trying to determine

2. Replace elements with


complex impedances

i1

v1
V0

+
-

i2

v2

i3

3. Assign node voltages &


ground node

6.

LRs + 1

R + Ls 1

Cs
LRCs 2
Solve for node voltages v2 = V0 LRCs 2 + Ls + R

4. Write KCL at each node


5.

v2 = V0

LRs
Cs

2
LRCs
Use node voltages to
VC = v1 v2 = V0 V0
2
LRCs
+ Ls + R
find what you care about

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 18

Example #2
R1

+
-

V0

R2
L

VL

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 19

Intuitive methods
> Instead of solving the circuit using
equations, use series/parallel tricks to
analyze the circuit by inspection

> Current divider & impedances in


parallel

Both elements have SAME voltage


Terminals connected together

+
V
-

i
i1

i2
Z1

Z2

i
Z

V
-

Z2
i1 = i
Z1 + Z 2
Z1
i2 = i
Z1 + Z 2
Z1Z 2
V = i1Z1 = i
Z1 + Z 2
Z1Z 2
= Z1 // Z 2
Z=
Z1 + Z 2
1 1
1
= +
Z Z1 Z 2

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 20

Intuitive methods
> Voltage divider & impedances in
series

Both elements have SAME current

i
+
V1
+
V2
-

Z2
V2 = V
Z1 + Z 2

Z1

Z2

V1
V
=
=i
i1 =
Z1 Z1 + Z 2

Z = Z1 + Z 2

i
V

Z1
V1 = V
Z1 + Z 2

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 21

Intuitive methods
> Examples of elements NOT in series OR parallel

Z1

Z2

Z1

Z3

Z4

Z3

Z1 and Z3 in series
Z2 and Z4 in series
Z1 and Z2 NOT in parallel
Z3 and Z4 NOT in parallel

Z4

Z3 and Z4 in parallel
Z1 and Z3 NOT in series

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 22

Intuitive methods
iL

> Lets use this approach to solve


a circuit

V0

+
-

C
L

1. Figure out what are you


trying to determine
+

2. Replace elements with


complex impedances

V0

+
-

C
Za

4. Re-expand to find signal of


interest

Z a = Z R // Z L

3. Collapse circuit in terms of


series/parallel relations till
circuit is trivial

Va

Za
Va = V0
Z a + ZC
Va
iL =
ZL

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 23

Intuitive methods
> Lets use this approach
to solve a circuit

Za
Z R // Z L
1
1
iL = V0
= V0
Z a + ZC Z L
Z R // Z L + Z C Z L

1. Figure out what are you


trying to determine

2. Replace elements with


complex impedances

3. Collapse circuit in terms of


series/parallel relations till
circuit is trivial

4. Re-expand to find signal of


interest

ZRZL
ZR + ZL
1
= V0
ZRZL
+ ZC Z L
ZR + ZL
= V0
= V0

ZRZL
1
Z R Z L + ( Z R + Z L ) ZC Z L
RLs
RLs + ( R + Ls ) 1

Cs

1
Ls

RCs
iL = V0
RLCs 2 + Ls + R

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 24

Example #3
R1

+
-

V0

R2

VR

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 25

Superposition
> These equivalent circuits are linear
and obey the principles of
superposition

This can be useful

> For circuits with multiple sources,


Turn off all independent sources

except one
Solve circuit
Repeat for all sources, then add
responses

V0

+
-

short

> Turning off a voltage source gives


a short circuit

> Turning off a current source gives

I0

open

an open circuit
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 26

Superposition
v2

v1

> For circuits with multiple


sources,
Turn off all independent

I0

sources except one

Solve circuit
Repeat for all sources, then add

v2 = I 0 Z R // Z C

responses

v2

v1
V0

+
-

V0

C
R

Find v2

I0

v2

v1

+
-

C
R

v2 = V0

ZR
Z R + ZC

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 27

Superposition

> For circuits with multiple


sources,
Turn off all independent
sources except one

ZR
v2 = I 0 Z R // Z C + V0
Z R + ZC

Z Z
ZR
Solve circuit
v2 = I 0 R C + V0
Repeat for all sources, then add
Z R + ZC
Z R + ZC
responses

v2

v1
V0

+
-

C
R

I0

v2 =

I0 R 1

Cs
R+ 1

+ V0 R

Cs
I 0 R + V0 RCs
v2 =
RCs + 1

Find v2
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 28

Conclusions

> There are many ways to analyze equivalent circuits


> Use the simplest method at hand
> Element laws & connection laws are OK for simple
ckts

> Nodal analysis works for most any circuit, but will be
tedious for complicated circuits

> Try to use intuitive approaches whenever possible

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 6E - 29

Elasticity
(and other useful things to know)
Carol Livermore
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

* With thanks to Steve Senturia, from whose lecture notes some


of these materials are adapted.
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 1

Outline
> Overview
> Some definitions
Stress
Strain
> Isotropic materials
Constitutive equations of linear elasticity
Plane stress
Thin films: residual and thermal stress
> A few important things
Storing elastic energy
Linear elasticity in anisotropic materials
Behavior at large strains
> Using this to find the stiffness of structures
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 2

Why we care about mechanics


> Mechanics makes up half of the Ms in MEMS!
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
DLP projection display

www.dlp.com

Pressure (p)
Pressure sensors
Images removed due to copyright restrictions. Figure 11 on p.
342 in: Zavracky, P. M., N. E. McGruer, R. H. Morrison, and D.
Potter. "Microswitches and Microrelays with a View Toward Microwave
Applications." International Journal of RF and Microwave Comput-Aided
Engineering 9, no. 4 (1999): 338-347.

1 m

Silicon

0.5 m

Cantilever
Pull-down
electrode

Veeco.com
Anchor

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Rebeiz, Gabriel M. RF MEMS: Theory, Design, and Technology.
Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2003. I SBN: 9780471201694.

AFM cantilevers
Courtesy of Veeco Instruments, Inc. Used
with permission.

et al., Int. J. RF Microwave


Switches Zavracky
CAE, 9:338, 1999, via Rebeiz RF MEMS
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 3

What do we need to calculate?


> Eager beaver suggestion: everything
When I apply forces to this structure, it bends.
Heres the function that describes its deformed shape at

every point on the structure when the deformations are


small.
Here are numerical calculations of the shape at every point
on the structure when the deformations are large.
The structure is stressed, and the stress at every point in the
structure is

> Shortcut suggestion: just what we really need to know


When I apply a force F to the structure, how far does the point of

interest (the end, the middle, etc) move?


This boils down to a stiffness, as in F = kx
What is the stress at a particular point of interest (like where my
sensors are, or at the point of maximum stress)?
How much load can I apply without breaking the structure?

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 4

Why things have stiffness I


Unloaded beam is undeformed:

Axially loaded beam is stretched:

Stretching costs energy, which is stored as elastic energy.


Exactly how much energy is determined by material and
geometry.
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 5

Why things have stiffness II


Unloaded beam is undeformed:

Loaded beam is bent:


Stretched

Compressed

Stretching and compressing cost energy, which is stored in


elastic energy. Exactly how much energy is determined by
material and geometry.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 6

Example: relating load to displacement in bending


> What are the loads, and where on the structure are they applied?
1 m

Silicon

0.5 m

Cantilever
Pull-down
electrode

Anchor

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Rebeiz, Gabriel M. RF MEMS: Theory, Design, and Technology.
Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2003. ISBN: 9780471201694.

> Given the loads, what is going on at point (x,y,z)?


M

> How much curvature does that bending moment create in the
structure at a given point?

What is the geometry of the structure?


What is it made of, and how does the material respond to the
kind of load in question?
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 7

Elasticity
> Elasticity: the ability of a body to deform in response to applied
forces, and to recover its original shape when the forces are
removed

> Contrast with plasticity, which describes permanent deformation


under load

> Elasticity is described in terms of differential volume elements to


which distributed forces are applied

> Of course, all real structural elements have finite dimensions


> We will ultimately use partial differential equations to relate
applied loads and deformations

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 8

Outline
> Overview
> Some definitions
Stress
Strain
> Isotropic materials
Constitutive equations of linear elasticity
Plane stress
Thin films: residual and thermal stress
> A few important things
Storing elastic energy
Linear elasticity in anisotropic materials
Behavior at large strains
> Using this to find the stiffness of structures
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 9

Stress

> Stress is force per unit area


> Normal stress
x, y, or z

> Compressive: < 0


> Tensile: > 0

x
z

x
xy

> Shear stress


xy, xz, or yz

x
z

xy

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 10

Stress

> Can have all components


at a given point in space

> SI Units: the Pascal


1 Pascal = 1 N/m2

z
zy

zx

> Other units:

yz

xz

1 atm = 14 psi = 100 kPa


1 dyne/cm2 = 0.1 Pa

z
xy

yx

y
x

> Notation: face,direction

x
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA:
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 11

Deformation

> Illustrating a combination of translation, rotation, and


deformation
x3, y3
x2, y2

x3, y3

x2, y2

x4, y4

u(x1, y1)
x1, y1

x4, y4

x1, y1
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Adapted from Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers,
2001. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 12

Strain
> Strain is a continuum description of deformation.
> Center of mass translation and rigid rotation are NOT strains
> Strain is expressed in terms of the displacements of each point
in a differential volume, u(x) where u is the displacement and x is
the original coordinate

> Deformation is present only when certain derivatives of these


displacements u are nonzero

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 13

Normal Strains (x, y, z)


> Something changes length
xf

> Normal strain is fractional


change in length (dimensionless)

> > 0: gets longer, < 0: gets


shorter

yi

yf
xi

x x+x
Initial length : ( x + x) x = x
Final length : ( x + x + u x ( x + x) ) ( x + u x ( x) ) =
= x + u x ( x + x) u x ( x)

x =

x+ux(x)

u x ( x + x) u x ( x) u x
=
x
x

x+x + ux(x+x)
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 14

Shear Strains (xy, xz , yz)


> Angles change

ux

> Comes from shear stresses


> Quantified as change in angle
in radians

2
y
x

xy

uy

u x u y u x u y

=
+
=
+
x
x y
y

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 15

Different regimes
> How are stress and strain related? It depends on the regime in
which youre operating.

> Linear vs nonlinear


Linear: strain is proportional to stress
Most things start out linear
> Elastic vs. plastic
Elastic: deformation is recovered when the load is removed
Plastic: some deformation remains when unloaded
> Isotropic vs. anisotropic
Life is simpler when properties are the same in all directions;
however, anisotropic silicon is a part of life

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 16

Outline
> Overview
> Some definitions
Stress
Strain
> Isotropic materials
Constitutive equations of linear elasticity
Plane stress
Thin films: residual and thermal stress
> A few important things
Storing elastic energy
Linear elasticity in anisotropic materials
Behavior at large strains
> Using this to find the stiffness of structures
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 17

Linear Elasticity in Isotropic Materials

> Youngs modulus, E


The ratio of axial stress to axial strain, under uniaxial loading
Typical units in solids: GPa = 109 Pa
Typical values 100 GPa in solids, less in polymers
x

L + L

x = E x
x = L L

(for uniaxial loading)

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 18

Linear Elasticity in Isotropic Materials

> Poisson ratio,


Some things get narrower in the transverse direction when
you extend them axially.

Some things get wider in the transverse direction when you


compress them axially.

This is described by the Poisson ratio: the negative ratio of


transverse strain to axial strain

Poisson ratio is in the range 0.1 0.5 (material dependent)

y = x
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 19

Poissons ratio relates to volume change


> Volume change is
z

proportional to (1-2)

> As Poisson ratio

approaches , volume
change goes to zero

We call such materials

z (1 x )

incompressible

> Example of incompressible


material:

Rubber

y (1 x )

x(1 + x )

V = xyz (1 + x )(1 x ) xyz


2

V = xyz (1 2 ) x
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 20

Isotropic Linear Elasticity


> For a general case of loading, the constitutive relationships
between stress and elastic strain are as follows

> 6 equations, one for each normal stress and shear stress

xy

1
x = x ( y + z )
E
1
y = y ( z + x )
E
1
z = z ( x + y )
E

Shear modulus G is given by

yz
zx

G=

1
= xy
G
1
= yz
G
1
= zx
G

E
2(1 + )

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 21

Other Elastic Constants

> Other elastic constants in


isotropic materials can
always be expressed in
terms of the Youngs
modulus and Poisson
ratio
Shear modulus G
Bulk modulus (inverse of
compressibility)

E
K=
3(1 2 )

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 22

Plane stress
> Special case: when all stresses are confined to a single plane
Often seen in thin films on substrates (will discuss origin of
these stresses shortly)

> Zero normal stress in z direction (z = 0)


> No constraint on normal strain in z, z

1
1
x = ( x ( y + z )) = ( x y )
E
E
1
1
(
)
y = y ( x + z ) = ( y x )
E
E
1

( x + y )
z = ( z ( x + y )) =
E
E

often get insight


about these from
boundary conditions

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 23

Plane stress: directional dependence


> Principal axes: those
x

directions in which the


load appears to be
entirely normal stresses
(no shear)

Here, principal axes are in x and y.

> In general, there are shear


stresses in other
directions

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 24

Stresses on Inclined Sections

> Can resolve axial forces into normal and shear forces
on a tilted plane

FN = F cos
FV = F sin

FN

FV

FV

FN

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 9.3 in: Senturia, StephenD. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA:
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 205. ISBN: 9780792372462.

A
Area =
cos
F
= cos2
A
F
= cos sin
A

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 25

Resultant stresses vary with angle

Normalized stress

1.2

0.8
0.4
0

-0.4
-0.5

-0.25

0.25

0.5

/
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 9.4 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA:
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 206. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Failure in shear occurs at an angle of 45 degrees


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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 26

Special case: biaxial stress


> A special case of plane stress
Stresses x and y along principal axes are equal
Strains x and y along principal axes are equal
> Leads to definition of biaxial modulus

1
( x y )
E
1
y = ( y x )
E

x =

1
(1 )
E
E
=

(1 )

Biaxial modulus =

E
(1 )

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 27

Thin Film Stress


> A thin film on a substrate can have residual stress
Intrinsic stress
Thermal stress
> Mostly well-described as a plane stress

Thin film

Plane stress region

Edge
region

Substrate

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 8.5 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer
Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 190. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 28

Types of strain

> What we have just talked about is elastic strain


Strains caused by loading; returns to undeformed
configuration when load is removed

Described by the isotropic equations of linear elasticity

> There are other kinds of strain as well


Thermal strain, which is related to thermal expansion
Plastic strain: if you stretch something too far, it doesnt
return to its undeformed configuration when the load is
removed (permanent component)

Total strain: the sum of all strains

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 29

Thermal expansion
> Thermal expansion: if you
change an objects temperature,
its length changes

> This is a thermally-induced strain


> An unopposed thermal
expansion produces a strain, but
not a stress

> If you oppose the thermal


expansion, there will be a stress

> Coefficient of thermal expansion,

xthermal (T ) = T T

x (T ) = x (T0 ) + T (T T0 )
and
V
= 3 T (T T0 )
V

T
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 30

Thermally Induced Residual Stress


> If a thin film is adhered to a substrate, mismatch of thermal
expansion coefficient between film and substrate can lead to
stresses in the film (and, to a lesser degree, stresses in the
substrate)

> The stresses also set up bending moments


You care about this if you dont want your wafer to curl up
like a saucer or potato chip

> And the vertical expansion of the film is also modified

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 31

Thermally Induced Residual Stress


Substrate:

s = T , s T
where
T = Td Tr
Film:

f , free = T , f T
f ,attached = T , s T

Some of the final strain is


accounted for by the strain that the
film would have if it were free. The
remainder, or mismatch strain, will
be associated with a stress through
constitutive relationships.
Mismatch:

f ,mismatch = ( T , f T , s )T

Biaxial stress:

f ,mismatch

E
=
f ,mismatch
(1 )

Assuming that the film is much thinner than


the substrate, the films actual strain is
whatever the substrate imposes.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 32

Intrinsic residual stress


> Any thin film residual stress that cannot be explained by thermal
expansion mismatch is called an intrinsic stress

> Sources of intrinsic stress


Deposition far from equilibrium
Secondary grain growth can modify stresses
Ion implantation can produce compressive stress
Substitutional impurities can modify stress
etc.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 33

Edge effects
> If a bonded thin film is in a state of plane stress due to residual
stress created when the film is formed, there are extra stresses
at the edges of these films

Shear stresses
F=0

F=0

Extra peel force

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 8.6 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA:
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 191. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 34

Outline
> Overview
> Some definitions
Stress
Strain
> Isotropic materials
Constitutive equations of linear elasticity
Plane stress
Thin films: residual and thermal stress
> A few important things
Storing elastic energy
Linear elasticity in anisotropic materials
Behavior at large strains
> Using this to find the stiffness of structures
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 35

Storing elastic energy


> Remember calculating potential energy in physics
xf

U = Fx dx (for example, U = mgh)


xi

> Deforming a material stores elastic energy


> Stress = F/A, strain = L/L

(x,y,z)

()d = ???

> Together, they contribute 1/length3: strain energy density at a


point in space

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 36

Elastic Energy
> Elastic stored energy density is the integral of stress with
respect to strain

Elastic energy density :


When ( ) = E :

(x,y,z)
~
W(x,y,z) =
()d
0

1
~
2
W(x,y,z) = E [(x,y,z)]
2

> The total elastic stored energy is the volume integral of the
elastic energy density

Total stored elastic energy :

W=

~
W
(x,y,z)dxdydz

Volume

> You must know the distribution of stress and strain through a
structure in order to find the elastic energy stored in it (next
time).
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 37

Including Shear Strains


> More generally, the energy density in a linear elastic medium is
related to the product of stress and strain (both normal and
shear)

~ 1
For axial strains : W =
2
~ 1
For shear strains : W =
2
This leads to a total elastic strain energy :
W=

1
( x x + y y + z z + xy xy + xz xz + yz yz ) dxdydz

2 Volume

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 38

Linear elasticity in anisotropic materials


> General case:
Stress is a second

rank tensor
Strain is a second
rank tensor
Elastic constants
form a fourth rank
tensor

> There is lots of


symmetry in all the
tensors

> Can represent stress


as a 1 x 6 array and
strain as a 1 x 6 array

x C11

y C12
C
z = 13
yz C14

zx C15
C16
xy

C12

C13

C14

C15

C22

C23 C24

C25

C23 C33 C34


C24 C34 C44

C35
C45

C25
C26

C55
C56

C35
C36

C45
C46

C16 x

C26 y
C36 z

C46 yz

C56 zx

C66 xy

> The elastic constants


form a 6 x 6 array,
also with symmetry
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 39

Stiffness and Compliance


> The matrix of stiffness coefficients,
analogous to Youngs modulus, are
denoted by Cij

> The matrix of compliance


coefficients, which is the inverse of
Cij, is denoted by Sij

> Yes, the notation is cruel


> Some texts use different symbols,

I = CIJ J
J

and
I = S IJ J
J

but these are quite widely used in


the literature

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 40

Cubic materials

> Only three


independent elastic
constants
C11 = C22 = C33
C12 = C23 = C31 = C21
= C32 = C13

C44 = C55 = C66


All others zero

> Values for silicon


C11 = 166 GPa
C12 = 64 GPa
C44 = 80 GPa

C11

C12
C
12
0
0

C12
C11

C12
C12

0
0

0
0

C12

C11

0
C44

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
C44
0

0
0

0
0

C44

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 41

Materials with Lower Symmetry

> Examples:
Zinc oxide 5 elastic constants
Quartz 6 elastic constants

> These materials come up in piezoelectricity


> Otherwise, we can enjoy the fact that most materials
we deal with are either isotropic or cubic

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 42

What lies beyond linear elasticity?

> So far, we have assumed linear elasticity.

> Linear elasticity fails at large strains


Some of the deformation becomes permanent (plastic strain)
Things get stiffer
Things break

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 43

Plastic deformation

> Beyond the yield

> This is exploited


in the bending
and stamping of
metals

5
4
Stress (arbitrary units)

point, a plastic
material develops
a permanent set

Loading curve

Unloading curve

2
1

Strain if unloaded to zero stress

Stress if unloaded to zero strain

-1
-2

4
2
3
Strain (arbitrary units)

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 8.8 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA:
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 198. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 44

Material behavior at large strain


> Brittle and ductile materials are very different

6
Brittle Fracture

Stress (arbitrary units)

Yield

Ductile Fracture

3
2

Elastomeric or flow region

1
0

2
3
4
Strain (arbitrary units)

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 8.7 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA:
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 197. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 45

Any thoughts on this device?

Figures 2, 3, and 4 on pp. 236-237 in: Kinoshita, H., K. Hoshino,


K., K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama. "Thin Compound eye Camera with a Zooming
Function by Reflective Optics." In MEMS 2005 Miami: 18th IEEE International
Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems: technical digest, Miami Beach,
Florida, USA, Jan. 30-Feb. 3, 2005. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2005, pp. 235-238.
ISBN: 9780780387324. 2005 IEEE.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 46

Outline
> Overview
> Some definitions
Stress
Strain
> Isotropic materials
Constitutive equations of linear elasticity
Plane stress
Thin films: residual and thermal stress
> A few important things
Linear elasticity in anisotropic materials
Behavior at large strains
> Using this to find the stiffness of structures
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 47

A simple example: axially loaded beams


> In equilibrium, force is uniform; hence stress is inversely
proportional to area (as long as area changes slowly with
position)

Geometry :
F
F
L
= =
and =
A WH
L
Uniaxial stress :
= E

F
L
=E
WH
L
EWH
F=
L
L
F = kL k =

Plug in for L=100 m,


W=5 m, H=1 m,
E=160 GPa:

EWH
L

k=8000 N/m

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 48

Another example: bending of beams and plates


> Stress and strain underlie bending, too
> Unlike uniaxial tension, where stress and strain are uniform,
bending of beams and plates is all about how the spatially
varying stress and strain contribute to an overall deformation.

Stretched: tensile stress


Compressive stress

> Next time!

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 6 - 49

Electronics B

Joel Voldman
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 1

Outline

> Elements of circuit analysis


> Elements of semiconductor physics
Semiconductor diodes and resistors
The MOSFET and the MOSFET inverter/amplifier

> Op-amps

TODAY

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 2

Elements of semiconductor physics


> Discrete molecules (e.g., hydrogen

E (eV)

atom) have discrete energy levels that


the electrons can occupy

E (0 eV)
E5 (-0.54 eV)
E4 (-0.85 eV)
E3 (-1.51 eV)
E2 (-3.40 eV)

Determined via quantum mechanics

Paschen
series
Balmer
series

Hydrogen

> Adding a discrete amount of energy to


the electrons (via light, thermal energy,
etc.) can excite an electron from its
ground state to an excited state

> Different atoms have different number

E1 (-13.6 eV)

Lyman
series
(n = 3, 1 = 1)
p orbital 6
allowed levels

Silicon

(n = 2)
8 electrons

of filled states

All the action typically happens at the


highest unoccupied state

> Two distinct molecules have identical


and independent energy-level
structures

(n = 1)
2 electrons

(n = 3, 1 = 0)
s orbital 2
allowed levels

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figures 2.1 and 2.6 in Razeghi, M. Fundamentals
of Solid State Engineering. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Springer,
2006, pp. 48 and 59. ISBN: 9780387281520.

Razeghi, Fundamentals of Solid State Engineering


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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 3

Elements of semiconductor physics


>
>
>
>
>

Atoms packed into a lattice behave differently than discrete atoms


Their discrete energy levels coalesce into continuous energy bands
There may be many energy bands for the molecule
We dont care about the ones that are filled and inaccessible
We care about the highest one with electrons
6
4

Electron energy

2
0

p
s

4N empty
states
2N+2N
filled states

Isolated
Si atoms

2'

L1
Si

2'
15

15

X4

-4
X1

L1

-8

L2'
1

-12
L

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 2.5 in: Pierret, Robert F. Semiconductor DeviceFundamentals.
Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1996, p. 28. ISBN: 9780131784598.

Gap

L3,

-6

Si lattice
spacing

Energy

25'

X1

25'

-2

-10

Decreasing
atom spacing

L3

U,K

Wave Vector k

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Figure 1 on p. 559 in: Chelikowsky, J. R., and M. L. Cohen. "Nonlocal
Pseudopotential Calculations for the Electronic Structure of Eleven
Diamond and Zinc-blende Semiconductors." Physical Review B 14, no.
2 (July 1976): 556-582.

Razeghi, Fundamentals of Solid State Engineering


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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 4

Elements of semiconductor physics


>
>
>
>
>

The highest normally filled set of electronic states is the valence band
The lowest normally empty set of electronic states is the conduction band
An energy gap separates these states
At T=0 K, all the valence band states are filled
A filled band cannot conduct electricity This is an insulator
6
4
2
0

L3

2'

L1

15

Si

2'
15
Energy

25'

X1

25'

-2

conduction
band

Gap

L3,
X4

-4
-6

-10

energy gap

X1

L1

-8

L2'
1

-12
L

U,K

valence
band

Wave Vector k

T=0 K
Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Figure 1 on p. 559 in: Chelikowsky, J. R., and M. L. Cohen. "Nonlocal
Pseudopotential Calculations for the Electronic Structure of Eleven
Diamond and Zinc-blende Semiconductors." Physical Review B 14, no.
2 (July 1976): 556-582.

Razeghi, Fundamentals of Solid State Engineering


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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 5

Elements of semiconductor physics


> T>0 K, electrons have thermal energy (~kT)
> At equilibrium, the only way for an electron to cross the energy barrier
is to be thermally excited

> The number of electrons that can do this is


increases with thermal energy (and thus T)
decreases with larger bandgap

> The thermally excited electrons give rise to electrons


> The resulting empty states in the valence band give rise to holes
Behave similar to electrons but with opposite charge and different mass

electrons

holes

T=0 K

T=300 K

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 6

Key terminology
> Energy gap EG (1.1 eV in silicon at RT)
> Si atom concentration = 5x1022 /cm3
> The number of carriers in intrinsic Si is
related to

Probability distribution function of energies


This obeys Fermi-Dirac statistics
Allowable states

> ~10-9 (prob of being filled) x ~1019 (density of


states) = ~1010 (carriers)

> ni is the intrinsic carrier concentration


the equilibrium concentration of holes and
electrons in the absence of dopants
~1.5x1010 cm-3 at RT
This is a material property

> n is the concentration [#/cm3] of electrons


> p is the concentration [#/cm3] of holes

ni e

EG
2 k BT

ni = pi

Every thermally
generated electron
leaves behind a hole

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 7

Key terminology
> Intrinsic carrier concentration of

1014

Si, Ge, and GaAs


1013

Ge

GaAs
Si

Intrinsic carrier concentration (cm-3)

1012
1011
1010
109
108
107

Adapted from Figure 2.20 in: Pierret, Robert F. Semiconductor Device Fundamentals.
Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1996, p. 54. ISBN: 9780131784598.

106
105
200

300

400 500
T (K)

600

700

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 8

Doped semiconductors
> Dopants: substitutional impurity
atoms introduced having one
different valence than the
semiconductor

> Acceptor dopant concentrations are


NA

[#/cm3]

p-type material

Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

Boron (3 valence electrons)

> Donor dopant concentrations are ND


[#/cm3] n-type material

Phosphorous (5 valence electrons)

> These introduce new energy levels

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 7.5 in: Razeghi, M. Fundamentals of Solid
State Engineering. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2006, p. 238.
ISBN: 9780387281520.

close to valence or conduction


bands (~0.05 eV)

> Dopant concentrations >> ni


T=0 K
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 9

Doped semiconductors

> Energy to ionize << kT (at RT)


> We assume all dopants are ionized at RT
Ec
ED
n-type dopant

Ev
T=0

T>0K

T = 300 K
Ec

p-type dopant

EA
Ev
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Adapted from Figure 2.13 in: Pierret, Robert F. Semiconductor Device Fundamentals. Reading,
MA: Addison-Wesley, 1996, p. 38. ISBN: 9780131784598.

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 10

Main results
> Donors or acceptors are fully ionized
> Define n0 and p0 as the electron and hole

N D N D+ + e
N A N A + h +

concentrations at equilibrium

> n0 and p0 follow a mass-action law

N D N D+
N A N A
n0 p0 = ni2

+
+

N A = p N D+ = n

n= p

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 11

Main results
> Overall, silicon is neutral
Can use to determine n0 and p0

> Carrier concentrations typically


vary over many orders of
magnitude

Charge neutrality requires:


N A + n0 = N D+ + p0
N A + n0 N D + p0

Can use this to simplify

> Ex:
ni ~ 1010 cm-3
NA, ND ~ 1016-1019 cm-3

> In a given material at equilibrium


NA > 100ND (p-type)
ND > 100NA (n-type)

For p-type material:


p0 N A

ni2 ni2
n0 =
=
p0 N A

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 12

Main results
> Therefore, the equilibrium
majority carrier concentration is
determined by the net doping
and the minority carrier
concentration is determined by
the n0p0 product.

> For typical numbers, minority


carrier concentration is much
less majority carrier
concentration

p-type

n-type

p0 = N A

n0 = N D

ni2
n0 =
NA

ni2
p0 =
ND

N A ~ 1017 cm 3
p0 = N A = 1017 cm 3
n0 =

2
i

(1010 cm3 )

n
3
3
10
cm
=
=
NA
1017 cm 3

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 13

Excess carriers
> We can do various things to
create excess carriers

Shine light
Apply electric fields

> Excess carriers (n, p)

n = n n0

p = p p0
Generally, n = p

represent a departure from


equilibrium

> Excess holes and electrons


are created in pairs

> Excess carriers recombine

Recombination
rate

Electron-hole
pair (EHP)

dn
n

dt
m
n(t ) ~ n(0)e

exponentially in pairs,
governed by lifetime

The minority carrier lifetime

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 14

Excess carriers

> GaAs w/ NA=p0=1015 cm-3


> GaAs ni = 106 cm-3
> Create 1014 EHP/cm3 and
calculate carrier
concentrations over time

p
Carrier concentrations (cm-3)

> Therefore, n0= 10-3 cm-3

p(t)

1015

1014

n(t)
1013

1012
Adapted from Figure 4.7 in: Streetman, Ben G., and Sanjay Kumar Banerjee.
Solid State Electronic Devices. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
Prentice Hall, 2006, p. 127. ISBN: 9780131497269.

10

20

30

40

50

time (ns)
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 15

Drift and diffusion of carriers


> Carriers in semiconductors
obey a drift/diffusion flux
relation

> Drift: carriers move in an


electric field

> Diffusion: carriers move in a


concentration gradient

Electric field [V/cm]

drift

diffusion

J n = qe ( n nE + Dnn )

Diffusivity [cm2/s]
Mobility [cm2/V-s]
Carrier concentration
[cm-3]

> For p-type material

n is small drift current is

small
n can be big diffusion
current dominates

Drift
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Figure 3.1b) in: Pierret, Robert F.Semiconductor Device Fundamentals.
Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1996, p. 76. ISBN: 9780131784598.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 16

Outline

> Elements of circuit analysis


> Elements of semiconductor physics
> Semiconductor diodes and resistors
> The MOSFET and the MOSFET
inverter/amplifier

> Op-amps

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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 17

The semiconductor diode


> A p-n junction has very different
concentrations of carriers in the two
regions, creating a diffusive driving
force
> At equilibrium diffusive driving force =
electric field in the vicinity of the
junction

ionized donors and acceptors are


relatively depleted of mobile carriers
near the junction the space-charge
layer (SCL) or depletion region

+ + + + + +
+ + + + + +
+ + + + + +
- + + + + + +
- + + + + + +
- + + + + + +

E
-

Oxide

n-type substrate

> In order to set up this electric field, the

p-type region

n-type

p-type

- + + + + + +
- + + + + + +
- + + + + + +

xp0

xn0
XJ0

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


,
Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Adapted from Figure 14.1 in: Senturia
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 357. ISBN: 9780792372462.
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 18

The exponential diode


> An external voltage modifies the net
potential drop across the space charge
layer

p
Ec

> Forward bias reduces the barrier to

diffusion, leading to an increase in


current

Ev

Equilibrium

> Reverse bias increases the barrier, so


only current is due to minority carriers
generated in or near the space-charge
layer

IN

Ec

Oxide
Metal

+
p-type region

n-type substrate

ID
Ev

VD

_
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 14.2 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 359. ISBN: 9780792372462.

IP

Forward bias
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figu
re 6.1 in: Pierret, Robert F. Semiconductor
Device Fundamentals. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1996,
p. 236. ISBN: 9780131784598.

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 19

Ideal Exponential Diode Analysis


> Linear changes in
voltage lead to
exponential changes in
carrier concentrations

I D = I0 e

qeVD
k BT

Forward bias
0.005

Current (A)

The total current is

0.010

-VB

0.000

Reverse blocking
-0.005

Reverse breakdown
-0.010

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

Voltage (V)
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 14.3 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 360. ISBN: 9780792372462.

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 20

The Junction-Isolated Diffused Resistor


> The structure is a diode, but with two

Oxide

Metal

contacts

> The diode action prevents currents


into the substrate provided the diode
is always reverse biased

p-type region

n-type substrate

> The conductivity is controlled by


resistor

doping

> The resistor value is determined by


geometry

desired

+
-

undesired

+
-

distributed
diode

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 14.7 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem
Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p.
363. ISBN: 9780792372462.

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 21

Outline

> Elements of circuit analysis


> Elements of semiconductor physics
> Semiconductor diodes and resistors
> The MOSFET and the MOSFET
inverter/amplifier

> Op-amps

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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 22

MOSFET Structure
> The MOSFET exploits the concept of a field-induced junction
> The electric field between the gate and the channel region of the
substrate can either increase the surface concentration
(accumulation) or deplete the surface and eventually invert the
surface
Source

Gate

Drain

Oxide
D
Channels
p-type substrate

n+ regions

S
Body
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 14.10 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 366. ISBN: 9780792372462.
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 23

MOSFET qualitative operation


> With D & S grounded,
back-to-back diodes
prevent current flow
between D & S

> To reduce barrier,


apply positive voltage
to G (w.r.t. D & S)

> At some threshold


voltage, this will form
an n-channel inversion
layer that will connect
D&S

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 24

MOSFET Characteristics
1000

> Need VGS>VT for device to turn on


between D & S

> As VDS increases, voltage between

triode

800

ID (A)

> As VDS increases, current will flow

VGS = 4 V
ID,sat

600
VGS = 3 V

400

G and D decreases

> When VDS gets too big, one side of

saturation

200

channel pinches off, preventing


further increases in current

VGS = 2 V
0

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 14.13 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 369. ISBN: 9780792372462.

S
e-

e-

VDS

S
e-

e-

S
e-

e-

n-channel

VDS=0

VDS>0

VDS>VGS-VT

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 25

Different kinds of MOSFETs

S
G

S
B

p-channel

Enhancement

Depletion

n-channel

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 14.11 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 367. ISBN: 9780792372462.

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 26

Large-signal and small-signal MOSFET models


D

> Electrical engineers use


circuit models to analyze
circuits involving MOSFETS

K/2(VGS-VTn)

> Can use either full nonlinear

characteristics

Simple large-signal
model, in saturation

> Or linearized small-signal


model

Different models include


different components

gm vgs

CGS

r0

+
-

S
Simple small-signal
model, in saturation
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 27

Outline

> Elements of circuit analysis


> Elements of semiconductor physics
Semiconductor diodes and resistors
The MOSFET and the MOSFET inverter/amplifier

> Op-amps

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 28

Operational Amplifiers op-amps


> Let someone else design a high-performance amplifier
> Basic structure and transfer characteristic
v0
Vsat+

Signal path
vv+

Slope A0

v0

v+ - v-

+
Differential
amplifier

High-gain
amplifier

Output
amplifier

VsatDIP/SO Package

VS+
v-

Output A 1

v0
v+

Inverting input A 2

Non-inverting
input A
GND

VS-

_A

+ +

B_

v+

Output B

Inverting input B

Non-inverting
Input B

Top view

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figures 14.23 and 14.24 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers,
2001, p. 382. ISBN: 9780792372462.

LM158

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 29

Ideal and non-ideal behavior


> We do first analysis using ideal
linear model

> Op-amp data sheets have pages


and pages of limitations

> A sampling
Input offset voltage voff: zero

v0 ( s ) = A( s ) ( v+ ( s ) v ( s ) )
where
A( s ) =

A0 s0
s + s0

volts at input gives non-zero


output

Frequency limitations: op-amps


can only amplify up to a
maximum frequency

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 30

The Inverting Amplifier


Assume op-amp draws no
current

R2
R1
Vs

v-

+
-

Use Nodal analysis:

Vo
v+

R1
+
-

vv+

+
-

Vs v v V0
=
R1
R2

V0 = A(0 v )

R2

Vs

KCL:

Vo
A(v+-v-)

Vo
R2
1

=
Vs
R1 1 R2
1 + 1 +
R1
A
A
Vo
R
= 2
Vs
R1

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 31

Short method for analyzing op-amps

> Assume linear region operation


This implies that the two inputs are essentially at the same
voltage (but never exactly equal)

> Assume zero currents at both inputs


> Analyze the external circuit with these constraints
> Check to verify that the output is not at either
saturation limit (VS)

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 32

More op-amp configurations

Vs

v = v+ = VS

+
V0

R1

R2
Vs = V0
R2 + R1
V0
R1
= 1+
VS
R2

R2

Non-inverting
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 14.28 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 388. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 33

More op-amp configurations


R1
Is
_
V0
+

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 14.29 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 389. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Transimpedance amplifier

V0 = R1 I S
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 34

Integrator

C
R1
Vs

vC _

+
_

V0
+

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 14.30 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 389. ISBN: 9780792372462.

1
V0 =
Vs (t )dt

R1C
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 35

Differentiator
R1
C
Vs

+
_

V0
+

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 14.31 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 390. ISBN: 9780792372462.

The differentiator is less "ideal"


Vs
0 V0
=
1
R1
sC
V0
= sR1C
Vs
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 7E - 36

Structures
Carol Livermore
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

* With thanks to Steve Senturia, from whose lecture notes some


of these materials are adapted.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 1

Outline

> Regroup
> Beam bending

Loading and supports


Bending moments and shear forces
Curvature and the beam equation
Examples: cantilevers and doubly supported beams

> A quick look at torsion and plates

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 2

Recall: Isotropic Elasticity


> For a general case of loading, the constitutive relationships
between stress and elastic strain are as follows

> 6 equations, one for each normal stress and shear stress

xy

1
x = x ( y + z )
E
1
y = y ( z + x )
E
1
z = z ( x + y )
E

yz

zx

Shear modulus G is given by G =

1
= xy
G
1
= yz
G
1
= zx
G

E
2(1 + )

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 3

What we are considering today


> Bending in the limit of small deflections
> For axial loading, deflections are small until something bad
happens

Nonlinearity, plastic deformation, cracking, buckling


Strains typically of order 0.1% to 1%
> For bending, small deflections are typically less than the
thickness of the element (i.e. beam, plate) in question

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 4

What we are NOT considering today


> Basically, anything that makes todays theory not apply (not as
well, or not at all)

> Large deflections


Axial stretching becomes a noticeable effect
> Residual stresses
Can increase or decrease the ease of bending

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 5

Our trajectory
> What are the loads and the supports?
1 m

Silicon

0.5 m

Cantilever
Pull-down
electrode

Anchor

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Rebeiz, Gabriel M. RF MEMS: Theory, Design, and
Technology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2003. ISBN: 9780471201694.

> What is the bending moment at point x along the beam?


M

> How much curvature does that bending moment create in the
structure at x? (Now you have the beam equation.)

> Integrate to find deformed shape


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 6

Outline

> Regroup
> Bending

Loading and supports


Bending moments and shear forces
Curvature and the beam equation
Examples: cantilevers and doubly supported beams

> A quick look at torsion and plates

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 7

Types of Loads
> Three basic types of loads:
Point force (an old friend, with its own specific point of
application)

Distributed loads (pressure)


Concentrated moment (what you get from a screwdriver, with
a specific point of application)

The forces and moments work together to make internal


bending moments more on this shortly

F=
point load

q = distributed load
M=
concentrated moment

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 8

Types of supports

> Four basic boundary conditions:


Fixed: cant translate at all, cant rotate
Pinned: cant translate at all, but free to rotate (like a hinge)
Pinned on rollers: can translate along the surface but not off

the surface, free to rotate


Free: unconstrained boundary condition

Fixed

Pinned

Free

Pinned on Rollers

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 9.5 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 207. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 9

Reaction Forces and Moments


> Equilibrium requires that the total force on an object be zero
and that the total moment about any axis be zero

> This gives rise to reaction forces and moments


> Cant translate means support can have reaction forces
> Cant rotate means support can have reaction moments
Point Load
F
x
MR
O

Total moment about support :


M T = M R FL
Moment must be zero in equilibrium :
M R = FL
Net force must be zero in equilibrium :
FR = F

FR
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 9.7 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design .
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 209. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 10

Internal forces and moments


> Each segment of beam must also be in equilibrium
> This leads to internal shear forces V(x) and bending moments
M(x)

For this case,

M (x ) = F ( L x)
V (x ) = F

Images by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 9.7 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 209. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 11

Some conventions
Moments
Positive

Negative

Moments:

Image by MIT OpenCou rseWare.


Adapted from Figure 9.8 in: Senturia, Stephen D.
Microsystem Design. Bo ston, MA: Kluwer Academic
Publishers, 2001, p. 210 . ISBN: 9780792372462.

Shears
Positive

Negative

Shears:

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 9.8 in: Senturia, Stephen D.
Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic
Publishers, 2001, p. 210. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 12

Combining all loads


> A differential beam element, subjected to point loads,
distributed loads and moments in equilibrium, must obey
governing differential equations
All Loads:

q
V

M+dM
V+dV
dx

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 9.8 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic
Publishers, 2001, p. 210. ISBN: 9780792372462.

FT = qdx + (V + dV ) V
dV

= q
dx

= ( M + dM ) M (V + dV ) dx

qdx
dx
2

dM
=V
dx

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 13

Outline

> Regroup
> Bending

Loading and supports


Bending moments and shear forces
Curvature and the beam equation
Examples: cantilevers and doubly supported beams

> A quick look at torsion and plates

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 14

Pure bending
> Important concept: THE NEUTRAL AXIS
> Axial stress varies with transverse position relative to the
neutral axis

dL = ( z )d
dx = d

Neutral Axis

Tension
z
MO

MO

d?
?
Compression

H/2
Tension

?x
Compression
H/2
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figures 9.9 and 9.10 in: Senturia, Stephen D.
Microsystem Design . Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic
Publishers, 2001, pp. 211, 213. ISBN: 9780792372462.

z
dL = dx dx

z
x =

zE
x =

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 15

Locating the neutral axis


> In pure bending, locate the neutral axis by imposing equilibrium
of axial forces

N = ( z )dA = 0
A

thickness

E ( z )W ( z )z

One material, rectangular beam


dz = 0

EW

z dz = 0

thickness

> The neutral axis is in the middle for a one material beam of
symmetric cross-section.

> Composite beams: if the beam just has a very thin film on it, can
approximate neutral axis unchanged

> Composite beams: with films of comparable thickness, change


in E biases the location of the neutral axis
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 16

Curvature in pure bending


Curvature is related to the internal bending moment M.

Internal Moment :
M = z x dA
A

x =
M =

zE

For a one - material beam,


M =

2
z
dA
A

Moment of inertia I :
I = z 2 dA
A

2
E
(
z
)
z
dA

M =

EI

In pure bending, the internal moment M equals the externally


M0
1
=

applied moment M0. Then


for one material; for two

EI
or more materials, calculate an effective EI.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 17

Useful case: rectangular beam


W
M0

M0

For a uniform rectangular beam,


H /2

1
I = Wz dz = WH 3
12
H / 2
2

1
3 E
M = WH
12

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 18

Differential equation of beam bending

> Relation between curvature and the applied load


x

dx

x
?(x)

ds

w(x)

d 2w
M
=
2
dx
EI
and, by successive differentiation

d?

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 9.11 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, pp. 214. ISBN: 9780792372462.

ds =

dx

cos

dx

dw
= tan
dx
ds = d

d 1 d 2 w
=
dx dx 2

d 3w
V
=

dx 3
EI
d 4w q
=
dx 4 EI

For large - angle bending


1
w
=
1 + (w)2 3 / 2

Large-angle bending is
rare in MEMS structures

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 19

Anticlastic curvature

> If a beam is bent, then the Poisson effect causes


opposite bending in the transverse direction
z
x =

y = x

/v

Original
cross-section

which creates a y - directed internal moment


y =

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 9.12 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design .
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, pp. 219. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 20

Example: Cantilever with point load


d 2w F
=
( L x)
2
dx
EI
dw
F 2 FL
=
x +
x+ A
dx
2 EI
EI

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 9.7 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design .
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 209. ISBN: 9780792372462.

d 2w
M (x )
=
2
dx
EI
and
M (x ) = F ( L x)
V (x ) = F

F 3 FL 2
w=
x +
x + Ax + B
6 EI
2 EI
BC : w(0) = 0,

dw
=0
dx x =0

A= B=0
w=

FL 2
x
x 1
2 EI 3L

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 21

Spring Constant for Cantilever

> Since force is applied at tip, if we find maximum tip


displacement, the ratio of displacement to force is the
spring constant.
wmax

kcantilever

L3
F
=
3EI

3EI EWH 3
= 3 =
L
4 L3

For the same dimensions as the uniaxially loaded beam,


kcantilever = 0.2 N/m
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 22

Stress in the Bent Cantilever

> To find bending stress, we find the radius of


curvature, then use the pure-bending case to find
stress
1 d 2w F
Radius of curvature : = 2 =
( L x)
EI
dx
Maximum value is at support ( x = 0)
FL
1
=
max EI

Maximum axial strain is at surface (z = H/2 )


LH
6L
F= 2
max =
F
H WE
2 EI
6L
max = 2 F
HW
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 23

Tabulated solutions
> Solutions to simple situations available in introductory
mechanics books

Point loads, distributed loads, applied moments


Handout from Crandall, Dahl, and Lardner, An Introduction to
the Mechanics of Solids, 1999, p. 531.

> Linearity: you can superpose the solutions


> Can save a bit of time
> Solutions use nomenclature of singularity functions

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 24

Singularity functions
xa

xa

xa

= 0 if x a < 0
= ( x a ) if x a > 0
n

= what is variably called an impulse or a delta function

Integrate as if it were just functions of (x-a); evaluate at the end.


Value: a single expression describes whats going on in different
regions of the beam
F
x
a

M (x ) = F a x

b
L

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 25

Overconstraint
> A cantilevers single support provides the necessary support reactions
and no more

> A fixed-fixed beam has an additional support, so it is overconstrained

> Static indeterminacy: must consider deformations and reactions to


determine state of the structure

> Many MEMS structures are statically indeterminate: flexures, optical


MEMS, switches,

> What this means for us


Failure modes and important operational effects: stress stiffening,

buckling
Your choice of how to calculate deflections

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 26

Example: center-loaded fixed-fixed beam


> Option 1: (general)

Start with beam equation in terms of q


Express load as a delta function
Integrate four times

d 4w q
=
4
dx
EI

Four B.C. give four constants

> Option 2: (not general)


Invoke symmetry

> Option 3: (general)


Pretend beam is a cantilever with as yet unknown moment and force
applied at end such that w(L) = slope(L) = 0

Using superposition, solve for deflection and slope everywhere


Impose B.C. to determine moment and force at end
Plug newly-determined moment and force into solution, and youre
done
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 27

Integration using singularity functions


F

q
F
1
=
xL 2
EI EI
F
0
x L 2 + C1
EI
F
1
x L 2 + C1 x + C2
EI

dw F x L 2
=
2
dx EI

L/2

L/2

d 4w
=
4
dx
d 3w
=
dx 3
d 2w
=
2
dx

q=F xL 2

Use boundary conditions to find


constants: no displacement at
supports, slope = 0 at supports

C1 x 2
+
+ C2 x + C3
2
3

C1 x 3 C2 x 2
F xL 2
w( x ) =
+
+
+ C3 x + C4
EI
6
6
2
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 28

Comparing spring constants


> Center-loaded fixed-fixed beam (same dimensions as previous)
F

16 EWH 3
k=
= 12.8 N/m
3
L

> Tip-loaded cantilever beam, same dimensions


F

EWH 3
k=
= 0.2 N/m
3
4L

> Uniaxially loaded beam, same dimensions


F

EWH
k=
= 8000 N/m
L

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 29

Outline

> Regroup
> Bending

Loading and supports


Bending moments and shear forces
Curvature and the beam equation
Examples: cantilevers and doubly supported beams

> A quick look at torsion and plates

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 30

Torsion
The treatment of torsion mirrors that of bending.
Images removed due to copyright restrictions.
Figures 48 and 50 in: Hornbeck, Larry J. "From Cathode Rays to Digital Micromirrors: A History of
Electronic Projection Display Technology." Texas Instruments Technical Journal 15, no. 3 (July-Sept ember 1998): 7-46.

Images removed due to copyright restrictions.


Figure 51 on p. 39 in: Hornbeck, Larry J. "From Cathode Rays to Digital Micromirrors: A History of
Electronic Projection Display Technology." Texas Instruments Technical Journal 15, no. 3 (July-Sept ember 1998): 7-46.

Digital Light Processing Technology: Texas Instruments


Digital Light Processing is a trademark of Texas Instruments.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 31

Bending of plates
> A plate is a beam that is so
wide that the transverse
strains are inhibited, both
the Poisson contraction
and its associated
anticlastic curvature

> This leads to additional


stiffness when trying to
bend a plate

x =

x y

E
But y is constrained to be zero
0 = y =

y x
E

x =
2 x
1
Plate Modulus

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 32

Plate in pure bending


> Analogous to beam bending, with the limit on transverse strains
> Two radii of curvature along principal axes
1

2w
= 2
x x

x =

2w
= 2
y y

y =

> Stresses along principal axes


Ez
x =
1 2

Ez
y =
1 2

1
x = ( x y )
E

x
z

y =

1
+

x
y

y x

1
( y x )
E

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 33

Plate in pure bending


> Relate moment per unit width of plate to curvature
> Treat x and y equivalently
Mx
= z x ( z )dz
W thickness
1 H 2 2
z dz

y H 2
x
1
Mx

= D
+

W
x y
1 EH 3

where D =
2
12 1
Mx
E
=
1 2
W

flexural
rigidity

> Note that stiffness comes from flexural rigidity as for a beam
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 34

Plate in pure bending


> Recall that M is two derivatives away from a distributed load,
and that

2w
= 2
x x
1

2w
= 2
y y
1

> This leads to the equation for small amplitude bending of a plate
4w
4w
4w
D 4 + 2 2 2 + 4 = P( x, y )
x y
y
x
distributed load

> Often solve with polynomial solutions (simple cases) or


eigenfunction expansions
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 35

Where are we now?

> We can handle small deflections of beams and plates


> Physics intervenes for large deflections and residual
stress, and our solutions are no longer correct

> Now what do we do?


Residual stress: include it as an effective load
Large deflections: use Energy Methods

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 7 - 36

Lumped-element Modeling
with Equivalent Circuits
Joel Voldman
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 1

Outline

> Context and motivation


> Lumped-element modeling
> Equivalent circuits and circuit elements
> Connection laws

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 2

Context

> Where are we?


We have just learned how to make structures
About the properties of the constituent materials
And about elements in two domains
structures and electronics

> Now we are going to learn about modeling


Modeling for arbitrary energy domains
How to exchange energy between domains
Especially electrical and mechanical
How to model dynamics

> After, we start to learn about the rest of the domains


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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 3

Inertial MEMS

> Analog Devices Accelerometer


ADXL150
Acceleration
capacitance

Changes gap
electrical output
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Photograph of a circuit board.

Acceleration

Beam
Plate capacitances
Fixed plate

Anchor

Unit cell

Motio

1.3 Micron gap


125 Micron
overlap

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.


Micrograph of machined microchannels.

2 Microns thick
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 4

RF MEMS

> Use electrical signal to create mechanical motion


> Series RF Switch (Northeastern & ADI)
Cantilever closes circuit when actuated

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.


Figure 11 on p. 342 in: Zavracky, P. M., N. E. McGruer, R. H. Morrison,
and D. Potter. "Microswitches and Microrelays with a View Toward
Microwave Applications." International Journal of RF and Microwave
Computer-Aided Engineering 9, no. 4 (1999): 338-347.

1 m

Silicon

0.5 m

relay

Cantilever
Pull-down
electrode

Anchor

Imageby MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Rebeiz, Gabriel M.RF MEMS: Theory, Design, and Technology.
Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2003. ISBN: 9780471201694.

Zavracky et al., Int. J. RF Microwave CAE, 9:338, 1999, via Rebeiz RF MEMS
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 5

What wed like to do

> These systems are complicated 3D geometries


> Transform electrical energy

mechanical energy

> How do we design such structures?


Multiphysics FEM
Solve constitutive equations
at each node
Tedious but potentially
most accurate

> Is there an easier way?

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Distorted switch (Coventor)

That will capture dimensional dependencies?


Allow for quick iterative design?
Maybe get us within 10-20%?
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 6

RF MEMS Switch

> What wed really like to know

What voltage will close the switch?


What voltage will open the switch (when closed)?
How fast will this happen?
What are the tradeoffs between these variables?

Actuation voltage vs. maximum switching frequency

> So lets restrict ourselves to relations between


voltage and tip deflection
Hah! we have lumped our system

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 7

Outline

> Context and motivation


> Lumped-element modeling
> Equivalent circuits and circuit elements
> Connection laws

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 8

Lumped-element modeling

> What is a lumped element?


A discrete object that can exchange energy with other
objects

An object whose internal physics can be combined into


terminal relations

Whose size is smaller than wavelength of the appropriate


signal

Signals do not take time to propagate

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 9

Lumped elements
> Electrical capacitor

> Spring
+
V
-

> Rigid mass

I =C

Push on it and it moves


Relation between force

dV
dt

and displacement

> Fluidic channel


Apply pressure and fluid
flows instantaneously

Relation between
pressure and volumetric
flow rate

Point Load
F
x
MR
L

FR

wmax =

1
kcantilever

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 9.7 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 209. ISBN: 9780792372462.
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 10

Pros/cons of lumped elements

> Pros
Simplified representations that carry dimensional
dependencies

Can do equivalent circuits


Static and dynamic analyses

> Cons
Lose information
Deflection along length of cantilever
Will not get things completely right
Capacitance due to fringing fields

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 11

So how do we go about lumping?

> First, we need input/output relations


This requires solving physics
This is what we do in the individual domains
We have already done this in electrical and mechanical
domains

> For cantilever RF switch


What is relation between force and tip deflection?
Not voltage and deflection
Different energy domains

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 12

RF Switch mechanical model


> We have seen that there is a linear relation
between force and tip deflection

Cantilever behaves as linear spring k


CAVEAT: k is specific for this problem
Different ks for same cantilever but
Distributed force applied over whole
cantilever

Point force applied at end


Deflection of cantilever middle is needed
Etc.

F = kx

> Lesson: Dont just use equation out of a book

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 13

RF Switch mechanical model

> What else is needed for


model?

> Inertia of cantilever


Lumped mass

> Energy loss

Lumped

dv
d 2x
F = ma = m = m 2
dt
dt

dashpot
Due to air damping

dx
F = bv = b
dt
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 14

How do we connect these together?

> Intuition and physics


> Example: cantilever switch

Tip movement (x) stretches spring


And causes damping
Tip has mass associated with it
All elements have same displacement

F
m

b
x
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 15

Outline

> Context and motivation


> Lumped-element modeling
> Equivalent circuits and circuit elements
> Connection laws

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 16

Why use equivalent circuits?

> One modeling approach


Use circuits for electrical domain
Solve via KCL, KVL
Use mechanical lumped elements in mechanical domain
Solve via Newtons laws
Connect two using ODEs or matrices or other representation

> Our approach


Lumped elements have electrical equivalents
Can hook them together such that solving circuit intrinsically
solves Newtons laws (or continuity relationships)

Now we have ONE representation for many different domains


VERY POWERFUL
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 17

Onward to equivalent circuits


> Each lumped element has one or
more ports

through

> Each port is associated with


two variables

A through variable
An across variable

across

> Power into the port is defined by


the product of these two variables

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 18

Onward to equivalent circuits


> In electrical circuits, voltage is physically across and current
is physically through
voltage

across

current

through

> What happens when we translate mechanics into equivalent


circuits?
force

across (V)

velocity

through (I)

OR

force

through (I)

velocity

across (V)

> Why does this matter?

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 19

What circuit element is the spring?

> It stores elastic energy


> Is it a capacitor or an inductor?

F = k xdt
force

across (V)

velocity

through (I)

F = kx

V
dV
I =C
dt

C=1
k

x= 1 F
k
dF
1
x =
k dt

I
L= 1
k

dI
V =L
dt
1
I = Vdt
L
force

through (I)

velocity

across (V)

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 20

Which is correct?
> Both are correct
> And both are used
> Velocity

beware!

voltage

Indirect or mobility analogy


Cleaner match between physical system and circuit
Velocity is naturally across (e.g., relative) variable
But stores mechanical PE in inductors, KE in capacitors
Springs Inductors

> Force

voltage

Direct analogy
This is
Always store PE in capacitors what we
Springs Capacitors
will use

> Circuit topologies are dual of each other


Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 21

Generalized variables

> We want a consistent modeling approach across


different domains

> Can we generalize what we just did?


YES

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 22

Generalized variables
> Formalize terminal
relations

> Displacement q(t)


> Flow f(t): the derivative of
displacement

> Effort e(t)


> Momentum p(t): the
integral of effort

> Net power into device is


effort times flow

General

Mechanical

dq
f =
dt

dx
v=
dt

q = qo + fdt
0

x = xo + vdt
0

dp
F=
dt

dp
e=
dt
t

p = po + edt
0

p = po + Fdt
0

Pnet = e f

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 23

Examples
> Effort-flow relations occur in MANY different energy domains
General

Electrical

Mechanical

Fluidic

Thermal

Effort (e)

Voltage, V

Force, F

Pressure, P

Temp. diff., T

Flow (f)

Current, I

Velocity, v

Vol. flow rate, Q

Heat flow

Displacement (q)

Charge, Q

Displacement, x

Volume, V

Heat, Q

Momentum (p)

Momentum, p

Pressure
Momentum,

Resistance

Resistor, R

Damper, b

Fluidic
resistance, R

Thermal
resistance, R

Capacitance

Capacitor, C

Spring, k

Fluid
capacitance, C

Heat capacity,
mcp

Inertance

Inductor, L

Mass, m

Inertance, M

Node law

KCL

Continuity of space

Mass
conservation

Heat energy
conservation

Mesh law

KVL

Newtons 2nd law

Pressure is
relative

Temperature is
relative

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 24

Other conventions

> Thermal convention: T becomes the across variable


(voltage) and heat-flow becomes the through variable
(current)
Conserved quantity is heat energy

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 25

Building equivalent circuits

> Need power sources


> Passive elements
> Topology and connection rules
Figure out how to put things together

> What do we get?


An intuitive representation of the relevant physics
Ability to model many domains in one representation
Access to extremely mature circuit analysis techniques and
software

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 26

One-port source elements

> Effort source and flow source


> Effort source establishes a
time-dependent effort
independent of flow
Electrical voltage source
Pressure source

> Flow source establishes a


time-dependent flow
independent of effort
Electrical current source
Syringe pump

f
+
e
-

+ e (t)
- 0

effort source

+
e

f0(t)
flow source

f,I,v
Power IN

Power OUT
f0,I0,v0
e0
V0
F0
Power IN

e
V
F

Power OUT

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 27

One-port circuit elements

> Three general passive elements


> Represent different functional relationships
Energy storage, dissipation

f
+

+
e

R
-

Relates e & f
Directly relates e & f

+
C

L
-

Relates e & q
Differentiates e
Integrates f

Relates f & p
Integrates e
Differentiates f

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 28

Analogies between mechanics and electronics


> Electrical Domain

> Mechanical Domain

A resistor

A damper (dashpot)

dQ
V = RI = R
dt

R=b

dx
F = bv = b
dt

> There is again a correspondence between

V and F
I and v

> Electrical Power = VI

Q and x

> Mechanical Power = Fv

R and b

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 29

Generalized resistor

> For the resistor,


e is an algebraic function of f
(or vice versa)

Can be a nonlinear function


f,I,v
Nonlinear resistor

f = f (e)

Linear resistor

I=1 V
R
v= 1 F
b
e,V,F

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 30

Analogies between mechanics and electronics


> Electrical Domain

> Mechanical Domain

A capacitor

A spring

Q = CV
dV
I =C
dt

1
C=
k

x= 1 F
k

dx
dF
1
= x =
k dt
dt

> There is again a correspondence between

V and F
I and v

> Electrical Power = VI

Q and x

> Mechanical Power = Fv

R and b

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 31

Generalized capacitance

> For a generalized capacitance, the effort e is a


function of the generalized displacement q.

Linear capacitor
Nonlinear capacitor

e = (q )

e,V,F

V = 1 Q = (Q)
C
(Q) = Q
C

e1,V1,F1

q1
Q1
x1

q
Q
x

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 32

Generalized capacitance

> Capacitors store potential energy

How much?

> Leads to concept of energy and co-energy


Co-energy
Energy

e1

W (e1 ) = qde
*

q1

q1

W (q1 ) = edq = (q )dq

e,V,F

e1

= 1 (e)de
0

e1,V1,F1

W ( q1 ) + W * ( e1 ) = e1q1

W * ( e1 ) = e1q1 W ( q1 )

q1
Q1
x1

q
Q
x

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 33

Parallel-plate capacitor

> A linear parallel-plate capacitor


> Its energy and co-energy are numerically equal
A
C=

+
V
-

V = (Q) = Q

Q1

Q1

W (Q) = (Q)dQ = Q dQ
C
W (Q) =

Q
2C

I
Q = 1 (V ) = CV
V1

V1

W * (V ) = 1 (V )dV = CVdV
2
CV
W * (V ) =
2

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 34

Analogies between mechanics and electronics


> Electrical Domain

> Mechanical Domain

An inductor

A mass

dI
d 2Q
V =L =L 2
dt
dt

dv
d 2x
L = m F = ma = m = m 2
dt
dt

> There is a correspondence between

V and F
I and v

> Electrical Power = VI

Q and x

> Mechanical Power = Fv

L and m

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 35

Generalized Inertance

> For a generalized inertance, flow f is a function of


momentum p.

> This once again leads to concepts of energy and coenergy


p1

W ( p1 ) = 0 fdp
f1

f,v
f1,v1

W ( f1 ) = 0 pdf
*

W ( p1 ) + W * ( f1 ) = f1 p1

p1

W * ( f1 ) = f1 p1 W ( p1 )
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 36

Outline

> Context and motivation


> Lumped-element modeling
> Equivalent circuits and circuit elements
> Connection laws

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 37

Circuits in the e

V convention

> Elements that share flow (e.g., current) and


displacement (e.g., charge) are placed in series in an
electric circuit

> Elements that share a common effort (e.g., Voltage)


are placed in parallel in an electric circuit
.
x
k

1/k

F
m

F
b
x
Spring-mass-dashpot system

+
-

+ ek - +
em
- eb + -

Equivalent circuit
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 38

Solving circuit solves the physics

> Apply force balance to spring-mass-damper system


k

F = ma

F kx bx = mx

b
x

> Solving KVL gives same result as Newtons laws!


F Fk Fm Fb = 0
Fk = kx, Fb = bx , Fm = mx
F = kx + bx + mx

.
x

+
-

1/k

+ Fk - +
Fm
- Fb + -

> Can also do this with complex impedances


Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 39

Generating equivalent circuits

> Possible to go directly


But hard with e V analogy
See slide at end and text for details

> Easier to do via circuit duals


> Use convenience of f V convention, then switch to
e V
Force is current source
Each displacement variable is a node
Masses connected between nodes and ground
Other elements connected as shown in diagram

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 40

Example
F

k2

k1
m1

m2
b1

k1

a
k2

x1

x2

.
x2 1/k2

a
F

+
-

m2

.
x1

c
b1

m1
1/k1

e
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 41

Where does this leave us?

> A 2nd-order system is a 2nd-order system


> Analogies between RLC and SMD system
n =

k
1
1
=
=
m
LC
m1
k

> Use what you already know to understand the


intricacies of what you dont know

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 42

Energy coupling

> Where is coupling between domains?


> How does voltage

deflection?

> We need transducers

two-port elements that store

energy

> We will do this next time

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 43

Conclusion

> Can model complicated systems with lumped


elements

> Lumped elements from different domains have


equivalent-circuit representations

> These representations are not unique


We use the e

V convention in assigning voltage to the

effort variable

> Once we have circuits, we have access to


POWERFUL analysis tools

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 44

For more info

> Course text chapter 5


> H.A.C. Tilmans. Equivalent circuit representation of
electromechanical transducers
Part I: lumped elements: J. Micromech. Microeng. 6:157, 1996.
Part II: distributed systems: J. Micromech. Microeng. 7:285, 1997.
Errata: J. Micromech. Microeng. 6:359, 1996.

> R. A. Johnson. Mechanical filters in electronics


> Woodson and Melcher. Electromechanical Dynamics
> M. Rossi. Acoustics and electroacoustics
> Lots and lots of papers
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 45

Finding equivalent circuit: direct approach

> Find e V equivalent


circuit of following

k2

k1
m1

m2

> Note:

b1

k2 and m2 share same

x1

x2

displacement, caused
by F

.
x2

b1, and k1 share same

1/k2

.
x1

m2

displacement, x2 x1

If k1 , m2 and m1
share same
displacement

+
-

b1
m1

1/k1

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 8 - 46

Energy-conserving Transducers

Joel Voldman*
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
(*with thanks to SDS)
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 1

Outline

> Last time


> The two-port capacitor as a model for energyconserving transducers

> The transverse electrostatic actuator


> A look at pull-in
> Formulating state equations

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 2

Last time: equivalent circuits

> Learned how to describe systems as lumped


elements and equivalent circuits
k

F
m

Images removed due to copyright restrictions. Figure 11 on p.


342 in: Zavracky, P. M., N. E. McGruer, R. H. Morrison, and D.
Potter. "Microswitches and Microrelays with a View Toward Microwave
Applications." International Journal of RF and Microwave Comput-Aided
Engineering 9, no. 4 (1999): 338-347.

1 m

Silicon

0.5 m

b
x

.
x

Cantilever
Pull-down
electrode

Anchor

F
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Rebeiz, Gabriel M. RF MEMS: Theory, Design, and Technology
.
Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2003. ISBN: 9780471201694.

+
-

1/k

+ ek - +
em
- eb + -

b
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 3

Last time: equivalent circuits

> Saw that lumped elements in different domains all


had equivalent circuits

> Introduced generalized notation to describe many


different domains

dq
f =
dt

dp
e=
dt
t

p = po + edt
0

q = qo + fdt
0

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 4

Equivalent circuit elements


General

Electrical

Mechanical

Fluidic

Thermal

Effort (e)

Voltage, V

Force, F

Pressure, P

Temp. diff., T

Flow (f)

Current, I

Velocity, v

Vol. flow rate, Q

Heat flow,

Q

Displacement (q)

Charge, Q

Displacement, x

Volume, V

Heat, Q

Momentum (p)

Momentum, p

Pressure
Momentum,

Resistance

Resistor, R

Damper, b

Fluidic
resistance, R

Thermal
resistance, R

Capacitance

Capacitor, C

Spring, k

Fluid
capacitance, C

Heat capacity,
mcp

Inertance

Inductor, L

Mass, m

Inertance, M

Node law

KCL

Continuity of space

Mass
conservation

Heat energy
conservation

Mesh law

KVL

Newtons 2nd law

Pressure is
relative

Temperature is
relative

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 5

Todays goal

> How do we model an electrical force applied to the


cantilever?

> How can we describe converting energy between


domains?

> This leads to energy-conserving transducers

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 6

Outline

> Last time


> The two-port capacitor as a model for energyconserving transducers

> The transverse electrostatic actuator


> A look at pull-in
> Formulating state equations

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 7

General Considerations
> In MEMS, we are often interested in sensors and actuators
> We can classify sensors and actuators by the way they handle
energy:

Energy-conserving transducers
Examples: electrostatic, magnetostatic, and piezoelectric

actuators
Transducers that use a dissipative effect
Examples: resistive or piezoresistive sensors

> There are fundamental reasons why these two classes must be
treated differently.

Energy-conserving transducers depend only on the state variables

that control energy storage. Therefore, quasi-static analysis is OK.


Dissipative transducers depend, in addition, on state variables that
determine the rate of energy dissipation, and are more complex as a
result.

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 8

An Energy-Conserving Transducer

> By definition, it dissipates no energy, hence contains


no resistive elements in its representation

> Instead, it can store energy from different domains


this creates the transducer action

> Because the stored energy is potential energy, we


use a capacitor to represent the element, but because
there are both mechanical and electrical inputs, this
must be a new element: a two-port capacitor

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 9

Capacitor with moveable plate

> A charged capacitor has a force of attraction between


its two plates

> If one of the plates is moveable, one can make an


electrostatic actuator.
I
+

Moveable plate

V
g
-

z
Fixed plate
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Adapted from Figure 6.1 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsyst em Design . Boston, MA: Kluwer
Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 126. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 10

Various ways of charging

> Charging at fixed gap


An external force is required to
prevent plate motion

io

work

lifting
No electrical energy at zero gap
Must do mechanical work to lift
the plate

> Either method results in


stored energy

No movement No mechanical

> Charging at zero gap, then

Force

Charge at fixed gap


+
I

+
io

+Q
-Q

Charge at zero gap, then....

Force
+
V
-

I
+Q
g
-Q
Pull up

Imageby MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 6.2 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsy stem
Design.. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 127.
ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 11

Charging at Fixed Gap

> The stored energy is


obtained directly from the
definition for a linear
capacitor
W=

> Anticipating that the gap


might vary, we now
explicitly include the gap
as a variable that
determines the stored
energy

e V
qQ

Q
V=
C

Q
0 edq =0 VdQ = 0 C dQ
Q2 Q2 g
W (Q, g ) =
=
2C 2A
q

C=

A
g

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 12

Pulling Up at Fixed Charge


> Putting charge at zero gap stores no electrical energy
Q2
0
C W =
g 0
2C

> Once charge is applied, determining stored energy is a


mechanics problem.

> In determining the force, we must avoid double-counting of


charge

E=
E-field of bottom plate

Q
2A

Q on top plate

+++++++

Q2
F = QE =
2A
g

W (Q , g ) = 0

Q2g
Fdg =
2 A

-------

The final stored energy is same as before!


ONLY depends on Q and g, not the path!
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 13

Lossless transducers

> The energy in the system ONLY depends on the


STATE variables (e.g., Q, g) and NOT how we put the
energy in
The system is lossless/conservative

dW
= Pelectrical + Pmechanical
dt
= VI + Fg
dW
dQ
dg
=V
+F
dt
dt
dt
dW = VdQ + Fdg

I
+
V
-

C
W(Q,g)

+
F
-

Imageby MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 6.3 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design
.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 129. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 14

A Differential Version
> Since we can modify the stored energy either by changing the
charge or moving the plate, we can think of the stored energy as
defined differentially

dW = VdQ + Fdg
This leads to a pair of differential relations for the force and
voltage

W (Q , g )
F=
g
Q

W (Q , g )
V=
Q
g

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 15

Revisit charging the capacitor

> The energy only depends on Q, g


These are thus the STATE variables for this transducer

Q
2

Q g
W (Q, g ) =
2A

Charge, then move plates

Q1
Move plates, then charge

g1

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 16

The two-port capacitor

> This transducer is what will couple our electrical


domain to our mechanical domain
g

I
+
V
-

C
W(Q,g)

+
F
-

Imageby MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 6.3 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem De
. sign
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 129. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Q2 g
W (Q, g ) =
2A
W (Q, g )
Qg
=
V=
Q
A
g

W (Q, g )
Q2
=
F=
g
2A
Q

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 17

A different example

> What if the material in the gap could move?


x

+Q
0

-Q

x0

C=

Q2
W (Q, x) =
2C

l
( 0 x + ( x0 x) )
g

Q2 g
W (Q, x)
1
F=
=
x
2l x ( 0 x + ( x0 x) )
Q

0
Q2 g
F=
2l ( 0 x + ( x0 x) )2
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 18

Outline

> Last time


> The two-port capacitor as a model for energyconserving transducers

> The transverse electrostatic actuator


> A look at pull-in
> Formulating state equations

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 19

The Electrostatic Actuator

> If we now add a spring to the upper plate to supply


the external mechanical force, a practical actuator
results

> We are getting closer to our RF switch


.

Fixed support
+
V
-

Spring k

V
g

z
Fixed plate

C
W(Q,g)

+
F

1/k

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 6.4 in: Senturia,Stephen D. Microsystem Design..
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 130. ISBN: 978079237246.

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 6.4 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 130. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 20

Two methods of electrical control

> Charge control


Capacitor is charged from a current source, specifically
controlling the charge regardless of the motion of the plate

This method is analyzed with the stored energy

> Voltage control


Capacitor is charged from a voltage source, specifically
controlling the voltage regardless of the motion of the plate

This method is analyzed with the stored co-energy

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 21

Charge control
>

Following the causal path


1. Current source
determines the charge
2. Charge determines the
force (at any gap!)
3. Force determines the
extension of the spring
4. Extension of the spring
determines the gap
5. Charge and gap together
determine the voltage

in(t)

+
V
-

W(Q,g)

1/k

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


t
Adapted from Figure 6.5 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 131. ISBN: 9780792372462.

1)

2)
3)

z
Fixed plate
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Adapted from Figure 6.4 in: Senturia,Stephen D. Microsystem Design.


.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 130. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Q = iin (t )dt
0

Spring k

Fixed support
I

4)

W
F=
g

Q2
=
2A

F
initial displacement
k
g = g0 z
z=

Q2
g = g0
2Ak

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 22

Charge control

> Lets get voltage, normalize and plot


W
V=
Q

Q2

Q g 0
2Ak
Qg

=
=
A
A

> Normalize variables to make easier to plot


First normalize V and Q to some nominal values
Introduce (normalized displacement) that goes from 0 (g=g0)
to 1 (g=0)

v =V

V0

q=Q

Q0

g g)
= zg =( 0
g0
0

Define Q0 and V0 using expression above


V0 =

Q0 g 0
A

Q02 = 2Akg 0

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 23

Charge control

> Now, plug in to non-dimensionalize

Q2

Q g 0
2Ak

V=
A
2

(
qQ0 )

(qQ0 ) g 0
2Ak (qQ0 ) g 0 q 2 g 0

V=
=
A
A
Qg
V = 0 0 q (1 q 2 ) v = q (1 q 2 )
A
= 1 g g = 1 (1 q 2 ) = q 2
0

> Now we get expressions relating voltage and


displacement to charge
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 24

Charge control

> Actuator is stable at all

multivalued the
charge uniquely
determines the state
and thus the energy

W
Q

Q2

Q g 0
2Ak
Qg
=
=
A
A

0.4
normalized
voltage

> The voltage is

V=

normalized
displacement ( )

gaps the voltage


goes to zero at zero
gap

0.2
0
0
1

0.5

0.5
0
0
0.5
1
normalized charge (q)

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 25

Co-Energy
> For voltage control, we cannot use W(Q,g) directly, because we
cannot maintain constant charge. Instead we use the co-energy

So we change variables
Recall: W * (e1 ) = q1e1 W ( q1 )

W * (V , g ) = QV W (Q, g )

dW * (V , g ) = d (QV ) dW (Q, g )

dW * (V , g ) = [QdV + VdQ ] [VdQ + Fdg ]

dW * (V , g ) = QdV Fdg

W * (V , g )
Q=
V
g
W * (V , g )
F =
g
V

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 26

Voltage control
> Following the causal path
1. Voltage and gap (implicitly)
determines the force

1
A 2
W * (Vin , g ) = CVin2 =
Vin
2
2g

2. Force determines the


spring extension

3. And thus the gap


4. Voltage and gap together

AVin2
W *
1) F =
=
2g 2
g V

determine the charge


.

I
+
Vin(t)

+
-

V
-

g = g0 z

2)

z=

C
W*(V,g)

F
k

1/k

Imageby MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 6.6 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA:
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 132. ISBN: 9780792372462.

3)
4)

g = g0
Q=

A
g

AVin2
2kg 2

Vin = CVin

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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 27

Outline

> Last time


> The two-port capacitor as a model for energyconserving transducers

> The transverse electrostatic actuator


> A look at pull-in
> Formulating state equations

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 28

Forces and stability


> Lets examine the net force

FNet

on the actuator

= k ( g0 g )

AV 2
2g

=0

> Nondimensionalize again

= (g 0 g ) / g 0
v =V
2
PI

V =

VPI
8kg 03

27A

4v 2 g 02
=0

2
27 g

positive
force
increases
gap

normalized force

FNet = Fmech Felec = 0

Av 2 8kg 03
= kg 0
=0
2
2 g 27A

4v 2
=0

2
27(1 )

Spring force

Electrical force

0.8
0.6
0.4

Increasing v

0.2
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
normalized displacement ( )

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 29

Stability criterion

> At low voltage, there are


two intersections
Which is stable?

The position of the actuator


is stable only when there is a
net restoring force when the
system is disturbed from
equilibrium

> At higher voltages,


there are none
What is happening?

stable

unstable

Fnet

Fnet
g

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 30

Stability criterion

> We can plot the normalized NET force versus


normalized gap and check
FNet = Fmech Felec
= k ( g0 g )
normalized force

unstable

stable

0.5

1 =

g
g0

-1
0

f net
Increasing v
0.5
1
normalized gap (g/g )

2g 2

4v 2
=
27(1 ) 2

0
-0.5

AV 2

g0
= + 1
g

4v 2
g0
27
g

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 31

Stability criterion

> So what we want is a


negative slope

FNet = k ( g 0 g )

> In this example, this


means that the spring
constant must exceed a
critical value that varies
with voltage

Stability:

AV 2
2g 2

FNet
AV 2
<0
= k +
3
g
g

AV 2
<k
3
g

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 32

Stability criterion

> If the voltage is too


large, the system
becomes unstable, and
we encounter pull-in

> Right at pull-in, the


spring constant is AT
the critical value AND
static equilibrium is
maintained

k=
At pull-in:

AVPI2
3
g PI

k ( g 0 g PI ) =

AVPI2
2
2 g PI

kg PI
k ( g 0 g PI ) =
2
8kg 03
VPI =
27 A
2
g PI = g 0
3

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 33

Stability analysis of pull-in


> Plot normalized gap versus
normalized voltage

> Solve cubic equation

g = g0

AVin2
2kg 2

normalized gap

stable

In Matlab:

1
0.5
0
0

unstable

0.5
1
normalized voltage

g = fzero(@(g)(g - g0 + eps*A*V^2/(2*k*g^2)),g0);

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 34

Release voltage after pull-in


> After pull-in less voltage is
needed to keep beam down

> Find force when pulled down


> Equate to mechanical force to
get hold-down voltage

> Is usually much less than pullin voltage


Normalize
to VPI

8kg 03
V =
27A
2
PI

g0

Felec
Fmech

g =
g =

AVin2
=
2 2

= k (g 0 ) kg 0

2
AVHD
= kg 0
2
2
2 2 kg 0
2
VHD =
A

VHD
27
< 1
=

4 g0
VPI

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 35

Macro pull-in?

> Can we do a macroscopic


pull-in demo?

> Use soft spring k = 1 N/m


> Use
A = 8.5 x 11 plates
g0 = 1 cm

8kg 03
VPI =
27 A
=

8(1)(0.01)3

27 ( 8.85 1012 ) 8.5 11 ( 0.0254 )

750 V

> Not easy this is why pullin is a MEMS-specific


phenomenon
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 36

Outline

> Last time


> The two-port capacitor as a model for energyconserving transducers

> The transverse electrostatic actuator


> A look at pull-in
> Formulating state equations

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 37

Adding dynamics
> Add components to complete

Fixed support
Resistor
R

the system:

Source resistor for the voltage

Dashpot b

Mass m

Spring k

source
Inertial mass, dashpot

Vin

Fixed plate

> This is now our RF switch!


> System is nonlinear, so we
cant use Laplace to get
transfer functions

+
Vin

+
V
-

1/k

W(Q,g)

> Instead, model with state


equations

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 6.9 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 138. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Electrical domain

Mechanical domain

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 38

The System is Now General

> The addition of the source resistor breaks up the


distinction between voltage-controlled and chargecontrolled actuation:
For small R, the system behaves like a voltage-controlled
actuator

For large R, the system behaves like a charge-controlled


actuator at short times because the impedance of the rest
of the circuit is negligible the voltage source delivers a
constant current V/R*

*See, for example, Castaner and Senturia, JMEMS, 8, 290 (1999)


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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 39

State Equations
> Dynamic equations for general
system (linear or nonlinear) can be
formulated by solving equivalent
circuit

> In general, there is one state


variable for each independent
energy-storage element (port)

Goal:

Q
> Good choices for state variables:

d functions of

g =
the charge on a capacitor

Q,g,g or constants
dt

(displacement) and the current in an


g
inductor (momentum)

> For electrostatic transducer, need


three state variables

Two for transducer (Q,g)


One for mass (dg/dt)
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 40

Formulating state equations

> Start with Q

+ eR - I

> We know that dQ/dt=I


> Find relation between I and
state variables and constants
KVL : Vin eR V = 0
Vin IR V = 0
dQ
1
= I = (Vin V )
dt
R

dQ 1
Qg
= Vin
dt R
A

Vin

+
-

W(Q,g)

eR = IR

V=

Qg
A

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 41

Formulating state equations

> Now well do

g
> We know that dg

.
g

dt

KVL :
F ek em eb = 0
F kz mz bz = 0

= g

ek = kz
em = mz
eb = bz

z = g 0 g z = g , z = g

.
z

1/k

+ ek - +

W(Q,g)

em

- eb + b

F k ( g 0 g ) + mg + bg = 0
1
[F k ( g 0 g ) + bg ]
m

dg
1 Q2
=
k ( g 0 g ) + bg
dt
m 2A

g =

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 42

Formulating state equations

> State equation for g is easy:

dg
= g
dt

> Collect all three nonlinear state equations

1
Qg
Vin

R
A
Q


=
g
g

dt
g 1 Q 2


m 2 A k ( g 0 g ) + bg

> Now we are ready to simulate dynamics (WED)

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 43

What have we wrought?

> We have modeled a complex multi-domain 3D


structure using
Equivalent circuits
A two-port nonlinear capacitor

> What can we now get


Actuation voltage: VPI
Tip dynamics

> What have we lost

Images removed due to copyright restrictions.

Figure 9 on p. 17 in: Nguyen, C. T.-C.


"Vibrating RF MEMS Overview: Applic ations to W i reless Communications."
Proceedings of SPI E Int Soc Opt Eng 5715 (January 2005): 11-25.

I m ages rem oved due to copyright restrictions. Figure 11 on p.


342 in: Za vrack y, P. M ., N. E. Mc Grue r, R. H. Mo rris on, an d D.
Potter. "Mi crosw itches and Microrelays w i th a Vie w To w ard Micro w ave
Applications." Internati onal Journal of RF and Microw ave Com put-Aided
Engineering 9, no. 4 (1999): 338-347.

Capacitor plates are not really parallel during actuation


Neglected fringing fields
Neglected stiction forces when beam is pulled in
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 44

Conclusions

> We can successfully model nonlinear transducers


with a new element: the two-port capacitor

> Know when to use energy or co-energy for forces


At best a sign error
At worst just wrong

> Under charge control, transverse electrostatic


actuator is well-behaved

> Under voltage control, exhibits pull-in

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 9 - 45

Lumped-Element System Dynamics

Joel Voldman*
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
*(with thanks to SDS)
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 1

Outline

> Our progress so far


> Formulating state equations
> Quasistatic analysis
> Large-signal analysis
> Small-signal analysis
> Addendum: Review of 2nd-order system dynamics

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 2

Our progress so far

> Our goal has been to model multi-domain systems


> We first learned to create lumped models for each
domain

> Then we figured out how to move energy between


domains

> Now we want to see how the multi-domain system


behaves over time (or frequency)

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 3

Our progress so far

> The Northeastern/ADI RF Switch


> We first lumped the mechanical domain
Fixed support
Images removed due to copyright restrictions.
Figure 11 on p. 342 in: Zavracky, P. M., N. E. McGruer, R. H. Morrison,
and D. Potter. "Microswitches and Microrelays with a View Toward Microwave
Applications." International Journal of RF and Microwave Comput-Aided
Engineering 9, no. 4 (1999): 338-347.

Dashpot b

+
V

1 m

Silicon

0.5 m

Cantilever
Pull-down
electrode

Anchor

Spring k
Mass m

z
Fixed plate

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 6.9 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem
Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p.
138. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Rebeiz, Gabriel M. RF MEMS: Theory, Design, and
Technology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2003. ISBN: 9780471201694.

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 4

Our progress so far

> Then we introduced a two-port capacitor to convert


energy between domains
Capacitor because it stores potential energy
Two ports because there are two ways to store energy
Mechanical: Move plates (with charge on plates)
Electrical: Add charge (with plates apart)
The system is conservative: system energy only depends on
state variables
.
g

I
2

Q g
W (Q, g ) =
2A

+
V

1/k

+
C

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 5

Our progress so far


W (Q, g )
Q2
=
F=
g
2A
Q

> We first analyzed system


quasistatically

> Saw that there is VERY different

V=

W (Q, g )
Qg
=
Q
A
g

behavior depending on whether

Charge is controlled
stable behavior at all gaps

Voltage is controlled

dW = VdQ + Fdg

dW * = QdV Fdg

pull-in at g=2/3g0

> Use of energy or co-energy


depends on what is controlled

Simplifies math

W *
Q=
V

=
g

A
g

Vin

AVin2
W *
=
F=
g V
2g 2

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 6

Todays goal

> How to move from quasi-static to dynamic analysis


> Specific questions:
How fast will RF switch close?

> General questions:


How do we model the dynamics of non-linear systems?
How are mechanical dynamics affected by electrical domain?

> What are the different ways to get from model to


answer?

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 7

Outline

> Our progress so far


> Formulating state equations
> Quasistatic analysis
> Large-signal analysis
> Small-signal analysis
> Addendum: Review of 2nd-order system dynamics

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 8

Adding dynamics
Fixed support

> Add components to complete

Resistor
R

the system:

Dashpot b

Mass m

Spring k

Source resistor for the voltage

Vin

source
Inertial mass, dashpot

Fixed plate

> This is now our RF switch!


> System is nonlinear, so we
cant use Laplace to get
transfer functions

> Instead, model with state

I
+
Vin

+
V
-

1/k

+
m

W(Q,g)

equations
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 6.9 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 138. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Electrical domain

Mechanical domain

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 9

State Equations
> Dynamic equations for general
system (linear or nonlinear) can be
formulated by solving equivalent
circuit

> In general, there is one state variable


for each independent energy-storage
element (port)

> Good choices for state variables:


the charge on a capacitor
(displacement) and the current in an
inductor (momentum)

Goal:
Q

d functions of

g =

Q,g,g or constants
dt

g

> For electrostatic transducer, need


three state variables

Two for transducer (Q,g)


One for mass (dg/dt)
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 10

Formulating state equations

> Start with Q

+ eR - I

> We know that dQ/dt=I


> Find relation between I and
state variables and constants
KVL : Vin eR V = 0
Vin IR V = 0
dQ
1
= I = (Vin V )
dt
R

dQ 1
Qg
= Vin
dt R
A

Vin

+
-

W(Q,g)

eR = IR

Qg
V=
A

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 11

Formulating state equations

> Now well do

g
> We know that dg

.
g

dt

KVL :
F ek em eb = 0
F kz mz bz = 0

= g

ek = kz
em = mz
eb = bz

z = g 0 g z = g , z = g

.
z

1/k

+ ek - +

W(Q,g)

em

- eb + b

F k ( g 0 g ) + mg + bg = 0
1
[F k ( g 0 g ) + bg ]
m

dg
1 Q2
=
k ( g 0 g ) + bg
dt
m 2A

g =

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 12

Formulating state equations

> State equation for g is easy:

dg
= g
dt

> Collect all three nonlinear state equations

1
Qg
Vin

R
A
Q


g
g
=

dt
g 1 Q 2


m 2 A k ( g 0 g ) + bg

> Now we are ready to simulate dynamics

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 13

Outline

> Our progress so far


> Formulating state equations
> Quasistatic analysis
> Large-signal analysis
> Small-signal analysis
> Addendum: Review of 2nd-order system dynamics

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 14

Quasistatic analysis
1

Qg

Vin

A
R

d
g = g

dt g 1 Q 2


k
g
g
b
g
(
)

+
0

m 2A

Fixed-point
analysis
Given static Vin, etc.

State eqns
What is deflection,
charge, etc.?

(Just now)
.

Vin

+
-

W(Q,g)

1/k

+
m

Follow
causal path
(Wed)

Equivalent circuit
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 15

State equations
For transverse
electrostatic actuator:
State variables
Inputs

x = f (x, u)
y = g (x, u)
Outputs

State variables:

Q
x = g
g

Inputs:

u = [Vin ]

Qg
Vin

A
R

f (x,u) = g

1Q
m 2 A k ( g 0 g ) + bg

Outputs: y = [g ] = g (x, u)


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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 16

Fixed points

> Definition of a fixed point


Solution of f(x,u) = 0
time derivatives 0

> Global fixed point


A fixed point when u = 0
Systems can have multiple global fixed points
Some might be stable, others unstable (consider a
pendulum)

> Operating point


Fixed point when u is a non-zero constant

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 17

Fixed points of the electrostatic actuator


> This analysis is analogous to what we did last time

Qg
1
0 = Vin

R
A
0 = g

1 Q2

0=
k ( g 0 g ) + bg
m 2A

Qg
A
Q 2 Vin 2 A
=
= k ( g0 g )
2
2 A
2g

Vin =

normalized gap

Operating point

stable

1
0.5
0
0

0.5
1
normalized voltage

Last time

g = g0

AVin2
2kg 2

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 18

Outline

> Our progress so far


> Formulating state equations
> Quasistatic analysis
> Large-signal analysis
> Small-signal analysis
> Addendum: Review of 2nd-order system dynamics

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 19

Large-signal analysis
1

Qg

Vin

A
R

d
g = g

dt g 1 Q 2


k
g
g
b
g
(
)

+
0

m 2A

Integrate
state eqns
Given a step input
Vin(t)u(t)

State eqns
(Earlier)
.

Vin

+
-

W(Q,g)

What is g(t), Q(t), etc.?

1/k

SPICE

+
m

Equivalent circuit
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 20

Direct Integration

> This is a brute force approach: integrate the state


equations
Via MATLAB (ODExx)
Via Simulink

> We show the SIMULINK version here


Matlab version later

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 21

Electrostatic actuator in Simulink


Q
x = g , u = [Vin ]
g
1

Qg
V

in
A
R

f(x, u) = g

1 Q

m 2A k ( g 0 g ) + bg

(u[1]^2)/(2*e*A)

+
+
+

Electrostatic force

Spring

Sum2

-1/m
Inertia

Damping

1
s

Velocity

gdot

1
s

Position

At-rest gap g _ 0

1/(e*A)

*
Qg

_
1
V_in

1/R

1
s

1/R

Charge

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 7.8 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer
Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 174. ISBN: 9780792372462.
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 22

Electrostatic actuator with contact


<
Accel > 0 ?

+ +

g_min

>
g > g_min?

+
+
+

(u[1]^2)/(2*e*A)
Electrostatic force

-1/m
1
s

Inertia
Switch

Spring

Sum2

Velocity

Damping

gdot

Zero
1
s

Position

At-rest gap g _ 0

1/(e*A)

*
Qg

_
1
V_in

1/R
1/R

1
s
Charge

1
Q

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 7.9 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001,
p. 175. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 23

Behavior through pull-in

7 10 8

1.6
Drive (scaled)
Charge

6 10 8

1.4
1.2

5 10 8

Position

4 10 8
3 10 8
2 10 8

1.0

Pull-in

0.8
0.6
0.4

1 10 8
0 10 0

Release

0.2
0

50

100

150

Time

200

250

300

0.0

50

100

150

200

250

300

Time

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 7.10 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001,
p. 176. ISBN: 9780792372462.

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 24

Behavior through pull-in

1.0

1.4
1.2
Release

0.0

Drive

1.0

Position

Velocity

0.5

Pull-in

-0.5

Release

0.8
0.6

Discharge

0.4

-1.0

0.2
-1.5

50

100

150

Time

200

250

300

0.0

Pull-in

50

100

150

200

250

300

Time

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 7.11 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 177. ISBN: 9780792372462.

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 25

Outline

> Our progress so far


> Formulating state equations
> Quasistatic analysis
> Large-signal analysis
> Small-signal analysis
> Addendum: Review of 2nd-order system dynamics

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 26

Small-signal analysis
Given O.P.

State eqns

Linearize

Linearized
state eqns
(Jacobians)

Time
response

Integrate

Take LT
n
ct
nf s
g e si
Ei aly
An

form TFs

Equivalent Linearize Linearized


circuit
circuit

What is g(t)
due to small
changes in
Vin(t)?

Form TFs

Transfer SSS Frequency


functions
response
poles &
zeros

Natural
system
dynamics

Given O.P.
How fast
can I wiggle
tip?

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 27

Small-signal analysis
Given O.P.

State eqns

Linearize

Linearized
state eqns
(Jacobians)

Integrate

Time
response

What is g(t)
due to small
changes in
Vin(t)?

Given O.P.

Equivalent
circuit

How fast
can I wiggle
tip?

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 28

Linearization about a fixed point

> This is EXTREMELY common in MEMS literature


> This is also done in many other fields, with different
names
Small-signal analysis
Incremental analysis
Etc.

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 29

Linearization About an Operating Point


> Using Taylors theorem, a system can

x = f (x, u)
x (t ) = X 0 + x (t )
u(t ) = U0 + u(t )

be linearized about any fixed point

> We can do this in one dimension or

Operating point

many

f(x)

df/dx

~ f(X0+ x)

f( X0)=Y0

f
(
)
d

x
= f (X 0 , U0 ) + i
X 0 +
x
dt
j

X0

f ( X 0 + x ) f ( X 0 ) +

df
dx

d (x )
X 0 +
= f (X 0 + x, U0 + u)
dt
Multi-dimensional Taylor

x
X0

x (t ) + f i

u
X 0 ,U 0
j

u(t )

X 0 ,U 0

Cancel

d (xi (t ) ) f i
=
x
dt
j

x (t ) + f i
i
u
X 0 ,U 0
j

J1

u (t )
i
X 0 ,U 0

J2

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 30

Linearization About an Operating Point


x (t ) = J1x + J2u(t)

> The resulting set of


equations are linear, and
have dynamics described
by the Jacobians of f(x,u)
evaluted at the fixed point.

> These describe how much


a small change in one state
variable affects itself or
another state variable

>
>

f1

Q O.P.
f
J1 = 2
Q O.P.
f 3

Q O.P.

g 0

RA
Q
The O.P. must be evaluated d g = 0
dt
to use the Jacobian
g Q0

Example linearization of
mA

the voltage-controlled

electrostatic actuator

Q0
RA
0

k
m

J1

f1
g
f 2
g
f 3
g

O. P.

O. P.

O.P.

f1
g
f 2
g
f 3
g

O. P.

O. P.

O. P.

1 R
(V )
g +
0 in

b g 0


m

J2

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 31

State Equations for Linear Systems

> Normally expressed with:

x: a vector of state variables


u: a vector of inputs
y: a vector of outputs
Four matrices, A,B,C, D

x = Ax + Bu
y = Cx + Du

> For us, Jacobian matrices take the place of A and B


> C and D depend on what outputs are desired
Often C is identity and D is zero

> Can use to simulate time responses to arbitrary


SMALL inputs
Remember, this is only valid for small deviations from O.P.
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 32

Direct Integration in Time


Charge (Q)

Charge

> Can integrate via Simulink


model (as before) or
MATLAB

500

> First define system in

0
2

> Can use MATLAB


commands step, initial,
impulse etc.

> Response of electrostatic


actuator to impulse of voltage

Parameters from text (pg


167)

Velocity

alternate method

Displacement

MATLAB

using ss(J1,J2,C,D) or

Impulse Response

1000

0
-2
-4
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
0

10

15

20

25

Time (sec)
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 33

Small-signal analysis
Given O.P.

State eqns

Linearize

Linearized
state eqns
(Jacobians)

Integrate

Time
response

Take LT

What is g(t)
due to small
changes in
Vin(t)?

Form TFs

Transfer SSS Frequency


functions
response
poles &
zeros

Equivalent
circuit

Given O.P.
How fast
can I wiggle
tip?

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 34

Solve via Laplace transform

> Use Laplace Transforms


to solve in frequency
domain
Transform DE to algebraic
equations

Use unilateral Laplace to


allow for non-zero ICs

x = Ax + Bu
Unilateral Laplace
sX ( s ) x (0) = AX( s ) + BU( s )
sIX ( s ) x (0) = AX( s ) + BU( s )
(sI A )X( s) = x(0) + BU( s)

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 35

Transfer Functions
> Transfer functions H(s) are useful for obtaining
compact expression of input-output relation

What is the tip displacement as a function of voltage

> Most easily obtained from equivalent circuit


> But can also be obtained from linearized state eqns
Depends on A, B, C (or J1, J2, C) matrices
Can do this for fun analytically (see attachment at
end)

Matlab can automatically convert from s.s to t.f.


formulations

> For our actuator, we would get three transfer


functions

Q( s )

V
(
s
)
in

g( s)
H(s) =

(
s
)
V
in
g ( s )

(
s
)
V
in

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 36

Sinusoidal Steady State


> When a LTI system is
driven with a sinusoid, the
steady-state response is a
sinusoid at the same
frequency

> The amplitude of the


response is |H(j)|

u (t ) = U 0 cos(t )

Y ( j ) = H ( j )U ( j )
y sss (t ) = Y0 cos(t + )

> The phase of the response


relative to the drive is the
angle of H(j)

> A plot of log magnitude vs


log frequency and angle
vs log frequency is called
a Bode plot

Y0 = H ( j ) U 0

Im{H ( j )}
tan =
Re{H ( j )}

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 37

Bode plot of electrostatic actuator


command
bode with previously
defined system sys

> Evaluate only one of TFs

40
20
0
Magnitude (dB)

> Use

Bode Diagram

Matlab

-40
-60
-80
-100

g( s)
H(s) =
Vin ( s )

-120
-140
180

> This tells us how quickly

135
Phase (deg)

we can wiggle tip!


At a certain OP!

-20

90
45
0
-45
-90
-2
10

-1

10

10
10
Frequency (rad/sec)

10

10

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 38

Small-signal analysis
Given O.P.

State eqns

Linearize

Linearized
state eqns
(Jacobians)

Time
response

Integrate

Take LT

What is g(t)
due to small
changes in
Vin(t)?

Form TFs

Transfer SSS Frequency


functions
response
poles &
zeros

Equivalent
circuit

Natural
system
dynamics

Given O.P.
How fast
can I wiggle
tip?

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 39

Poles and Zeros


> For our models, system function is a ratio of polynomials in s
> Roots of denominator are called poles
They describe the natural (unforced) response of the system

> Roots of the numerator are called zeros


They describe particular frequencies that fail to excite any output

> System functions with the same poles and zeros have the
same dynamics

Q0
g( s)
ARm
H(s) =
=
Vin ( s )
1
Q02 1
b 2 1 b k 1 k
3
+ s +
+ s+
2 2
s +

RC
m
RC
m
m
RC
m
A
Rm
0
0
0

where C0 =

A
g 0

> MATLAB solution for poles is VERY long


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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 40

Pole-zero diagram

> Displays information

tip velocity
Imaginary Axis

about dynamics of
system function
Matlab command

Pole-Zero Map
1

pole
zero

0.5

0
-0.5

pzmap
-1
-9

-8

-7

-6

> Useful for examining

-4

-3

-2

-1

-3

-2

-1

R l Aaxis
i
Real
Pole-Zero Map
1

gap
Imaginary Axis

dynamics, stability,
etc.

-5

0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-9

-8

-7

-6

-5
-4
Real Axis

Real axis
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 41

Small-signal analysis
Given O.P.

State eqns

Linearize

Linearized
state eqns
(Jacobians)

Time
response

Integrate

Take LT
n
ct
nf s
g e si
Ei aly
An

Form TFs

Transfer SSS Frequency


functions
response
poles &
zeros

Equivalent
circuit

What is g(t)
due to small
changes in
Vin(t)?

Natural
system
dynamics

Given O.P.
How fast
can I wiggle
tip?

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 42

Eigenfunction Analysis
> For an LTI system, we can find the eigenvalues and
eigenvectors of the J1 (or A) matrix describing the internal
dynamics

For scalar 1st-order system:

dx
= x
dt

x(t ) = K 0 e t + K1

If we try solution:

x (t ) = Ke t
Plug into DE:

Our linear (or linearized)


homogeneous systems look like:

x (t ) = J1x + J2u(t)
dx
= Ax
dt

d (x )
= J1x
dt

x = Ax
This is an eigenvalue
equation
If we find we can find
natural frequencies of
system

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 43

Eigenfunction Analysis
> These are the same as the poles si of the system
> Can solve analytically
Find from det(A-I)=0

> Or numerically eig(sys)


-8.9904
-0.2627 + 0.8455i
-0.2627 - 0.8455i

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 44

Linearized system poles


> We can use either i or si to
determine natural frequencies
of system

> As we increase applied


voltage

Stable damped resonant

Increasing voltage

> Plotting poles as system

frequency decreases

changes is a root-locus plot

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 45

Spring softening
> Plot damped resonant frequency versus applied voltage
> Resonant frequency is changing because net spring constant
k changes with frequency

k'=k

AV 2
g

This is called
spring softening

Damped resonant frequency

> This is an electrically tuned mechanical resonator


1.00
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30

0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06

Voltage
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 7.5 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 169. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 46

Small-signal analysis
Given O.P.

State eqns

Linearize

Linearized
state eqns
(Jacobians)

Time
response

Integrate

Take LT
n
ct
nf s
g e si
Ei aly
An

form TFs

Equivalent Linearize Linearized


circuit
circuit

What is g(t)
due to small
changes in
Vin(t)?

Form TFs

Transfer SSS Frequency


functions
response
poles &
zeros

Natural
system
dynamics

Given O.P.
How fast
can I wiggle
tip?

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 47

Linearized Transducers
> Can we directly linearize
our equivalent circuit?
YES!

> This is perhaps the most

Vin(t) +
-

common analysis in the


literature

> First, choose what is load

1/k

Fout

Source

Transducer

Load

Find OP

and what is transducer

Linearize

Here we include spring


with transducer

Vin(t)

+
-

+
V

Linearized
Transducer

+
Fout

Source

Load

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 48

Linearized Transducer Model


> First, find O.P.
V0 , g 0 , Q0

> Next, generate matrix to


relate incremental port
variables to each other

Start from energy and force


relations
Qg
A
Q2
=
k ( g0 g )
2 A

V=
Fout

Linearize (take partials)


g 0
V A
F = Q
out 0
A

Q0
A Q

g
k

> Recast in terms of port variables


I

Q
s
g = U

> Define intermediate variables


Q0
A
C0 =
, V0 =
g 0
C0
> Final expression
1
V sC0
F = V
out
0
sg
0

V0
sg 0 I

k U
s

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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 49

Linearized Transducers
> Now we want to convert this relation into a circuit
> Many circuit topologies are consistent with this matrix relation
> THIS IS NOT UNIQUE!
i'

-1/k'

1/k

u'

1:

'

Co

F'

2/
Co

Co

1/k

1:

1/k*

1:/2

i
+

Co
1_

1
k_/C
Co

+
o

F
_

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 5 on p. 163 in Tilmans, Harrie A. C. "Equivalent Circuit Representations of Electromechanical
Transducers: I. Lumped-parameter Systems." Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering 6, no. 1 (1996): 157-176.
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 50

Linearized Transducers
> This is the one used in the text
V Z EB Z EB I
F = Z
U
Z

MO
out EB
Z MS

2 Z EB
= Z MO 1

Z MO

> Uses a transformer


Transforms port variables
Doesnt store energy

> What we want to do now is


identify ZEB, ZMS and , and
figure out what they mean

e2
=
f 2 0

0 e1

1 f
1

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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 51

Linearized Transducers
V Z EB Z EB I
F = Z
U
Z

MO
out EB
2 Z EB
Z MS = Z MO 1

Z MO

1
V sC0
F = V
0
sg 0
Z MS

V0
sg 0 I

k U
s

2 1
2

k Q0 sC0 k Q0 1
= 1
= 1

k
s g 0 C0 k
s g 0

2
Q
k
Q02
0

= 1
k
k
=

'
s Akg 0
Ag

C0V0
g 0

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 52

Linearized Transducers

> C0 represents the


capacitance of the
structure seen from the
electrical port

> It is simply the capacitance


at the gap given by the
operating point

C0 =

A
g 0

> As Vin increases, C0 will


increase until the structure
pulls in

> This is a tunable capacitor


Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 53

Linearized Transducers

> k represents the effective


spring

> A combination of the


mechanical spring k and
the electrical spring

> This is an electrically


tunable spring!
Spring softening shows up

Q02
k'= k
Ag 0

in k

> As Vin increases, k will


decrease from k (at Vin=0)
to 0 (at Vin=Vpi)
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 54

Linearized Transducers

> represents the


electromechanical
coupling

> Represents how much the


capacitance changes with
gap

> A measure of sensitivity

= V0
= V0
=

C
g

C0V0 Q0
=
g 0
g 0

= V0
O. P.

A
g g O. P.

A
g 02

C0V0
g 0

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 55

Transfer Functions
> Can use linearized

>

circuit to construct H(s)


using complex
impedances
Usually helpful to
eliminate transformer

> Transformer changes


impedances
Z2 =

Z1

1:

Z1

Z2

1:

Vin

U
m

+
-

C0

2/k

Vin

1/k

+
-

U
m/2

C0

b/

Can now get any transfer


function using standard
circuit analysis

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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 56

Linearized Transducer Models


> Now we can understand Nguyens filter!

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Figure 9 on p. 17 in Nguyen, C. T.-C. "Vibrating RF MEMS

Figure 12 on p. 62 in: Nguyen, C. T.-C. "Micromechanical

Overview: Applications to Wireless Communications."

Filters for Miniaturized Low-power Communications."

Proceedings of SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 5715 (January 2005): 11-25.

Proceedings of SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 3673 (July 1999): 55-66.

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 57

Small-signal analysis summary


Given O.P.

State eqns

Linearize

Linearized
state eqns
(Jacobians)

Time
response

Integrate

Take LT
n
ct
nf s
g e si
Ei aly
An

form TFs

Equivalent Linearize Linearized


circuit
circuit

What is g(t)
due to small
changes in
Vin(t)?

Form TFs

Transfer SSS Frequency


functions
response
poles &
zeros

Natural
system
dynamics

Given O.P.
How fast
can I wiggle
tip?

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 58

Conclusions

> We can now analyze and design both quasistatic and


dynamic behavior of our multi-domain MEMS

> We have much more powerful tools to analyze linear


systems than nonlinear systems

> But most systems we encounter are nonlinear


> Linearization permits the study of small-signal inputs
> Next up: special topics in structures, heat transfer,
fluids

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 59

Review: analysis of a 2nd-order linear system


> Spring-mass-dashpot
.
x

+
-

1/k

+ ek - +
em
- eb + -

d x x
= 1

dt x m (F kx bx )

State
eqns

x = Ax + Bu
y = Cx + Du

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 60

Direct Integration in Time


> Example: Spring-mass-dashpot step response
k=m=1;b=0.5;

Step Response

Amplitude

>> A=[0 1;-1 -0.5]; B=[0;1];


>> C=[1 0;0 1]; D=[0;0];
>> sys=ss(A,B,C,D);
>> step(sys)

Position

1.5
1
0.5

Velocity

0
1
0.5
0
-0.5
0

10
15
Tim e (sec)

20

25

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 61

Transfer Functions
> Can get TFs from A,B,C matrices

Y ( s ) = CX ( s ) + DU( s )

Y ( s ) = C (sI A ) x (0) + (sI A ) BU( s ) + DU( s )


1

Assume transient has died out (XZIR=0)


No feed-through (D=0)
1

Y( s ) = C ( sI A ) B U( s )

Y( s ) = H ( s )U( s )

1
H ( s ) = C ( sI A ) B

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 62

Transfer Functions
> Lets do analytically & via MATLAB
1
s 0 0
k
sI A =

s
0

m
m
1
s
= k
b
+
s
m
m
1 s + b m 1
1

(sI A ) = k

s
m

= s ( s + b m) + k m = s 2 + s b m + k m
1 0 1 s + b m 1 0
1

C(sI A ) B =

1
k
0 1 m s m
1
1 m
=
s
m

X( s )
1

F( s) 2
ms + sb + k

H( s) =
=


X( s )
s

ms 2 + sb + k

F( s)

s 2 + 0.5s + 1
H( s) =

2
s + 0.5s + 1
>> [n,d]=ss2tf(A,B,C,D)
n=

s1
s0
s2
0 -0.0000 1.0000
0 1.0000 -0.0000

d=
1.0000

0.5000

1.0000

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 63

Transfer Functions
> Can also construct H(s) directly
using complex impedances and
circuit model
.
1/k
x

+
-

+ ek - +
em
- eb + b

F ek em eb = 0
k
ek = kx = x
s
eb = bx
em = mx = msx

 (s)
X
1
= H2 ( s ) =
F( s )
Z( s )
1
=
b + ms + k s
s
=
ms 2 + bs + k
 ( s ) sX( s )
X
=
F( s ) F( s )
1
X( s )
= H1 ( s ) =
ms 2 + bs + k
F( s )

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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 64

Poles and Zeros


> For 2nd-order system, easy to get
poles and zeros from TFs
1

2
1 s + s b m + k m
H(s) =
s
m

s2 + s b m + k m

1 ( s s1 )( s s2 )
=
s
m

( s s )( s s )
1
2

where
2

b
k
b

s1,2 =

2m
2
m

m
these are the poles

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 65

Spring-mass-dashpot system
> It is a second order system, with
two poles

> We conventionally define

Undamped resonant frequency


Damping constant
Damped resonant frequency
Quality factor

s2 + b

s+k

= s 2 + 2s + 02

k
m
b
=
2m

0 =

s1, 2 = 2 02
For underdamped systems ( < 0 )
s1, 2 = j d
where

d = 02 2
Quality factor :
Q=

0 m 0
=
2
b

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 66

Pole-zero diagram

> Displays information about dynamics of system


function

s
H2 ( s ) = 2
s + 0.5s + 1
s1, 2 = 0.25 j 1 1 = 0.25 j 0.97
16
Pole-Zero Map

2
1.5

pole

Imaginary Axis

1
0.5

zero

0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2
-2

-1

0
Real Axis

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 67

SMD-position frequency response

1
1
H( j ) =
m ( 02 2 ) 2 + 4 2 2

Bode Diagram

0
-10
-20
-30
-40
360

Phase (deg)

H( j ) = atan 2
2
0

Magnitude (dB)

1
1
H( j ) =
m 2 + 2j + 02

10

315
270
225
180
-1
10

10
Frequency (rad/sec)

10

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 68

Eigenfunction Analysis
> Find eigenvalues numerically using MATLAB and A matrix

1
0
A=

0
0
.
5

[ V , ] = eig( A)
0
1 0 0.25 + 0.97 j

=
=

0
0
.
25
0
.
97
j

0.707
0.707

V = [v1 v2 ] =

0.18 0.68 j 0.18 0.68 j

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 10 - 69

Special Topics in Structures: Residual


Stress and Energy Methods
Carol Livermore
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

* With thanks to Steve Senturia, from whose lecture notes some


of these materials are adapted.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 1

Outline
> Effects of residual stresses on structures
> Energy methods
Elastic energy
Principle of virtual work: variational methods
Examples
> Rayleigh-Ritz methods for resonant frequencies and
extracting lumped-element masses for structures

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 2

Reminder: Thin Film Stress


> If a thin film is adhered to a substrate, mismatch of thermal
expansion coefficient between film and substrate can lead to
stresses in the film (and, to a lesser degree, stresses in the
substrate)

> Residual stress can also come from film structure: intrinsic
stress

> Stresses set up bending moments that can bend the substrate
> When we release a residually stressed MEMS structure,
interesting effects can ensue

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 3

Reminder: Differential equation of beam bending


> Small angle bending:

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 9.11 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem
Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, pp. 214.
ISBN: 9780792372462.

> Beam equation:


q = distributed load
w = vertical displacement
x = axial position along beam

d 4w q
=
4
dx
EI

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 4

Example: Fixed-fixed beam


> Fixed-fixed beams are common in MEMS: switches, diffraction
gratings, flexures

> Example: Silicon Light Machines Grating Light Valve display


deflects a beam in order to diffract light

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.


Please see: Figure 1.4 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 7. ISBN: 9780792372462.

> Residual stress in beams can enhance or reduce response to an


applied load, and impact flatness of actuated beam

> Residual stress can be included in the basic beam bending


equation by the addition of an extra term
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 5

Residual Axial Stress in Beams


> Residual axial stress in a beam
>

contributes to its bending stiffness


Leads to the Euler beam equation
Thin beam

s0

s0

Images by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 9.15 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 227. ISBN: 9780792372462.

0 H
P0 =

which is equivalent to a distributed load


d 2w
q0 = P0W = 0WH 2
dx
Insert as added load into beam equation :

P0
s0WH

2WP0 = 20WH

s0WH

d 4w
EI 4 = q + q0
dx
d 4w
d 2w
EI 4 0WH 2 = q
dx
dx

Images by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 9.16 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 228. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 6

Example: Effect of tensile stress on stiffness

-0.2

Displacement

0
s = 250 MPa

0.2
0.4

100

0.6
0.8

50

25

1
1.2

20

40
60
Position

80

100

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Adapted from Figure 9.17 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.


Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 232. ISBN: 9780792372462.

100 m long, 2 m wide, 2 m high fixed-fixed silicon beam


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 7

Stress impacts flatness: leveraged bending


> Pull-in is modified if the actuating electrodes are away from the
point of closest approach
1)

2)

with stressstiffening

3)

Figure 3 on p. 499 in: Hung, E. S., and S. D. Senturia. "Extending the Travel Range of Analog-tuned Electrostatic Actuators."
Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 8, no. 4 (December 1999): 497-505. 1999 IEEE.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 8

Buckling of Axially Loaded Beams


> If the compressive stress is too large, a beam will spontaneously
bend this is called buckling

> The basic theory of buckling is in Sec. 9.6.3


> The Euler buckling criterion:

Euler

2 EH 2
=
3 L2

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 9

Plates with in-plane stress and membranes


> As with the Euler beam equation, in plane stress can be included
4w
4w
4w N x 2w N y 2w
= P ( x, y )
D 4 + 2 2 2 + 4
+
2
2
x y
y W x
W y
x
Axial stresses in x
and y directions

> When tensile stress dominates over flexural rigidity (thin,


tensioned plate), the plate may be considered a membrane

N x 2w N y 2w

= P
+
2
2
W y
W x
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 10

How about cantilevers?


> Example: residually stressed cantilever, where stress is
constant throughout structure

> Before release: stressed cantilever is attached to surface


> After release: cantilever relieves stress by expanding or
contracting to its desired length

> No bending of released structure

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 11

How about nonuniform axial stress?


> Nonuniform axial stress through the thickness of a beam creates
a bending moment

> It can arise from two sources


Intrinsic stress gradients, created during formation of the
cantilever material (e.g. polysilicon)

Residual stress in thin films deposited onto the cantilever


> The bending moment curls the cantilever

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 12

Example: Cantilever with stress gradient


> Think about it in three steps:
Relax the average stress to zero after release
Compute the moment when the beam is flat
Compute the curvature that results from the moment
Before release

After release
but before bending

-H/2
x

o
Compression

H/2

z
Stress before release

-H/2
-1

Tension
1

x
Compression
H/2

z
Stress after release
but before bending

After bending

-H/2

Tension
x
Compression
H/2

z
After bending

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 9.13 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic
Publishers, 2001, p. 223. ISBN: 9780792372462.

EI
1
1 EH
2
x =
M x = z x dA = WH 1 and x =
A
Mx
6
2 1
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 13

Example: Thin Film on Cantilever

> In this case, the curling does not relieve all the stress
After release

Before release
t

-H/2

-H/2
o
H/2

2
-3

H/2
y

y
Stress before release

Stress after release


and after bending

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 9.14 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 224. ISBN: 9780792372462.

> See text for math

Barbastathis group, MIT


Courtesy of George Barbastathis. Used with permission.

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 14

Outline
> Effects of residual stresses on structures
> Energy methods
Elastic energy
Principle of virtual work: variational methods
Examples
> Rayleigh-Ritz methods for resonant frequencies and
extracting lumped-element masses for structures

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 15

Elastic Energy
> Elastic stored energy density is the integral of stress with
respect to strain

Elastic energy density :


When ( ) = E :

(x,y,z)
~
W(x,y,z) =
()d
0

1
~
2
W(x,y,z) = E [(x,y,z)]
2

> The total elastic stored energy is the volume integral of the
elastic energy density

Total stored elastic energy :

~
W = W(x,y,z)dxdydz
Volume

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 16

Including Shear Strains


> More generally, the energy density in a linear elastic medium is
related to the product of stress and strain

> A similar approach can be used for electrostatic stored energy


density (1/2)D*E and magnetostatic stored energy density
(1/2)B*H.

~ 1
For axial strains : W =
2
~ 1
For shear strains : W =
2
This leads to a total elastic strain energy :
W=

1
( x x + y y + z z + xy xy + xz xz + yz yz ) dxdydz

2 Volume

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 17

Concept: Principle of Virtual Work


> The question: how to determine the deformation that results
from an applied load
F

(F) = ??

> Known: the work done on an energy-conserving system by


external forces must result in an equal amount of stored
potential energy

> Imposing this condition can provide an exact solution to many


problems

For example, if functional dependence between quantities is


known, and you just need to find what the actual values are

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 18

Concept: Principle of Virtual Work


> Can approach this from a guessing point of view
Guess values for ; whichever one best equates stored
energy and work done is the right answer
x

Stored energy work done

are guesses
is best guess

x
xx

Deformation

> What if you dont know the functional form of your


deformations/displacements does this still work?

> Yes! You can choose a plausible shape function for the
displacement with a few adjustable parameters and iteratively
guess the constants to best equate stored energy and work
done
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 19

Principle of Virtual Work


> Goal: a variational method for solving energy-conserving
problems (a mathematical way of approaching the guessing)

> Define total potential U, including work and stored energy


U = Stored energy - Work done

> A system in equilibrium has a total potential U that is a minimum


with respect to any virtual displacement
No matter what you change, you wont get any closer to
matching work and stored energy

> Requirement: the virtual displacement must obey B.C.


> Nomenclature for small virtual displacements
In the x direction: u
In the y direction: v
In the z direction: w
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 20

Math: Principle of Virtual Work


> Consider all possible virtual displacements; evaluate change in
strains

u and xy = v + u
y
x
x
This implies changes in strain energy density
x =

>

~
W = x x + + xy xy +

> The principle of virtual work states that in equilibrium, for any
virtual displacement that is compatible with the B.C.,

~
Wdxdydz

Volume

(F

(F

s,x

u + Fs , yv + Fs , zw)dS

Surface

u + Fb , yv + Fb , zw)dxdydz = 0

b, x

Volume

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 21

Differential Version

> The previous equation is equivalent to the following:

~
Wdxdydz (Fs , x u + Fs , y v + Fs , z w )dS (Fb, x u + Fb, y v + Fb, z w)dxdydz = 0
Surface
Volume

Volume
This can be restated in the following form :
U = 0
where

~
U = Wdxdydz (Fs , x u + Fs , y v + Fs , z w )dS (Fb, x u + Fb, y v + Fb, z w)dxdydz
Volume
Surface
Volume

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 22

Variational methods
> Select a trial solution with parameters that can be varied
(x, y, z; c1, c2,cn) = trial displacement in x
v(x, y, z; c1, c2,cn) = trial displacement in y

(x,
y, z; c1, c2,cn) = trial displacement in z
> Formulate the total potential U of the system as functions of
these parameters

> Find the potential minimum with respect to the values of the
parameters

U
U
U
= 0,
= 0,....
=0
c1
c2
cn

> The result is the best solution possible with the assumed trial
function

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 23

Why Bother?
> Nonlinear partial differential equations are basically very nasty.
> Approximate analytical solutions can always be found with
variational methods

> The analytical solutions have the correct dependence on


geometry and material properties, hence, serve as the basis for
good macro-models

> Accurate numerical answers may require finite-element


modeling

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 24

Analytic vs. Numerical


> Analytic variational methods and numerical finite-element
methods both depend on the Principal of Virtual Work

> Both methods minimize total potential energy


> FEM methods use local trial functions (one per element).
Variational parameters are the nodal displacements

> Analytic methods use global trial functions

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 25

Outline
> Effects of residual stresses on structures
> Energy methods
Elastic energy
Principle of virtual work: variational methods
Examples
> Rayleigh-Ritz methods for resonant frequencies and
extracting lumped-element masses for structures

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 26

Example: fixed-fixed beam, small deflections


> Doubly-fixed beam with a point load at some position along the
beam, in the small deflection limit

> Our present choice: use a fourth degree polynomial trial


solution

w ( x) = c0 + c1 x + c2 x 2 + c3 x 3 + c4 x 4
Boundary conditions : w = 0 and w = 0 at x = 0, L

> Apply boundary conditions:


c0 = c1 = 0 from BC at x = 0
BC at x = L eliminate two more constants
Result is a shape function with one undetermined amplitude
parameter

w ( x) = c4 L2 x 2 2 Lx 3 + x 4

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 27

Example: fixed-fixed beam, small deflections


> Formulate total potential energy and find the minimum
> Calculate strain energy from bending
width of beam
total strain energy

d 2 w
= = z 2 = zc4 2 L2 12 Lx + 12 x 2
dx

EW
W=
2

1
3 5 2

=
dxdz
EWH
L c4
H / 2
30
H /2

> Calculate work done by external force applied at x0

(
> This yields total potential energy

Work = Fw ( x0 ) = Fc4 L2 x02 2 Lx03 + x04

1
U=
EWH 3 L5c42 L2 x02 2 Lx03 + x04 Fc4
30

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 28

Example: fixed-fixed beam, small deflections


> Minimize total potential energy with respect to c4, determine c4,
and plug in to find variational solution for deflection w(x)

U
=0
c4
L2 x02 2 Lx03 + x04
c4 = 15
F
3 5
EWH L
L2 x02 2 Lx03 + x04 L2 x 2 2 Lx 3 + x 4

(
w = 15

)(

)F

EWH 3 L5
> Compare stiffness for the case of a center-applied load

( )

3
15
L
wL =
F
2 256 EWH 3
256 EWH 3
EWH 3
k=
17
3
15
L
L3

Recall solution of beam equation


EWH 3
k = 16
L3

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 29

Properties of the Variational Solution

> Does it solve the beam equation? NO


> Is the point of maximum deflection near where the
load is applied? NOT IN GENERAL

> How can we determine how accurate the solution is?


TRY A BETTER FUNCTION

> Was this a good trial function? NO

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 30

A Better Trial Function


> Fifth-order polynomial allows both the amplitude and shape of
0.000

0.000

0.010

0.010

0.020

0.020

Vertical position

Vertical position

the deformation to be varied

0.030
0.040
0.050
0.060
Exact when xo = L/2

0.070
0.080

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.030
0.040
0.050
0.060
Exact when xo = L/2

0.070
0.8

Axial position

0.080

0.2

0.4

0.6

Axial position

0.8

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Adapted from Figure 10.1 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 248.
ISBN: 9780792372462. The artist's representation of the fourth and fifth degree polynomials is approximate.

Fourth degree polynomial

Fifth degree polynomial

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 31

What about large deflections?


> For small deflections, pure bending is a good approximation
The geometrically constructed neutral axis really does have
about zero strain

> For large deflections, the beam gets longer


Tensile side gets even more tensile
Compressed side gets less compressed
Neutral axis becomes tensile
> We can treat this as a superposition of two events
First, the beam bends in pure bending, which draws the end

of the beam away from the second support


Then, the beam is stretched to reconnect with the second
support
Quantify the stretching by the strain at the originally neutral
axis

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 32

Analysis of Large Deflections


> When deflections are large, on the order of the beam
thickness, stretching becomes important
As a result of stretching, the arc length increases

ds =
-L/2

L/2

0
c

Deformed shape
of original neutral
axis
Segment of original neutral axis
x

x+dx

w(x)

[dx + u( x + dx ) u( x )]2 + [w( x + dx ) w( x )]2


Using the result that 1 + = 1 +
du 1 dw 2
+
ds = dx 1 +

2
dx
dx

The axial strain is given by


ds dx du 1 dw
x =
=
+

dx
dx 2 dx
The change in length is
L/2

w(x+dx)
u(x+dx)
Same segment after deformation
u(x)

L/2

ds dx
L =
dx = x dx
dx
L / 2
L / 2

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 10.2 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 250. ISBN: 9780792372462.
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 33

Example: Center-Loaded Beam


> Potential energy has three terms:
Bending strain energy
Stretching strain energy
External work

-L/2

L/2

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Adapted from Figure 10.2 in Senturia, Stephen


D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer
Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 250. ISBN: 9780792372462.

> Bending and external work already calculated for one trial
function

> Pick another trial function (same weakness as last attempt, but
easy to use) and include large deflections

c
2x

w = 1 + cos

L
2

Why not a ?

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 34

Example: Center-Loaded Beam


> First, calculate the strain due to stretching (aggregate axial
strain)
L

L2

1
=
a =
x dx

L L L 2
L/2
du 1 dw 2
1
a =
dx
+

L L / 2 dx 2 dx
L/2
1 dw 2
1 L L 1
a = u u + dx
L 2 2 L L / 2 2 dx

> Total strain = bending strain + aggregate axial strain


T = bending + stretching
d 2 w
T = z 2 + a
dx
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 35

Example: Center-Loaded Beam


> Calculate total stored elastic energy from total strain
EW
W=
2

H /2 L/2

EWH 4 8 H 2 + 3c 2 c 2
dxdz =
3

96
L
H / 2 L / 2
2
T

> Finally, potential energy

EWH 4 8 H 2 + 3c 2 c 2
U = W Fc =
Fc
3
96 L

> which we minimize with respect to c

U
4 EWH 3 4 EWH 3
=0
c + 3 c
F =

3
c
6 L 8 L
> Compare linear term with solution to beam equation: prefactor
16.2 instead of 16

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 36

Results from example


> Force-displacement relationship: an amplitude-stiffened Duffing
spring
4 EWH 3 4 EWH 3
F =
c + 3 c
3
6
L

8 L

> Solution shows geometry dependence; constants may or may


not be correct
EWH 3
EWH 3
+
F = Cb
c
C
c
s

3
3

L
L

> Once youve found the elastic strain energy, finding results for
another load is easy

Work = Fc

L2

Work =

q( x)w (x )dx

L 2

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 37

Example: uniform pressure load P


> Adopt the elastic strain energy
> Calculate the work for a uniform pressure load
Work = WP

L/2

2x
c
WLPc
1
cos
dx
+
=

2
2
L
L / 2

> Minimize U to find relationship between load and deflection


4 EH 3 4 EH 3
P = 4 c + 4 c
3 L 4 L

> The geometry dependence appears!

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 38

Combining Variational and FEM Methods


> Use the analytic variational method to find a good functional
form for the result

> Establish non-dimensional numerical parameters within the


solution

> Perform well-meshed FEM simulations over the design space


> Fit the analytic solution to the FEM results

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 39

Residual Stress In Clamped Structures


> Must add a new term to the elastic energy to capture the effects
of the residual stress

a
~
W = d

~
W=

+ E )d

0
0
> Now there is a residual
stress term in the stored elastic energy

Wr = 0W

H /2

H / 2

L/ 2

dz

dx
a

L / 2

> For the fixed-fixed beam example, the residual stress term is:

>

2 2
Wr = 0WLH 2 c
4L
This leads to a general form of the load-deflection relationship
for beams, which can be extended to plates and membranes

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 40

Results for Doubly-Clamped Beam


For the case of a central point load :
2 0WH 4 EWH 3 4 EWH 3
+
F =
c + 8 L3 c
3

L
L
2
6



and for the pressure loaded case :
2 0 H 4 EH 3 4 EH 3
P = 2 + 4 c + 4 c
L 3 L 4 L
The general form for pressure loading, useful for fitting to FEM results, is :
0 H
EH 3
EH
P = Cr 2 + Cb 4 c + Cs 4 c 3
L
L
L
Finally, we note that the stress term dominates over bending when
EH 2
0 2
L
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 41

Outline
> Effects of residual stresses on structures
> Energy methods
Elastic energy
Principle of virtual work: variational methods
Examples
> Rayleigh-Ritz methods for resonant frequencies and
extracting lumped-element masses for structures

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 42

Estimating Resonance Frequencies


> We have achieved part of our goal of converting structures into
lumped elements

We can calculate elastic stiffness of almost any structure, for


small and large deflections

But we still dont know how to find the mass term associated
with structures

> We can get the mass term from the resonance frequency and the
stiffness

> The resonance frequency comes from Rayleigh-Ritz analysis


In simple harmonic motion at resonance, the maximum kinetic
energy equals the maximum potential energy

Determine kinetic energy; equate its maximum value to the


maximum potential energy; find 0.

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 43

Estimating Resonance Frequencies


> Guess a time dependent trial function from (x)
w ( x, t ) = w ( x) cos(t )

> Find maximum kinetic energy from maximum velocity


w ( x, t )
Maximum velocity :

t =

= w ( x )
2

1 2
mvmax
2
1
2
= m ( x ) 2 w (x )
2

Max kinetic energy, lumped : Wk ,max =


~
Max kinetic energy density : Wk ,max

Max kinetic energy : Wk ,max =

2
2

(
)
(
)

x
w
x
dxdydz
m

volume beam

> Calculate maximum potential energy from (x) as before


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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 44

Rayleigh-Ritz

> The resonance frequency is obtained from the ratio of


potential energy to kinetic energy, using a variational
trial function

> The result is remarkably insensitive to the specific


trial function

=
2
0

Welastic

1
2

m ( x)w ( x)dx

2 Volume

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 45

Example: Tensioned Beam


> Compare two trial solutions:
Tensioned wire the exact solution (1/2 of a cosine)
Bent beam a very poor solution
0.00

Deflection

0.02
0.04

Bending solution

0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
-0.5

Tensioned wire
-0.25

0
x/L

0.25

0.5

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 10.3 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 263. ISBN: 9780792372462.

> Resonant frequencies differ by only 15%


> Worse trial functions yield higher stiffness, higher resonant
frequencies

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 46

Extracting Lumped Masses


> Use variational methods to calculate the stiffness
> Use Rayleigh-Ritz with the same trial function to calculate
the resonant frequency 2

> Extract the mass from the relation between mass, stiffness,
and resonant frequency.

2 = k/m

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 11 - 47

Dissipation and
The Thermal Energy Domain Part I
Joel Voldman*
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
*(with thanks to SDS)

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 1

Outline

> Thermal energy domain: why we love it and why we


hate it

> Dissipative processes


Example: Charging a capacitor through a resistor

> The Thermal Energy Domain


Governing equations

> Equivalent-circuit elements & the electrothermal


transducer

> Modeling the bolometer

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 2

Thermal MEMS

> Everything is affected by temperature


> Therefore, anything can be detected or measured or
actuated via the thermal domain

> Sometimes this is good

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 3

MEMS Imagers
> A bolometer heats up due to

Poor residual stress control

incoming radiation

> This results in a temperature


change that changes the
resistance across the pixel

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Figure 1 on p. 55 in: Leonov, V. N., N. A. Perova, P. De Moor, B. Du Bois,


C. Goessens, B. Grietens, A. Verbist, C. A. Van Hoof, and
J. P. Vermeiren. "Micromachined Poly-SiGe Bolometer
Arrays for Infrared Imaging and Spectroscopy."
Proceedings of SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 4945 (2003): 54-63.

Silicon nitride and


vanadium oxide
50 m

0.5 m

IR
Radiation

Y-metal

Better design

2.5 m
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
B
E

X-metal

Monolithic bipolar
transistor

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Figure 2 on p. 56 in: Leonov, V. N., N. A. Perova, P. De Moor, B. Du Bois,


C. Goessens, B. Grietens, A. Verbist, C. A. Van Hoof, and
J. P. Vermeiren. "Micromachined Poly-SiGe Bolometer
Arrays for Infrared Imaging and Spectroscopy.
Proceedings of SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 4945 (2003): 54-63.

Honeywell
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 4

MEMS Imagers

> This application illustrates key features of thermal


MEMS
Excellent thermal isolation creates excellent sensitivity
Response is proportional to thermal resistance
Low thermal mass creates fast response time
Response time is proportional to thermal capacitance
Easy integration with sense electronics

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 5

Thermal flow sensing


> A time-of-flight flowrate sensor
> One resistor creates a heat pulse
> A downstream resistor acts as a
temperature sensor

> Time for heat pulse to drift


downstream is inversely related to
Figure 1 on p. 686 in: Meng, E., and Y.-C. Tai. "A Parylene MEMS Flow Sensing Array.
flowrate
Technical Digest of Transducers'03: The 12th International Conference on Solid-State

> This example illustrates the


important benefit
materials

Sensors, Actuators, and Microsystems, Boston, June 9-12, 2003. Vol. 1. Piscataway, NJ:
IEEE Electron Devices Society, 2003, pp. 686-689. ISBN: 9780780377318. 2003 IEEE.

of MEMS

Large range in thermal

conductivities
From vacuum (~0) to metal (~100s
W/m-K)
Figure 3 on p. 687 in: Meng, E., and Y.-C. Tai. "A Parylene MEMS Flow Sensing Array.
Technical Digest of Transducers'03: The 12th International Conference on Solid-State
Sensors, Actuators, and Microsystems, Boston, June 9-12, 2003. Vol. 1. Piscataway, NJ:
IEEE Electron Devices Society, 2003, pp. 686-689. ISBN: 9780780377318. 2003 IEEE.

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 6

MEMS flow sensing: commercial


> OMRON flow sensor uses measures
temperature distribution around a
heat source

> Convection alters temperature

Image removed due to copyright restrictions. OMRON flow sensor.

profile in a predictable fashion

Flow

Calm
Thermopile B

Heater

Temperature distribution
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 7

The Thermal Domain


Academic

> Sometimes this is bad


> Reason #1
Everything is a temperature sensor
Evaluation of MEMS devices over

temperature is often critical to


success
Figure 12 on p. 115 in: Takao, H., Y. Matsumoto, and M. Ishida. "A Monolithically

> Reason #2

Integrated Three-axis Accelerometer Using CMOS Compatible Stress-sensitive


Differential Amplifiers." IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 46, no. 1 (1999):
109-116. 1999 IEEE.

Commercial

As we will see, we can never

0.179

Sensitivity (V/g)

0.180

transfer energy between domains


perfectly
The extra energy goes into the
thermal domain (e.g., heat)
We can never totally recover that
heat energy

0.178
0.177
0.176
0.175
0.174
0.173
0.172
0.171
0.170
-30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

ADI ADXL320

Temperature (oC)
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 8

Outline

> Thermal energy domain: why we love it and why we


hate it

> Dissipative processes


Example: Charging a capacitor through a resistor

> The Thermal Energy Domain


Governing equations

> Equivalent-circuit elements & the electrothermal


transducer

> Modeling the bolometer

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 9

Charging a capacitor

> We will transfer energy from a power supply to a


capacitor

> Ideally, all energy delivered from supply goes to


capacitor

> In actuality, there is ALWAYS dissipation


And this is true for ALL domains

> Thus, we will lose some energy

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 10

Example: Charging a Capacitor


> Use step input

VS

> Voltage source must supply

Vc

twice the amount of energy as


goes into the capacitor

> One half the energy is


dissipated in the resistor,
independent of the value of R!
I

R
+

VS

+
C
-

VC
-

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

VC = VS (1 e t / RC )
I =C

dVC VS t / RC
= e
dt
R

VR
time

1
Energy stored in capacitor: WC = CVS2
2
Energy delivered by power supply:
VS2 t / RC
PS (t ) = IVs =
e
R

Ws = Ps dt =CVS2
0

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 11

Power Considerations: Joule Heating


> The extra energy is lost
to Joule heating in the
resistor

VR2
PR = IVR = I R =
R
For normal "positive" resistors
PR 0
2

> Globally, the power


entering a resistor is
given by the IV
product.

> Locally, there is power


dissipation given by
the product of the
charge flux and the
electric field.

This means
[ ]/m3
2
P%
R = J eE = eE

For normal positive conductivity


P% 0
R

and, one is the integral of the other


PR =

3
P%
d
r
R

Volume
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 12

Outline

> Thermal energy domain: why we love it and why we


hate it

> Dissipative processes


Example: Charging a capacitor through a resistor

> The Thermal Energy Domain


Governing equations

> Equivalent-circuit elements & the electrothermal


transducer

> Modeling the bolometer

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 13

Thermal Energy Domain


> It is easier to put ENERGY
INTO than get WORK OUT of
thermal domain

> All domains are linked to


thermal domain via
dissipation

> Thermal domain is linked to


all domains because
temperature affects
constitutive properties

Elastic
Magnetic

Electric
Chemical

Fluids

Thermal energy domain

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 11.2 in Senturia, S tephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 271. ISBN: 9780792372462.

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 14

Thermal Energy Domain


> Heat engines convert heat into
mechanical work, but not
perfectly efficiently, just like the
charging of a capacitor cannot be
done perfectly efficiently

> This is a statement of


irreversibility: the 2nd Law of
Thermodynamics

Courtesy of Zyvex Corporation. Used with permission.

Electrical energy

> Zyvex heatuator


One skinny leg and one fat leg
Run a current and skinny leg will

heat up
Structure will bend in response

Thermal energy
Lost to thermal
reservoir
Strain energy and
deflection

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 15

Governing Equations
> Some introductory
notation

> Be careful with units


and normalizations

X ~
=X
V

Q
Thermal energy [J]
~
Q
Thermal energy/volume [J/m3]
Q&= I
Q

Heat flow [W]

J Q Heat flux [W/m2]


CV =
CP =

Q
Heat capacity at constant volume (J/K)
T Volume
Heat capacity at constant pressure (J/K)
Q
T

Pressure

CV = C P = C
~ C
C=
V
~ C~
Cm =

Are the same for incompressible materials


Heat capacity/unit volume (J/K-m3)
Heat capacity/unit mass (J/K-kg) AKA specific heat

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 16

Governing Equations

> Like many domains,


conservation of energy
leads to a continuity
equation for thermal
energy

n
S

generation

+
of
stuff
in

volume

d
bdV = F ndS + gdV

dt
Get point relation

Divergence theorem and


bring derivative inside

net stuff
d stuff in

= entering
dt volume
volume

b
t dV = FdV + gdV
b
= F + g
For heat
t
~
transfer
dQ
~
+ JQ = P
sources
dt

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 17

Types of Heat Flow


> Flow proportional to a temperature
gradient

Heat conduction

J Q = T

> Convective heat transfer


A subject coupling heat transfer to
fluid mechanics

Often not important for MEMS, but

J Q = hc (T2 T1 )

sometimes is

Talk more about this later

> Radiative heat transfer


Between two bodies (at T1 and T2)
Stefan-Boltzmann Law
Can NEVER turn off

J Q = SB F12 T24 T14

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 18

The Heat-Flow Equation


> If we assume linear heat conduction, we are led to the heat-flow
equation

J Q = T

J Q = (T )

~
Q
~
= (T ) + Psources
t

dQ% %
=C
For homogeneous materials, with
dT

T 2
1 ~
= ~ T + ~ P
t C
C sources
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 19

Thermodynamic Realities
> The First law of thermodynamics implies that entropy is a
generalized displacement, and temperature is a generalized
effort; their product is energy

> The Second Law states that entropy production is 0 for any
process

In practice it always increases

> Entropy is not a conserved quantity.


> Thus, it does not make for a good generalized variable
> Therefore, we use a new convention, the thermal modeling
convention, with temperature as effort and heat flow (power)
as the flow. Note that the product of effort and flow is no
longer power!!!

But heat energy (thermal displacement) is conserved


Just like charge (electrical displacement) is conserved
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 20

Outline

> Thermal energy domain: why we love it and why we


hate it

> Dissipative processes


Example: Charging a capacitor through a resistor

> The Thermal Energy Domain


Governing equations

> Equivalent-circuit elements & the electrothermal


transducer

> Modeling the bolometer

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 21

Thermal sources

> Heat current source IQ is


represented with a flow
source

IQ

> Temperature difference


source T is represented
with an effort source

+
-

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 22

Thermal equivalent-circuit elements

> Use direct analogy again


Thermal
conductivity

J Q = T

Electrical
conductivity
Relation between
effort and flow

T 2
~
= ~ T +P
sources
t C
2T = 0
T2 = T1
No heat
storage

(J

n )1 = (J Q n )2

Laplaces Eqn.

Continuity of effort

Continuity of flow

J E = e E = eV

2V = 0
V2 = V1
No
charge
2 storage

(J E n )1 = (J E n )

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 23

Thermal equivalent-circuit elements

> Therefore we can derive a thermal resistance


IQ

RT

1 L
RT =
[K/W]
A

For bar of uniform


cross-section

> Plus, heat conduction and current flow obey the same
differential equation

> Thus, we can use exactly the same solutions for


thermal resistors as for electrical resistors
Just change to

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 24

Thermal equivalent-circuit elements

> What about other


T1

types of heat flow?

> Convection
IQ

> Use linear resistor


T2

J Q = hc (T2 T1 )
I Q = hc A (T2 T1 ) = hc AT
RT ,conv

1
=
hc A

IQ

RT,conv

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 25

Thermal equivalent-circuit elements

> Radiation
Nonlinear with temperature
Large-signal model

IQ

- T1

T2 +

J Q = SB F12 T24 T14

I Q = SB F12 A T24 T14

IQ
T2

T1

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 26

Thermal equivalent-circuit elements

> Radiation
Many ways to linearize
We show two approaches
T2>>T1

I Q = SB F12 A (T24 T14 )


T2T1

I Q SB F12 AT24

I Q = ( 4 SB F12 AT23 ) T

IQ

RT,rad

I Q SB F12 A (T1 + T ) T14


4

I Q = ( 4 SB F12 AT13 ) T

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 27

Thermal equivalent-circuit elements

> What about energy storage?


> Just like electrical capacitors

Q
CE =
V

store charge (Q),

> We can store thermal energy (Q)

Q
CT =
T
~
CT = Cm mV

> No thermal inductor /

IQ

CT

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 28

Electro-thermal transducer
> In electromechanical energy transduction, we introduced the twoport capacitor

Energy-storing element coupling the two domains


Capacitor because it stores potential energy

> What will we use to couple electrical energy into thermal energy?
In the electrical domain, this is due to Joule dissipation, a loss

mechanism
Therefore it looks like an electrical resistor
In the thermal domain it looks like a heat source
Therefore it looks like a thermal current source

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 29

Electro-thermal transducer
> Our transducer is a resistor and a
dependent current source

The thermal current source depends


on R and I in the electrical domain

> We reverse convention on direction of


port variables in thermal domain

OK, because IQT does not track

power
Reflects fact that heat current will
always be positive out of transducer

IQ

+
V

IR
R

+
T

> This is not energy-conserving


Dissipation is intrinsic to transducer

> This is not reciprocal


Heat current does not cause a voltage

> Thermal domain can couple back to


the electrical domain

See next time

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 30

Outline

> Thermal energy domain: why we love it and why we


hate it

> Dissipative processes


Example: Charging a capacitor through a resistor

> The Thermal Energy Domain


Governing equations

> Equivalent-circuit elements & the electrothermal


transducer

> Modeling the bolometer

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 31

Different heat transfer components


> How does one know which heat transfer processes are
important for thermal modeling?
Silicon nitride and
vanadium oxide
50 m

0.5 m

IR
Radiation

Y-metal

2.5 m
B
E

X-metal

IQ

Monolithic bipolar
transistor

CT

RT

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

> Heat input is a current


> Heat loss is a resistor

RT I Q

1
=
T = I Q RT //
CT s 1 + RT CT s

> Heat storage in mass is a capacitor

Tss = RT I Q

= RT CT

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 32

Implications

> Increasing RT increases response


This means better thermal isolation
There is always some limiting value determined by radiation

> Given a fixed RT, decreasing CT improves response


time
This means reducing the mass or volume of the system

Tss = RT I Q

= RT CT

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 33

Thermal resistance

> What goes into RT?


> RT is the parallel combination of all loss terms
Conduction through the air and legs
Convection
Radiation

> We can determine when different terms dominate

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 34

Conduction resistance

> Conduction
Si is too thermally
conductive

SiO2 is compressively
stressed

Try SiN

11 L
2 A

(50 m )
2(20 W/m - K )(0.5 m )(5 m )

RT ,legs = 5 105 K/W

Material

(W/m-K)

Silicon

148

Silicon Nitride

RT ,legs =

20

Thermal Oxide 1.5


Air (1 atm)

0.03

Air (1 mtorr)

10-5

RT ,air =

1 L
A

2.5 m )
(
=
(105 W/m-K ) ( 50 m )( 50 m )
RT ,air = 108 K/W
Conduction through legs dominates

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 35

Other resistances
> Convection

RT ,rad =

At low pressure, there


will be no air movement

Convection will not exist

> Radiation
There is transfer
between plate and body

RT ,rad =

1
4 SB F12 AT13

1
3
4 5.67 10 8 W/m 2 K 4 (0.5)(50 m )(50 m )(300 K )

RT ,legs = 1.3 108 K/W

Leg conduction dominates loss

Use case where bodies


are close in temp

Radiation negligible

> Very fast time constant


~ms is typical for
thermal MEMS

CT = C%m mV

= ( 700 J/kg-K ) ( 3000 kg/m3 ) ( 50 m )( 50 m )( 0.5 m )


= 3 109 J/K
RT CT = 1.5 ms

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 36

Improving the design

> How can we make

Silicon nitride and


vanadium oxide

responsivity higher?

> Change materials

50 m

0.5 m

IR
Radiation

Y-metal

2.5 m
B

> Decrease thickness or


width of legs, or increase
length
This reduces mechanical

X-metal

Monolithic bipolar
transistor

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

rigidity

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 37

Does convection ever matter?

> Usually not


> But it can come into play in
microfluidics

> The key is whether energy is


transported faster by fluid flow or
heat conduction

> Well analyze this a bit better after


we do fluids

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 38

The Next Step

> When dealing with conservative systems, we found


general modeling methods based on energy
conservation

> With dissipative systems, we must always be coupled


to the thermal energy domain, and must address
time-dependence

> This is the topic for the next Lecture

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 12 - 39

The Thermal Domain II

Joel Voldman*
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
*(with thanks to SDS)
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 1

Outline

> Review
> Lumped-element modeling: self-heating of resistor
> Analyzing problems in space and 1/space
The DC Steady State the Poisson equation
Finite-difference methods
Eigenfunction methods
Transient Response
Finite-difference methods
Eigenfunction methods

> Thermoelectricity

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 2

The generalized heat-flow equation

> Last time we generated

a general conservation
equation

> Include a flux that


depends on a force
gradient

> And a capacity

b
= F + G
t
~
dQ
~
+ JQ = P
sources
dt

n
F

S
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

relation
J Q = T
Q
=C
T
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 3

The generalized heat-flow equation

> We get a generalized


conduction equation
Assume homogeneous
region

> Applies to
Heat flow
Mass transport (diffusion)
Squeezed-film damping

> Provides a rich set of


solution methods

T
2T = P
sources
t
1
T
D 2T = P
t
C sources

[m2/s]

D= ~
C

[W/m-K]
[J/K-m3]

Thermal diffusivity

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 4

Thermal domain lumped elements

> Thermal resistor


Resistance to heat flow
Three types
Conduction
Convection
Radiation

IQ

RT

IQ

CT

CT = Cm mV

> Thermal capacitor


Store thermal energy
Specific heat volume

> Electrothermal transducer


Converts electrical dissipation

IQ

density

into heat current

1 L
RT =
A

+
V

IR
R

+
T

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 5

Outline

> Review
> Lumped-element modeling: self-heating of resistor
> Analyzing problems in space and 1/space
The DC Steady State the Poisson equation
Finite-difference methods
Eigenfunction methods
Transient Response
Finite-difference methods
Eigenfunction methods

> Thermoelectricity

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 6

Measuring temperature with the bolometer

> So far, we know how to


convert an input heat flux
into a temp change

Silicon nitride and


vanadium oxide
50 m

0.5 m

IR
Radiation

Y-metal

2.5 m

> How do we convert that


temp change back into
the electrical domain?

CT

X-metal

Monolithic bipolar
transistor

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

RT I Q

1
=
T = I Q RT //
CT s 1 + RT CT s

+
IQ

RT

Tss = RT I Q

= RT CT

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 7

TCR
> Resistance changes with
temperature (TCR)

Beware, TCR is not constant!

> We can use resistor as a

R (T ) = R0 [1 + R (T T0 ) ]
R R0
R =
= R T
R0

hotplate or a temperature
sensor

V2O5

-200

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 8

Coupling back into the electrical domain

> We can define a


transducer that uses
TCR to convert back
into electrical domain IQ

> In order to measure


electrical R, we need
to introduce a voltage
& current

+
T CT

RT

R( T) V

R(T ) = R0 (1 + R T )

> This current will


couple back and
induce its own T
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 9

Thermo electrical coupling


> This is our prior
electrothermal transducer
IQ

+
V

IR
R

+
IQ
+

T CT

RT

R( T) V

2
I
> We can add in the current R

source due to Joule heating

> The current source is

IQ

T CT

RT

R( T) V

dependent on R, which is
dependent on T, and so on

> What we will want is for IQI2R


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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 10

Example: Self-heating of a resistor


> First, assume input IQ=0
+

> Two ways to drive the resistor,

V R( T)

current source or voltage


source it sometimes matters

RT
T
=
I Q 1 + RT CT s

T (1 + RT CT s ) = I Q RT
dT
T +
RT CT = I Q RT
dt
I Q = I 2 R = I 2 R0 (1 + R T )

RT

CT

temp change is output

IQ=I2R

> Now, electrical port is input,

Current-source drive

Expand out
into D.E.

T +

d T
RT CT = I 2 R0 (1 + R T ) RT
dt

Plug in for
IQ

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 11

Example: Self-heating of a resistor


> First-order system with feedback results
d T
RT CT = T (1 I 2 R0 R RT ) + I 2 R0 RT
dt
2

I
R0 R RT ) I 2 R0
1
(
d T
+ T
=
dt
RT CT
CT

dy
+ ay = b
dt
I =

RT CT
1 I 2 R0 R RT

TSS , I

)
)

Recognize
D.E. form

Pick out quantities


of interest

I 2 R0
R0 RT I 2
CT
=
=
1 I 2 R0 R RT
1 R R0 RT I 2
RT CT

Collect terms
and rearrange

This blows up when


I2 =

1
R R0 RT

For R>0

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 12

Example: Self-heating of a resistor


> What changes for voltage-drive?
V R( T)

RT

dT
T +
RT CT = I Q RT
dt

+
-

T (1 + RT CT s ) = I Q RT

Same
T.F.

IQ=I2R

RT
T
=
I Q 1 + RT CT s

IQ is now
different

V2
V2
IQ =
=
R R0 (1 + R T )
IQ

Voltage-source drive

V
(1 R T )
R0
This leads to
negative feedback
for R>0

TSS ,V

RT V 2 / R0
=
1 + R RT V 2 / R0

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 13

CT

Results of modeling
> A positive TCR resistor driven from a current source can go
unstable fuse effect

> When dealing with the electrostatic actuator, we observed that


very different behavior was found depending on whether the
system was voltage-driven or current-driven

> Here we see that, depending on the way the electrical domain
couples to the thermal energy domain, it is also important to
look at the drive conditions of a system.

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 14

Back to the bolometer


> Assume we want to measure
IQ=1 nW with 1% accuracy

> This limits current one can use


for measurement

TSS , I

R0 RT I 2
2
=

R
R
I
0 T
1 R R0 RT I 2

TSS ,V

RT V 2 / R0
2
=

R
V
/ R0
T
2
1 + R RT V / R0

> For Honeywell bolometer,


Rmeas

R0~50 k, R~-2%/K, RT~107


K/W

Rsignal = R RT I Q

> Input signal will create T=10


mK

> This produces Rsignal=2x10-4,

Rmeas

V2
= R RT
0.01 R RT I Q
R0

I Q R0

or a 10 resistance change

> Voltage must be < 0.7 mV

V2
= R RT
R0

100

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 15

Outline

> Review
> Lumped-element modeling: self-heating of resistor
> Analyzing problems in space and 1/space
The DC Steady State the Poisson equation
Finite-difference methods
Eigenfunction methods
Transient Response
Finite-difference methods
Eigenfunction methods

> Thermoelectricity

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 16

Space and reciprocal space

> We have thus far focused on big lumped-element


modeling to design and analyze systems

> This isnt the only way to proceed


> We can chop up the model into many small lumped
elements discretize in space

> Or we can approximate the answer using series


methods discretize in reciprocal space

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 17

DC Steady State
> The Poisson Equation
> Boundary conditions

T
1
2
D T = P
t
C sources

Dirichlet sets value on

At steady state

boundary

Fixes T (r ) boundary

Neumann sets slope on


boundary Flux

Fixes

dT
dn

1 ~
D T = ~ P
C sources
2

boundary

Mixed sets some function of


value and slope

> The Poisson Equation is linear


Can use superposition methods
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 18

Finite-Difference Solution
1 ~
D 2T = ~ P
C sources
d 2T
1 ~
D 2 = ~P
dx
C sources

> We can generate an equivalent


circuit by discretizing the
equation in space

> A numerical algorithm with a


circuit equivalent

> In 1-D, divide bar into N


segments and N+1 nodes

Ie
0
A
T=0

L
x

d 2T
dx 2

xn

T ( xn + h) + T ( xn h) 2T ( xn )
h2

x1
x2
xn-1
xn
xn+1
h
xN+1
x

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 19

Equivalent Circuit
> Can create an equivalent
circuit for this equation

T ( xn + h) + T ( xn h) 2T ( xn )
P ( xn )
=
2

h
2 P ( xn )
(Tn+1 Tn ) + (Tn1 Tn ) = h

I2
n-1

~
I S ,n = (hA)P ( xn )

I1

Rn - 1

IS,n

Rn

IS,n + 1

n+1

Rn + 1

Define local
current source

(Tn+1 Tn ) + (Tn1 Tn ) = h

IS,n + 2

(Tn+1 Tn ) + (Tn1 Tn ) + I
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 12.1 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 302. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Rn

Rn 1

I S ,n
A

S ,n

=0

This is KCL at a node

Define local
resistance

Rn = Rn 1 =

1 h
A

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 20

Equivalent Circuit

> Lets apply this to 1-D


self-heated resistor

x1
x2
xn-1
xn
Gn=1/Rn
xn+1
h
xN+1
x

Gn=Gn+1

At node N:

(Tn+1 Tn ) + (Tn1 Tn ) = I
Rn

Rn 1

S ,n

Gn (Tn +1 Tn ) + Gn 1 (Tn 1 Tn ) = I S ,n
GTn +1 + 2GTn GTn 1 = I S ,n

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 21

Example: Self-heated resistor


> Set up conductance
matrix

> Solve
> Very appropriate for
MATLAB

> Can even generate


the conductance
matrix with MATLAB
scripts

> At edges, impose


B.Cs

0 ...
1 0
- G 2G - G ...

0 - G 2G

0
2G - G 0

- G 2G - G
0
0
0 - G 2G

0 T1
0


0 T2
1

1
0 T3

1
0 Tn 1

~
0 Tn = hAPo 1


0 Tn +1
1


2G - G 0 TN 1
1

1
- G 2G - G TN

0 0 1 TN +1
0

G = P

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 22

Eigenfunction Solution
> This is a standard method for solving linear partial differential
equations

> It leads to what amount to series expansion solutions, discretized in


reciprocal space

> Typically problems converge with only a few terms THIS IS WHY IT IS
USEFUL

2T =

P ( x)

d 2 i
Eigenfunctions of :
=
i i
2
dx
Can use any linear combination of e jkx , including s in( kx) and cos( kx)
Values of k are determined by the boundary conditions
2

Eigenfunctions can be made orthonormal


*

j i dx = ij
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 23

Eigenfunction Expansion
Ie

n ( x) = cn sin ( kn x )
sin( k n L) = 0 k n =

Apply BC at x=0, L:

T=0

n
for n = 1,2,3,...
L

1 = ( x)dx = cn2 sin 2 (k n x)dx


0

Plug into DE:

n =1

Eigenfunctions
for this problem:

Normalize:

T ( x) = An n ( x)

Assume:

2
n

L
x

2
sin(k n x)
L

d 2T
P( x)
=
2
dx

P( x)
2
kn An n ( x) =
1

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 24

Eigenfunction Expansion

2
k
n An n ( x) =
1

Multiply by
orthogonal
eigenfunction and
integrate:

~
P ( x)

2
k
n An n ( x) m ( x)dx =
0

k Am =
2
m

Am =

1
k m2

~
P ( x)

m ( x)dx

2
mx ~
sin
P ( x)dx
L L

2
mx ~
sin

P ( x)dx

L0 L
L

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 25

Eigenfunction Expansion
For uniform
power density:

~
L
P0 2
mx
Am = 2
sin
dx

k m L 0 L
~
P0 2
n
An = 3
1 ( 1)
k n L

T ( x) = An n ( x)
n =1

~
P
2
2
nx
n
T ( x) = 30
1 ( 1)
sin

L
L L
n =1 k n
~
4 L2 P0
1
nx
T ( x) = 3 3 sin

n odd n
L

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 26

The Details
Final answer: T ( x) =

Power density:

At x=L/2:

Tmax

4 Po L2

n odd

sin ( n x / L )
n3

I e2 R
I e2
=
Po =
volume e A2
2 2
4 Ie L
= 3
2
e A

1 1
1 33 + 53 +

Even if we consider only the first term in the expansion, we find


Tmax

2 2
1 Ie L
=

2
7.75 e A

2 2
1 Ie L
compared to the exact solution of
2
8 e A

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 27

Outline

> Review
> Lumped-element modeling: self-heating of resistor
> Analyzing problems in space and 1/space
The DC Steady State the Poisson equation
Finite-difference methods
Eigenfunction methods
Transient Response
Finite-difference methods
Eigenfunction methods

> Thermoelectricity

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 28

Transient Modeling

> Finite-difference method


Simply add a thermal capacitance to ground at each node of
the finite-difference network. These circuits can be analyzed
with SPICE or other circuit simulators.
n-2

IS,n - 2

Rn - 2

IS,n - 1

n-1

Rn - 1

Rn

IS,n

IS,n + 1

n+1

Rn + 1

n+2

IS,n + 2

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

C = hA mCm

Adapted from Figure 12.1 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.


Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 302.
ISBN: 9780792372462.

Node volume
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 29

Transient Modeling

> Finite-difference method


What does the matrix representation look like now?
Tn-1

Tn

Rn-1

IS,n

Rn

Tn+1

Cn

I S ,n + Gn 1 (Tn 1 Tn ) + Gn (Tn +1 Tn ) CnTn = 0


Gn 1 (Tn 1 Tn ) Gn (Tn +1 Tn ) + CnTn = I S ,n
G + CT = P
T = AT + BP
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 30

Transient Modeling (continued)

> Eigenfunction method:

T ( x, t ) = T ( x)Y (t )

Spatial response same


as before

dT
1 ~
2
D T = ~ P
dt
C sources

Use impulse response in


time to eventually get
Laplace transfer function

Use separation of
variables to separate
space and time

~
~
P ( x, t ) = Q0 ( x) (t )
Separate
variables

dT
D 2T = 0
dt

[J/m3]

t>0+

2
dY
(
t
)
d
T ( x)
T ( x)
DY (t )
=0
2
dt
dx
1 d 2T ( x)
1 dY (t )
=

=
D
2
Y (t ) dt
T ( x) dx
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 31

Transient Modeling (continued)

> Eigenfunction method:


Time response is a sum
of decaying
exponentials

Time and space are


linked via eigenvalues

1 d 2T ( x)
1 dY (t )
= =
D
2

Y (t ) dt
T ( x) dx

Y (t ) = e t
T ( x, t ) = T ( x)e t
d 2T
D 2 = T
dx
2
T ( x) = An
sin (k n x )
L
n

n
2
2
kn D = kn = =

D L

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 32

Transient Modeling (continued)

> Eigenfunction method:


Match I.C. at t=0 to get

T ( x, t ) = An
n

series coefficients

T(x,0) is related to
instantaneous heat input
and heat capacity

T ( x,0) = An
n

~
Q0
An = ~
C
An ,odd

2
sin (k n x )e nt
L
~
Q0
2
sin (k n x ) = ~
L
C

2
sin (k n x )dx

L0
~
~
Q0 2 2 Q0 2 2 L
= ~
= ~
C L k n C L n

~
4 Q0
n t
(
)
sin
k
x
e
T ( x, t ) =
~
n

n
C
n , odd
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 33

Example: Impulse Response

> Uniformly heated bar, an impulse in time


> Result is a series of decaying exponentials in time
z

Uniform internal heat generation


x

y
L

Heat flow from ends


W

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 12.3 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 308. ISBN: 9780792372462.

~
Q
T ( x, t ) = ~0
C

where

n odd n

nx nt
sin
e
L

n 2 2 D
n =
L2

lower spatial frequencies


decay slower

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 34

Using the Eigenfunction Solution


> We can go from solution to
equivalent circuit

> First, we will lump


Heat current conducted out
as output

Choose heat current


source as input P = Q0 (t )

> Then take Laplace

W H T
I Q =
0 0 x

T
dzdy
x
x =0
0 0
~
Q
8

I Q (t ) = WH e nt ~0
L n odd

C
WH

8WH
1
I Q ,n ( s) =
nL 1+ s
Y (s) =

> Then identify equivalent

1
1+ s

This is NOT unique

~
Q0
~
C

X (s)

circuit for 1st order system


X(s)

dzdy
x=L

Y(s)

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 12.4 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 310. ISBN: 9780792372462.

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 35

Using the Eigenfunction Solution


> Each term in the
eigenfunction solution has a
simple circuit representation

> This means that if the


eigenfunction solution
converges with a few terms,
the lumped circuit is very
simple
+
Q0,n(s)

Tn

Cn

Rn

IQ,n(s)

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 12.4 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 310. ISBN: 9780792372462.

~
Cn = (mode shape )(volume)C
2
~
~
nx
Cn = C sin
LHWC
dxdydz =
n
L
0 0 0
HW L

n 2 2 D
1
= n =
RnCn
L2

1
Rn =
n
Q0,n ( s ) =

L/2

WH

8WH Q0 8WHL Q0
= 2 2
n L C
n D C

8
Q0,n ( s ) = 2 2 (WHL ) Q0
n
8
Q0,n (t ) = 2 2 (WHL ) Q0 (t )
n

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 36

A Three-Mode Equivalent Circuit

> For the first three terms in the eigenfunction


expansion, we combine the three single-term circuits
appropriately
100

C3

IS,2(t)

R3

C2
IS,1(t)

10-1

R2
R1

IQ

C1

Magnitude

IS,3(t)

10-2
10-3
10-4
10-3

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 12.5 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 312. ISBN: 9780792372462.

1 Term
3 Terms
100 Terms
10-2

10-1

100

101

102

103

R1C1
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 12.6 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 313. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 37

Outline

> Review
> Lumped-element modeling: self-heating of resistor
> The DC Steady State the Poisson equation
Finite-difference methods
Eigenfunction methods

> Transient Response


Finite-difference methods
Eigenfunction methods

> Thermoelectricity

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 38

Microscale temperature measurement/control

> We have seen that a resistor can be used as


a temperature sensor and hotplate

> There are other techniques to measure or


control temperature at microscale
Couple temperature to material properties

> Sensors
TCR: temperature resistance change
Thermal bimorph: temperature deflection
Thermoelectrics: temperature induced voltage

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 39

Coupled Flows
> In an ideal world, one driving
force creates one flux

> In our world, multiple forces


create multiple fluxes

J Q = T
J e = e

Drift-diffusion in
semiconductors or
electrolytes

> In general, all the different


fluxes are coupled

> If you set it up right, the Lij

J e = z n qe Dnn qe n n
n

J i = Lij F j
j =1

matrix is reciprocal

The Onsager Relations

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 40

Quantities in the Onsager Relations


> To explain thermoelectrics,

J e = L11 L12T

we must look at coupling


between heat flow and
electric field

JQ
T

= L21 L22T

> This is written in a standard


form
Resistivity

Seebeck coefficient

= e J e + S T
J Q = J e T
Peltier coefficient

Thermal conductivity

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 41

Thermocouples
> Analyze the potential gradient around
a closed loop under the assumption
of zero current (Je=0)

> Thermocouple voltage depends on


the difference in Seebeck Coefficient
between the two materials, integrated
from one temperature to the other

> It is a BULK EFFECT, not a junction


effect

Isothermal voltmeter

Hot

S,1

S,2

a
Cold

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 11.10 in Senturia, Stephen D.
Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic
Publishers, 2001, p. 294. ISBN: 9780792372462.

= S T

Tb

Vab = S (T )dT
Ta

> It is possible to make thermocouples


by accident when using different
materials in MEMS devices in regions
that might have temperature
gradients!

Go around the loop


VTC =

TH

S ,2

S ,1 ) dT

TC

VTC = ( S ,2 S ,1 ) T
For small temp rises

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 42

MEMS Thermocouples
> Many thermocouples in series
create higher sensitivity (V/K)

> These are known as thermopiles


> In MEMS thermopiles, often use
Al/Si or Al/polySi

> Able to get good thermal


isolation of sensing element

Courtesy of Thermometrics Corporation. Used with permission.

Thermometrics commercial
Si thermopile

> Number of thermocouples is


limited by leg width

Increasing leg width decreases


thermal resistance and thus
temperature response

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 43

Conclusions

> The thermal domain is a great way to transfer energy


around
Except that you have to pay the tax

> We can model thermal problems using


Equivalent circuits via lumped element models in space
Big and small
Equivalent circuits via lumped element models in reciprocal
space

For Further Information


> Introduction to Heat Transfer, Incropera and DeWitt
> Analysis of Transport Phenomena, William Deen
> Solid-State Physics, Ashcroft and Mermim
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J. Voldman: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 13 - 44

Fluids A

Joel Voldman*
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
*(with thanks to SDS)

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 1

Outline

> Intro to microfluidics


> Basic concepts: viscosity and surface tension
> Governing equations
> Incompressible laminar flow

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 2

Microfluidics

> The manipulation and use of fluids at the microscale


> Most fluid domains are in use at the microscale
Explosive thermofluidic flows
Inkjet printheads
We will not cover this regime
High-speed gas flows
Micro-turbomachinery
We will not cover this regime
Low-speed gas flows
Squeeze-film damping
Well do a bit of this to get b for SMD
Liquid-based slow flow
This will be the focus

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.


3-D cutaway of a micromachined microengine.
Photograph by Jonathan Protz.

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 3

Microfluidics

> This has been one of the most important domains of


MEMS
Even though most microfluidics is not MEMS
And there are few commercial products

> The overall driver has been the life sciences


Though the only major commercial success is inkjets

> The initial driver was analytical chemistry


Separation of organic molecules

> More recently, this has shifted to biology


Manipulation of DNA, proteins, cells, tissues, etc.

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 4

Microfluidics examples
> H-filter
Developed by Yager and colleagues
at UWash in mid-90s

Being commercialized by Micronics

> An intrinsically microscale device


Uses diffusion in laminar flow to
separate molecules

Yager et al., Nature 2006


Courtesy of Paul Yager, Thayne Edwards, Elain Fu, Kristen Helton,
KjellNelson, Milton R. Tam, and Bernhard H. Weigl.
Used with permission.

Courtesy of Paul Yager, Thayne Edwards, Elain Fu, Kristen


Helton, KjellNelson, Milton R. Tam, and Bernhard H. Weigl.
Used with permission.
Yager, P., T. Edwards, E. Fu, K. Helton, K. Nelson,
M. R. Tam, and B. H. Weigl. "Micro fluidic Diagnostic
Technologies for Global Public Health." Nature 442
(July 27, 2006): 412-418.

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 5

Microfluidics
> Multi-layer elastomeric microfluidics
(Quake, etc.)

Use low modulus of silicone


elastomers to create hydraulic valves

Move liquids around


Use diffusivity of gas in elastomer to
enable dead-end filling

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.


Please see: Figure 3 on p. 582 in: Thorsen, T.,
S. J. Maerkl, and S. R. Quake. "Microfluidic Large-Scale
Integration." Science, New Series 298, no. 5593 (October 18,
2002): 580-584.

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Images removed due to copyright restrictions.

Fluidigm
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 6

Goals

> To design microfluidics we need to understand


What pressures are needed for given flows
How do I size my channels?
What can fluids do at these scales
What are the relevant physics?
What things get better as we scale down
Mixing times, reagent volumes
What things get worse, and how can we manage them
Surface tension

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 7

Outline

> Intro to microfluidics


> Basic concepts: viscosity and surface tension
> Governing equations
> Incompressible laminar flow

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 8

Viscosity
> When a solid experiences shear stress, it

U
h
and, in the differential limit

deforms (e.g., strains)

Shear Modulus relates the two

> When a fluid experiences shear stress, it


Viscosity relates the two

> Constitutive property describing relationship


between shear stress [Pa] and shear rate [s-1]

> Units: Pa-s

Kinematic Viscosity

* =

Water: 0.001 Pa-s


Air: 10-5 Pa-s

U x
y
A related quantity :

deforms continuously

=*

( mU x )
y

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 13.1 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer
Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 318. ISBN: 9780792372462.

[m2/s]
This is a diffusivity
for momentum

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 9

Surface Tension
> A liquid drop minimizes its free energy by minimizing its
surface area. The effective force responsible for this is
called surface tension () [J/m2 = N/m]

> The surface tension creates a differential pressure on the


two sides of a curved liquid surface

2r

(2r ) = P (r 2 )
solving for P

2
P =
r

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 13.2 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA:
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 320. ISBN: 9780792372462.

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 10

Capillary Effects

> Surface forces can

2r

actually transport
liquids

> Contact angles


determine what
happens, and these
depend on the wetting
properties of the liquid
and the solid surface.

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 13.3 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 321. ISBN: 9780792372462.

m gh (r 2 ) = 2r cos
2 cos
h=
m gr

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 11

Capillary Effects

> A hydrophobic
valve
Hydrophobic barrier

Fill
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Stop
Burst

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 12

Surface tension

> The scaling as 1/r is what makes


dealing with surface tension
HARD at the microscale

> Solutions
Prime with low-surface tension
liquids

Methanol (=22.6 mN/m) vs.


water (=72.8 mN/m)

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Or use surfactants
Use CO2 instead of air
Dissolves more readily in water
Zengerle et al., IEEE MEMS 1995, p340

Use diffusivity of gas in PDMS


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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 13

Outline

> Intro to microfluidics


> Basic concepts: viscosity and surface tension
> Governing equations
> Incompressible laminar flow

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 14

Fluid Mechanics Governing Equations

> Mass is conserved Continuity equation


> Momentum is conserved Navier-Stokes equation
> Energy is conserved Euler equation
> We consider only the first two in this lecture

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 15

Continuity equation
> Conservation of mass
> In this case, for a control or
fixed fluid volume

both S and V are constant in time

> Point conservation relation is


valid for fixed or moving point

m=

m dV

volume

d
m dV = surface
m U n dS
dt volume
m
dV + m U n dS = 0

t
volume
surface
Apply the divergence theorem:

d
bdV = F ndS + gdV
dt

n
F

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

b
= F + g
t

U
(
)
m

t
dV = 0

volume
which implies
m
+ ( m U ) = 0
t

m
+ U m + m U = 0
t

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 16

Material Derivative
> The density can change due
to three effects:

An explicit time dependence


m
(e.g. local heating)
t
Flow carrying fluid through

time

changing density regions

Divergence of the fluid


velocity

> The first two of these are

U m

grouped into the material


derivative

Rate of change for an


observer moving with the
fluid

m ( U )

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 17

Material Derivative

> The first two of these


are grouped into the
material derivative

Incompressible

m
+ U m + m U = 0
t
If we define
D m m
=
+ U m
t
Dt
or. more generally, define the operator

D
= + U
Dt t
we can write the continuity equation as
D m
+ m U = 0
Dt
If the density is uniform, then in steady state
U = 0

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 18

Momentum Conservation
> We want to write
Newtons 2nd Law for
fluids

> We start with a volume


that travels with the fluid
contains a constant
amount of mass

Material volume

dp d (mU)
=
dt
dt

d
F=
m UdVm

velocity of
dt Vm (t )
F=

surface

> Then go to an arbitrary F = d


m UdV + m U ( U U s ) n dS

dt V ( t )
control volume
S (t )
Must account for flux of
momentum through
surface

flux of mU thru surface

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 19

Momentum Conservation
> Pull time derivative into integral
> Cancel terms
> Apply divergence theorem

d
F=
m UdV + m U ( U U s ) n dS

dt V (t )
S (t )

=
m UdV + m U [ U s n ] dS + m U ( U U s ) n dS
t
V (t )
S (t )
S (t )
Leibnizs rule

m UdV + m UU ndS
=
t
V (t )
S (t )

a ndS = adV

S (t )

V (t )

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 20

Momentum Conservation

> Final result does not


depend on control volume

=
m UdV + m UUdV
t
V (t )
V (t )
m

= U
+ m U + m
+ U U dV
t

V (t )

DU
F = m
dV
Dt
V
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 21

Momentum Conservation

> Add in force terms


> Include body forces
(e.g., gravity)

Fb = m g dV
V

Fs =

s(n)dS

S (t )

> And surface forces


(i.e., stresses)

s(n) = n
Fs =

n dS

S (t )

s(n)

Fs =

dV

V (t )

DU
= mg +
m
Dt

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 22

Navier-Stokes Equations

> Substitute in for

= Pn +
= P +

stress tensor

> Compressible
Newtonian fluid
constitutive relation

> Compressible
Navier-Stokes
equations

P* = P m g r

U x
y

2 U + ( U )
3

DU

2
= P + U + ( U ) + m g
m
Dt
3
DU

= P * + 2 U + ( U )
m
Dt
3

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 23

Navier-Stokes Equations

> Terms in
compressible N-S
equations

time-dependence

pressure

compressibility

2
+ U U = P + U + ( U ) + m g
m
3
t

inertial

viscous stresses

gravity

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 24

Dimensionless Numbers
> Fluid mechanics is full of nondimensional numbers that help
classify the types of flow

> Reynolds number is most


important

> Reynolds number:


The ratio of inertial to viscous

~ ~~
~ ~ ~2~
Re U U = ( A)P + U
Non-dimensionalized
steady incompressible flow

m L0U 0 L0U 0
U0
=
=
Re =

* *

L0

effects
Ratio of convective to diffusive
momentum transport
Small Reynolds number means
neglect of inertia
Flow at low Reynolds number is
laminar

See Deen, Analysis of Transport Phenomena


Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 25

Outline

> Intro to microfluidics


> Basic concepts: viscosity and surface tension
> Governing equations
> Incompressible laminar flow

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JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 26

Incompressible Laminar Flow


> The Navier-Stokes
equation becomes very
heat-flow-equation-like,
although the presence of
DU/Dt instead of U/t
makes the equation
nonlinear, hence HARD

Navier-Stokes becomes
DU
m
= P * + 2 U
Dt
to obtain a "diffusion-like" equation:
DU
m
= 2 U P *
Dt

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 27

As aside on heat convection


> Our heat-flow equation looked like
> Compare to incompressible N-S eqn
> If we allow fluid to moveto
convectwe can include
convection in our heat conservation

> At steady state, we get a relation


that allows us to compare
convective heat transport to
conduction

> This is the Peclet number


> For microscale water flows, L~100
m, U~0.1 mm/s, D~150x10-6 m2/s

T
1 %
2
= D T + P
t
C% sources
DU
m
= 2 U P *
Dt
DT
1 %
2
= D T + P
Dt
C% sources
1 %
2
U T = D T + P
C% sources

4
4
LU (10 m )(10 m / s )
Pe =
~ 0.1
=
2

6
D
0.15 10 m
s

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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 28

Couette or Shear Flow


> Pure shear flow with a
>

The flow is one-dimensional


U = U x ( y )n x

linear velocity profile


No pressure gradient

dU

+ U U = 2 U P *

dt

> Relative velocity goes to

zero at the walls (the socalled no-slip boundary


condition)

N-S Eqns collapse to the Laplace eqn


U

W
W

2U x
=0
2
y
U x = c1 y + c2

B.C.'s: U x (0) = 0,U x (h) = U

Ux

y
Ux = U
h

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 13.4 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 327. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 29

Poiseuille Flow

> Pressure-driven flow through a pipe


In our case, two parallel plates

> Velocity profile is parabolic


> This is the most common flow in microfluidics
Assumes that h<<W
y
h
high P

low P

W
Umax

Ux

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 13.5 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 329. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 30

Solution for Poiseuille Flow


> Assume a uniform pressure
gradient along the pipe

> Assume x-velocity only


depends on y

> Enforce zero-flow boundary


conditions at walls

> Maximum velocity is at center


> Volumetric flowrate is

dP
= K
dx
2U x
K
=
2
y

1
Ux =
y ( h y ) K
2
U max

h2
=
K
8

Wh3
K
Q = W U x dy =
12
0
h

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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 31

Lumped Model for Poiseuille Flow


> Can get lumped resistor
using the fluidic convention

> Note STRONG dependence


on h

> This relation is more


complicated when the aspect
ratio is not very high

P = effort = KL
12L
Q
P =
3
Wh
12L
RPois =
Wh 3

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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 32

Development Length
> It takes a certain characteristic length, called the
development length, to establish the Poiseuille velocity
profile

> This development length corresponds to a development


time for viscous stresses to diffuse from wall

> Development length is proportional to the characteristic


length scale and to the Reynolds number, both of which
tend to be small in microfluidic devices

L
* Re

U
LD (time)U Re L

2
L
time

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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 33

A note on vorticity
> A common statement is to say
that laminar flow has no vorticity

> What is meant is that laminar flow


has no turbulence

> Vorticity and turbulence are


different

> Can the pinwheel spin?


Then there is vorticity
> Demonstrate for Poiseuille flow

1
[ y(h y )]K
Ux =
2

= U
U x
U x
= ny
nz
z
y
K
= n z
(h 2 y )
2

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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 14 - 34

Fluids - B

Joel Voldman
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 1

Outline

> Review of last time


> Poiseuille flow
> Stokes drag on a sphere
> Squeezed-film damping
> Electrolytes & Electrokinetic separations

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 2

Last time
> Surface Tension
Force at a liquid-fluid interface

U x
y

> Viscosity
Constitutive property relation

D
= + U
Dt t

shear stress to shear rate

> Material Derivative


Time derivative taking into effect
convection

> Mass continuity


> Navier-Stokes Equation
Fundamental relation for

D m
+ m U = 0
Dt

DU

2
m
= P + U + ( U ) + m g
Dt
3

Newtonian fluids

> Reynolds Number


The MOST IMPORTANT
dimensionless number

m LU
Re =

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 3

Outline

> Review of last time


> Poiseuille flow
> Stokes drag on a sphere
> Squeezed-film damping
> Electrolytes & Electrokinetic separations

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 4

Poiseuille Flow

> Pressure-driven flow through a pipe


In our case, two parallel plates

> Velocity profile is parabolic


> This is the most common flow in microfluidics
Assumes that h<<W
y
h
high P

low P

W
Umax

Ux

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 13.5 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 329. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 5

Solution for Poiseuille Flow


> Assume

Incompressible
Steady

2
m
+ U U = P + U + ( U ) + m g
3
t

Ux only depends on y
Ignore gravity

> Assume a uniform pressure


gradient along the pipe

> Result is Poissons eqn


> Boundary conditions:

dP
= K
dx
2U x
K
=
2

Relative velocity goes to zero


at the walls

no-slip boundary
condition

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 6

Solution for Poiseuille Flow


> Integrate twice to get solution
> Maximum velocity is at center
> Can get linear flowrate [m/s] and
>

volumetric flowrate [m3/s]


Can get lumped resistor using the fluidic
convention

> Note STRONG dependence on h


> This relation is more complicated when

1
Ux =
y ( h y ) K
2
U max

h2
K
=
8

Wh3
Q = W U x dy =
K
12
0
h

the aspect ratio is not very high


y
h

Umax

Ux

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 13.5 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 329. ISBN: 9780792372462.

P = effort = KL
12L
Q
P =
3
Wh
12L
RPois =
Wh 3

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 7

Development Length
> It takes a certain characteristic length, called the
development length, to establish the Poiseuille velocity
profile

> This development length corresponds to a development


time for viscous stresses to diffuse from wall

> Development length is proportional to the characteristic


length scale and to the Reynolds number, both of which
tend to be small in microfluidic devices

L
* Re

U
LD (time)U Re L

2
L
time

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 8

A note on vorticity
> A common statement is to say
that laminar flow has no vorticity

> What is meant is that laminar flow


has no turbulence

> Vorticity and turbulence are


different

> Can the pinwheel spin?


Then there is vorticity
> Demonstrate for Poiseuille flow

= U
Vorticity

1
[ y(h y )]K
Ux =
2

U x
U x
nz
= ny
z
y
K
(h 2 y )
= n z
2

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 9

Outline

> Review of last time


> Stokes drag on a sphere
> Squeezed-film damping
> Electrolytes & Electrokinetic separations

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 10

Stokes Flow
> Steady-state flow in which
inertial effects can be neglected,
Re0

> The result is a vector Poisson


equation

DU
When m
can be neglected
Dt

> Also called creeping flow


> Action is instantaneous
No mass in system
Incompressible: no springs

2 U = P *

> This is a typical approximation


made in microfluidics

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 11

Stokes drag on a sphere


> In creeping flow, one can solve for

the flow field around a sphere


placed in an initially uniform flow
field

> This can be used to find the


stresses on the sphere and sum
them to find the total drag

> This is called the Stokes drag


> This is often the predominant
particle force in microfluidic
systems

> See Deens text for derivation

Vz = U
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Fd = 6RU

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 12

Stokes drag on a sphere


> This is strictly valid ONLY in a uniform
flow

> These are hard to make


> Instead, we can use Ux(y) of the
parabolic flow profile to calculate a
height-dependent drag force

> This approach fails when the particle is


too big

> Instead, take advantage of published


solutions

Shear flow: Goldman et al., Chem. Eng.


Sci. 22, 653 (1967).

U ( y)

Poiseuille flow: Ganatos et al. J. Fluid


Mech. 99, 755 (1980).

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 13

Outline

> Review of last time


> Stokes drag on a sphere
> Squeezed-film damping
> Electrolytes & Electrokinetic separations

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 14

Squeezed-Film Damping
> This is how we will get our b (or R) for the parallel-plate actuator
> The result of motion against a fluid boundary
If the fluid is incompressible, there can be a large pressure rise, so

large back forces result


If the fluid is compressible, it takes finite motion to create a
pressure rise

> In either case, the dissipation due to viscous flow provides a


damping mechanism for the motion

> This is related to lubrication theory


F
Moveable
h(t)
Fixed
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 13.6 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 333. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 15

The Reynolds Equation


> Assumptions for compressible
isothermal squeezed-film
damping

One-dimensional pressure

gradient: P(r,t) = P(y,t) only


No pressure gradient in z or
along plate (x)
Stokes flow
Poiseuille flow profile in the plane
Ideal gas law
Isothermal (temperature rise due
to compression is small, and heat
flow to the walls is rapid)
No-slip BCs
Rigid plate: h(r,t) = h(t) only

> The result is a version of the

( Ph) h3 1 2 2
=
P
t
12 2

z
y
x

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 13.7 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 334. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Reynolds equation
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 16

Example: Rigid Plate Damping


> Now, assume small motions
Linearize

> The result is (guess what!) the


heat-flow equation

( Ph) h3 1 2 2
=
P
t
12 2

If we linearize:
h = h0 + h P = Po + P

z
y
x

Normalize: =

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 13.7 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 334. ISBN: 9780792372462.

y
W

p =

P
Po

h02 Po 2 p h
p
=

2
2
ho
t 12W

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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 17

Suddenly Applied Motion


> We already solved a very
similar problem

Impulse of heat into 1-D


resistor

96 LW 3
F ( s) =
4 3
ho

n =

> Now we have a velocity


impulse: sudden change of
height

1 1
sz ( s )

4
s
n odd n
1+
n
2 2

n ho Po
= n
2
12W
n=1

96 LW 3
b=
4 ho3

> We get a series of 1st-order


terms, as before

2 ho2 Po
c =
12W 2

> Only need 1st term, which


is an RC circuit

> R for viscous damping


> C for gas compressibility
> Details are in the book

R=b

C=

1
bc

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 13.8 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 337. ISBN: 9780792372462.
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 18

Outline

> Review of last time


> Stokes drag on a sphere
> Squeezed-film damping
> Electrolytes & Electrokinetic separations

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 19

Electrokinetic Phenomena
> It is a coupled-domain problem in which electrostatic forces
result in fluid flow (and vice versa)

> Start with electrolytes, move into double layer, and finally show
how to manipulate the double layer

> It is the driver behind ALOT of early micro-TAS work

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 20

Electrolytes
> Electrolytes: liquids with
mobile ions

Ion mobility (cm2/V-s)

zi
Ni =
ui Ci E Di Ci
zi
Flux (cm-2-s-1)

Examples: water, PBS

> Ions can move via


concentration gradients
(diffusion) or electric fields
(drift)

> Macroscopically, the liquid is


approximately charge-neutral
(called quasineutrality)

Valence

Diffusivity (cm2/s)

Concentration (cm-3)

e = zi qeCi 0 in the bulk


i

In neutral regions: 2 =

=0

N + = u+ C+ E D+ C+
For a binary electrolyte
(e.g., NaCl in water)

N = uC E DC

e = qe (C+ C ) 0

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 21

Electrolytes
> Surfaces with fixed
charge can lead to net
space charge in the
liquid

> Diffusion competes


with drift, and at
equilibrium, Boltzmann
distribution follows

> This leads to the


Poisson-Boltzmann
equation

Glass
OOOOOO-

Glass
OOOOOO-

+ -+ -+
+ + + + + + -+ -+
+ - + +
+ + +
C+ C-

+ +
+ + - + +
+ +
+ +
+ + + + - + + + +
C+
C-

Ni =

zi
ui Ci E Di Ci = 0 at equilibrium
zi

Ci ( x ) = Ci ,o e

Near the wall: 2 = e

zi qe ( ( x ) o )
k BT

2 =

zqC

i e

i ,o

zi qe ( o )
k BT

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 22

Diffuse Double Layer


Express in terms of = 0 :

2 =

zqC

i e

i ,o

zi qe
k BT

Expand for small potential variations

2
q

2
e
zi qeCi ,o +
z
C

i
i ,o

i
k BT i

Assuming the reference region is charge neutral


1
2 = 2
For binary
LD
monovalent
/
z
L

electrolyte
= e D
2

LD

Debye
Length

(e.g., NaCl)

2qe2Ci ,o
qe2
1

2
=
z C = k T
k BT i i i ,o
LD
B
LD=1 nm for
LD ~ 1
Ci ,o 0.1 M NaCl

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 23

Double-layer charge

> We can calculate the total charge in the double layer


> It must balance the charge at the wall

Near the wall:

= w e

z
LD

T he charge density is

=
e = 2

LD
2

Total charge per unit area


LD

in diffuse layer

d = e dz =
0

DL charge/area
[C/cm2]

w
LD

w LD L

e
=

= w

wall charge/area
[C/cm2]

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 24

Actual Double Layers


> The actual situation is MUCH more complicated
> Some ions are tightly or specifically adsorbed, forming the Stern layer
and screening the wall charge

> The rest distribute in a diffuse double-layer: the Gouy-Chapman layer


> This is an active area of research
Stern layer
(up to ~0.2 nm)

Gouy-Chapman layer
(~1-20 nm)

Potential

Shear boundary

Zeta potential

0
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Phase
boundary
(Nernst)
potential
GouyChapman (up to several
potential hundred mV)

Distance from interface

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 25

Electroosmotic Flow

> An axial electric field exerts a


force on the charge in the
diffuse double layer, which
drags the fluid down the pipe
Insulating solid

Electric field

Electrolyte

Net charge in diffuse layer

Insulating solid
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 13.11 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 343. ISBN: 9780792372462.

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 26

Analysis of Electroosmotic Flow


> Assume

Creeping flow
One dimensional flow Ux(z)
No pressure drop
Electrical body force

2U x = e Ex

> Express charge density in


terms of wall surface charge
density

e =

> Set up differential equation


=
z

d Ux
w LD
e
=
2

dz
LD
2

LD

w
LD

z
LD

Ex

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 27

Analysis of Electroosmotic Flow


> This leads to a PLUG-FLOW
profile
~3LD

d 2U x w LzD
=
e Ex
2

dz
LD

Integrate twice, and use boundary conditions:


Ux ( z = ) = 0

Ux(z)

dU x
dz

( ) =

w LD L
L
Ux =
e e

z
z

w LD L
( z ) =
e

=0
h/2

Ex

Plug flow
Ux

~3LD
U0

Ux =

Ex

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 13.12 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 344. ISBN: 9780792372462.

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 28

Analysis of Electroosmotic Flow


> This leads to a PLUG-FLOW
profile

> Flow depends on zeta


potential

The potential at the slip


plane

Which is in a different place


than the wall, the Stern layer,
or LD

It is what is measured

Ux =

Ex

w LD L

U0 =
e Ex =
E

x
D

for z > 3LD

experimentally

For h>>LD, one typically


assumes

=0
w =
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 29

Electrophoresis
> This is just electroosmosis
around a solid surface

> Each ionic species has its own


mobility


U ep =

E x = epE x

> Therefore, in an electrolyte in


which there is a net electric field,
ions will drift at various rates

> This is the basis of a separation


technology called electrophoretic
separation

For a
large
particle

More
generally

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 30

Electrokinetic separation
> This was THE original driver for micro-TAS
TAS = total analysis systems

> Create fully integrated microsystems that would


go from sample to answer

> The KEY enabler was the integration of nonmechanical valves with the separation column

This creates extremely narrow sample plugs

> Also important is the ability to multiplex

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

> The actual sample prep was (and is) usually


ignored

> This is/was the raison dtre of Caliper & Aclara


> Aclara died, unclear if Caliper will succeed
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 31

Electrokinetic separation
> We use a channel-crossing
structure to select a sample
plug

> Then we switch voltages to


drag the plug down a
separation column

> In one approach, EO and EP co-

Ls
EO
EP,1
EP,2

exist, but EO dominates

> Different species travel at


different rates separation

Ls = t sep EP ,1 EP , 2 E x
Separation time
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 32

Schematic Illustration
> The key discovery was that
liquid samples could be
controlled with voltages

V1 (+)

VJ

Injection

V3 > VJ

> This allows one to valve

V4 > VJ
V2 = 0

and pump liquids

V1 < VJ

Create small sample plugs

Injected sample plug

V3 (+)

V4 = 0

U0
V2 < VJ
V1 < VJ

V3 (+)

ORNL movie

Slower component

U0
V2 < VJ

U0

V4 = 0

Faster component

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 33

Electrokinetic separation
> The macro technology is
conventional capillary
electrophoresis

Most notably used in the


human genome project

Ls

> Sample loading is the problem


> To separate two species
(ignoring diffusion), we need

> Smaller starting W means we

Ls W

can use a shorter channel

> And get a faster separation

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 34

Electrokinetic separation

> Conventional capillaries

Richard Mathies (UCB)

have larger W because


injection is not integrated
Though this is always
getting better

> This thus requires a


longer channel

> Microfab also allows for


integration

Courtesy of Richard A. Mathies. Used with permission.

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 35

An aside on electrodes

> Current in the electrolyte is carried by ions


> Current in the wire is carried by electrons
> At the surface, something must happen to transfer
this current

> This is electrochemistry and the typical byproduct are


gases bubbles

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 36

Electrokinetics

> That is just the beginning


> Dielectrophoresis
Force on dipoles in non-uniform electric fields
Can use AC fields
Can hold things in place

> Other phenomena


Electrohydrodynamics
Electrowetting
Induced-charge electrophoresis/electroosmosis

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 37

Comparing EOF & pressure-driven flow

> If you are designing a chip that needs to move liquids


around, which method is best?

> Issues to consider

Flowrate scaling
Liquid composition
System partitioning
Materials
Species Transport

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 38

Comparing EOF & pressure-driven flow

> Flowrate
Water in rectangular SiO2 channel
h varies, W=1000 m, L=2 cm, =800, =50 mV
Drive with Ex=100 V/cm, P=5 psi

Ex

hW
Q = U 0 hW =
Ex

U0 =

Wh3
P
Q=
12 L
Q
h2
P
U0 = =
A 12 L

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 39

Comparing EOF & pressure-driven flow

> Scaling
Pressure-driven flow
2

larger in large channels

10

Due to cubic

10

dependence of flow
resistance

-2

channels

Q (l/s)

EO flow larger in small

10

EO

-4

10

> Both scale equivalently


with channel length
Larger L requires more
voltage and higher
pressure to get same flow

-6

10

Poiseuille

-8

10 -6
10

-5

-4

10

10

-3

10

h (m)

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 40

Comparing EOF & pressure-driven flow


> Other issues typically matter more
> Valving
EOF has built-in valving using E-fields
Poiseuille needs mechanical valves

> Liquid limitations


Poiseuille flow can pump any liquid
EOF ionic strength limits
Debye length depends on 1/C0
Increasing ionic strength decreases LD and thus

EOF
Typically use ~10-100 mM salt buffer
EOF pH limits
pH affects wall charge affects EOF
Typically use pH ~7 buffers

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 41

Comparing EOF & pressure-driven flow


> Materials issues
Poiseuille flow can use any material
EOF requires defined (and stable) surface charge
Best is silica (or at least glass)
Polymers are more difficult
Surface charge can change as molecules
adsorb, etc.

> System partitioning


Both approaches involve off-chip components
Electrodes for EOF
Pumps for Poiseuille flow
Integrating complete lab-on-a-chip usually BAD idea
EOF: Easier to use external electronics
Poiseuille: Pumps hard to make on-chip
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 42

Comparing EOF & pressure-driven flow

> Transport limitations


EOF
Will separate molecules as they are convected
downstream

Species in flow must tolerate E-fields (DNA/proteins


OK, cells not so good)

Plugs remain plugs


Poiseuille flow
Will not separate molecules
Objects in flow must tolerate shear/pressure
(DNA/proteins OK, cells OK depending on
shear/pressure)

Will distort plugs

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 43

Whats next

> We will discuss the behavior of the stuff in the liquids


> How to manipulate that stuff at the microscale
> And then we head into system-level issues
Feedback, Noise, etc.

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 15 - 44

Mass Transport in liquids

Joel Voldman
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 1

Outline

> Chemical potential


> Species conservation including convection
> H-filter design & eigenfunction expansion
> Taylor dispersion, the microfluidicists enemy
> Mixing

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 2

Chemical potential

> It comes from


thermodynamics

> Chemical potential


gradients are the driving
force for the movement of
molecules

> It is the electron Fermi level

T ,V

For an ideal solution:

i ( x) = i0 + k BT ln

ci ( x)
ci0

in semiconductors

> At equilibrium, there are no


gradients in

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 3

Chemical potential
> We can derive Ficks first law
from the chemical potential

> First, note that there are two


concentration units

> Relate flux to velocity


> Then relate the velocity to a
force f, using a mobility M

> Then the force to a potential


(P ) gradient
[m2/V-s]

U = n E =
[m/s]

[V/m]

ci = N ACi
# # mol
m 3 = mol m 3

J i = ciU i = N ACiU i
U i = Mf = M

P
x

[s/kg]

n
qe

( qe E ) =

n
qe

( qe )

[N]

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 4

Chemical potential

> Finally, find flux due to a


chemical potential
gradient

> Can relate diffusivity to


mobility
D
k BT =
M
Einstein Relation

i ( x) = i0 + k BT ln

ci ( x)
ci0

i
c ( x)
= ci Mk BT ln i 0
x
x
ci

J i = ci Mk BT ( ln ci ( x ) ln ci0 )
x

J i = Mk BTci ( ln ci ( x ) )
x
1 ci
J i = Mk BTci
ci x
J i = ci M

ci
ci
= D
J i = Mk BT
x
x
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 5

Outline

> Chemical potential


> Species conservation including convection
> H-filter design & eigenfunction expansion
> Taylor dispersion, the microfluidicists enemy
> Mixing

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 6

Species conservation equation


> One more conservation
equation
V

d
bdV = F ndS + gdV

dt

> Flux now includes


convection and diffusion

> Incompressible flow

b
= F + g
t

n
F

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

ci
= J i + RVi
t
convection

J i = Di ci + ci U i
diffusion

ci
= ( Di ci + ci U i ) + RVi
t

ci
= Di 2 ci ci U i U i ci + RVi
t
ci
+ U i ci = Di 2 ci + RVi
t
Dci
= Di 2 ci + RVi
Dt
Convection-Diffusion Equation

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 7

Convective term
> We have seen this equation
before

> We can compare the convective


to diffusive flux terms, and get a
Peclet number again

Now for diffusive vs. convective


mass transport

> For BSA (66 kDA) in microscale


flows, L~100 m, U~1 mm/s,
D~7x10-11 m2/s

> Convection is important because


times
molecular diffusivity is
slower than heat diffusivity and
105 times slower than momentum
diffusivity
107

ci
+ U i ci = Di 2 ci + RVi
t
c
convection U i ci U L LU
~
~
~
2
c
diffusion
Di ci D 2
D
L

)(

LU 10 4 m 10 3 m / s
3
Pe =
=
~
10
11 m 2
D
7 10
s

Dheat
~10-4 m2/s for water
Dmomentum~10-6 m2/s for water
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 8

Diffusivities
> How can we get diffusivities for
different objects?

> Use mobility due to Stokes drag


> Result is Stokes-Einstein
relation

> Larger particles have smaller


diffusivity

> Often used to get an effective

Ui
k BT
D = Mk BT =
f
Ui
1
=
f = 6RU i
f
6R
D = Mk BT =

k BT
6R

R=45 nm
Rh=44.8 nm

radius (Rh) for a species


Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 9

Outline

> Chemical potential


> Species conservation including convection
> H-filter design & eigenfunction expansion
> Taylor dispersion, the microfluidicists enemy
> Mixing

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 10

H-filter

> What are the minimum


diffusivity differences that
we can separate?

> How to choose channel


width, length, flowrate

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Courtesy of Paul Yager, Thayne Edwards, Elain Fu, Kristen Helton,


Kjell Nelson, Milton R. Tam, and Bernhard H. Weigl.
Used with permission. Please see:
Yager, P., T. Edwards, E. Fu, K. Helton, K. Nelson, M. R. Tam,
and B. H. Weigl. "Microfluidic Diagnostic Technologies for Global
Public Health." Nature 442 (July 27, 2006): 412-418.

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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 11

H-filter

> First, lets try a quick and


dirty diffusion calculation

> Assume 1-D diffusion


across width of channel

> Ignore convection effects


along length of channel

> No generation terms


> Result suggests that
separation will go as D

ci
+ U i ci = Di 2 ci + RVi
t

ci
2 ci
= Di 2
t
x
ci
ci
~ Di 2

~ Di

~ Di

L
U

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 12

H-filter

> Can we do better?


> Yes, using eigenfunction
analysis

> Assumptions
Ignore convection
No generation
No concentration gradients
along channel height or
length

ci
+ U i ci = Di 2 ci + RVi
t
ci
= Di 2 ci
t
c
2c
=D
t
x 2

1-D diffusion
L

One dilute component in


solvent

h
W

y
x

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 13

H-filter

> Initial condition


Solute initially fills part of
channel

> Boundary condition


No solute flux through walls

Initial condition:

c0
x
0

c0 for 0 < x < d


c( x,0) =
0 for d < x < W
Boundary condition:

c
x

= 0 for all t
x = 0 ,W

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 14

H-filter
> First, separate variables
> Time response is exponential
> Spatial eigenfunctions are

Y
= Y Y = e t
t

sinusoids

d 2C
D 2 = C
dx

> Must include DC term in series

2
2

C ( x) = a0 + An
sin kn x + Bn
cos kn x
W
W
n =1

c
2c
=D 2
t
x
c( x, t ) = C ( x)Y (t )

kn2 =

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 15

H-filter
> Sine does not meet BCs
c
x

> Cosine does

x =0

dC
=
dx

=0
x =0

2
2
0 = An kn
cos kn 0 Bn kn
sin kn 0
W
W
n =1

An = 0

2
2

sin kn x + Bn
cos kn x
C ( x) = a0 + An
W
W
n =1

c
x

x =W

dC
=
dx

0 = Bn kn
n =1

n
kn =
W

=0
x =W

2
sin knW
W

for n = 1, 2,3,

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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 16

H-filter
> Finally, use eigenfunction expansion to
meet initial concentration profile

c( x, t ) = a0 + Bn
n =1

2
cos kn x e nt
W
t=0

c( x, 0) = a0 + Bn
n =1

c0 for 0 < x < d


2
cos kn x =
W
0 for d < x < W
multiply both sides by eigenfctn & integrate

2
2
2
2
=
+
c
x
k
xdx
a
k
xdx
B
k
x
(
,
0)
cos
cos
cos
cos km xdx

0
m
m
n
n
0

W
W
W
W
n =1 0
0

extract coefficient
W

Bn = c( x, 0)
0

2
cos ( kn x ) dx
W

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 17

H-filter
> Get coefficients and

Bn = c( x, 0)

DC term

2
cos ( kn x ) dx
W

d
W

2
Bn =
c0 cos ( kn x ) dx + 0 cos ( kn x ) dx
W 0
d

d
2 c0
Bn =
sin ( kn x ) 0
W kn

Bn =

2 c0
sin ( kn d )
W kn

for n = 1, 2,3,...

cd
1
a0 = c( x, 0)dx = 0
W 0
W
W

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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 18

H-filter
> Can plot time evolution
for d=W/2

> Lowest-order mode


(n=1) is dominant

2c0 nd nx nt c0 d
sin
cos
e +
W
W W
n =1 n

c ( x, t ) =

n
n = D
W

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 19

H-filter

> What wed like to


know is how
separation scales
with D, t, etc.

cout

> We can determine the


concentration of
solute in output
channel

> Solve for case of


d=W/2

1
c( x, t )dx
=

W d d

cout

2
=
W

W /2

2c0
n
sin
2
n =1 n

c ( x, t ) =

c( x, t )dx

n x nt c0
cos

e +
2

n +1
2c0
n x nt c0
2
1
cos

c ( x, t ) =
( )

e +
2
W
n odd n

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 20

H-filter
> Only focus on 1st mode
Simplifies math
Is dominant mode

c ( x, t )

> First mode has error at

x
cos e

2c0


Dt
W

c0
2


2c

Dt
x
c

0
0

+
cout =
e
dx
cos

t=0

W W /2
2
W

Need other terms to meet


2
I.C.
W

Dt
c
W
x

2 2c0W

cout = 2 sin e W + 0
W
4
W W
2

cout


2 2c0W W
=
e
2
W

cout

Dt


c0
8 W
= 1 2 e
2

c0W

+
4

Dt

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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 21

H-filter
> Can also look at all modes
at short time

> Result is that increases as


Dt for short times

2c0
n
sin
2
n =1 n

c ( x, t ) =

n x nt c0
cos

e +
2

Take average over

output channel

cout =

c0 4c0
2
2

1 n t
e

2
n odd n

?
cout

Dt
1.1
W2

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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 22

H-filter design implications

> Since cout scales with both D and t, cout,1/cout,2 will be


independent of time at short times

> If D1>>D2, then increasing time and decreasing W

cout

0.3
helps
Minimum W is set by
0.25
Pressure drop increases 0.2
Clogging and bubbles

1st mode

0.15

Dt approx

0.1
0.05

0
0

Complete solution

0.5

1
time

1.5

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 23

Outline

> Chemical potential


> Species conservation including convection
> H-filter design & eigenfunction expansion
> Taylor dispersion, the microfluidicists enemy
> Mixing

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 24

Taylor dispersion
> Was ignoring convection OK?
Not really

> One can solve the 1-D


convection-diffusion problem

> This is called Taylor Dispersion


Axial convection + transverse
diffusion

> The result is that the plug


spreads out faster than from
simple diffusion

> The apparent diffusivity is K


> EOF does NOT suffer from
Taylor dispersion

Uniform flow field

Pe 2
U 2h2

= Di 1 +
K i = Di +
210 Di
210
Parallel-plate flow channel

U 2h2 h
K i = Di +
f
210 Di W
Rectangular flow channel

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 25

Taylor dispersion
> Can determine Ki for

8.5hW
h W
f
2
2
W h h + 2.4hW + W

rectangular channels

> As h/W0, f(h/W) ~7.95


NOT 1

Because of 2-D profile at

10

wall

> But this means a smaller


channel cross-section
and higher U, therefore
possibly more dispersion

Chatwin solution
Approximate model
Two-dimensional result
Isotropic etch profile
Double etch profile

9
8

> This implies that for a

f (h/W)

given h, bigger h/W is


better area small

Approximation

6
5
4

Exact solution

3
2
Parallel plate sol'n

1
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

h/W
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 26

Convection, diffusion, and mixing


> We can use convection for good as well as evil
> At steady state, fluid mixing time turns into distance
> Short distances from inlet, two fluids appear not to mix

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 27

Outline

> Chemical potential


> Species conservation including convection
> H-filter design & eigenfunction expansion
> Taylor dispersion, the microfluidicists enemy
> Mixing

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 28

Mixing
> Mixing is driven by diffusion
> Macroscale mixing uses
turbulence (e.g., stirring) to
reduce length for diffusive mixing

> In liquid microfluidics, there is no


turbulence to decrease mixing
lengths

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.


Cover of Science 285, no. 5425 (July 2, 1999): 1-156.

THEREFORE,

> Microfluidic mixing is EASY


> Microfluidic mixing is HARD
> Mixing length scales with Pe
W2
L ~U
~ Pe W
D

2.5 s for a 50 m channel ( D = 10 -5 cm 2 /s)


40 s for a 200 m channel ( D = 10-5 cm 2 /s)

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 29

Mixing
> How does one define mixing?
> No universal definition
> One definition:
When concentration profile is

cmax = c(0, t ) c(W , t )

uniform to within 1% (or 5%)

> For our rectangular channel,


concentration difference is
biggest between x=0 and x=W

2c
nd nx nt c0 d
c( x, t ) = 0 sin
cos
e +

n
W
W
W

n =1

2c0 nd
n
t
=
sin
1 ( 1) e n
W
n =1 n

4c0 nd nt
sin
e

W
n odd n

d
sin e

W
cmax
= 0.01
d
c0
W
W 2 1 400 W
d
2 ln
=
sin
W
d
D

cmax

Tmix


Dt
W

4c0

n
n = D
W
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 30

Mixing

2
Tmix
relative
to W
mixing
time relative
to h2/D
/D

> Mixing time scales as expected for semi-infinite diffusion


Tmix

W 2 1 400 W
d
2 ln
=
sin
W
d
D

Tmix

W 2

0.5
D

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

d/W
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 31

Mixing
> At the microscale various
approaches exist for
reducing diffusion lengths

Depends on how fast you


need to mix

> Approaches trade off


fabrication complexity,
generality, mixing time, etc.

> All find ways to laminate


two fluids

Figure 2 on p. 249 in Miyake, R., T. S. J. Lammerink, M. Elwenspoek, and J. H. J.


Fluitman. "Micro-Mixer with Fast Diffusion." In Micro Electro Mechanical Systems,
1993, MEMS '93: An Investigation of Micro Structures, Sensors, Actuators,
Machines and Systems, February 7-10, 1993. New York, NY: Institute of Electrical
and Electronics Engineers, 1993, pp. 248-253. ISBN: 9780780309579. 1993 IEEE.

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 32

Mixing
> 3-D split and recombine
lamination

> Complicated fab


> Typical of early designs
that focused on Si

Figure 1 on p. 442 in Branebjerg, J., P. Gravesen, J. P. Krog, and C. R. Nielsen, C.R. "Fast Mixing by Lamination."
In Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, 1996, MEMS '96: An Investigation of Micro Structures, Sensors, Actuators,
Machines and Systems, February 11-15, 1996. New York, NY: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,
1996, pp. 441-446. ISBN: 9780780329850. 1996 IEEE.

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 33

Mixing
> Laminate in one level of
channels by moving complexity
from fab to packaging

Images removed due to copyright restrictions.


Figures 2 and 4 on pp. 266-267 in Jackman, R. J., T. M. Floyd, R. Ghodssi, M. A. Schmidt, and K. F. Jensen.
"Microfluidic Systems with On-line UV Detection Fabricated in Photodefinable Epoxy."
Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering 11, no. 3 (May 2001): 263-269.

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 34

Passive chaotic micromixer


> Fairly simple to make
pw

> Uses simple pressure-

driven flow

pw
m

x
d

c u

}
}

u c

> Anisotropic boundary


induces anisotropic
flow

> Stroock et al., Science


295(2002):647

w
h

2/q

B
z

0 Cycles:

1/2 Cycle:
x

1 Cycle:
x

100 m

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare. Adapted from Figure 2 on p. 648 in Stroock, A. D., S. K. W. Dertinger,
A. Ajdari, I. Mezic, H. A. Stone, and G. M. Whitesides. "Chaotic Mixer for Microchannels." Science
New Series, 295, no. 5555 (January 25, 2002): 647-651.
'

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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 35

Passive chaotic micromixer

> Mixing length

A
y = 3 cm

scales with ln(Pe)


Rather than Pe in
pure diffusive
mixing

Cycles 1-5:

0.2 cm

1.9

y = 3 cm

y90 (cm)

100 m

1.7
1.5
1.3
1.1
0.9
0.7
0.5

200 m

10

11

12

13

Cycle 15:

14

In(Pe)

Images by MIT OpenCourseWare. Adapted from Figure 3 on p. 649 in Stroock, A. D., S. K. W. Dertinger, A. Ajdari, I. Mezic, H. A. Stone, and
G. M. Whitesides. "Chaotic Mixer for Microchannels." Science New Series, 295, no. 5555 (January 25, 2002): 647-651.

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 36

More info
> Microfluidic flow
Viscous fluid flow, F. White
Low Reynolds Number Hydrodynamic, Happel & Brenner
Gravesen et al., Microfluidics, A Review, JMME 3(1993) 168
Includes lumped resistances for turns, constrictions, etc.
Life at Low Reynolds Number, E.M. Purcell
http://brodylab.eng.uci.edu/%7Ejpbrody/reynolds/lowpurcell.html

Stone et al., Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 36(2004) 381.

> Transport
Analysis of Transport Phenomena, W. Deen
Transport Phenomena, Bird, Stewart & Lightfoot

> Taylor Dispersion


Dutta & Leighton, Anal. Chem., 73(2001), 504
Chatwin & Sullivan, J. Fluid Mech., 120(1982), 347
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 16 - 37

Feedback

Joel Voldman*
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
*(with thanks to SDS)
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007.
MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 1

Outline

> Motivation for using feedback


> The uses of (linear) feedback
> Feedback on Nonlinear Systems
Quasi-static systems
Oscillators

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007.
MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 2

Why use feedback?

> For actuators, how do you


know when you have
actuated?
You can calibrate/calculate/etc.,

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

but what about drifts?

> Adding a sensor can tell you


where you are

> Combining the sensor +


actuator with feedback can
keep you where you are

An optical attenuator
that uses
MEMS actuator
Senses optical output
Uses feedback to
control attenuation

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007.
MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 3

Why use feedback?

> For sensors, feedback can


be used to enhance sensor
response
E.g., keep sensitivity constant

> Must add an actuator to do


this

An accelerometer that
uses
MEMS tunneling sensor
Electrostatic actuation
Uses feedback to control
tunneling current (and
thus gap)

Figure 1 on p. 426 in: Liu, C.-H., and T. W. Kenny. "A High-precision,


Wide-bandwidth, Micromachined Tunneling Accelerometer." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 10, no. 3 (September 2001): 425-433.
2001 IEEE.

Figure 3a) on p. 426 in: Liu, C.-H., and T. W. Kenny. "A High-precision,
Wide-bandwidth, Micromachined Tunneling Accelerometer." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 10, no. 3 (September 2001): 425-433.
2001 IEEE.

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MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 4

Feedback in MEMS

> Since MEMS is often concerned with making sensors


for measurements or actuators to do something,
feedback is integral to the subject

> Here we will examine some of the basic uses of


feedback
Limit sensitivity to variations
Speed up system
Stabilize unstable systems

> At the end, we will look at feedback in nonlinear


systems, which is useful for making oscillators
Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007.
MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 5

Outline

> Motivation for using feedback


> The uses of (linear) feedback
> Feedback on Nonlinear Systems
Quasi-static systems
Oscillators

Cite as: Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007.
MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 6

Example: A MEMS hotplate


> Used for gas sensor

Membrane
low-stress SiNx, 2x 500 nm

> Heat up active material, which


reacts with gas and changes
resistance

Heater coil, bond pad


TiN/Ti, 200/10 nm

Wet SiO2

1 mm

Si wafer

> Thermal MEMS is used because


Low power
Fast
Arrayable

0.33 mm
330 m
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Image removed due to


copyright restrictions.

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 7

The Canonical Feedback System


> In controls, terminology refers to the plant, the controller, the
state sensor, and the comparison point
1
Set point

+
_

Error

Sum

K(s)

Control

Actual Output

H(s)
Plant

Controller
Sensed output

1
Output

M(s)
Sensor

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 15.1 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 397. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Example: micro hotplate


1
Set point
temp

+
_
Sum

Heater resistor

External amp
Error

K(s)

Voltage

Controller
Measured temperature

Temperature

H(s)

1
Output

Plant
M(s)
Sense resistor

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 15.1 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 397. ISBN: 9780792372462.
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 8

Adding Noise and Disturbances


> Noise corrupts the sensor output
> Disturbances modify the control input to the plant
> In some cases, what we want to measure is the disturbance (a
feedback-controlled accelerometer)
Convection
Disturbance 2

+
_

Error

Set point
Sensed output
temp
(noisy)

K(s)
Controller

Voltage

M(s)
Sense resistor

+
+

Hotplate
Disturbed resistor
control
H(s)

Actual
output

Plant

+
_

1
Output

Temperature

3
Johnson noise

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 15.2 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 398. ISBN: 9780792372462.

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 9

Linear Feedback: Blacks Formula


> For a LTI system, we can use Laplace transforms to create an
algebraic closed-loop transfer function

Assume sensor has (perfect) unity transfer function


X in ( s ) X out ( s )
X in (s ) 1
Set point

+
_

Error

K ( s ) [ X in ( s ) X out ( s )]

K(s)
1

H(s)
1

Control

X out ( s ) = H ( s ) Feedback
K ( s ) [XPath
in ( s ) X out ( s ) ]

X out ( s ) =

H ( s) K ( s)
X in ( s )
1 + H (s) K (s)

Blacks formula

1
Output

X out (s )

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 15.3 in Senturia, Stephen D.
Microsystem Design. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic
Publishers, 2001, p. 399. ISBN: 9780792372462.

X out ( s ) forward gain


=
X in ( s ) 1 loop gain

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 10

Open-Loop Operation
> Control hot plate via calibration

Remember

Assume hotplate has 1st-order response

with s0~400 rad/s (f0~65 Hz)

IQ

Assume controller has no dynamics


As
H ( s) = 0 0
K (s) = K0
s + s0
or drifts in system
Any deviations cause steady-state error
Troom

Tset
Tcal

RT
T
=
=
I Q 1 + RT CT s 1

RT CT

RT CT

+s

+
-

RT

RT 1

> Works great if there are no disturbances


>

CT

K(s)

H(s)

Thotplate
+

Thotplate = Troom + H ( s ) K ( s )(Tset Tcal )


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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 11

Open-Loop Operation

> Response is sensitive to variations in controller,


plant, and disturbances
Troom=23 C, K0=1.2

40

A0=1
Tcal=23 C

Troom=25 C, K0=1

38

Troom=23 C, K0=1

36

Temp (C)

34
32
30
28

Tset=37 C

26
24
22
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

tim e (s)

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 12

Feedback use #1: limit sensitivity to variations


Troom

> Add in term


proportional T
set
to error

> This is called


proportional
control

+
K(s)

H(s)

Thotplate
+

HK
1
Tset +
Troom
1 + HK
1 + HK
A0 s0
K0
s + s0
1
=
Tset +
Troom
A0 s0
A0 s0
K0
K0
1+
1+
s + s0
s + s0

Thotplate =

Closed-loop TF Thotplate =

A0 K 0 s0
s + s0
Tset +
Troom
s + s0 (1 + A0 K 0 )
s + s0 (1 + A0 K 0 )

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 13

Close the loop

> Error 0 as K0 increases,


despite
Variations in device (A0)
Variations in plant (K0)
Disturbances (Troom)

Open-loop

40

Set-point

38

Temp (C)

36

> In limit of large K0, system


responds perfectly
Though DC error never goes
exactly to zero

42

K0=10

34
32

K0=1

30
28

Heater A0=1.2
Troom=25 C

26
24
0

0.05

0.1
tim e (s)

0.15

Tset=37 C

Steady-state (DC) Error

( s ) s =0 = Tset Thotplate =

0.2

1
1
Tset
Troom
1 + A0 K 0
1 + A0 K 0

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 14

Feedback use #2: increase system bandwidth


42

> Settling time goes down

Thotplate
Tset

A0 K 0 s0
= H cl ( s )
s + s0 (1 + A0 K 0 )

36
Temp (C)

A0 s0
s + s0

K0=10

34
32

K0=1

30
28

Heater A0=1.2
Troom=25

26
24
0

s0 s0 (1 + A0 K 0 )

Set-point

38

> Bandwidth goes up


H ( s) =

Open-loop

40

0.05

0.1
tim e (s)

0.15

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 15

0.2

Controlling a 2nd-order system


> Vibration sensor
Really just an z-axis accelerometer

> Use feedback to keep gap constant


> In this case, control signal
measures vibration

> Mechanical plant is a SMD

Figure 4 on p. 435 in: Bernste in, J., R. Miller, W. Kelley, and P. Ward.
"Low-noise MEMS Vibration Sensor for Geophysical Applications." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 8, no. 4 (December 1999): 433-438.
1999 IEEE.

X out ( s ) 1
1
=
F (s)
k s 2 + 1 s + 1
Q
m0
where: s = s , 0 = k , Q =
m
b
0
H ( s) =

Set Q=1/2 (critically damped)


Set k=1 for convenience

Figure 6 on p. 435 in: Bernste in, J., R. Miller, W. Kelley, and P. Ward.
"Low-noise MEMS Vibration Sensor for Geophysical Applications." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 8, no. 4 (December 1999): 433-438.
1999 IEEE.

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 16

Proportional control of 2nd-order system


> Use ideal controller K(s)=K0
X out ( s )
H ( s) K ( s)
=
=
> This gives us two overall poles:
Two from SMD H(s)
None from controller K(s)

X in ( s )

1 + H (s) K (s)

order system

Q of closed-loop response

increases with increasing DC


gain

1.5

K0=100

> This means that our critically


damped system is now
underdamped

1
s + ( K 0 + 1)
Q

Qcl = Q K 0 + 1

Decreasing DC error as K0

> Some differences:

s 2 +

0,cl = K 0 + 1

> Some results are same as 1stincreases


System speeds up

K0

K0=10
0.5

This can be bad or fatal for our


system

0
0

10

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 17

Control of complex systems

> Dynamics of closed-loop system are determined by


H(s)K(s)

> Thus, behavior seen with 2nd-order SMD system will


also occur with 1st-order thermal system coupled to
1st-order controller

> What happens when we add an additional pole?

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 18

Single-Pole Controller (Real amp)


> Take SMD and control
with

1st-order

controller

> The system now has


three poles

> When going to large K0,


the system goes
unstable

This happens if one of


the roots has real
positive part

> Routh test can be used

K0
K ( s) =
1 + s

= 0
controller
time constant

X out ( s)
K0
= 3
X in ( s ) s + (1 + 2 )s 2 + (2 + )s + K 0 + 1
Routh test for third - order system :
a3 s 3 + a2 s 2 + a1s + a0
All coefficients ( an ) must have same sign
AND a2 a1 > a0 a3

to find maximum gain

K0 <

11
1
+ +
QQ

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 19

2nd-order vs. 3rd-order systems


> Stable system at all loop

> Unstable system at

gains

sufficiently high loop


gain
5

15

^ = 1

Imaginary

Imaginary

10

0
-5

-10
-15
-3

-2

-1
Real

-5
-6

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1
Real

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 15.6 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 403. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 15.5 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 402. ISBN: 9780792372462.

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 20

Effect of controller bandwidth


> Controller bandwidth < Plant
bandwidth causes controller to
dominate overall response

=1

Phase (deg)

Magnitude (dB)

Bode Diagram

=100
Bode Diagram

50

-50

-50
-100

-100
0
-45
-90
-135
-180
-225
-270
10-2

Q=1/2
0=1
K0=6

10-1

100
Frequency (rad/sec)

101

Controller

-150
0
-45
-90
-135
-180
-225
-270
2
10
10-4

Plant

10-2
100
Frequency (rad/sec)

102

Overall

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.
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ical Devices, Spring 2007.
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 21

Effect of controller bandwidth


> Controller bandwidth > Plant
bandwidth causes plant to
dominate overall response

=1

Q=1/2
0=1
K0=6

Phase (deg)

Magnitude (dB)

Bode Diagram

Bode Diagram

50

0
-50

-50

-100
-150

-100
0
-45
-90
-135
-180
-225
-270
10-2

=0.01

10-1

100
Frequency (rad/sec)

101
Controller

102

-200
0
-45
-90
-135
-180
-225
-270
10-2

Plant

100
102
Frequency (rad/sec)

104

Overall

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 22

PI control
Proportional - Integral (PI) Control :

> Add pole at s=0


K ( s ) = K 0 1 +
s

> This gives K(0)


And thus no DC error

> Benefits
As long as 0, will get
perfect DC tracking, but
it may take awhile

1.8
1.6

K0=100, =0

1.4
1.2

K0=1, =2

Completely insensitive

0.8

to changes in plant at
DC

0.6

K0=1, =0.1
K0=1, =0

0.4

> Drawbacks
Additional pole means
possibility of ringing
and instability

0.2
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 23

PID control
> Final generic term is to

Proportional - Integral - Differential (PID) Control :


K ( s ) = K 0 1 + + s
s

add in differential
feedback

Anticipate future

10
8

instability due to
integral and
proportional control

> Methods exist to tune


PID controllers

Imaginary Axis

> Tame ringing and

= 0.03

= 2.2

=0

= 2.2

0
-2
-4
-6
-8
-10

-1.5

-1

-0.5

Real Axis

0.5

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 24

Stabilization of unstable systems


Piyabongkarn (2005), IEEE Trans. Control Systems Tech.

> Use of feedback


#3: Stabilize an
unstable system

> Stabilize

Figure 2 on p. 139 in: Piyabongkarn, D., Y. Sun, R. Rajamani, A. Sezen, and B. J. Nelson. "Travel Range
Extension of a MEMS Electrostatic Microactuator." IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology 13, no. 1
(January 2005): 138-145 2005 IEEE.
.

electrostatic
actuator beyond
pull-in

> Most approaches


use feedback to
approximate
charge control

Figure 6 on p. 140 in: Piyabongkarn, D., Y. Sun, R. Rajamani, A.


Sezen, and B. J. Nelson. "Travel Range Extension of a MEMS
Electrostatic Microactuator." IEEE Transactions on Control Systems
Technology 13, no. 1 (January 2005): 138-145. 2005 IEEE.

no feedback

Figure 11 on p. 144 in: Piyabongkarn, D., Y. Sun, R. Rajamani, A.


Sezen, and B. J. Nelson. "Travel Range Extension of a MEMS
Electrostatic Microactuator." IEEE Transactions on Control Systems
Technology 13, no. 1 (January 2005): 138-145. 2005 IEEE.

with feedback

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 25

Stabilization of unstable systems

> However:
All potentially unstable modes must be both observable and

controllable
Observable means that the sensor provides state information
about the mode
Controllable means that the control inputs can modify the
mode
If a mode has both attributes, it can be stabilized (at least in
theory) with feedback

> Adding sensors to a system improves observability of


modes

> Adding actuators improves controllability


> This can be generalized from unstable to unwanted
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 26

Control for MEMS


> Electrostatic traps for cells
Exploded Pixel

> The goal is to trap single cells at

IMD hole

Metal 2

Assembled Pixel

each site

PECVD SiO2
Metal 1

> System is currently run open loop

Thermal SiO2
Silicon

> Could we do better if we ran closedloop?

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

> Need to sense: optical or electrical


> Need to actuate

Bead

This is hard

Cell
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

100 m

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 27

Control for MEMS

> Many MEMS devices/systems are run open loop


why?

> Open loop


Does not need additional sensors or actuators
These increase fab complexity, chip size, cost, etc.
But is sensitive to perturbations

> Closed loop


Requires extra complexity
More stable performance

> If you dont need closed-loop control, dont use it


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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 28

Outline

> Motivation for using feedback


> The uses of (linear) feedback
> Feedback of Nonlinear Systems
Quasi-static systems
Oscillators

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 29

Feedback in Nonlinear Systems


> Can no longer use nice algebraic forms
> However, the same idea still holds:
The controller pre-distorts the control signal so as to compensate
for nonlinearities in the plant

X/X0

F
X out = X 0 tan 1
F0

/2

/2
-20 -15 -10 -5

1
Error

Error

C ontrol

F=K0(Xin-Xout)
C ontrol

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Adapted from Figure 15.11 in Senturia, Stephen


D. Microsystem Design . Boston, MA: Kluwer
Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 412.
ISBN: 9780792372462.

K0

Xin
In1

0 5 10 15 20
F/F0

f(u)
Plant

1
Out1

Xout

Controller

Feedback Path
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 30

Feedback in Nonlinear Systems

> Controller linearizes in nonlinear system


> This also occurs in op-amps
1.0

K ( X X out )
X out = X 0 tan 1 0 in

F
0

0.04
0.03
0.02

0.5

X in X out

0.0

Error

X
F0
tan out
K0
X0
0 for K 0 >> F0

X in X out =

Xout

0.01

-0.01
-0.02

-0.5

-0.03
-1.0

-1

-0.5

0.5

-0.04

Xin
Imag e by MIT OpenCourseWare
Adapted from Figure 15.12 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,MA:
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 413. ISBN: 9780792372462.
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 31

Resonators, Oscillators and Limit Cycles


> Resonator: a passive element that exhibits underdamped
oscillatory behavior

> Oscillator: a resonator plus an active gain element that


compensates the resonator losses and results in steady
oscillatory behavior

> Limiting: a required nonlinearity in either the resonator or gain


element

> Limit Cycle: stable closed path in state space

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 32

Example: Resonant RLC Circuit


> While a linear amplifier can theoretically produce an undamped
linear system, it cannot create an oscillator

+ vC -

vs

+
-

iL
vo
L
R

+ vC C

iL
+

L
R

dvC 1
= iL
dt
C

dvC 1
= iL
dt C

diL 1
= (vS vC iL R )
dt L

v
diL 1
= ( v0 vC v0 ) = C
dt L
L

vo

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 33

Example: Resonant RLC Circuit


> No stable limit cycle
> Vary gain A of op-amp circuit
2000

Vc

20

A>1

1000

10

-1000

-10

-2000
-2000
20

-20
-20

2000

20

A=1, Vc0=11.5

10

10

-10

-10

-20
-20

-20
-20

20

IL

A<1

20

A=1, Vc0=5

20

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 34

Adding a limiter creates an oscillator


> Add in arctangent

state
eqns.

limiter
v
vs = V1 tan 0
V2
1

dvC 1
= iL
dt C

Ai R
diL 1
= V1 tan 1 L vC iL R
dt L
V2

For

+ Vc+

iL

Amplifier

Limiter

V5

V0

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 15.15 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 416. ISBN: 9780792372462.

AV1
>1
V2

iL R
Ai R
V1 tan 1 L
V2

Net gain
Net loss
iL R
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 35

Marginal Oscillator
15.0

> Gradual limiting leads to


nearly sinusoidal
waveforms for weakly
damped resonators

iL

5.0

-10.0
-15.0
90

4
10

Damped
92

94

96

98

100

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 15.17 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design
.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 418. ISBN: 9780792372462.

103
102

15.0

101

10.0

100
10-1
10-2
0

0.5

1.5
2
Frequency (Hz)

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

2.5

Capacitor voltage

Power spectral density

0.0

-5.0

105

10-3

Damped

10.0

5.0
0.0
-5.0
-10.0
-15.0
-15

-10

Adapted from Figure 15.18 in: Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.


Boston,MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 419. ISBN: 9780792372462.

-5

10

15

Inductor current
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 36

Oscillator Parting Comments

> Do not confuse a resonator with an oscillator


> The oscillator is the combined result of a resonator
with a suitably designed circuit

> The oscillator is intrinsically nonlinear


> The limit cycle obeys its own dynamics, which can be
discovered by analyzing the perturbation of a limit
cycle and the time required to recover

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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 37

Conclusions

> When properly designed, feedback can

Reduce sensitivity to variations


Decrease response time of system
Control output with zero DC error
Stabilize unstable systems

> But it may be too complicated or unnecessary for


your MEMS part a systems issue

> All elements in the feedback path have poles, and


these can cause instabilities

> Numerous methods exist to analyze control systems


in frequency, time, root-locus, and state-space
domains
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JV: 2.372J/6.777J Spring 2007, Lecture 17 - 38

Noise

Carol Livermore
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
* With thanks to Steve Senturia, from whose lecture notes some
of these materials are adapted.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 1

Outline
> Where does noise come from?
> Interference and how to deal with it
> Noise definitions and characterization
> Types of noise
Thermal noise
Shot noise
Flicker noise
> Examples
Electronics (diodes, amplifiers)
Resistance thermometer
> Modulation
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 2

What limits measurements?


> Fundamental physics of the sensing mechanism, or interactions
among parts of your sensor

> Example: using a resistor to sense temperature


Apply a voltage across a resistor and measure the current,

which tells you resistance


Relate change in resistance to change in temperature
But measuring resistance dissipates some heat in the
resistor, thereby changing the temperature

> Solutions:
Make sure that the temperature change that you impose is

less than the temperature change that you need to measure


Or, use a different sensing technique

> But how low can you lower the voltage and still get enough
signal?
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 3

An Example: Tunneling Accelerometer

Figure 1 on p. 236 in Liu, C.-H.,


A. M. Barzilai, J. K. Reynolds, A.
Partridge, T. W. Kenny, J. D. Grade,
and H. K. Rockstad. "Characterization
of a High-sensitivity Micromachined
Tunneling Accelerometer with
Micro-g Resolution." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 7,
no. 2 (June 1998): 235-244.
1998 IEEE.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 4

Tunneling accelerometer

Figure 2 on p. 236 in Liu, C.-H., A. M. Barzilai, J. K. Reynolds,


A. Partridge, T. W. Kenny, J. D. Grade, and H. K. Rockstad.
"Characterization of a High-sensitivity Micromachined
Tunneling Accelerometer with Micro-g Resolution." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 7, no. 2 (June 1998): 235-244.
1998 IEEE.

Figure 6 on p. 239 in Liu, C.-H., A. M. Barzilai, J. K. Reynolds,


A. Partridge, T. W. Kenny, J. D. Grade, and H. K. Rockstad.
"Characterization of a High-sensitivity Micromachined Tunneling
Accelerometer with Micro-g Resolution." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 7, no. 2 (June 1998): 235-244.
1998 IEEE.

Tunneling current is exponentially sensitive to separation of


tip and substrate. WITH FEEDBACK, this offers very
sensitive measurements of acceleration.
How sensitive? Must consider sources of NOISE.
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 5

Types of Noise Sources

> Device noise: statistical fluctuations in devices


Johnson noise, shot noise, 1/f or flicker noise
These noise sources seem immensely unlikely in the face of
our usual assumptions, but they are real and limit results.

> Interference: corruption of the signal of interest by


interference from another signal
Power line, radio stations, TV stations, ground loop inductive
effects

> Drifts: variations in device characteristics

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 6

Sources of noise in the tunneling accelerometer


> Amplifier noise
> Electrons are quantized, so
tunneling current is inherently
digitized
An apparently constant
current really isnt gives
noise

> The air molecules in the gap


arent perfectly evenly
distributed (Brownian motion)
Can build up a force from
fluctuations

Figure 2 on p. 236 in Liu, C.-H., A. M. Barzilai, J. K. Reynolds,


A. Partridge, T. W. Kenny, J. D. Grade, and H. K. Rockstad.
"Characterization of a High-sensitivity Micromachined
Tunneling Accelerometer with Micro-g Resolution." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 7, no. 2 (June 1998): 235-244.

> Drifts? Interference? Air


currents? Package creep?
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 7

Outline
> Where does noise come from?
> Interference and how to deal with it
> Noise definitions and characterization
> Types of noise
Thermal noise
Shot noise
Flicker noise
> Examples
Electronics (diodes, amplifiers)
Resistance thermometer
> Modulation
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 8

Interference and noise are different


> Interfering signals:
When an external signal couples into your circuit in an
unintended way

Capacitive pickup of power line signal, input feeding directly


through to output, etc.

Often reflects a circuit design problem that you can prevent


or remedy

Math looks like superposition and mixing of signals


> Random noise:
Random noise is random!
Statistical fluctuations in voltages, currents, forces,
pressures, etc.

Math is simpler with random, uncorrelated signals


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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 9

The Interference Problem

> Power-line interference can result from grounding


problems or capacitive coupling
Capacitive coupling through
power-line transformer
60 Hz power line
DC Power
Supply

Power-line
ground
Stray capacitance

V0

+
_

Signal ground

R0

Amp

Load

Rc

Amplifier ground Load ground


(same as power line)

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 16.1 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 426. ISBN: 9780792372462.
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 10

Shields
> A shield is a grounded conductor that surrounds the space
being shielded

> But where to connect the ground?


Amplifier shield

60 Hz power line

DC power
supply
Source shield

V0

+
_

Signal ground

Rc

R0

Amp

Load

Rs
Potential difference
Amplifier ground
(power line)

Load ground

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Adapted from Figure 16.2 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 427. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 11

Ground Loops

> Multiple grounds


create ground loops

> Large inductive

V0

+
_

Rc

R0

Amp

Rs

EMFs can be
created

Ground loop

V0

+
_

Rc

R0

Amp

Rs
Ground strap
(low resistance and low inductance)

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Adapted from Figure 16.3 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA:Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 428. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 12

Guards

> A guard is a shield driven at the common-mode


potential of the signal of interest

> Guards can be used to intercept surface currents or


to nullify the effect of wiring capacitance

Signal line

+
_

Oxide
p-Type substrate

n Diffusion
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Adapted from Figure 16.4 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,


MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 429. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 13

Interference in the tunneling accelerometer?

Figure 1 on p. 236 in Liu, C.-H.,


A. M. Barzilai, J. K. Reynolds, A.
Partridge, T. W. Kenny, J. D. Grade,
and H. K. Rockstad. "Characterization
of a High-sensitivity Micromachined
Tunneling Accelerometer with
Micro-g Resolution." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 7,
no. 2 (June 1998): 235-244.
1998 IEEE.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 14

Outline
> Where does noise come from?
> Interference and how to deal with it
> Noise definitions and characterization
> Types of noise
Thermal noise
Shot noise
Flicker noise
> Examples
Electronics (diodes, amplifiers)
Resistance thermometer
> Modulation
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 15

Noise characterization

> Consider a timevarying, random noise


voltage vn(t)

> Also have a signal vs(t)


> Random noise has zero
average, but a non-zero
mean-square average

> The mean square noise


from uncorrelated
noise sources adds

vs (t ) = signal
vn (t ) = noise
t / 2

1
vn = lim
vn (t )dt = 0
t t
t / 2
t / 2

1
2
2
[
]
(
)
vn = lim
v
t
dt 0
t t n
t / 2
v = v s + vn
v = vs
v 2 = vs2 + vn2

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 16

Signal-to-Noise Ratio

> Signal-to-noise ratio: a


power ratio

> Normally expressed in


logarithmic coordinates

> Decibels is usual unit


> Can use power ratio, or
rms amplitude ratio

S/N =

vs2
v

2
n

(linear scale)

decibel scale :
vs2
S/N = 10 log 2
v
n
vs ,rms

S/N = 20 log

v
n
,
rms

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 17

Spectral Density Function


> We imagine an ideal narrow-band filter that allows all frequency
content within a small band around a selected frequency to pass

> The mean square output of this filter is assumed to be


proportional to the bandwidth, provided the bandwidth is small
enough. This is equivalent to saying that the spectral content of
the signal of interest has no impulses in it (hence, is not a perfect
sine wave)

> The spectral density function expresses that proportionality

vo2 ( f o , f ) = Sn ( f o )f

vn2 = Sn ( f ) df
0

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 18

Noise in Linear Systems

> The spectral density function at the output is the


spectral density at the input times the squared
magnitude of the transfer function
2

S o ( f ) = H ( j 2 f ) S n ( f )
Vn

+
_

H (s)

+
V0
_

v02 = H ( j 2f ) Sn ( f ) df

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 16.7 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design. Boston,
MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 436. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 19

Outline
> Where does noise come from?
> Interference and how to deal with it
> Noise definitions and characterization
> Types of noise
Thermal noise
Shot noise
Flicker noise
> Examples
Electronics (diodes, amplifiers)
Resistance thermometer
> Modulation
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 20

Thermal Noise
> Imagine a damped harmonic oscillator that is not driven

mx + bx + kx = 0
> Any initial motion will be damped out
> BUT this cannot be an accurate description of reality
> Equipartition: in thermal equilibrium, each energy storage
mode has an average energy kBT/2

> Energies mv2/2 and kx2/2 cannot be zero!


> Correct equation has a noise force

mx + bx + kx = f n (b, t )


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 21

Thermal Noise (Johnson Noise)


> Any dissipative process coupled to a thermal reservoir results
in fluctuations, even in equilibrium

> Example: thermomechanical noise force


> Example: electrical resistors have a fluctuating zero-average
noise voltage

> The spectrum of Johnson noise is white (at least at all


frequencies of interest)

R (noiseless)
R (noisy)

+
_

Vn

Sn ( f ) = 4k BTR

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 16.8 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 437. ISBN: 9780792372462.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 22

Noise Bandwidth

> The noise bandwidth, when noise sources are white,


measures the magnitude of the mean-square noise.

vn2 = S n ( f ) df
0

Consider an ideal filter of bandwidth f


The mean - square noise from a resistor that can pass this filter is
vn2 = 4k BTRf
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 23

Thermal Noise: Other Domains


> Our lumped element view of the world makes this very easy to
apply to other domains

> Electrical (R = electrical resistance):

Sn ( f ) = 4k BTR

vn2 = 4k BTRf

> Mechanical (b = damping):

S n ( f ) = 4k BTb

f n2 = 4k BTbf

> Fluidic (R = fluidic resistance):

S n ( f ) = 4k BTR

pn2 = 4k BTRf

A good reference: T. Gabrielson, IEEE Trans. Elec. Devices, 40 (1993).


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 24

Noise on Capacitors
> When a capacitor is connected

to a resistor that is connected


to a thermal reservoir, the
mean-square noise on the
capacitor is kBT/C

vC2 = SC ( f ) df
0

> Applies to capacitance

VC (s )
1
H (s ) =
=
Vn (s ) 1 + sRC

equivalents: k(kBT) noise in a


spring
R(noiseless)

R
(noisy)

Vn

+
_

vC2 = H ( j 2f ) S n ( f )df

v =
2
C

Vc
_

1
4k BTRdf
2
1 + (2fRC )

1 k BT
v = 4k BTR
=
4 RC C
2
C

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 16.9 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 438. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 25

Noise bandwidth
> Can define a noise bandwidth

H ( s) =

for the capacitor noise

1
VC ( s )
=
Vn ( s ) 1 + sRC

> Noise source white

1
f =
df
2
0 1 + (2 fRC )

> Transfer function not flat

R(noiseless)

R
(noisy)

Vn

+
_

Vc
_

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 16.9 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 438. ISBN: 9780792372462.

1
f =
4 RC

k T
vC2 = B
C

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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 26

Thermomechanical noise in the tunneling accelerometer


> Wide plates (7mm x 7mm), narrowly spaced (50 m): consider
squeeze-film damping

> Squeeze-film damping holes: estimate about 30 holes, covering


between 1% and 10% of the plate area
Solid plates, at atmosphere :
bsolid

96LW 3
=
0.2 Ns
4 3
m
h0

Disk - shaped plates, one perforated, at 1 atm :


Aholes
0.01 Ns
b perf =
F
3
m
N holesh0 Aplate
Approximate net damping :
2
12Aplate

Figure 1 on p. 236 in Liu, C.-H.,


A. M. Barzilai, J. K. Reynolds, A.
Partridge, T. W. Kenny, J. D. Grade,
and H. K. Rockstad. "Characterization
of a High-sensitivity Micromachined
Tunneling Accelerometer with
Micro-g Resolution." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 7,
no. 2 (June 1998): 235-244. 1998 IEEE.

bnet bsolid b perf =

b perf bsolid
bsolid + b perf

0.01 Ns

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 27

Thermomechanical noise in the tunneling accelerometer


> Estimate noise at room temperature
S n ( f ) = 4k BTb 1.7 10
So noise is 1.3 10 11 N

22

N2

Hz

Hz

> Given a proof mass of 30 mg, relate noise force to noise


acceleration

Thermal noise in acceleration : 4.4 10 7 g' s

Hz
With a 1 kHz bandwidth, this is 1.4 g' s sensitivity

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 28

Thermal noise from the electronics?


> Electronics always contribute noise, and frequently are the
dominant noise source

> Amplifiers have some resistive elements in them; hence they


have thermal noise

> Amplifiers have other kinds of noise, too, such as 1/f noise: stay
tuned until we have the tools

> Electronics noise turns out not to be dominant for the tunneling
accelerometer

Tunneling is exponentially sensitive: high change in current for


small change in distance (x3 for 0.1 nm motion near operating point)

High change in current for small acceleration


Compare with small change in capacitance for 0.1 nm motion
Here, electronics introduce noise when signal is already huge
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 29

Shot noise
> The granularity of the electronic charge leads to a noise
associated with the flow of electric current

t
Discrete charge,
no noise

t
Constant
current

Charge
vs. time
t
Discrete charge,
with noise

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 30

Shot noise

> The spectral density function of shot noise is white


(at least at all frequencies of interest)
i (t ) = I DC + in (t )
The shot - noise spectral density function is :
Si ( f ) = 2qe I DC

in2 = Si ( f ) df
0

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 31

Shot noise in the tunneling accelerometer


> Linearize about operating point: output ~ 5 x 10-5 A/g
Not grams acceleration of gravity
Current depends exponentially on tunneling distance
Acceleration changes linearly with position
> Tunneling current ~ 1 nA
Si ( f ) = 2qe I DC 3 10

28

A2

Hz

Current noise is about 2 10-14 A

Hz

Acceleration noise is about 4 10-10 g' s

Hz

> Thermomechanical noise is three orders of magnitude larger


than shot noise!
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 32

Flicker Noise (1/f noise)


> Noise with a 1/f spectral density shows up in many systems
and is caused by a wide variety of phenomena

Diodes, earthquakes, biological systems, material creep/relaxation,


sand piles,

> Although the exponent is not always exactly 1, it is generally


called simply 1/f noise or flicker noise

> Important point: 1/f noise shows up a low frequencies


> At higher frequencies, white noise dominates
> The main problem with 1/f noise is that it is often hard to model,
except empirically. You may not know that you have a noise
problem until you measure it.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 33

1/f noise in the tunneling accelerometer


> The earlier tunneling accelerometer papers classify noise
according to type: thermomechanical noise, shot noise, and
excess noise

> 1/f tunneling noise


Migration of atoms on the surface of the tunneling tip
Mobility of adsorbed contaminant molecules
> 1/f mechanical noise
Package relaxation
Thermal creep
Thermal bimorph (metal over the silicon hinge of the proof
mass)

> How to fix it? Through luck or design, find and control the
factors that correlate with the noise.

> In this case, control fluctuations in environmental temperature


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 34

Outline
> Where does noise come from?
> Interference and how to deal with it
> Noise definitions and characterization
> Types of noise
Thermal noise
Shot noise
Flicker noise
> Examples
Electronics (diodes, amplifiers)
Resistance thermometer
> Modulation
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 35

Noise in a Diode
> Charge carriers are trapped in
and released from trap states in
the semiconductor

> Trap and release times depends


on energy of trap state

> A uniform-ish distribution of


states leads to a 1/f-ish spectral
density function
rs
rd

contacts and diode neutral regions.


rd is incremental resistance of
exponential diode.
1 dI D qe I D
=
=
rd dVD k BT
There is normal Johnson noise
associated with rs
and a combined shot - noise flicker - noise
spectrum associated with rd

+_ vn
ID

rs is incremental resistance of

Si ( f ) = 2qe I D

in

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Figure 16.10 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 440. ISBN: 9780792372462.

a
(
ID )
+K

f
The exponent a is in the range 0.5 - 2

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 36

Amplifier Noise
> MOSFETs have relatively high 1/f-noise corner frequencies
> One way to model the noise in a MOSFET is to refer all noise
sources back to one equivalent input noise source

> Noise at first stage is most important, because it is amplified in


successive stages
gate

Vn
_

+
Vin

id

Cgd

Cgb

_
_ source
Vbs

Cgs

+
Vgs

drain
gmbVbs

gmVgs

ro

_
Csb

+ body

Cdb

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Kf
2
(1 + Fn ) +
Sn ( f ) = 4k BT
WLC ox f
3g m

Adapted from Figure 16.11 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.


Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 441. ISBN: 9780792372462.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 37

Example: Resistance thermometer


> Toy resistance thermometer system
Use thermometer as one of the resistors for an inverting
amplifier

Assume a metal film resistor: ~ 3 x 10-3 K-1


> We create a noise model for a resistance thermometer by adding
Johnson noise source for the resistor itself
Two input-referred amplifier noise sources for the op-amp
Johnson noise source for the feedback resistor
> We calculate the transfer function for each noise source, and
using its square, find the contribution to the total mean-square
noise

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 38

Transfer function of system


> Contains four terms, one for each noise source.
> We can calculate the minimum detectable temperature change by
computing the root-mean-square noise
RF
Vs

RT

VnT
_

Vn1
_

Cin

Vn3
_

+
+
_

Signal portion of output :

V0

V0, s =

RF
Vs
RT

Incremental signal in response

Vn2

to a temperature change T
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 16.12 in Senturia, Stephen D. Microsystem Design.
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p. 443. ISBN: 9780792372462.

V0 =

RF
(VS + vnT + vn1 ) + 1 + RF vn 2 + vn 3
RT
RT

vo , s =

RFVS R
T
RT

Need to compare this to mean - square noise


and, for that, we need the spectral density function

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 39

Noise Spectral Density Function


> We assume uncorrelated noise sources; hence, we can add
spectral density functions
R
S n.o ( f ) = F
RT

R
[S n ,T ( f ) + S n ,1 ( f )] + 1 + F

RT

S n , 2 ( f ) + S n ,3 ( f )

Assume RF = 100 RT and RT = 1 k


Input transistor noise is as follows :
S n ,1 = S n , 2

Kf
2

= 4kbT
+ WLC f
g
3
m
ox

Resistor noise is as follows :


S n ,T = 4kbTRT
S n , F = 4kbTRF = 400kbTRT
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 40

Noise Spectral Density Function


> Noticing that RF/RT >> 1 simplies things
R
S n.o ( f ) = F
RT

R
[S n ,T ( f ) + S n ,1 ( f )] + 1 + F

RT

S n , 2 ( f ) + S n ,3 ( f )

For the FET, we assume L = 2 microns, W = 30 microns, tox = 15 nm


We assume an operating point for the input transistors of 100 microamps,
which sets g m to 300 microSiemens (about 3 k).

2K f

R0
4
+
S n.o ( f ) = 10 4k BT R0 +
+

g
3
100
WL
C
f
m

ox

S n.o ( f ) = 8.9 x 10

-13

7.2 x 10 8
+
f

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 41

Outline
> Where does noise come from?
> Interference and how to deal with it
> Noise definitions and characterization
> Types of noise
Thermal noise
Shot noise
Flicker noise
> Examples
Electronics (diodes, amplifiers)
Resistance thermometer
> Modulation
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 42

Two methods of measuring temperature

> Use a DC source:


Result is that the minimum detectable temperature change is
inversely proportional to the source voltage.

But self-heating increases with source voltage


There clearly will be an optimum value of source voltage to
use

> Modulation (use an AC source followed by


synchronous detection)
Shifts the measurement to the white noise portion of the
spectrum

S/N ratio improves by a factor of 100 or so


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 43

DC Source
> Need to assume some finite bandwidth to filter the signal after
amplification. We assume a single-pole filter, with noise
bandwidth 1/4b (recall the noise bandwidth for the RC filter.)
v

2
n ,o

8.9 10-13
7.2 108
=
+
df
2
4 b
1 /tm f 1 + (2 f b )

where the lower limit is set by the measurement time

tm
1
1 tm

=
+

df
ln
ln
1

2 2 b
f 1 + (2f b )
2 b

1 / m

For this example assume b = 50 ms, then vo ,rms = 290 V


Assuming R = 3 103 , the final sensitivity for unity S/N is
Tmin

9.7 104
=
VS

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 44

AC Source
> If we use an AC source, the signal appears within a bandwidth

Log noise

about the source frequency, and limits of integration of the


spectral density function to twice the noise bandwidth about that
frequency

Same noise bandwidth, but


lower spectral density at the
higher carrier frequency

Log frequency
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

vo2,n =

Sn ( fo )
= 7.2 10 10 V 2 which corresponds to 27 V rms
2 b

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 45

Modulation Doesnt Always Work


> If the resistor itself has a
fluctuation in value due, for
example, to temperature
fluctuations, these
fluctuations always show up
directly in the same band as
the signal

> If these fluctuations have 1/f


character, then even the
modulated and then
demodulated signal will
show the 1/f spectrum

RT = R0 [1 + (t ) + R T ]
R V
1
V0 (t ) = F S
R0 [1 + (t ) + R T ]

RFVS
[1 (t ) R T ]
V0 (t )
R0

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 46

Conclusions
> Many noise calculations are easily integrated into our existing
approach to modeling, so you can (and should) consider noise
constraints from the earliest stages of design

> The dominant noise sources vary widely from system to system,
so dont make any assumptions

> 1/f noise is less easily dealt with in advance, but careful
debugging and circuit design can help

> Working at a higher frequency (modulation) can sometimes buy


you a lot a device sensitivity

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 18 - 47

Packaging

Carol Livermore*
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
*With thanks to Steve Senturia, from whose lecture notes some of
these materials are adapted
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 1

Outline

> Evolution of the packaging dilemma


> How to approach the challenge of getting a working
system, including:
Packaging
Partitioning
Test
Calibration

> Some common tools and considerations


> Examples

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 2

Package requirements
> Man the gates: let the right things in and out and prevent
other things from entering or leaving

> Protect the die


> Make it easy to interface the die with the rest of the world (outer
layer of packaging must conform to industry expectations)

> Be as inexpensive as possible


> The details can vary greatly
> Some elements that are often seen:
Fabrication/packaging cross-over, with first level packaging

occurring at the wafer scale, in the fab


Die attach into a package
Die encapsulation
Making connections
The need to plan for calibration and test!

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 3

Evolution of the MEMS package challenge


> MEMS micromachining and packaging began as answers to a
practical question: If I want to take advantage of silicon
piezoresistivity to measure pressure, what does the rest of the
product look like?

> Subsequent products adapt what they can from the earlier
approach and develop specific solutions where they must

Problem: no universal solutions


Must solve the details for every device design, and the solutions are
almost always different

> Enthusiasm for MEMS grows: packaging often neglected with


painful results

High costs (package cost 10x device cost!), devices that must be

redesigned
Devices cant make the jump to market!

> Present drive to create more widely-applicable packaging solutions


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 4

A diversity of devices to package

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.


Motorola accelerometer.

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.


Hymite/MEMSCAP packaged in-vivo magnetic switch.

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.


Ultrasonic transducer array made by Siemens Corporation.

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.


Motorola manifold absolute pressure sensor.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 5

Outline

> Evolution of the packaging dilemma


> How to approach the challenge of getting a working
system, including:
Packaging
Partitioning
Test
Calibration

> Some common tools and considerations


> Examples

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 6

Key Ideas
> Concurrent design
Design the device and the package at the same time
Often companies have different teams for the two parts
> Partition carefully
Which functionalities go in the chips, and which
functionalities go in the package?

How many chips will it have?


Which functionality goes on each chip?
How will the chips be connected together, and to the
package?

How will the way we partition it affect the way that we have to
test it?

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 7

The question of electronics


> Partitioning electronics and MEMS
Ask yourself honestly if integrating electronic functionality
monolithically with the MEMS device is worth it

It is difficult to optimize two different things simultaneously


Separating fab processes into pre-electronics and postelectronics can limit your options severely

Two chips separately are often cheaper than one integrated


chip (remember the Nmasks*Adevice rule?)

A cute, monolithically integrated device that doesnt work


because of unintended interactions between the MEMS
function and the electronics is useless

Some successful commercial products are monolithically


integrated
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 8

Designing for testability


> If the device is expensive, the package is expensive, and the
process of attaching the two is expensive, how much testing
should you do before committing a device to a package?

> There is no universal answer to this question, but it must be


considered for every device. Do a cost analysis with your best
estimates of costs and yields to balance risk and cost.

> The package/test procedure will have a significant impact on the


ultimate cost of building the part, and on its economic viability

> Many systems cant be tested at all without some form of


packaging

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 9

Planning for variations


> Given the many variations possible from fabrication and
packaging (both random and systematic), how do you ensure a
working device at the end?

> Aim for a perfect as-fabricated device and no shifts from the
package?

> Aim for a device that is perfect once it has interacted with the
package?

> Admit that you cant control all the factors and simply trim the
hardware once its packaged?

> Admit that you cant control all the factors and simply calibrate
whatever you get in the software?

> All of these are expensive do you want to put a lot of


resources into getting the fab just right, or into fixing each and
every part after its made?
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 10

Checklist before detailed design


> Youre ready to do the detailed design of the system and all of
its components when you have the following:

Complete specifications for both the chip(s) and the package


Specifications for all interconnections
A list of all of the parasitics that you can think of, and some
assessment of their effect on the system operation

Provision for calibration and test

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 11

To do list: the detailed design


> For the MEMS device

A process flow
A mask set
The corresponding device geometry and materials
A model supporting predicted performance
Specification of the test and calibration method

> For the package


Artwork
Specification of components and how they are made (or where
purchased)

Acceptance procedures for packages

> Full assembly


The packaging procedure
Test, acceptance, and calibration
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 12

Outline

> Evolution of the packaging dilemma


> How to approach the challenge of getting a working
system, including:
Packaging
Partitioning
Test
Calibration

> Some common tools and considerations


> Examples

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 13

Die separation
> Multiple dies fabricated on the same wafer must be separated in
order to be packaged and sold

> Die saw common


> Die saw blades are of order 30 m to 250 m thick
> High speed blade rotation, cooled by a flow of water
> Lots of debris, vibrations, and general dirt
> How to protect the device?
Release etch after die saw
Wafer bonding as first-level packaging, before the die saw step
Die saw the device upside down
Dont die saw: etch mostly through and crack chips apart
> Question: do you need to do any testing before you separate the
dies?
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 14

Die attach
> Whether ICs or MEMS devices, dies must be attached to a
package

> Package: application specific


> Solder as adhesive: commonly soft solder (lower melting
temperature, about 100 C 400 C)

> Epoxy as adhesive: cross-link when heated (about 50 175 C)


> Polyimide or silicone as adhesive
> Adhesive application: dispense through a nozzle, screen print
> Can use pick and place tools to position dies on top of
adhesive in the package

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 15

Plastic packaging
> The integrated circuit standard
> Very inexpensive, pennies per electrical connection pin
> A thermosetting plastic is melted (ballpark 175 C) and injected
into a mold

> The plastic cools and hardens


> The least expensive approach:
Attach the die to a metal lead frame with an adhesive
Injection mold the plastic around it
Question: will your device and electrical connections survive
this?

Question: will encapsulation in plastic impair its


functionality?
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 16

Plastic packaging
> Second approach: a more flexible, more expensive, gentler
approach to plastic packaging

> Injection mold the package around a lead frame before the die is
attached

> Attach the die with an adhesive


> Cap the package
> Applications:
Fragile devices or electrical connections
Achieving connections that are not standard in IC packages,
such as fluid connections or optical transparency

Special requirements are integrated into the package cap


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 17

Ceramic packaging
> Collections of particles are sintered at temperatures ranging
from 800 C to 1600 C to form the package (often alumina, Al2O3)

> Ceramic packages are often processed as laminates


Individual layers can have screen printed electric
interconnects, metal film resistors, and even interlayer via
connections

Anneal the package; braze pins to package


Make electrical connection between die and package
Cap and seal the package (application-specific)
Resistors on the outer layer can be trimmed after the die is
packaged

> Durable, potentially well-sealed (hermetic)


> Higher cost (ballpark a few tens of dollars vs. less than a dollar)
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 18

Metal packaging
> A solution for harsh environments or relatively quick
prototyping

> Can be well-sealed (hermetic)


> Common materials: Kovar or stainless steel
> When features are more important than cost, can simply
machine the package with the needed features

> Example: a pressure sensor for environments that silicon


cannot tolerate

Package a Si pressure sensor in a stainless steel package


Cap the package in part with a thin stainless steel diaphragm
Fill the gap between Si and steel with oil to transfer the
pressure
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 19

Making electrical connections


> Techniques adopted from IC packaging
> Wire bonding connects electrical contact pads on die to
electrical contact pads in package

An ultrasonic sewing machine that stitches with wire


Heat + pressure + ultrasonic energy joins wire to contact pad
Frequency considerations: ultrasound may excite a
resonance

Thickness of bond pads


> Flip-chip bonding
Chip turns upside down; solder bumps attach it directly to
package

Heat to flow solder (think about temperature)


Smaller connections/lower inductance than with wirebonding
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 20

Making fluid connections


> Not standardized
> Techniques at the laboratory scale
O-ring seals and conventional tubing
Glue a tube in a hole (includes more sophisticated
approaches)

Stick a needle through a polymer structure, and inject


through it

> For lab-on-a-chip applications: various proposals for the world


to chip interface

> For a pressure sensor: protect the membrane with a cap layer
and route a hole in the package to the connector of your choice
(ie screw thread)

> For your application?


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 21

Packaging in the fab why do it?


> Your structure will become so fragile when you do the release etch that
you will no longer be able to package it

> Your device wont survive die saw unless the fragile parts are
encapsulated

> You want to minimize the package size


> You cant afford to have any particulates on your device, so it needs to
be encapsulated before it leaves the cleanroom

> Its less expensive in your case


> You expect the quality of the seal to be better in a microscale process
such as anodic bonding than in a macroscale process such as gluing

> You want to create a sealed cavity with vacuum inside


> You want to create a sealed cavity with a controlled atmosphere inside
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 22

Sealing
> Vacuum operation
Device needs to operate at vacuum, or some fixed pressure,
without ever being pumped out again

Examples: measuring absolute pressure, high Q resonators


Typically accomplished in the fabrication process rather than
in packaging

Approaches: wafer bonding, deposited films as sealants


Concern: outgassing
> Isolation from environment
> Hermetic packaging
Device doesnt need to operate at vacuum, but if water gets
inside, the device will eventually be destroyed
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 23

Vacuum sealing by anodic bonding


> Anodic bonding to seal a pressure sensor
> Fabricate on a Si wafer; dissolve it away at the end

Figure 4 on p. 582 in: Chavan, A. V., and K. D. Wise. "Batch-Processed, Vacuum-Sealed Capacitive Pressure Sensors.
Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 10, no. 4 (December 2001): 580-588. 2001 IEEE.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 24

Vacuum sealing by fusion bonding


> An ultrasonic transducer (a microphone, essentially) sealed by
silicon fusion bonding

> Contact in vacuum; risk of outgassing on anneal

Figure 1 on p. 130 in Huang, Y.,


A. S. Ergun, E. Haeggstrom, M. H. Badi, and
B. T. Khuri-Yakub. "Fabricating Capacitive
Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers with
Wafer-bonding Technology." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 12, no. 2
(April 2003): 128-137. 2003 IEEE.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 25

Vacuum sealing by film deposition


> An ultrasonic transducer sealed by a deposited film
> Using the stringer effect for a good cause
> Could worry about outgassing

Figure 16 on p. 106 in Jin, X., I. Ladabaum, F. L. Degertekin, S. Calmes, and B. T.


Khuri-Yakub. "Fabrication and Characterization of Surface Micromachined
Capacitive Ultrasonic Immersion Transducers. Journal of Microelectromechanical
Systems 8, no. 1 (March 1999): 100-114. 1999 IEEE.

Figure 2 on p. 101 in Jin, X., I. Ladabaum, F. L. Degertekin, S. Calmes,


and B. T. Khuri-Yakub. "Fabrication and Characterization of Surface
Micromachined Capacitive Ultrasonic Immersion Transducers." Journal
of Microelectromechanical Systems 8, no. 1 (March 1999): 100-114.
1999 IEEE.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 26

Resonator with thin film vacuum packaging

Figure 10 on p. 290 in Lin, L., R. T. Howe, and A. P. Pisano. "Microelectromechanical Filters for Signal Processing."
Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 7, no. 3 (September 1998): 286-294. 1998 IEEE.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 27

Resonator with thin film vacuum packaging

Figure 11 on p. 291 in Lin, L., R. T. Howe, and A. P. Pisano. "Microelectromechanical Filters for Signal Processing."
Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 7, no. 3 (September 1998): 286-294. 1998 IEEE.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 28

Isolation from the environment


> Example: an automotive pressure sensor
The membrane must be able to feel the pressure
But, the environment is not inert
Solution: coat the business part to protect it while not
compromising the functionality

> Example: bioMEMS, especially in the body


Biocompatible but functional
> Parylene is useful here
Conformal material, deposition near room temperature
Minimal structural impact
Resistant to water, many organic solvents, weak acids/bases,
salt, fuel but it is not invulnerable.
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 29

Hermetic packaging
> Moisture is bad and can lead to corrosion in the most benign of
circumstances

> Electronics and MEMS often last much longer and are more
reliable if moisture is kept out

> Definition of hermetic: prevents the diffusion of helium, with a


definition for the maximum allowable helium leak rate
Perfect hermeticity does not exist in practice

> Working definition of hermetic: keeps the moisture out


> Good material choices: silicon, metal, ceramic, thick glass (mm
thickness or above)

> Bad material choices: plastics, organic materials


> All connectors must also be hermetically sealed
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 30

Permeability chart

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 31

Considerations when selecting packaging


> First, everything that you need to think about in designing the
device itself

> Electrical parasitics


> Stress: will your package squeeze your device and change its
characteristics?

> Will you be able to calibrate and test your device? When and
how? All significant package-induced variations must occur
before that point, or else be accounted for in advance.

> Other concerns: fragility, range of temperature operation and


CTE, etc.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 32

Outline

> Evolution of the packaging dilemma


> How to approach the challenge of getting a working
system, including:
Packaging
Partitioning
Test
Calibration

> Some common tools and considerations


> Examples

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 33

Lab-scale packaging: micro rocket


> If Im just trying to get a degree, and I dont plan on selling this
device, do I still have to design the package with the device?

> YES!!! (You want the degree, right?)

Courtesy of Adam London. Used with permission.

Courtesy of Adam London. Used with permission.

Source: Adam London, MIT.


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 34

Lab-scale packaging: micro turbine


> Micro turbine device, with fluidic and electrical connections
> Fluid connections: seal acrylic plate to die via o-rings
> Questions to think about BEFORE sending out the masks: will
the pressure distort the die? Is there room for the o-rings?

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 35

Pressure Sensor Case Study


> A Motorola manifold-absolute-pressure (MAP) sensor
> Silicon micromachined diaphragm with piezoresistive sensing

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.


Motorola manifold absolute pressure sensor.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 36

Device and Package Concept


> Monolithic pressure sensor with circuitry in a custom bipolar
process mounted on silicon ($$$) support mounted in plastic
package
Silicone gel die coat

Pressure

Stainless steel cap

Wire bond

Sensor on
backplate

Lead frame

Pre-molded plastic case

Silicone die bond

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Motorola. Sensor Device Data/Handbook. 4th ed. Phoenix, AZ: Motorola, Inc., 1998.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 37

The Arguments for Monolithic


> Smaller overall system
> More reliable interconnect
> Solves a customers problem:
Does away with a circuit board
Therefore, may be a cheaper total solution for the customer
even if the integrated sensor by itself is more expensive than
the hybrid sensor

> Its a business decision.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 38

Define Interfaces
> Electrical interface: how many pins?
The sensor needs only three pins
> Mechanical interface: a stainless steel lid on the package
> When to calibrate? Before or after packaging?
Things to consider
Package-induced stress
Gel-seal induced shift in calibration
> The decision: Calibrate after bonding into the package, but
before the gel-seal.

Cost: EXTRA PINS ON THE PACKAGE

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 39

Wafer-level packaging
> Cant use fusion bonding

Silicon

(circuitry cant stand it)

> What about anodic bonding?

Glass frit

> Bonding to silicon backplane


Silicon

using a glass-frit bond (more


forgiving of deviations from
wafer flatness)
WD7

> Firing temperature between 450


and 500 C.

> Must be void free and more

Die attach

pure than standard glass frits


Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 40

Details and headaches


> Package material and molding process: avoiding leaks
> Die attach
Originally used RTV (room-temperature vulcanized) silicone
adhesives

Now use a gel-like silicone or fluorosilicone that requires 150 C cure


(rubbery material transfers low stress to the chip)

Biggest problem: batch to batch variation of the die-attach material

> Wire bonding

With the chip sitting on a gel base, how can you wire bond to it?
Heat transfer through the gel is poor
Mechanical support is soft
Motorola developed custom tooling to apply heat directly to the chip
during wire bonding

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 41

More details and headaches


> Final gel encapsulant
Must wire bond before trimming, but

cannot put final gel coat on until after


trimming
Gel does produce a small shift in
response
Calibration targets must be predistorted to anticipate the effect of the
gel coat
Batch to variations in gel materials can
then create problems

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

> Next level assembly: keeping


customers happy

Market fragmentation
Different customers want different
next-level assemblies (Ford doesnt
want a Chrysler package)
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 42

Example: a newer capping technology


> Disclaimer:
This is not a sales pitch. This particular technology is described
here simply because it is well-described in the literature. Flexible
packaging techniques are of wide interest.

> Concept: bulk-micromachined silicon caps with integrated


interconnects, assembled onto dies at the wafer-scale

> Electrical connections and hermetic package seal made by flipchip solder bonding and through-cap interconnects

> Small overall package sizes possible


> Clean (no particles from ceramic components), CTE matched to
minimize damage and package-device interaction

> Reference: Elger et al., presented at IMAPS 04, cap technology


by Hymite
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 43

Application for this example


> MEMS switch for in vivo use, to be switched by an external
magnetic field
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 44

Details
> Caps made by standard KOH/electroplating bulk
micromachining process

SOI substrate, KOH etched from both sides

> Including interconnects in device would lower yield and affect


device process flow

> Through-cap interconnects permit flip-chip bonding to device


and to outside world with minimal disturbance to device process

> Silicon caps can be cleaned with chips before assembly to


minimize unwanted material in sealed-cavity

> Moderately low melting solder with no flux (no organic


contamination)

> Pick and place assembly, or wafer to wafer transfer; heat in the
pick and place tool to prevent caps from sliding
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 45

Bottom line
> People are actively trying to create and sell techniques like this
that can package a greater (though still not infinite) set of MEMS
devices with a single process and vendor

> This may make the life of the MEMS designer easier, permit
smaller packages, and (hopefully some day) smooth the trip to
market for some MEMS devices

> But there is still no universal solution: what if you need optical
access, fluidic access?

> And you still have to design the device and the packaging
process together, even as the number and convenience of
available tools increases

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 46

Where to learn more


> Nadim Maluf, An Introduction to Microelectromechanical
Systems Engineering, Artech House, 2000.

> Handbooks of microelectronics packaging, such as:


R.R. Tummala and E.J. Rymaszewski (eds.), Microelectronics
Packaging Handbook, Reinhold, 1989.

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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 19 - 47

6.777J/2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices


Spring Term 2007
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
In-Class Design Exercise
April 25, 2007
Accelerometers are starting to be deployed for consumer applications such as cell phones. Accelerometers in
this market do not need high precision or accuracy, but they must occupy a small-volume, low-profile
package. Below is a simplified schematic for the accelerometer that we will consider in this exercise. Youll
later find out that they are fancier than this, but for now, this is quite challenging enough.

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Specifications
Area of capacitive fingers: 100,000 m2
Mass of proof mass: 3 g (Si=2300 kg/m3)
Max area of system: 15 mm2
Max height: 2.0 mm
Number of bond pads: 4
On-chip bond pad size: 50 m x 50 m (unless using CSP, in which case use those dimensions)
Spacing between on-chip bond pads: 50 m (unless using CSP)
Packaged device must withstand reflow temperatures for flip chip mounting of packaged device.
Packaged in vacuum.
Electrical connection from proof mass fingers to 4 bond pads.

Your task is to design a fabrication process flow and a package process to create an accelerometer that meets
the above specs. You should determine the important dimensions of your device and package. Youre free
to use bulk micromachining or surface micromachining, to start your packaging at the wafer scale or not, etc.
You need to consider everything: when the wafer is diced, when the proof mass is released, attachment into
the package, etc. Be sure to think about unintended interactions, such as thermal mismatch. Make sure that
you meet the specs above; within those constraints, your goal is to come up with the smallest packaged device
that can be mounted on a circuit board.

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Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare
(http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

Packaging options
Wafer-level chip-scale packaging (CSP)
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Hermetic: Dictated by chip.


Package thickness: Equal to chip thickness + 100 m for solder bumps.
Maximum chip thickness: none
Note: solder bumps are applied at the wafer level. The wafer must be able to withstand
electroplating of a 5 m Cu seed layer onto the pads, screen printing a solder paste, and
then reflowing the paste at 225 C to form bumps.
Dimensions:
e

e
a
c

a
c,d
e

(mm)
0.18
0.5
0.32

a
b
c,d
e
f
g

(mm)
0.64
1.27
1.27
1.27
1.0
1.8

Leadless ceramic chip carrier (LCCC)


Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Hermetic: Yes.
Package thickness: 1.8 mm
Maximum chip thickness: 800 m
Dimensions:
d

a
c

Die

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Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare
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Dual flat no-lead package (DFN)


Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Hermetic: No.
Package thickness: 0.9 mm
Maximum chip thickness: 350 m
Dimensions:
d

a,b
c
d
e
f
g

a
c

(mm)
0.5
1.0
1.5
0.5
0.8
0.9

Die

Cite as: Carol Livermore and Joel Voldman, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and
Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare
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Design choices: MEMS actuators

Carol Livermore
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

With thanks to Prof. S. Mark Spearing, from whose work some of


this material is obtained.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 1

Outline

> Sorting through design options


> Actuator characteristics, examples of actuators, and
theoretical and practical limits
Electrostatic
Thermal
Piezoelectric
Magnetic

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
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C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 2

Motivation
> We now have lots of domain knowledge that we can apply to
decide whether a particular design is good enough for a
particular application

> How do you develop your intuition about which approaches are
likely to meet the needs of a given application?

Experience?
Literature search?
> One approach: borrow the concept of design charts, a tool
commonly used at the macroscale for basic design choices
(which material to choose?)

> D.J. Bell, T.J. Lu, N.A. Fleck, and S.M. Spearing, MEMS Sensor
and Actuator Selection: Database and Case Study, J.
Micromechanics and Microengineering, v 15, p. S153, 2005.
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OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 3

Sample Materials Comparison Chart


1000
Youngs modulus E
(G = 3E/8 ; K = E.)

Be

MFA:88-91

Youngs modulus, E (GPa)

12

10

Engineering
composites

104
Parallel
to grain
Balsa

Wood
Products
Woods

1.0

3x10

ASH
OAK
PINE

FIR

Lower E limit
for true solids

Perpendicular
to grain
Spruce

3x102

0.01
0.1

Mg
Alloys

Polymers foams

0.3

ZrO2
BeO

Porous
ceramics

Engineering
alloys

Engineering
polymers

Polyesters

PP
HDPE

Hard
BUTYL PU

Silicone

Soft
BUTYL

1.0

Guide lines for


minimum weight
design

PTFE

E
=C

Plasticised D
PVC

103

Cork

Sialons

MEL
PC
Epoxies
PS
PMMA
PVC
Nylon

LDPE

Balsa

0.1

KFRP

ASH
OAK
PINE

FIR

Aluminas

Mo W-Alloys
Alloys
Si
Ni Alloys
CFRP Glasses
Steels
UNI-PLY
3e
Cu Alloys
Pottery Ti Alloys
Zn Alloys
KFRP
Al Alloys
GFRP
CFRP
Tin Alloys
Rock, stone
Cement, concrete
Laminates
GFRP
Lead alloys

100

) E ) (m/s)

WC-Co

Engineering
Ceramics

Diamond
B SIC Sl2N4

1. Modulus-Density

Elastomers
1

E 2
=C
1

E 3
=C

Density, (Mg /m3)

10

30

Material Selection in
Mechanical Design,
M.F Ashby, Pergamon
Press, Oxford, 1995.

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Adapted from Ashby, M. F. Material Selection in Mechanical Design. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann,
1995. ISBN: 9780750627276.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 4

Different criteria for different actuator applications


> Nanopositioners
Speed, resolution, range, repeatability, robustness against
disturbances, ability to sense as well as actuate

> Micro mechanical testing apparatus


Range of motion, force, ability to sense as well as actuate,
speed

> RF MEMS
Speed, range of motion, force, power dissipation, voltage
required, ability to sense as well as actuate

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 5

RF MEMS Approach
> Active RF circuit components
Implement through CMOS compatible circuits
> Reconfigurable system that allows multiple functionalities
MEMS ohmic contact switches with low losses and good

isolation and linearity


MEMS variable capacitors (instead of CMOS capacitors)

> Integrate passive components in place, saving space in the


overall system

> Some issues:


Reliability can be an issue for MEMS switches (accumulated

damage to contacting surface)


Limited capacitance range for MEMS variable capacitors,
though losses are low, and linearity and high power
performance are good

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 6

RF MEMS Components
> Switches and relays open circuits, close circuits, or connect
signals to ground

Includes RF signal electrodes and actuating electrodes


If the actuating signal and the RF signal exist on the same
pair of electrodes, its a switch

If the actuating signal and the RF signal exist on different


sets of electrodes, its a relay

> Variable capacitors can be tuned continually over their range


> Switchable capacitors can switch between two discrete
capacitance values

> Resonators vibrate at a particular (often tunable) frequency and


>

are useful for filters


Components use a common set of actuation mechanisms

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 7

The Wish List for RF MEMS


> Low power operation
> Fast switching
> High force (especially for making electrical contact)
> Large analog-controllable actuator travel
> Simple fabrication
Few masks
Standard, CMOS-compatible processes and materials
Ability to be fabricated on the same chip as circuits
> Low voltage
> Robust operation, not prone to failures
> Ability to sense as well as actuate
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 8

Outline

> Sorting through design options


> Actuator characteristics, examples of actuators, and
theoretical and practical limits
Electrostatic
Thermal
Piezoelectric
Magnetic

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 9

Major Classes of MEMS Actuators


> Electrostatic
Attraction between oppositely charged
conductors

Figure 1 on p. 222 in Agrawal, V. "A Latching MEMS Relay for DC and RF


Applications." Electrical Contacts-2004: Proceedings of the 50th IEEE Holm
Conference on Electrical Contacts; The 22nd International Conference on
Electrical Contacts, Seattle, WA. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2004, pp. 222-225.
ISBN: 9780780384606. 2004 IEEE.

> Thermal
Displacement due to thermal
expansion

> Piezoelectric
Displacement due to strain induced by

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.


Figure 11 on p. 342 in Zavracky, P. M., N. E.
McGruer, R. H. Morrison, and D. Potter.
"Microswitches and Microrelays with a View
Toward Microwave Applications." International
Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided
Engineering 9, no. 4 (1999): 338-347.

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.


4 actuators displayed side-by-side to show
how small they are.

an electric field

> Magnetic
Displacement due to interaction among
various magnetic elements:
permanent magnets, external magnetic
Figure 8 on p. 43 in De Los Santos, H. J., G. Fischer, H. A. C. Tilmans, and J. T. M.
fields, magnetizable material, andvan
Beek. "RF MEMS for Ubiquitous Wireless Connectivity. Part I. Fabrication." IEEE
Mirowave Magazine 5, no. 4 (December 2004) 36-49. 2004 IEEE.
current-carrying conduct
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 10

Recessed Actuation Electrodes

Spring

Upper capacitor plate

Lower capacitor plate

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 11

Gaining Additional Travel with Leveraged Bending

> Pull-in is modified if the actuating electrodes are


away from the point of closest approach
1)

2)

Figure 3 on p. 499 in Hung, E. S., and S. D. Senturia.


"Extending the Travel Range of Analog-tuned Electrostatic Actuators."
Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 8, no. 4 (December 1999):
497-505. 1999 IEEE.

with stressstiffening

3)

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 12

Zipper electrostatic actuators

Figure 1 on p. 29 in Ionis, G. V., A. Dec, and K. Suyama. "A Zipper-action


Differential Micro-mechanical Tunable Capacitor." MEMS 2001: 2001
Microelectromechanical Systems Conference, Berkeley, CA, August, 24-26,
2001. New York, NY: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2002.
ISBN: 9780780372245. 2002 IEEE.

Curved electrode actuators


Variable capacitor for RF

Figure 10 on p. 263 in Legtenberg, R., J. Gilbert, S. D. Senturia, and M.


Elwenspoek. "Electrostatic Curved Electrode Actuators." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 6, no. 3 (September 1997): 257-265.
1997 IEEE.

Figure 2 on p. 30 in Ionis, G. V., A. Dec, and K. Suyama. "A Zipper-action


Differential Micro-mechanical Tunable Capacitor." MEMS 2001: 2001
Microelectromechanical Systems Conference, Berkeley, CA, August, 24-26,
2001. New York, NY: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2002.
ISBN: 9780780372245. 2002 IEEE.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 13

Comb Drive Application: Variable Capacitor

Images removed due to copyright restrictions.


Figure 2 on p. 126 in Yao, J. J., S. Park, and J. DeNatale. "High Tuning-ratio MEMS-based Tunable Capacitors for RF
Communications Applications." 1998 Hilton Head Workshop on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators, Technical Digest 98TRF-0001.

Area-tuning capacitor made by deep reactive ion etching.


Tuning with area rather than gap promotes stability and tuning
range, but fabrication is more challenging and expensive.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 14

Electrostatic inchworm actuatorss

Figure 4d on p. 332 in Yeh, R., S. Hollar,


and K. S. J. Pister. "Single Mask, Large
Force, and Large Displacement
Electrostatic Linear Inchworm Motors."
Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
11, no. 4 (August 2002): 330-336. 2002 IEEE.

Figure 5 on p. 333 in Yeh, R., S. Hollar, and K. S. J. Pister. "Single Mask, Large Force, and
Large Displacement Electrostatic Linear Inchworm Motors." Journal of Microelectromechanical
ystems 11, no. 4 (August 2002): 330-336. 2002 IEEE.

Inchworm (more travel by


repeated motion)
Figure 4c on p. 332 in Yeh, R., S. Hollar, and K. S. J. Pister. "Single Mask,
Large Force, and Large Displacement Electrostatic Linear Inchworm Motors."
Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 11, no. 4 (August 2002): 330-336.
2002 IEEE.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 15

Electrostatic distributed actuators

Figure 1 on p. 122 in Minami, K., S. Kawamura, and M. Esashi. "Fabrication of Distributed Electrostatic Micro
Actuator (DEMA)." Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 2, no. 3 (September 1993): 121-127. 1993 IEEE.

Distributed actuators (more force and distance by series and parallel


combination)
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 16

Electrostatic scratch drive actuators

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.


Figure 1 on p. 737 in Li, L., J. G. Brown, and
D. Uttamchandri. "Study of Scratch Drive
Actuator Force Characteristics." Journal of
Micromechanics and Microengineering 12,
no. 6 (November 2002): 736-741.
Image removed due to copyright restrictions.
Figure 4 on p. 738 in Li, L., J. G. Brown, and
D. Uttamchandri. "Study of Scratch Drive
Actuator Force Characteristics." Journal of
Micromechanics and Microengineering 12,
no. 6 (November 2002): 736-741.

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.


Figure 2 on p. 737 in Li, L., J. G. Brown, and
D. Uttamchandri. "Study of Scratch Drive
Actuator Force Characteristics." Journal of
Micromechanics and Microengineering 12,
no. 6 (November 2002): 736-741.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 17

10000

10000

1000

1000
Breakdown voltage
Breakdown field

100

100

10

10

10

100

1000

Breakdown field (V/m)

Breakdown voltage (V)

Limits on electrostatic actuators: Paschens curve

1
10000

Separation-Pressure (m-atm)
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

J. Judy, masters thesis, Berkeley.


Original reference: F. Paschen, Ann. Physik, 273 (1889) pp. 69-96.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 18

Electrostatic actuators: force and distance

1 mN

1 m

1 mm

Courtesy of S. Mark Spearing. Used with permission.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 19

Electrostatic actuators: frequency and force

1 MHz

1 kHz

1 Hz

1 mN
Courtesy of S. Mark Spearing. Used with permission.

Max frequency reflects reported values and resonant frequencies.


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 20

Electrostatic Actuators and the Wish List


> Low power operation

> Fast switching (electrical RC times, maybe resonance)

> High force (obtain N to maybe mN if heroic)

> Large analog-controllable actuator travel

> Simple fabrication

Few masks
Standard, CMOS-compatible processes and materials
Ability to be fabricated on the same chip as circuits

> Low voltage

> Robust operation, not prone to failures (stiction, dust)

so-so

> Ability to sense as well as actuate

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 21

Thermal Actuation
> Heat up a moveable structure; when it expands, you get force
and displacement

> A variety of different structures can take advantage of this type


of actuation (example: thermal bimorph in a circuit breaker)

> Good features:


High force, moderate displacement
Lower actuation voltages
Relatively simple fabrication
> Not so good features:
Slower switching speeds (hundreds of microseconds)
Higher power dissipation: continuous current needed to
maintain displacement unless structure latches
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 22

Thermal bimorph actuator

Images removed due to copyright restrictions.


Figure 1 on p. 411 and Figure 4a) on p. 412 in Sehr, H., I. S. Tomlin, B. Huang, S. P. Beeby, A. G. R. Evans, A.
Brunnschweiler, G. J. Ensell, C. G. J. Schabmueller, and T. E. G. Niblock. "Time Constant and Lateral Resonances
of Thermal Vertical Bimorph Actuators." Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering 12, no. 4 (July 2002): 410-413.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 23

Buckle Beam Thermal Actuator


> Concept:
Run a current through a
V-shaped beam

Power dissipation heats


beam and makes it
expand

Pre-buckled shape
ensures that point of V
moves outward

> Uniform heat dissipation in


beam

Figure 1 on p. 652 in Girbau, D., A. Lazaro, and L. Pradell. "RF MEMS


Switches Based on the Buckle-beam Thermal Actuator." 33rd
European Microwave Conference, 2003, Munich, Germany,
October 7-9, 2003: Conference Proceedings 2 (2003): 651-654. 2003 IEEE.

> Center heats up more


because its more isolated
from the supports
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 24

Buckle Beam Thermal Actuator


> Force increases linearly when
actuators are connected in
parallel

> Displacement is unchanged


> Used here to close RF
switches in series and
parallel configurations

> One consideration: it can be


harder to get low contact
resistance for contact
between vertical sidewalls
than for contact between
horizontal surfaces

Figures 6 and 7 on p. 653 in Girbau, D., A. Lazaro, and L. Pradell.


RF MEMS Switches Based on the Buckle-beam Thermal Actuator.
33rd European Microwave Conference, 2003, Munich, Germany,
October 7-9, 2003: Conference Proceedings 2 (2003): 651-654. 2003 IEEE.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 25

Electrothermal Actuator: Heatuator


Basic heatuator with one wide
and one narrow beam

Figure 1 on p. 222 in Agrawal, V. "A Latching MEMS Relay


for DC and RF Applications." Electrical Contacts-2004:
Proceedings of the 50th IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical
Contacts; The 22nd International Conference on Electrical
Contacts, Seattle, WA. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2004, pp. 222-225.
ISBN: 9780780384606. 2004 IEEE.

Modified heatuator: two narrow


beams and one unheated signal beam

Figure 2 on p. 222 in Agrawal, V. "A Latching MEMS Relay for DC and RF


Applications." Electrical Contacts-2004: Proceedings of the 50th IEEE Holm Conference on
Electrical Contacts; The 22nd International Conference on Electrical Contacts, Seattle, WA,
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2004, pp. 222-225. ISBN: 9780780384606. 2004 IEEE.

> Analogous to a thermal bimorph, except bimaterial


sandwich is replaced by a wide signal beam (cold)
and narrow beams (hot).
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 26

Electrothermal Relay with Mechanical Latch

Mechanical latch reduces


power consumption after
switching and closes the
relay.

Figure 3 on p. 223 in Agrawal, V. "A Latching MEMS Relay for DC and RF Applications." Electrical
contacts-2004: proceedings of the 50th IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts; the 22nd
International Conference on Electrical Contacts, Seattle, WA. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2004, pp. 222-225.
ISBN: 9780780384606. 2004 IEEE.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 27

Thermal actuators: force and distance

1N

1 mN

1 m
Courtesy of S. Mark Spearing. Used with permission.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 28

Thermal actuators: frequency and force

1 kHz

1 mN

1N

Courtesy of S. Mark Spearing. Used with permission.

Max frequency reflects reported values and thermal time constants.


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 29

Thermal Actuators and the Wish List


> Low power operation

> Fast switching

so-so

> High force (N to N, mN typical)

> Large analog-controllable actuator travel (1-100 um)

> Simple fabrication (is possible, at least)


3
Few masks
Standard, CMOS-compatible processes and materials
Ability to be fabricated on the same chip as circuits
> Low voltage

> Robust operation, not prone to failures

> Ability to sense as well as actuate

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 30

Piezoelectric Actuation

> Apply an electric field across a piezoelectric material;


deformation (strain) results, along with actuator
deflection and force

> Different piezoelectric geometries are possible


> Good features:
High force
High switching speeds
Low power dissipation

> Not so good features:


Small strains must be engineered into useful displacements
Complex fabrication and nontrivial materials
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 31

Piezoelectric Actuators

___________________ Used with permission. Figure 1a on p. 92 in


Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., http://www.sciencedirect.com.
Zhang, Q. Q., S. J. Gross, S. Tadigadapa, T. N. Jackson, F. T. Djuth, and S. Trolier-McKinstry. "Lead
Zirconate Titanate Films for d33 Mode Cantilever Actuators." Sensors and Actuators A, Physical 105,
no. 1 (June 2003): 91-97.

> PZT layer is fabricated on top of cantilever, sandwiched between


electrodes, and poled in the vertical direction

> Electric field is applied between top and bottom electrodes,


parallel to polarization

> d31: PZT develops a negative strain in the transverse direction;


>

rest of cantilever does not


Cantilever bends up

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 32

Piezoelectric Actuators

___________________ Used with permission. Figure 1a on p. 92 in


Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., http://www.sciencedirect.com.
Zhang, Q. Q., S. J. Gross, S. Tadigadapa, T. N. Jackson, F. T. Djuth, and S. Trolier-McKinstry. "Lead
Zirconate Titanate Films for d33 Mode Cantilever Actuators." Sensors and Actuators A, Physical 105,
no. 1 (June 2003): 91-97.

> If electric field is opposite to the polarization, the cantilever will


deflect in the opposite direction, up to a point

> Consequence: stronger restoring forces and faster responses


possible than with an unactuated return

> If antiparallel electric field is too large, PZT will repole in the
other direction
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 33

Piezoelectric Actuators

Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., ____________________


http://www.sciencedirect.com. Used with permission. Figure 1b on p. 92 in
Zhang, Q. Q., S. J. Gross, S. Tadigadapa, T. N. Jackson, F. T. Djuth, and S. Trolier-McKinstry. "Lead
Zirconate Titanate Films for d33 Mode Cantilever Actuators." Sensors and Actuators A, Physical 105,
no. 1 (June 2003): 91-97.

> PZT layer is fabricated on top of cantilever, under interdigitated


electrodes

> Electric field is in the plane; PZT is poled in the plane


> d33: With E parallel to poling, PZT develops a positive strain in
the direction of its length; cantilever bends down

> Again, antiparallel E has opposite effect within limits


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 34

Piezoelectric RF MEMS Switch


> Piezoelectric cantilever driven by
interdigitated electrodes, d33

> Cantilever is multilayer stack,


both for film stress compensation
(so the cantilever starts out flat)
and for maximum actuation force
and deflection

> Cantilever layers, from the


bottom: 50 nm oxide barrier, 500
nm SiN structural layer, 50 nm
oxide adhesion layer, 300 nm
zirconia, 230 nm PZT, Cr/Au
electrodes and contacts

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Figures 1a and 1b on p. 175 in Gross, S. J., S. Tadigadapa,


T. N. Jackson, S. Trolier-McKinstry, and Q. Q. Zhang.
"Lead-zirconate-titanate-based Piezoelectric Micromachined
Switch." Applied Physics Letters 83, no. 1 (July 2003): 174-176.

> Few microsecond switching


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 35

Thin Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator (FBAR)


> Suspended structure: a sandwich
of piezoelectric material between
electrodes

> Apply an AC signal to electrodes


at the proper frequency, and the
piezoelectric resonates
mechanically

Figure 1 on p. 1687 in Wang, K., P. Bradley, and M. Gat.


"Micromachined Bulk Acoustical-wave RF Filters." In 2004
7th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated
Circuits Technology proceedings, ICSICT 2004: October
18-21, 2004, Beijing, China, edited by Ru Huang. Piscataway,
NJ: IEEE Press, 2004, pp. 1687-1690. ISBN: 9780780385115.
2004 IEEE.

> Air interfaces minimize acoustic


losses into surrounding medium

> In commercial use (sold by Agilent


for cell phones)

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 36

Thin Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator (FBAR)


> Materials challenges:
Repeatability of piezoelectrics
properties (choose AlN and work
the process until it is repeatable)

Low acoustic losses and low


electrical losses (choose
Figure 2 on p. 814 in Ruby, R. C., P. Bradley, Y. Oshmyansky, A. Chien, and J. D. Larson, III. "Thin
molybdenum)
Film Bulk Wave Acoustic Resonators (FBAR) for Wireless Applications." In 2001 IEEE Ultrasonics
proceedings, an international symposium: October 7-10, 2001, Omni Hotel, Atlanta,
> Fabrication challenges: Symposium
Georgia, edited by Donald E. Yuhas and Susan C. Schneider. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2001,
pp. 813-821. ISBN: 9780780371774. 2001 IEEE.
Precise control of layer thickness
Process compatibility (with IC and

piezoelectric)

Structure built over an oxide-filled


cavity in the substrate; oxide
removed at end to release

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.


4 actuators displayed side-by-side to show how small they are.

Packaging in the fab, by wafer


bonding
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 37

Piezoelectric Actuators and the Wish List


> Low power operation

> Fast switching

> High force (10 N to mN)

> Large analog-controllable actuator travel (<0.1 m to mm) so-so


> Simple fabrication
2
Few masks
Standard, CMOS-compatible processes and materials
Ability to be fabricated on the same chip as circuits
> Low voltage

so-so

> Robust operation, not prone to failures

> Ability to sense as well as actuate

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 38

Magnetic Actuation

> Many variations on the magnetic actuators theme

Permanent magnets interacting with an external field


Permanent magnets interacting with current-carrying coils
Current carrying conductors interacting with an external field
Variable reluctance devices

> An important good feature: high force


> Not so good features:
Current drive means high power dissipation
Fabrication complexity and severe materials challenges

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 39

Electromagnetic actuators

Figure 3 on p. 79 in Cho, H. J., and C. H. Ahn. "A Bidirectional


Magnetic Microactuator Using Electroplated Permanent Magnet
Arrays." Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 11, no. 1
(February 2002): 78-84. 2002 IEEE.

Figure 1 on p. 79 in Cho, H. J., and C. H. Ahn. "A Bidirectional


Magnetic Microactuator Using Electroplated Permanent Magnet
Arrays." Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 11, no. 1
(February 2002): 78-84. 2002 IEEE.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 40

External magnetic field actuators

Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., ____________________


http://www.sciencedirect.com. Used with permission.
Figure 1 on p. 260 in Khoo, M., and C. Liu. "Micro Magnetic Silicone Elastome
Membrane Actuator. Sensors and Actuators A, Physical 89, no. 3 (April 2001):
259-266.

Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., ____________________


http://www.sciencedirect.com. Used with permission.
Figure 6 on p. 262 in Khoo, M., and C. Liu. "Micro Magnetic Silicone Elastome
Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., ____________________
http://www.sciencedirect.com. Used with permission. Membrane Actuator. Sensors and Actuators A, Physical 89, no. 3 (April 2001):
Figure 2 on p. 260 in Khoo, M., and C. Liu. "Micro Magnetic Silicone Elastome 259-266.
Membrane Actuator. Sensors and Actuators A, Physical 89, no. 3 (April 2001):
259-266.

External magnetic field actuator

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 41

Variable Reluctance Actuator Concept


> High permeability magnetic
deformable and fixed
structures form a magnetic
circuit that flux penetrates

> Increasing current through coil


increases magnetic flux

> Increasing magnetic flux


through the circuit narrows
actuator gap and draws
structures together

Figure 8 on p. 43 in De Los Santos, H. J., G. Fischer,


H. A. C. Tilmans, and J. T. M. van Beek. "RF MEMS for
Ubiquitous Wireless Connectivity. Part I. Fabrication."
IEEE Microwave Magazine 5, no. 4 (December 2004): 36-49.
2004 IEEE.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 42

Variable Reluctance Relay

Figure 2 on p. 26 in Tilmans, H.A.C., E. Fullin, H. Ziad, M. D. J. Van de Peer, J. Kesters, E. Van Geffen,
J. Bergqvist, M. Pantus, E. Beyne, K. Baert, and F. Naso. "A Fully-packaged Electromagnetic Microrelay."
MEMS '99: Twelfth IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems technical digest:
Orlando, Florida, USA, January 17-21, 1999. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 1999, pp. 25-30. ISBN: 9780780351943.
1999 IEEE.

> Two-wafer, flip-chip bonded implementation of variable


>

reluctance concept; thick electroplated structures


Switching speed > 500 Hz, operated at 2 V and 8 mA, 2 mN force

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 43

Variable Reluctance Relay

Figure 5 on p. 27 in Tilmans, H. A. C., E. Fullin, H. Ziad, M. D. J. Van de


Peer, J. Kesters, E. Van Geffen, J. Bergqvist, M. Pantus, E. Beyne, K.
Baert, and F. Naso. "A Fully-packaged Electromagnetic Microrelay.
MEMS '99: Twelfth IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro
Mechanical Systems technical digest: Orlando, Florida, USA, January
17-21, 1999. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 1999, pp. 25-30. ISBN: 9780780351943.
1999 IEEE.

Figure 6 on p. 27 in Tilmans, H. A. C., E. Fullin, H. Ziad, M. D. J.


Van de Peer, J. Kesters, E. Van Geffen, J. Bergqvist, M. Pantus,
E. Beyne, K. Baert, and F. Naso. "A Fully-packaged Electromagnetic
Microrelay. MEMS '99: Twelfth IEEE International Conference on Micro
Electro Mechanical Systems technical digest: Orlando, Florida, USA,
January 17-21, 1999. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 1999, pp. 25-30. ISBN:
9780780351943. 1999 IEEE.

> Wafer 1: a magnetic substrate with thick plated coils, poles, and
>

infrastructure for flip-chip packaging


Wafer 2: a silicon substrate with a plated armature and
provision for electrical contact and packaging

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 44

Issues with Magnetic Actuation

> Fabrication challenges:


Thick conductors and magnetic features
Standard approach: plating into a mold
Plating often produces surfaces that are not flat
planarization required

> Material limitations:


Not all magnetic materials can be deposited with MEMS
fabrication techniques

> Process limitations:


Not CMOS compatible
Minimize temperature during processing to avoid Curie

temperature
Eliminates some process steps from consideration and
modifies many others

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 45

Magnetic Actuators and the Wish List


> Low power operation (but latching can help)

> Fast switching

so-so

> High force (approaching mN)

> Large analog-controllable actuator travel (large gaps)

> Simple fabrication


2
Few masks
Standard, CMOS-compatible processes and materials
Ability to be fabricated on the same chip as circuits
> Low voltage

> Robust operation, not prone to failures

> Ability to sense as well as actuate

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 46

Force and distance


108

106

MACRO

Magnetostrictive
Electroactive polymer

Maximum force (N)

104

Thermal bimorph
Piezoelectric

Pneumatic

102

Hydraulic

SMA
State change

Topology optimized

State change

Fluid expansion

1
Magnetostrictive

10-2

Electromagnetic

Magnetic relay
Solid expansion
Piezoelectric expansion

10-4

SMA

External field
Scratch drive

Comb drive

Inchworm

Curved electrode

Thermal bimorph

Parallel-Plate

Impact actuator

10-6
10-8

Electrostatic relay

Thermal relay
Piezoelectric bimorph

Distributed actuator
Repulsive force

Electromagnetic

10-7

10-6

10-5

10-4

10-3

10-2

10-1

Maximum displacement (m)


Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 1 on p. S155 in Bell, D. J., T. J. Lu, N. A. Fleck, and S. M. Spearing. "MEMS Actuators and
Sensors: Observations on Their Performance and Selection for Purpose." Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering
15 (June 2005): S153-S164.

Not all macro actuators have micro versions, and


not all micro actuators have macro versions!
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 47

Frequency and displacement


109

108

Magnetostrictive
MACRO

Parallel-Plate

Maximum frequency (Hz)

106

Piezoelectric

Piezoelectric bimorph

Electrostatic relay
Magnetic relay

Curved electrode

Repulsive force

Piezoelectric expansion
Electromagnetic

104
External field

Solid expansion

Electroactive polymer

Comb drive

102

Magnetostrictive

Hydraulic

Thermal bimorph

Thermal relay

Electromagnetic

Thermal bimorph

Fluid expansion

Topology optimized

Pneumatic

State change

State change

SMA

S-Shaped actuator

SMA

Inchworm

Distributed actuator

10-2

Scratch drive
Impact actuator

10-4

10-7

10-6

10-5

10-4

10-3

10-2

10-1

Maximum displacement (m)


Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Adapted from Figure 3 on p. S157 in Bell, D. J., T. J. Lu, N. A. Fleck, and S. M. Spearing.
"MEMS Actuators and Sensors: Observations on Their Performance and Selection for Purpose."
Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering 15 (June 2005): S153-S164.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 48

Different Options Have Different Advantages


Electrostatic

Thermal

Piezo

Magnetic

Low power

Fast switch

High force

Large travel

Simple fab

Low voltage

Robustness

Sense/actuate

> What is most important for your application?


> What suboptimal parameters can your application tolerate?
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 49

Conclusions
> An awareness of the options can give you a head start in
designing a device or process, and improve your device
intuition

Literature awareness
Design charts
> Other factors come into play as well:
Ease of fabrication
Materials compatibilities
Resolution
Calibration
Robustness
Power consumption
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 21 - 50

Case Study: Power MEMS

Carol Livermore
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Thanks to the MIT microengine team, past and present, for many of
these materials. Thanks also to A. Forte, J. Yoon, and T. Lyszczarz of
Lincoln Laboratory.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22 - 1

Outline
> Brief overview of power MEMS
> MIT microengine
What to make it from, and how?
High speed rotation
Combustion
Motors and generators
Putting it all together

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22 - 2

Motivation for power MEMS


> MEMS are well established for many sensing and actuation
applications (accelerometers, pressure sensors, fine positioning
of small components)

> Many useful macroscale systems have high power requirements


and typically use macro-scale, non-MEMS solutions

Electric power generation


Propulsion
Cooling
Lasers

> When the performance of high power macro-scale systems


limits the system performance, look for solutions wherever they
may be!

Sometimes scaling favors MEMS


and sometimes it doesnt.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22 - 3

What to expect today


> No commercial case study today
Consider portable power your laptop still uses batteries!
But, the market is there for a truly improved system-level
solution

> What we hope to get out of this


Contrast with the common temptation to focus on some parts

of a design and assume that a solution exists for the


remaining parts
This is a failure often seen in packaging
But, power MEMS tend to push against all limits at the same
time: thermal limits, strength of materials, breakdown
voltages, thermal
See examples in which these were (or werent) successfully
considered
Working within fabrication limits

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22 - 4

Options for electric power generation


> Macroscale heat engines

A clear win when you can find a wall to plug into, because you have
dense energy storage in combustible fuels and efficient generation
in large scale systems

> Batteries

The usual portable power solution, but they can be cumbersome for
high power/long usage applications

> Fuel cells

Hydrogen + oxygen = water + electricity


One concern: size of total system required to make it work

> Power MEMS

Fuel burning systems: miniature heat engines of various types,


micro fuel cells, thermally driven systems (i.e. thermoelectric)

Energy harvesters: vibrations and other motions, waste heat can


provide low levels of power
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22 - 5

Extractable energy

Portable power metrics

batteries

fueled generator
System weight
hardware weight
Other metric: power level vs. system weight
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22 - 6

Piezoelectric energy harvester

Piezoelectric cantilever converts strain


energy to electric energy.
Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., http://www.sciencedirect.com.
___________________ Used with permission. Figure 3
on p. 18 in Jeon, Y. B., R. Sood, J.-h. Jeong, and S.-G. Kim. "MEMS Power Generator with
Transverse Mode Thin Film PZT." Sensors and Actuators A, Physical 122, no. 1 (July 2005): 16-22.

1 W power output

Fabrication and stress control are not


trivial!

___________________ Used
Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., http://www.sciencedirect.com.
with permission. Figure 11 on p. 21 in Jeon, Y. B., R. Sood,
J.-h. Jeong, and S.-G. Kim. "MEMS Power Generator with
Transverse Mode Thin Film PZT." Sensors and Actuators A,
Physical 122, no. 1 (July 2005): 16-22.

___________________ Used with permission. Figure 5 on p. 19 in


Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., http://www.sciencedirect.com.
Jeon, Y. B., R. Sood, J.-h. Jeong, and S.-G. Kim. "MEMS Power Generator with Transverse Mode
Thin Film PZT." Sensors and Actuators A, Physical 122, no. 1 (July 2005): 16-22.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22 - 7

MEMS fuel processor


Figure 1 on p. 601 in Arana, L.R., S. B. Schaevitz, A. J. Franz, M. A. Schmidt, and
K. F. Jensen, "A Microfabricated Suspended-tube Chemical Reactor for Thermally Efficient
Fuel Processing." Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 12, no. 5 (2003): 600-612.
2003 IEEE.

Figure 2 on p. 602 in Arana, L. R., S. B.


Schaevitz, A. J. Franz, M. A. Schmidt, and K.
F. Jensen, "A Microfabricated Suspended-tube
Chemical Reactor for Thermally Efficient
Fuel Processing." Journal of
Microelectromechanical Systems 12, no.
5 (2003): 600-612. 2003 IEEE.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22 - 8

MEMS fuel processor

Figure 4 on p. 605 in Arana, L. R., S. B. Schaevitz, A. J. Franz,


M. A. Schmidt, and K. F. Jensen. "A Microfabricated Suspended-tube
Chemical Reactor for Thermally Efficient Fuel Processing."
Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 12, no. 5
(2003): 600-612. 2003 IEEE.

Figure 5 on p. 606 in Arana, L. R., S. B. Schaevitz, A. J. Franz, M. A. Schmidt,


and K. F. Jensen, "A Microfabricated Suspended-tube Chemical Reactor for
Thermally Efficient Fuel Processing." Journal of Microelectromechanical
Systems 12, no. 5 (2003): 600-612. 2003 IEEE.

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22 - 9

Outline
> Overview of power MEMS
> MIT microengine
What to make it from, and how?
High speed rotation
Combustion
Motors and generators
Putting it all together

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22 - 10

Detailed case study: MIT microengine project


> Goal: an electric generator driven by a miniature gas turbine
engine, with overall performance exceeding that of the best
batteries

> Unlikely to compete favorably with macroscale gas turbines


lower efficiency

> But, hydrocarbon fuels have high energy density (of order
13,000 W-hr/kg), so even a lower efficiency may outperform
batteries (up to ~200 W-hr/kg for rechargeables) on overall
energy density

> Other consideration: hardware size


> Similar considerations for all fuel-burning power generators
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22 - 11

Micro gas turbine engine


Starting air in

Compressor

P3

Inlet

3.7 mm

Exhaust
21 mm

Combustor

Turbine

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Thrust = 11 g

Turbine inlet temp = 1600K (2421F)

Fuel burn = 16 g/hr

Rotor speed = 1.2 x 106 RPM

Engine weight = 2 grams

Exhaust gas temp = 970C

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22 - 12

Portable compact power sources

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

Image removed due to copyright restrictions.

> Approach

Simple cycle gas turbine


Direct drive generator (1.2M RPM)
MEMS fabrication

> Near-term performance goals

5% efficiency (chemical to electrical)


1-10 watts output

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22 - 13

What to make the microengine from?


> Considerations:
Combustion and high temperature
Stresses from high rotational speed
Need for highly-controlled feature geometries

> Candidate materials:


Nothing from the polymer family
Conventionally-machined but tiny metal parts (known to be okay
from high T/strength point of view, not limited to 2D patterns,
possibly easier to machine, likely harder to assemble)

Single crystal silicon (high T OK, readily micromachined, strength?)


Other microfabrication-compatible materials, such as silicon
carbide (better high T performance, not so easy to micromachine)

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22 - 14

Design choice: micromachined structure


> Silicon has deep reactive ion etching (DRIE)
> DRIE exists for silicon carbide as well, but it is slower and does
not give as good a profile

> Conclusion: to start out, we are stuck with silicon or nothing.


So can silicon do the job?

Good news: single crystal silicon has close to zero defects, so it


will have few points of inherent weakness

More good news: silicon is lightweight, so it will have less


tendency to tear itself apart than a heavier material would

Bad news: silicon is brittle, so if something bad happens, it will


likely involve catastrophic failure

> Parallel approach chosen: demonstrate engine in silicon,


measure silicons properties, and look into silicon carbide
technology
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22 - 15

Microfabricated vs. conventional materials for high


temperature structures
Static Structure

Rotating Structure

Courtesy of H. Moon, L. Anand, and S. Mark Spearing. Used with permission.


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22 - 16

Other structural concerns


> Factors affecting the strength of
micromachined silicon devices:

Surface finish of etched surfaces (etch


defects can initiate fracture)

Fillet radius
roughness control

Strength of wafer bonds


Courtesy of S. Mark Spearing andcompany. Used with permission.
Deep etch profiles: does base have a
fillet radius or a notched undercut?

> Manufacturability and performance of silicon


carbide structures

Rotor FEM
Courtesy of S. Mark Spearing and company.
Used with permission.

CVD SiC Moulding

TEM of CVD SiC/Si

Courtesy of S. Mark Spearing and company. Used with permission.


Courtesy of S. Mark Spearing and company. Used with permission.
Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22 - 17

Fabrication approach: DRIE and wafer bonding


1. Pattern front side of Si wafer using
photolithography
2. Etch deep, straight-walled etch with an
anisotropic deep reactive ion etcher
3. Pattern back side of wafer, aligning to
front side features
4. Deep reactive ion etch the back side of
wafer
5. Align and fusion bond first patterned
wafer to a second patterned wafer

Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22 - 18

Patterning of six-wafer engine stack

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Cite as: Carol Livermore, course materials for 6.777J / 2.372J Design and Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices, Spring 2007. MIT
OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

C. Livermore: 6.777J/2.372J Spring 2007, Lecture 22 - 19

Pros and cons of fabrication approach


> To first order, in plane complexity is free
Just use a more complicated mask

> DRIE can produce high aspect