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Alloying

Elements

Carbon

Manganese

Phosphorous

Sign Effect on Steel Mechanical and Corrosion


Properties

Necessary to convert iron in to Steel and allow


hardening and increase in strength increase tensile
strength and hardness but reduces toughness.
Reduce weldability. Increase corrosion. Restricted to
0.030% in stainless steel
( L-grades ) to reduce sensitization during welding

Improve hot working properties and increases


tensile strength , hardness and abrasion resistance.
Mn. Austenite Forming element. Decrease porosity and
cracking forms sulphides that may cause hydrogen
induced cracking

Increase brittleness and cracking during welding.


Increase being restricted to < 0.025 % for sweet and
< 0.015 % for sour service pipe. Added with sulphur
to steel to improve machinability but such materials
should not be used for submarine service.

Alloying
Elements

Sulphur

Selenium
Silicone

Aluminium

Sign Effect on Steel Mechanical and Corrosion


Properties

Increase Porosity, brittleness and cracking by hot


Shortness during forming forms manganese sulphide
that
trap hydrogen leading to internal cracking. Surface
emergent sulphides initiate pitting. Increasingly
restricted to 0.01 % Sweet and < 0.005 % for sour
Pipe line.

Added to improve machinability. Not use for pipe


Se. line Steels.
Si

Al

Increase tensile strength but markedly reduce


toughness. Added as a deoxidizer to kill the steel
( removal gases ). Restricted to 0.35 0.4 %
Used to refine grain size. Increase harness. Added as
a deoxidizer to kill steel. Add weld toughness when
added to 0.02 0.05 %

Alloying
Elements

Copper

Calcium

Chromium

Cobalt

Sign Effect on Steel Mechanical and Corrosion


Properties
Improves sour cracking resistance for improvements
at pH>4.5. Affects corrosivity of weld HAZ. In
Cu conjunction with Ni claimed to stabilized corrosion
films and reduce corrosion. Often used with NI for
pipe line for bends and in thick section pipe. Tramp
elements in stainless steels though used to increase
hardness in special alloys.
Deoxidiser and desulphuriser. Secondary addition
Ca. used for inclusion shape control for sour service pipe
steel.
Used to improve resistance to oxidation. Increase
Cr. tensile strength and hardness. Decreases
weldability. Has major effect on corrosion resistance.
Material become a stainless steel if Cr 12 %
Tramp element. Become radioactive when irradiated
Co so generally minimized.

Alloying
Elements

Molybdenum

Titanium

Sign Effect on Steel Mechanical and Corrosion


Properties
Increase tensile strength and corrosion resistance .
Reduce Pitting attack when added to chromium
Mo Nickel stainless steel. Used in High grade bends as it
improves hot hardness.
Micro alloying element. Increase tensile strength,
Ti. hardenability and wear resistance. Combines with
carbon to form carbides that may reduce toughness.
Used in stainless steel to prevent sensitization.
Austenite stabiliser. Increase strength but reduce
low temperature toughness. Used to increase
strength of austenitic ( N grade ) and Duplex
stainless steel. Restricted to 0.09 to 0.15 %

Nitrogen

Niobium

Micro-alloying elements in C-Steel and always added


Nb. to steel above X42. used to stabilised carbon in
stainless steel to prevent sensitision.

Vanadium

Vn.

Increase tensile strength , hardenability and wear


resistance . Used micro alloying element for thick
pipeline material.