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PROFIBUS Troubleshooting & Maintenance V8.1.

14 January 2011

Title slide

TroubleshootingandMaintenance
Copyright 1999-2011 PROCENTEC. All rights reserved.

www.procentec.com

PROCENTEC www.procentec.com

Is a completely independent company


(offices and local support in The Netherlands, Germany and Singapore).

Concentrates products and services on PROFIBUS and PROFINET


technology.

Operational areas: Europe, Asia, Middle-East and North America.


Core activities:
Field
Fi ld work
k (on-site
(
it ttroubleshooting
bl h ti
and
d support)
t)
Manufacturing of network components and tools
Certification (products and installations)
Training
2
3.3

Copyright 1999-2011 PROCENTEC. All rights reserved.

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PROFIBUS Troubleshooting & Maintenance V8.1.0

14 January 2011

Subjects (1)
Introduction
Basic principles
OSI model
Topology
Addressing
Communication relations
Token passing
Baudrates
RS 485 and PROFIBUS DP
The technology of RS 485
Signaling
Cable specification, construction and variants
Topology (cable lengths, spur lines)
DB9 and M12 connector
Termination
Repeaters
Grounding and shielding
External influences on the bus cable
IEC 61000-5-2
Grounding and shielding between cabinets
Distances between high voltage cable
3

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Subjects (2)
Basic principles of data communication technology
Impedance, delays
Attenuation, skin effect
Reflections
Test- and measurement tools
Handheld tools
Oscilloscopes
Busmonitors
Busparameters
PROFIBUS PA
DP/PA couplers and links
Topology
Cable specifications
Terminators and connectors
Parameters and profiles
Strategy of fault finding

Copyright 1999-2011 PROCENTEC. All rights reserved.

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PROFIBUS Troubleshooting & Maintenance V8.1.0

14 January 2011

A few words of some inexperienced engineers and marketeers:

The cabling is the easiest


part of bus systems..
Yeah right!!!!!

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A change in working and thinking for the entire organization


The engineers and maintenance technicians who have just stepped out of the 420 mA technology had to understand a lot of new terms which makes the step to
field busses veryy hard

Not understanding these topics is not good for the Bus business!
6

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PROFIBUS Troubleshooting & Maintenance V8.1.0

14 January 2011

Change in technology means change in tools!


conventional

Process Control

analog

D CPU

smart

4..20 mA

D CPU

analog + digital (hybrid)

HART

D CPU

4..20 mA
smart signal

D CPU

digital
digital

D CPU

Fieldbus

0 1 0 1 0

CPU

A multi-meter can not be used with digital technology.


7

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What can happen in a running installation?


OS

OS

Internet
Internet

Programming faults
PROFINET / Ethernet / TCP-IP

Connection faults, reflections,


Process
wire breaks, short circuits

Manufacturing
IPC

PLC

RS 485-IS or MBP-IS

RS 485 or FO

PROFIBUS DP

PROFIBUS DP/PA

?
AS-Interface

Faulty address

Instrument removal

Instrument or I/O failure


8

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PROFIBUS Troubleshooting & Maintenance V8.1.0

14 January 2011

Confusion about the LEDs!


Problems can be very difficult to diagnose without the correct tools and a
systematic approach. Intermittent faults can be particularly difficult.
The main problem is that the devices that are most affected are often at the
opposite end of the segment from the source of the reflection!
Cause of reflection,
e.g. spur line
T

Bus fault

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PROFIBUS Troubleshooting & Maintenance V8.1.0

14 January 2011

Basic principles

Basic principles

11
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Basic principles

Overview of the PROFIBUS application layers

PROFIBUS
DP

PROFIBUS
PA

PROFIsafe

PROFIdrive

Nothing

PA Devices

PROFIsafe

PROFIdrive

Communication
technology

FDL + DP

FDL + DP

FDL + DP

FDL + DP

Transmission
technology

RS 485

MBP-IS

RS 485

RS 485

Market name

Profile

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PROFIBUS Troubleshooting & Maintenance V8.1.0

14 January 2011

Basic principles

PROFIBUS supports 3 transmission media


RS 485
2-wire CU-cable for
general purposes
Fiber Optic
For highest EMC protection
and wide distances

MBP--IS
MBP
2-wire CU-cable with the option for
power over the bus and Ex-protection

Coupler

Coupler

Fiber optic cable

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Basic principles

PROFIBUS is a master/slave network


To create hierarchy in the network, PROFIBUS defines 2 types of devices:
active (masters) and passive (slaves) devices.
master
0 1 0 1 0

commands

responses

slave

0 1 0 1 0

network

At least 1 master is mandatory.


PROFIBUS networks allow multiple masters.
In total 127 devices can be addressed (masters + slaves).
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3.1

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PROFIBUS Troubleshooting & Maintenance V8.1.0

14 January 2011

Basic principles

Master

This station is permanently responsible for the control of the network. The
station can generate messages, send these to slaves and interpret responses
of slaves.
Examples
p
PLCs
DCS systems
PCs

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Basic principles

Slave

This station can interpret messages of a master and dependent on the


interpretation, generate responses and send them to the specific master.
Slaves are NOT able to send messages on its own initiative.
Examples:
Remote I/O
Sensors and actuators
There are also PLC systems available which have slave functionality. They are
slave on DP, but can control I/O locally.

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PROFIBUS Troubleshooting & Maintenance V8.1.0

14 January 2011

Basic principles

Topology
PROFIBUS communicates over a two wire bus structure.
sending

listen,
taking over and
answering

listen

0 1 0 1 0

117
43

5
listen

listen

Devices are addressed through a network address (0..126).


Devices are coupled in parallel to the bus.
Devices have no fixed position on the bus.
Devices can be removed and inserted during operation.
17

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Basic principles

Assigning the address by dipswitches


Significance

16

32

64

ON

Software

OFF

Hardware
1

Address = 1 + 0 + 4 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 5
After changing the hardware address, most of the time the device has to be
powered down/up.

18
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PROFIBUS Troubleshooting & Maintenance V8.1.0

14 January 2011

Basic principles

Assigning the address by software


When devices do not have dipswitches, the address can be assigned with the
PROFIBUS Set Slave Address command. A number of tools are available to
fulfil this function.

With PROFIBUS PA considerably


more devices do not have
dipswitches.
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Basic principles

PROFIBUS address map


0

Service-, diagnosis- and programming tool

1..2

Masters (class 1)

3..125

Slaves (total 123 or 124)

126

Address for: Set Slave Address

127

Broadcast address

Most configuration tools block address 0 and 126 for slaves.


Address 126 is a default address for slaves with software address settings.
Address
Add
127 is
i ab
broadcast
d
t address
dd
(only
( l visible
i ibl with
ith a b
busmonitor).
it )
Maximum 124 DP slaves per bus!!!!!!!

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PROFIBUS Troubleshooting & Maintenance V8.1.0

14 January 2011

Basic principles

Medium access by token passing

Active stations,, master devices

PC

PLC

DCS

PROFIBUS protocol

Polling of passive stations (slave devices)

21

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Basic principles

Transmission speed (baudrate)


PROFIBUS offers the user the possibility to choose from 10 transmission speeds (RS
485).

9,6

19,2

45,45

93,75

187,5

500

1500

3000

6000

12000 kbps

Remarks:
The transmission speed determines the maximum cable length and vice versa.
The transmission speed has to be set identically at all the masters on the same bus.
Most slaves detect the baudrate automatically.
Because of economic and technical reasons some products do not support all
transmission speeds.
Some older products do not support 45,45 kbps.

22
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PROFIBUS Troubleshooting & Maintenance V8.1.0

14 January 2011

Application layers

23
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Application layers

IEC 61158
General Purpose
Automation

Factory Automation

Process Automation

PROFIBUS FMS

PROFIBUS DP

PROFIBUS PA

RS 485 / FO

RS 485 / FO

MBP-IS

Speed

Application oriented

Universal
- Large variety of applications
- Multi-master communication

- Plug and play


- Efficient and cost effective

Device
e Profiles
Applica
ation Profiles

At this moment the application layer of the PROFIBUS family consists out of 2 standards
+ profiles:
DP (DP-V0, DP-V1, DP-V2)
PA

- Power over the bus


- Intrinsic safety

24
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PROFIBUS Troubleshooting & Maintenance V8.1.0

14 January 2011

PROFIBUS DP

PROFIBUS DP

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PROFIBUS DP

Decentralized Peripherals (DP)


Based on high speed data exchange between a central controller (master) and
a number of slaves. The data transfer is cyclic.
The slaves are polled every cycle with the same priority.
Maximum 244 bytes input and 244 bytes output per slave.
Maximum baudrate: 12 Mbps.
Slave configuration and parameters are set from the master side.
Extended diagnostic possibilities.
124 slaves can be put in Data Exchange.
32 stations on one copper segment (RS 485).

26
2.3

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13

PROFIBUS Troubleshooting & Maintenance V8.1.0

14 January 2011

PROFIBUS DP

PROFIBUS DP Multimaster system

DP master
(class 2)

DP master
(class 1)

PROFIBUS DP systems consist out of:


- multiple masters (Class 1 or 2)
- 1 to max. 124 DP Slaves

PC
PLC

CNC

DP master
(class 1)

PROFIBUS DP

distributed inputs and outputs

distributed inputs and outputs

DP slaves
27
1.0

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PROFIBUS DP

Example of a DP master configuration tool

28
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PROFIBUS Troubleshooting & Maintenance V8.1.0

14 January 2011

PROFIBUS DP

trailer

Output
data
Output data

header

Response Frame

header

Input
data
Input data

immediate
response

DP master

Request Frame

2. x
DP
DPslave
slavenr.1
3

Principle of data exchange with DP (cyclic)

trailer

The handling of all the slaves is


called a cycle. The required time is
dependent of:
- the baudrate;
- the number of slaves;
- the net data;

Per slave:
Max. 244 bytes output data
Max. 244 bytes input data

29

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1.1

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PROFIBUS DP

Rules for PROFIBUS message transactions


Master
Correct transaction,
the slave replies within
the Slot Time.

Because of no / illegal /
corrupted replies, 2
retries but eventually
OK (recovery).

3-Retries
unsuccessful.
ns ccessf l
The slave is lost!

Every cycle a SYNC to


establish contact with
the lost slave.

Output data
Input data

Output data
Output data - Retry
Output data - Retry
Input data
Output data
Output data - Retry
Output
p data - Retry
y
Output data - Retry
Output data - Next slave

Slave(s)
In this example the
retries of the master
have been set to 3!
ProfiTrace Statistics
- Worst case sequence = 2
- Total retries = 2

ProfiTrace Statistics
- Worst case sequence = 3
- Total retries = 5

Get diagnostics or Output data - SYNC


Get diagnostics or Output data - SYNC

ProfiTrace Statistics
- Syncs are incremented
30

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15

PROFIBUS Troubleshooting & Maintenance V8.1.0

14 January 2011

PROFIBUS PA
(part 1)

31
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Process Automation (PA)


Communication, according to the intrinsic safe standard MBP-IS. The protocol is
based on PROFIBUS DP + DP-V1, but the electrical characteristics are
changed.
g
This standard is used in the (p
(petro)chemical
)
and nutrition industry.
y
Replacement for 4..20 mA installations.
Suitable for chemical industry and process control.
Power supply and communication over two wires (31,25 kbps).
Profiles define parameters which are accessible by engineering tools (DP-V1
(DP V1
communication).
The profile allows instrument exchange.
Certification according to the FISCO model.
32
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PROFIBUS Troubleshooting & Maintenance V8.1.0

14 January 2011

The principle of PROFIBUS PA


PROFIBUS PA

=
PROFIBUS DP/DP-V1

+
Intrinsic safe communication properties

PROFIBUS DP

PROFIBUS PA

33

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1.0

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Overview of the PROFIBUS family


OS

OS

Internet
Internet

Ethernet / TCP-IP / PROFINET

Process

Manufacturing
IPC

PLC
RS 485 or FO

PROFIBUS DP

RS 485-IS or MBP-IS

PROFIBUS DP/PA

AS-Interface

34
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PROFIBUS Troubleshooting & Maintenance V8.1.0

14 January 2011

RS 485 and PROFIBUS DP

RS 485 and PROFIBUS DP

35

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1.1

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RS 485 and PROFIBUS DP

RS 485
Baudrates from 9.6 kbit/s to 12 Mbit/s
Shielded twisted pair cable
32 devices per segment
Distance: 12 Mbit/s = 100 m; 1.5 Mbit/s = 200 m; < 187.5 kbit/s = 1,000 m
Distance extendable with repeaters

MBP--IS
MBP
Fixed baudrate of 31.25 kbit/s
Intrinsic safety (option) and power over the bus
Shielded twisted pair cable
Distance up to 1,900 m per segment dep. on Ex-class and power consumption
10-32
10 32 devices per segment
segment, dep
dep. on Ex
Ex-class
class and power consumption

Fiber optics
Baudrates from 9.6 kbit/s up to 12 Mbit/s
Monomode, Multimode, plastic or PCS/HCS fibers are available
Distance extendable with repeaters up to 100 km
36
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PROFIBUS Troubleshooting & Maintenance V8.1.0

14 January 2011

RS 485 and PROFIBUS DP

Design specifications
What are the critical points when designing RS 485 segments?
Spur lines
Cable length

Shielding &
Grounding

Powered
Termination

Max. 32 devices
37

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2.2

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RS 485 and PROFIBUS DP

The technology of RS 485


Device

Device

TTL/
CMOS

TTL/
CMOS

Device
T

Maximum 32
devices.

TTL/
CMOS

+5V

+5V
390E

i
B

R = 30k..200k
C < 35pF

390E

+/-U

220E

220E

A
390E
GND

3. Because of the parallel resistors, a


maximum of 32 devices is allowed on a
segment.

5. Termination on the
end of the cable.

1. Sending data by means 4. The differential voltage should 2. The receivers read the
of current and polarity
be +/-200mV or more. In reality current flow by input
change.
in the range 4 to 5V.
impedance (Z).

390E
GND

6. Pull-up/down resistors
are essential for the basic
current.
38

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PROFIBUS Troubleshooting & Maintenance V8.1.0

14 January 2011

RS 485 and PROFIBUS DP

RS 485 Signals

Line A (2,x
(2 x Volt)

Line B (2,x Volt)

Differential Voltage
B A (4
(4,x
x Volt)

39
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RS 485 and PROFIBUS DP

More examples of signals

Acceptable signals
((Good communication))
Partial noise interference
(Good communication)
Heavy noise interference
(Communication errors)
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PROFIBUS Troubleshooting & Maintenance V8.1.0

14 January 2011

RS 485 and PROFIBUS DP

Topology
3. When the baudrate is 1500 kbps or higher,
minimum 1 meter cable between 2 devices.
1. Cable to next device. Spurs have to be
as short as possible.

4. Termination (powered) at both


ends.

Maximum 32 devices

Master

Slave

power

power

Slave

Slave

Slave

Slave

Slave

power

power

power

power

power

2. The devices have their own


power supply.

Plug with termination OFF.


Plug with termination ON.

41
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RS 485 and PROFIBUS DP

1 meter rule with 1,5 Mbps or higher baudrates

30 pF

30 p
pF

Each certified device has a small connection


capacitance (typically 30 pF) and causes a minimal
reflection because of the small short circuit that appears
pp
when bits change to another level. This is absolutely
normal!
However when connected closely together the
capacitances ADD and can produce a reflection that
alters the bit level and corrupts messages.
Scope trace:-

Separating devices with at least 1 m cable,


introduces a small signal delay between the
devices, so the reflections dont add!
42
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PROFIBUS Troubleshooting & Maintenance V8.1.0

14 January 2011

RS 485 and PROFIBUS DP

Example Problems with the 1 meter rule


These two cables could cause data communication
problems (the 1 meter rule).

43
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RS 485 and PROFIBUS DP

Example Solution for the 1 meter rule

A strategic placement automatically


takes care of the 1 meter rule.
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PROFIBUS Troubleshooting & Maintenance V8.1.0

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RS 485 and PROFIBUS DP

Cable length versus Baudrate


Baudrate (kbit/s)

9.6

19.2

45.45

93.75

187.5

500

1500

3000

6000

12000

Segment length
( )
(m)

1200

1200

1200

1200

1000

400

200

100

100

100

Segment length
(feet)

3940

3940

3940

3940

3280

1310

656

328

328

328

3 baudrate transitions in which the cable length


reduces with more than 50 %.

These lengths are defined for 1 segment with 32 bus loads!


45
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RS 485 and PROFIBUS DP

Spurs

Cable

T-splice or
junction box

Total length of all


stubs max. 6,6 m
with 1500 kbps.

Try to avoid spurs with RS 485.


Capacitance of connectors and
junction boxes is not well defined!
Device

Total 6,6 m with 1500 kbps (capacity of spurs = 0,2 nF)


Total 20 m with 500 kbps (capacity of spurs = 0,6 nF)
Total 33 m with 187,5 kbps (capacity of spurs = 1,0 nF)
Total 100 m with 93,75 kbps (capacity of spurs = 3,0 nF)
Total 500 m with 9,6 and 19,2 kbps (capacity of spurs = 15 nF)

The length is a sum


of all the spurs in the
segment!
46

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PROFIBUS Troubleshooting & Maintenance V8.1.0

14 January 2011

RS 485 and PROFIBUS DP

Example - Spur lines

70 cm

More than 17 devices

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RS 485 and PROFIBUS DP

Cable specifications
Standard PROFIBUS DP cables must comply to the following specifications:
Parameter

Value

Wires

2 (twisted)

System specification

Impedance

150 Ohm (3 to 20 MHz)

System specification

Capacity

30 pF/m

Low

Loop resistance

110 Ohm/km

Low

Wire diameter

0.64 mm

g
High?

Wire area

0.32 mm2

High?

Shielding resistance

9.5 Ohm/km

Low

Lower shielding resistance -> better EMC quality.


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PROFIBUS Troubleshooting & Maintenance V8.1.0

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RS 485 and PROFIBUS DP

Cable construction and wire colors


The A and B line are green and red:
A-line
B-line

TXD-N
TXD-P

1
2

green
red

1. A-line (green) and


B-line (red).

4. Foil for frequencies


above 50 MHz.

2. Tubes for a round


cable.

3. Braid for frequencies up


to 50 MHz.
49
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RS 485 and PROFIBUS DP

Cable types
All kinds of cables are available for areas in which the standard PROFIBUS
cable cannot be used.
Robust cable
Food cable
Ground cable
Trailing cable
Festoon cable
Fire and heat cable
Flexible cable
Shipboard cable
Hybrid cable
Rodent protection cable

Flexible cable

Trailing cable

Festoon cable

Hybrid cable

Food cable

Robust cable

Shipboard cable

FRNC cable
50

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PROFIBUS Troubleshooting & Maintenance V8.1.0

14 January 2011

RS 485 and PROFIBUS DP

Connectors
Connector
s
The connector technology is NOT defined.
Manufacturers determine the implementation of the connector.
connector
The PROFIBUS standard describes some recommended
implementations: DB9 and M12.
If a manufacturer selects a connector which is described in the
standard, then it has to be implemented according to the standard.

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RS 485 and PROFIBUS DP

DB9 connector - Structure


For devices with a DB9 connector, standardized plugs are available
for chaining the bus.

Versions are available on which an extra


piggy back connector is implemented. Its
recommended to put one on every segment
for maintenance purposes.

52
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PROFIBUS Troubleshooting & Maintenance V8.1.0

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RS 485 and PROFIBUS DP

DB9 connector Pin layout


The pin-layout of the DB9 connector is defined as follows:
Pin nr.

Signal

Description
Shield <NOT USED ANYMORE>

M24

Ground for +24 V output voltage

B-Line

RxD/TxD-P Receive/Transmit data - plus

CNTR-P

Repeater control signal (direction control), RTS signal

DGND

Digital ground

VP

Supply voltage (+5 V)

P24

Output voltage +24 V

A Line
A-Line

RxD/TxD N Receive/Transmit data - minus


RxD/TxD-N

CNTR-N

Repeater control signal (direction control)

(10)

Shield

Shield (Metal casing of the connector)

: This signal is mandatory.


53
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RS 485 and PROFIBUS DP

DB9 connector Connection method


The method of connecting the cable is very important. When termination is
enabled, the second channel is disconnected.

T = on

T = off
Shield

Cable
Insulation
The left plug has the termination ON, the second channel can not be used. The right plug has the
termination OFF.
54
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DB9 connector Example of the termination switch


Termination only at the end (normal situation)

Master

Slave

Slave

Slave

Slave

Slave

Slave

Slave

Slave

Slave

2. Branch is disconnected!

Termination also in the middle

Master

Slave

Slave

Slave

1. Termination somewhere on the


cable.

Plug with termination OFF.


Plug with termination ON.
55

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RS 485 and PROFIBUS DP

DB9 connector Fast Connect


Only use cables with solid core wires.
Cables must be suitable for Fast Connect (wire and
cable thickness)
thickness).
It is recommended NOT to use the plug for the 2nd
time.
If a new plug is assembled on an already used cable,
then prepare the cable again (new clean wires).

56

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RS 485 and PROFIBUS DP

Checklist 99-pin plug selection


Angle of the plug?
Maximum baudrate?
ggy back connector?
Piggy
Can the termination be switched ON/OFF?
When termination is switched ON, is the outgoing channel disconnected?
Which one is the outgoing channel?
If Fast Connect, is the cable suitable?
Grounding and shielding system?
IP class?
Is the plug reusable?
Value of the series resistance?

57
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M12 connector - Structure


With IP65 applications, the M12 system is often used.

Terminator

Tee for chaining

Instrument with
2 connectors
(male and female)
58
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RS 485 and PROFIBUS DP

M12 connector Pin layout


The pin layout of the M12 connector has been defined as follows:

Ref. point

5
4

Pin no.

Signal

VP

+5V supply for termination

Function
Data line minus (A-line)

RxD/TxD-N

DGND

RxD/TxD-P

Shield

Ground <NOT USED ANYMORE>

Thread

Shield

Ground

Data ground
Data line plus (B-line)

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M12 requires accurate assembly

Twisted and broken wires during assembly of the M12 connector.


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Ferrules
Ferrules are NOT mandatory.
Choose ferrules that are suited for data communication.
For example: galvanised copper. Do NOT use aluminium!
Make sure you use the correct ferrule size.

OK

Not OK
Make sure the
wires are pressed
in deep enough.

Use correct tools.

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Terminattion - Structure
Termina
The bus is terminated on both ends with terminating resistors.
5 Volt
390 Ohm
B
220 Ohm
A
390 Ohm

The termination consists out of


3 resistors.
The power supply takes care of
a valid logic level when non of
the devices are active on the
bus.
Without the power supply the
terminating resistor is not equal
to the cable impedance!

GND
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Termination - Application
First station

Last station
VP (6)

VP (6)
390

390

B line

B (3)
220

B (3)
220

A line

A (8)

A (8)

390

390
DG (5)

DG (5)
Or
active termination

Station 2

Or
active termination

Station 3

Termination must always be present and powered at all times..


If the user wants more guarantee, then an active termination is the best solution.
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He was correct! The termination is switched ON.

Sometimes the laptop was connected at this place!


But, there is NO powered terminated here.
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Active Termination
Master

Power
Power
Last
Slave

Slave

Slave

Slave

Power
Power
Last
Sl
Slave

Slave

Slave

Slave

In this segment every station can be removed or


powered down without disrupting the network.
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Termination - Example
The use of active termination for higher
reliability and simplification of
maintenance activities.
- 5 segments end in this cabinet.

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RS 485 and PROFIBUS DP

Termination Coupling components

Termination is often forgotten


when coupling components
are involved.
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Termination Only 2 devices


First station

Second station

At least 2 meters cable

VP (6)

VP (6)
390
B (3)
220
A (8)

B line
A line

390

390
B (3)
220
A (8)
390
DG (5)

DG (5)

When a segment only has 2 devices, it is recommended to


install a cable length of at least 2 meters!

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RS 485 and PROFIBUS DP

Repeaters
Repeaters are network components to enlarge the cable length and to increase the
number of stations (more than 32).
Max. 1200 m

Max. 31 stations

Max. 29 stations

Max. 1200 m

Max. 31 stations

Max. 31 stations
T

Max. 1200 m

Max. 1200 m

Repeaters are also bus loads and terminating


resistors need to be placed again.

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Questions about repeaters ???


Max. 1200m

Max. 31 stations

Max. 29 stations

Max. 1200m
Max. 31 stations

Max. 31 stations

Max. 1200m
Max. 1200m

What is the highest


g
baudrate that is allowed in this installation?
Why does the top-right segment have 29 stations?
Where in this installation can we hook up a laptop with a PROFIBUS card?
What is special about the termination on the top-left and bottom-right?
What happens when a segment has a short circuit?
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Repeaters - Structure
Segment 1

Segment 1

Segment 1

1. The shielding can still be 1 on 1.

Isolation
3. Termination can be activated
when the bus ends/starts at the
p
repeater.

Segment 2

2. A tap point can be


isolated or directly
connected with a
segment.

Segment 2

71
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Wrong wiring of repeaters

Now they have 41 devices on the same segment!


72

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Example Repeater backbone


A DP backbone on which 4 repeaters are
connected. At the other side of the
repeaters
t
a new segments
t starts.
t t

Beware of the 1 meter rule!


The terminators are only activated at the left side.

73

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ProfiHubs are more efficient for repeater backbones


Long spur lines to instruments and the possibility to remove/insert them during
operation. Short circuit protection on each spur line is automatically provided.

DP backbone

Each spur line


can be 200 m
at 1,5 Mbps.

Wiring problems
do not spread to
other spur lines.

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Testing
For testing it is recommended to set the baudrate to the lowest possible speed
(9,6 kbps). Most networks operate correctly on this speed even when they
have installation, cabling and termination faults. You can now check your
connections
ti
and
d addressing.
dd
i
Low Baudrate
Low % of Overall Bit Transmission Time

High Baudrate
High % of Overall Bit Transmission Time

At higher baudrates there is more chance of bus faults!

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Grounding and shielding

Aarding en afscherming

Grounding and shielding

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Grounding and shielding

External influences on data communication

EMI

Receiver

Sender

Currents

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Grounding and shielding

Interference by external sources


Electrostatic injection:
Capacitive coupling caused by nearby power lines.
High
g Voltage
g
Interference source
e.g. Power cable

Capacitive coupling between cables


Pickup

Electromagnetic injection:
Magnetic fields caused by high currents in nearby cables.
High Current
Interference source
e.g. Power cable

Inductive coupling between cables


Pickup
79

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Grounding and shielding

Reduction of electromagnetic injection


The twist in the wires eliminates magnetic fields.
Try to keep the twist in the wires when the sheath has been removed.
This theory is valid for al signal cariers!

Pickup

Induced currents in adjacent loops tends to cancel

80

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Grounding and shielding

Reduction of electrostatic injection


The shielding of the cable reduces electrostatic injection!
Ground on multiple points (resistance reduction).
As thick possible.
Non grounded shielding has no effect!

High Voltage
Interference source
e g Power cable
e.g.

Rs

Rs

Rs

Pickup
k passes to ground
d
Pickup

Rs = Shield resistance

81

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Grounding and shielding

What does IEC61000IEC61000-5-2 say about grounding?


Ground as many points as possible. This
reduces the resistance (less noise).
Be careful of the amount of current flowing
through the shield. When the current gets too
high, use;
- fiber optic
- extra ground cable
- repeaters with isolation
Avoid the use of pigtails
pigtails.
Avoid connection with the minus of power
supplies.

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Grounding and shielding

Grounding and shielding between cabinets


Master
Slave

ground rail

Slave

ground rail

PROFIBUS cable

ground rail

PROFIBUS cable
Ground cable

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Grounding and shielding

Additional grounding points

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Grounding and shielding

Example - Shielding not connected

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Grounding and shielding

Policy of separation

As far away as possible!

Power line

As close as possible!

Ground potential

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Grounding and shielding

Air gaps (1)


The voltage levels and applications of cable needs to be classified into categories.
Category I:
Fieldbus and LAN cables (PROFIBUS, PROFINET, ASi, etc.).
Shi ld d cables
Shielded
bl ffor di
digital
it l d
data
t ((printer,
i t RS 232
232, etc.).
t )
Shielded cables for analog and digital signals (25 V).
Low voltage cables (60 V).
Coax cables
Category II:
Cable with DC voltage >60 V and 400 V.
Cable with AC voltage >25 V and 400 V.
Category III:
Cables with DC and AC voltage >400 V.
Telephone cables.
Category IV:
All cables from group I to III with the direct danger of lightning strikes (connections between
buildings or open air applications).
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Grounding and shielding

Air gaps (2)


When cables are placed side by side, they have to comply to the following air gaps:
20 cm
Cable
category
I

10 cm

Cable
category
II

10 cm

Cable
category
III

50 cm
50 cm

Cable
category
IV

50 cm

The air gaps are based on air space. In case of grounded metal plates, the distances can
be reduced.
Cables of different categories may cross each other.
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Grounding and shielding

Air gaps (3)


A measurement of a packing machine in which the PROFIBUS cables are placed too
close to power lines.

Power lines are removed.


Power lines are too close.
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Grounding and shielding

Example - Air gaps


Data communication cables
Example: PROFIBUS

Compressed air
cables

Power cables
Example: 230 V

The data communication cables have been placed


more than 10 cm distance from the 230 V cables.
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Grounding and shielding

Separation of cables in metal cable trays

B di
Bonding

Cat I

Channel lid

Cat II

Cat III

Bonding
Channel

Bonding

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Summary

Creating a more reliable installation


Repeater backbones with repeaters/ProfiHubs

(isolation of problems)

External powered termination

(removing/adding devices)

Reduce the baudrate

(improves signal quality)

Increase the repeats/retries

(increases success rate)

Reduce the spur/stub lines or use repeaters/ProfiHubs

(improves signal quality)

Cable as close as possible to ground

(decr. EMC sensitivity)

Additional grounding points

(decr. EMC sensitivity)

Activate the watchdog on all devices

(safety)

Use fiber optic for long distances

(isolation of problems)

It is assumed that the installation complies with the PROFIBUS rules!


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Summary

Making troubleshooting easy


Measurement connectors on every segment

(start of the cable)

Every segment has its own addressing range

(10..19, 20..29, etc)

Individual repeaters/OLMs can be powered up/down


Individual devices can be powered up/down
PLC/DCS at the beginning of the cable
Diagnostics is enabled in the devices
Installation drawing in 1 or 2 pages

(with cable lengths and addresses)

Addresses clearly marked on the devices


All GSD files are available in ProfiTrace
Access to the PLC/DCS configuration

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B i principles
Basic
i i l off
transmission technology

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Cable properties (4..20 mA)

R/2

R/2

R = /km
/k (real
( l value)
l )
G = S/km (real value)
In DC situations every cable complies to this specification.
Losses and cable resistance can easily be determined.
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Cable properties (PROFIBUS)


R/2

R
G
L
C

= /km
= S/km
= H/km
= F/km

L/2

L/2

R/2

j L R
j C G

I
Impedance
d
= AC resistance
i t

In DC and AC situations every cable complies to this specification.


Losses are calculated with another formula.
97

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Losses

U1

U 2 U 1e

Rl GlZ

2Z
2

U 2 U 1e

U2

Rl
2Z

if G = 0 S

Example: Z = 100 l = 1000 m R = 0,1 /m -> losses = 40%


98

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Skin effect (1)


The losses are also linked to the skin effect. When the frequencies increase, the
electrons move to the outer layer of the cable. This causes an increase in the
cable resistance
resistance.

F (MHz)
1
100
10.000

(um)
68
6.8
0.68

This becomes important at frequencies above 100 kHz.


De resistance increases with . f
99

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Maximum cable length


The frequency is the factor which determines the maximum cable length
Hz
dB
cable

U1

U2

Rt

With PROFIBUS:
Transmission
speed in kbit/s
Segment length
in m

9.6

19.2

45.45

93.75

187.5

500

1500 3000 6000 12000

1200 1200

1200

1200

1000

400

200

100

100

100

100

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Propagation delays
Because of the inductance and capacitance, the cable is subject to propagation
time. On typical twisted-pair cables this is:
With most PROFIBUS cables this is:
4.2 ns per meter or
420 ns per 100 m or
0.84 us per 200 m or
4.2 us per km

This is about 200.000 km/s -> 60% of the speed of light.


101

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Reflections
A physical characteristic of objects which have speed is that they reflect whenever
they are blocked in their path.
This characteristic can also be found in transmission lines. Solutions for the
termination of reflections is the use of terminating resistors.

Rt

Rt

Rt = Zo

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Correct terminated cable


Zo=150

,L=100m
Rt=Zo

The signal amplitude has been


attenuated (dep. On the cable
length and baudrate).
The propagation indicates
100m cable length (420 ns).
103

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Acceptable signal
1 V idle level because
of powered
termination

No noise during idle state


Acceptable
reflections

104

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Cable without termination


Zo=150

,L=100m

t1
t2

Start

t3

t4

t6

End

t5

t7

Start

End

The width of a reflection indicates the distance!


Example: 840 ns = 100 m (to the end and back).
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Termination missing or wire break (nearby)


Detected glitch
in the signalling

Detected glitch
g
g
in the signalling

The reflections are


compressed in the
bit because the
cable is short or the
disturbance is
nearby. But, some
reflections have a
high amplitude that
affects the bit
interpretation.
106

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Test- and measurement tools

Test-- and measurement tools


Test

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Test- and measurement tools

Fault toptop-5
1) Termination.
2) Power lines.
3) Cabling rules.
4) Configuration faults.
5) Damaged or not-certified interfaces.

Statistics from 300 field trips worldwide.


108

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Test- and measurement tools

Handheld tools
Siemens BT200
ComSoft Nettest II

Functions:
Wire breaks/short circuits
Voltage or shielding faults
Localizing faults
Measuring cable lengths
Termination detection
List of slaves
Logging

Non active segments (masters have been removed)!


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Test- and measurement tools

Test and evaluation masters


PROFIBUS Master
Bihl & Wiedeman

ProfiCaptain
PROCENTEC

Maximum baudrate 19,2k


and RS 232!
Functions:
F
ti
Configuration
I/O Testing
Diagnostics
Live List and Network Scan
Set Slave Address

USB
110

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Test- and measurement tools

Oscilloscopes

3rd: Difficult

1st: Large + Difficult


Functions
Amplitude
Reflections
Noise
EMC

4th: Small,
Fast and Easy

2nd: Expensive

The oscilloscope is the only tool that


can display the bus signals!
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Test- and measurement tools

Busmonitors / Analyzers
ProfiTrace 2 - PROCENTEC
Bus check - Softing
PBScope - T+H
IT-Monitor - ITM / ComSoft / TMG-itec
Amprolyzer

USB
Active network!

Functions
Live List
Messages
Device diagnosis
Cycle times
Logging
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Test- and measurement tools

Tap Connector
Oscilloscope

ProfiCore

0 cm

10 cm

20 cm

113
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Test- and measurement tools

Example No measurement connectors

It is highly recommended to put a measurement connector


on the PLC/DCS when the cable also starts here.
114
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Test- and measurement tools

Required tools to exactly pinpoint the fault


Faults on DP

Passive cable

Running installation

General communication faults

Not possible

ProfiTrace

Double address

Not possible

ProfiTrace

Wrong address

BT200

ProfiTrace

No termination

BT200, Multi meter

Oscilloscope

Too many termination

BT200, Multi meter

Oscilloscope

Missing device (power off, connector


removed, etc)

BT200

ProfiTrace, Configuration tool

Device diagnostics

Not possible

ProfiTrace, Configuration tool

Shortcircuit, break, crossed wires, etc

BT200, Multi meter

Oscilloscope

EMC problems

Oscilloscope

Oscilloscope

1 Meter rule

Not possible

Oscilloscope

Configuration faults

Not possible

ProfiTrace
115

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Facts and Fiction


Th most important
The
i
tools
l for
f
troubleshooting a network
during operation are an
oscilloscope
ill
and
da
busmonitor/analyzer..
busmonitor/analyzer
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Facts and Fiction


A multimulti-meter is not useable
for dynamic signal
measurement!

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118

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Busparameters

Busparameters

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Busparameters

Introduction Busparameters

Busparameters are settings that define the timing behavior on the bus.
By means of a config tool the busparameters are set at every master.
The most p
part of the busparameters
p
have to be the same on all masters.
Modern config tools set the busparameters automatically.

What is the reason to set busparameters:


Extension to other media (DP to PA).
Use of many fibre optic couplers or repeaters (delay times).
Performance improvement (efficiency).
To
T workk around
d disturbances
di t b
(k
(keeping
i
the
th installation
i t ll ti
running).
i )

120
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Busparameters

Standard Busparameters
Busparameters have to be set at every master (automatically or by the user):
TS

Master address

(0 to 126)

Baudrate

Transmission speed (Baudrate)

(10 possibilities)

TSL

Slot Time

52 216-1 (bit times)

min TSDR

Smallest Station Delay Responder

20 to 216-1 (bit times)

max TSDR

Largest Station Delay Responder

20 to 216-1 (bit times)

TQUI

Quiet Time

0 to 28-1 (bit times)

TSET

Setup Time

20 to 28-1 (bit times)

TTR

Target Rotation Time

20 to 224-1 (bit times)

GAP Update Factor

1 to 100

HSA

Highest Station Address

2 to 126

Max Retry Limit

Maximum Retries

0 to 8
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Busparameters

TSL (Slot Time)


The Slot Time is the maximum time the master waits for the complete reception
of the first byte of a response (11 bits).
Within the Slot Time the first byte should be received, otherwise the master will
attempt a retry (repeat), or continue with other actions.

122
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Busparameters

maxTSDR (Largest Station Delay Responder)


This is the maximum time the slave could need to send the first bit of a response
back.
With PROFIBUS DP this
thi value
l is
i standardized.
t d di d
minTSDR < Response < maxTSDR
maxTSDR < TSL
n

123
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Busparameters

min TSDR (Smallest Station Delay Responder)


This is a time the slave has to wait before it can send a response back.
With PROFIBUS DP this time is sent with the p
parameters to the slaves. This is
the reason why this parameter is set in the master.
Standard value: 11 bit times (to calm the bus).
minTSDR < Response
n

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Busparameters

TQUI (Quiet Time)


The Quiet Time controls the time when the bus electronics or software of the
sender are set to receive mode after a message has been sent.
This parameter has to be set when reflections or other negative elements are
involved.
TQUI < minTSDR
Standard value: 0 bit times

125
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Busparameters

TSET (Setup Time)


The Setup Time is an extra waiting time which is started before a message is
sent (offset).
The Setup Time is often used when DP/PA couplers or other media transitions
are involved. It should be set to the device which needs the longest Setup Time
(stated in the manual).

126
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Busparameters

Busparameter timing diagram


Time

Master

Slave

Tid1

Request
Tqui

Request
minTSDR (11..x Tbit)

Tslot
Response
maxTSDR (60..800
(60 800 Tbit)

Response
Tid1

Tid1 = 33 Tbit + 2*Tset + internal master delay


New transaction starts here
127
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Busparameters

G (GAP Update Factor)


With this parameter the factor is set after how many token cycles the
master will search for a new master (FDL_Status message SD1).
TGUD = G * TTR
If the factor is high, the network will increase in bus cycle efficiency, but it
will be slower for master insertions.
Standard value: 10
A couple of masters ignore this parameter and always operate according
to G = 1.

128
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Busparameters

HSA (Highest Station Address)


This parameter sets the highest address in the network. Above HSA the master
does not look anymore.
A decrease of HSA makes the insertion of new masters quicker. The overall
network performance is not effected.
Masters which have a higher address number than the HSA value, will not be
able to access the network.
Standard value: 126

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Busparameters

Max Retry Limit (Maximum Retries)


This parameter sets the number of retries which are taken when a receiver does
not respond to a message (not for FDL_Status messages).
Max Retry Limit is increased by the user when the network is exposed to
distortions. The overall cycle time will be damaged because the message is
repeated.

130
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Busparameters

Standard busparameters for PROFIBUS DP


Busparameter
versus Baudrate

9.6 k

19.2 k

45.45 k

93.75 k

187.5 k

500 k

1.5 M

3M

6M

12 M

100

100

640

100

100

200

300

400

600

1000

Max_Tsdr [bit times]

60

60

400

60

60

100

150

250

450

800

Min_Tsdr [bit times]

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

T SET [bit times]

95

16

T QUI [bit times]

G
Gap
factor
f t

10

10

10

10

10

126

126

126

126

126

126

126

126

126

126

T SL [bit times]

HSA
Max_Retry_Limit

131
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Busparameters

Watchdog
The watchdog is a supervision time which is set/calculated in the configuration
tool of the master. The watchdog will be transferred to all configured slaves.
Within the watchdog time, the master has to contact the slave. If this is not the
case, the slave leaves the Data Exchange state.
When the watchdog is calculated by the configuration tool, the value is in most
cases 6x the worst case cycle time.
Range: 10 ms .. 650 s.

Cycle time << Watchdog (ideal is 6x)

132
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Busparameters

Single Master - 1 master with 24 slaves

Cycle time

Watchdog
133
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134

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PROFIBUS PA

MBP and PROFIBUS PA

135

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PROFIBUS PA

RS 485
Baudrates from 9,6 kbit/s to 12 Mbit/s
Shielded twisted pair cable
32 devices per segment
Distance: 12 Mbit/s = 100 m; 1,5 Mbit/s = 200 m; < 187,5 kbit/s = 1.000 m
Distance extendable with repeaters

MBP--IS
MBP
Fixed baudrate of 31,25 kbit/s
Intrinsic safety (option) and power over the bus
Shielded twisted pair cable
Distance up to 1.900 m per segment dep. on Ex-class and power consumption
10-32
10 32 devices per segment
segment, dep
dep. on Ex
Ex-class
class and power consumption

Fiber optics
Baudrates from 9,6 kbit/s up to 12 Mbit/s
Monomode, Multimode, plastic or PCS/HCS fibers are available
Distance extendable with repeaters up to 100 km
136
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PROFIBUS PA

DP/PA segment coupler


PROFIBUS DP

PROFIBUS PA
MBP-IS

RS 485

DP/PA coupler
Asynchronous
NRZ coding

Synchronous
Manchester coding

1 character = 11 bits
(8 user bits + 1 start + 1 stop + 1 parity)

1 character = 8 bits

Variable baudrates

Fixed baudrate = 31,25


31 25 kbps

137
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PROFIBUS PA

The principle of PROFIBUS PA


PROFIBUS PA

=
PROFIBUS DP/DP-V1

+
Intrinsic safe communication properties

PROFIBUS DP

PROFIBUS PA

138
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PROFIBUS PA

MBP Signaling
The instrument power supply (2-wire)
is generated by the DP/PA coupler. It
is normally between 12 to 24 V with a
current of 90 to 400 mA, dependant
on the Ex zone.

Fig. 1 DC measurement

The data (31,25 kbit/s) is modulated


on the power supply with an
amplitude of
750 mV to 1 V (peak-to-peak).

Fig. 2 AC measurement
139
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PROFIBUS PA

MBP Signaling
T ra n s m it le ve l c h a ra c te ris tic s
O u tp u t le ve l (p e a k -to -p e a k )
M a xim u m p o s itive a n d n e g a tive
a m p litu d e d iffe re n c e (s ig n a lin g b ia s)
M a xim u m o u tp u t le ve l;
o p e n c irc u it (p e a k -to -p e a k )

R e c e iv e c irc u it c h a ra c te ris tic s

L im its
0 .7 5 V to 1 V
50 m V
35 V

L im its

In p u t im p e d a n c e , m e a s u re d o ve r
th e fre q u e n c y ra n g e 0 .2 5 f r to 1 .2 5 f r

3 k

S e n sitivity; m in . p e a k -to -p e a k s ig n a l
re q u ire d to b e a c ce p te d

150 m V

N o is e re je ctio n ; m a xx. p e a k -to


to -p
peak
n o is e re q u ire d to b e re je c te d

75 m V

140
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PROFIBUS PA

DP/PA couplers
and links

141
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PROFIBUS PA

Siemens segment coupler - Addressing

1
PROFIBUS DP

PROFIBUS PA

142
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PROFIBUS PA

DP/PA segment coupler from Siemens

DP baudrate:
DP connector:
DP termination:
PA connector:
PA termination:

45,45 kbps
DB9
No
Screw
Switchable
(Non-Ex only)

Standard
PA current:
PA voltage:

400 mA
19 V

[EEx ib] II C
PA current:
PA voltage:

110 mA
12,5 V

[EEx ia] II C
PA current:
PA voltage:

90 mA
12,5 V

143
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PROFIBUS PA

DP/PA segment couplers from P+


P+F

DP baudrate:
DP connector:
DP termination:

93,75 kbps
Screws
Yes

PA connector:
PA termination:

Screws
Integrated

Standard
PA current:
PA voltage:

400 mA
25 V

[EEx ia] II C
PA current:
PA voltage:

100 mA
13 V

144
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PROFIBUS PA

DP/PA links
links

145

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PROFIBUS PA

DP/PA link from Siemens

PROFIBUS DP

PROFIBUS PA

Link

Coupler

9,6 kbit/s to
12 Mbit/s

DP
SLAVE

DP
MASTER

31,25 kbit/s
45,45 kbit/s

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PROFIBUS PA

DP/PA link from Siemens


slave 10
5 Q bytes

DP
SLAVE

slave 12
5 I bytes

DP
MASTER

slave 15
5 I bytes

slave 12

slave 15

5 bytes

5 bytes

slave 10

I
10 bytes

5 bytes

5 bytes

147

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PROFIBUS PA

DP/PA link from Siemens

Max. 5 standard Siemens DP/PA


couplers (Ex and Non-Ex)

Standard Siemens
segment coupler Ex and Non-Ex
Gateway, DP slave, PA master
DP baudrate:
Gateway is DP slave:
Number of bytes:
Field instruments:

9,6 kbps to 12 Mbps


Yes
244 bytes Input/Output for the complete PA network
Max. 31 slaves in Data Exchange
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PROFIBUS PA

Cycle time with a DP/PA link from Siemens


1 ms

up to 12 Mbit/s
PROFIBUS DP

DP/PA link
PROFIBUS PA

15,5 ms

15,5 ms

15,5 ms
149

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PROFIBUS PA

Addressing with a DP/PA link from Siemens


1

PROFIBUS DP

Link

3
Link

PROFIBUS PA

PROFIBUS PA

The lowest address behind the link is 3.


150

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PROFIBUS PA

Siemens DP/PA link Measuring the 45,45 kbps side

Connect the A-line


A line to pin 8 on DB
DB-9
9
Connect the B-line to pin 3 on DB-9

DB-9 (Female)

A
B
On the backplane, the 45,45 kbps side is available on the bottom 2 pins. When a DB9
connecter is attached it can directly be connected with an analyzer (RS 485).
151
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PROFIBUS PA

DP/PA link
from Pepperl+Fuchs

152

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PROFIBUS PA

DP/PA link from P+


P+F - Specifications

Transparant
gateway
(redundant
option)

Power-Link Ex
(segment coupler)

DP baudrate:
Gateway is DP slave:
Number of bytes:
Field instruments:

Standard
PA current:
g
PA voltage:

400 mA
24 V

[EEx ia] II C
PA current:
PA voltage:

100 mA
12,8 V

Power-Link Non-Ex
(segment coupler)

9,6 kbps to 12 Mbps


No
244 bytes Input and 244 bytes Output per PA slave
124 slaves in Data Exchange
153

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PROFIBUS PA

DP/PA link from P+F - Addressing

1
PROFIBUS DP

PROFIBUS PA

Because of the semi-transparency, address 1 for DP and PA slaves is not allowed.


154
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PROFIBUS PA

Topology of MBPMBP-IS
Star- and bus constructions can be realized.

DCS/PLC

PROFIBUS DP
Junction Box

DP/PA-Link

Segment
24 V

PROFIBUS PA

155

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PROFIBUS PA

Explosion zone restrictions


Area

Zone 0
Eex ia IIC

Zone 1
Eex ib IIB

Zone 2
Non EX

Voltage
g

13,5
, V

13,5
, V

24 V

Maximum power

1,8 W

4,2 W

12 W

Maximum current draw

110 mA

250 mA

500 mA

Maximum segment length

1.000 m

1.900 m

1.900 m

Spur length per device


(1 to 10 stations)

30 m

30 m

120 m

Number of stations

10

20

32

These are the maximum allowable values! DP/PA couplers could have specifications of less quality.
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PROFIBUS PA

Spurs/Stubs with MBP


MBP--IS
Number of Spurs

Length of the spur


(Ex)

Length of the spur


(not Ex)

25 to 32

M i
Maximum
1m

M i
Maximum
1m

19 to 24

30 m

30 m

15 to 18

30 m

60 m

13 to 14

30 m

90 m

1 to 12

30 m

120 m

Maximum 3 instruments on a spur.


Spurs under 1 meter do not have to be calculated.
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PROFIBUS PA

Cable specifications of MBPMBP-IS


Type A
(Reference)

Type B

Type C

Type D

Cable design

Twisted pair,
shielded

Multiple twisted
pairs total
pairs,
shielded

Multiple twisted
pairs not
pairs,
shielded

Multiple nontwisted pairs


pairs,
not shielded

Maximum conductor
cross section (nominal)

0,8 mm
(AWG 18)

0,32 mm
(AWG 22)

0,13 mm
(AWG 26)

1,25 mm
(AWG 16)

Loop resistance
(direct current)

44 Ohm/km

112 Ohm/km

264 Ohm/km

40 Ohm/km

100 Ohm +20%


3 dB/km
2 nF/km

100 Ohm +30%


5 dB/km
2 nF/km

**
8 dB/km
**

**
8 dB/km
**

Max. Propagation delay


change (7,9 to 39 kHz)

1.7 usec/km

**

**

**

Max. shield coverage


Cable length

90%
1.900 m

**
1.200 m

400 m

200 m

Impedance (31,25 kHz)


Attenuation (39 kHz)
Capacitive asymmetry

** Not specified
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PROFIBUS PA

Termination in a PA bus structure

R =100 Ohm
C =1 F

PROFIBUS DP

R =100 Ohm

PROFIBUS PA

C =1 F

159
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PROFIBUS PA

Termination in a PA ChickenChicken-Foot topology


R =100 Ohm
C =1 F

300m
R =100 Ohm

Junction
Box
10m

30m

C =1 F

20m

160
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PROFIBUS PA

MBP termination Missing termination

When termination is missing, the peak-to-peak voltage will be 1,5 V or higher.


161
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PROFIBUS PA

Interconnection technology for IP 65 or higher (PA)

162

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PROFIBUS PA

M12 connector

Instrument side

Junction box/ T-box side

163
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Strategy of troubleshooting

164

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Classifications of most common PROFIBUS problems


Physical level
Device is NOT communicating anymore
Periodically no communication with a device

The worst one

Application level
Invalid data (calibration or bug)
Device diagnostics (I/O problems)

165

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What kind of fault finding methods are at hand?

1) Analyzer

most important!

2) Electrical measurement
3) Visual inspection

The sequence above is also the way of working for localizing


and solving problems.

166

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Indicators (LEDs)
Most devices have indicators, which clarify the status of the device. This is very
important for the users, especially maintenance personnel. With 3 indicators a
lot of situations can be cleared (ON, BF, SF).
ON

BF

SF

Fault condition

Everything OK

No communication

X/O

Communication, but not in data exchange

Configuration not OK

(blinking)

Remarks:
Most PA instruments do not have LEDs due to power consumption and Ex
restrictions.
167

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Everything OK

Only ON is
lit up.

168

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No communication

BF and ON
are lit up.

No valid messages are detected on the bus.


169

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Communication on the bus, but not in data exchange

BF is blinking.

The device is not configured yet.


170
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Configuration not OK

SF, BF and
ON are lit up.

Wrong configuration or a local problem.


171

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Analyzer
The most important tool for fault finding is an Analyzer!
This is a PC application
pp
which extracts
messages from the bus and saves it in
a database.
The technician can analyze the
messages and come to a conclusion
about the status of the instruments.

The predictability of the PROFIBUS protocol makes


the use of a busmonitor very easy.....
172

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Infrastructure
Old generation brand X

New generation ProfiTrace

173

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Facts and Fiction


Busmonitors do not have a
network address, but are a
Physical
y
bus load on the
cable!!
cable
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Active stations (masters) are RED


RED, passive stations (slaves) that
exchange data have a GREEN background.

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3 repeats, but finally a response.

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DP slave state machine


Power on/
Reset
Diagnostics

The master constantly polls the diagnostics of every slave


which is not available.

Parameters

When the slave gives a reaction to a diagnostic request,


the parameters are transmitted.

Configuration

After the parameters, the configuration is transmitted.

Diagnostics

After configuration, the master requests diagnostics to


check if everything has been accepted.

Data exchange

When the slave has accepted all the information, the


master will constantly exchange data with the device.
177

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PROFIBUS DP functions with appropriate SAPs


Functions

SSAP

DSAP

---

---

Data exchange
Check Config

62 (3E)

62 (3E)

Set Parameters

62 (3E)

61 (3D)

Get Diagnostics

62 (3E)

60 (3C)

Get Config

62 (3E)

59 (3B)

Set Global Control

62 (3E)

58 (3A)

Read Outputs

62 (3E)

57 (39)

Read Inputs

62 (3E)

56 (38)

Set Slave Address

62 (3E)

55 (37)

Master-Master Commands

54 (36)

54 (36)

178
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DP slave state machine (2)


Attention

Service

| request data
|
|1. Diagnostics |
|
|
| send data ack
ack. |
|
|
|
|
| send data ack. |
|
|
|3. Configuration |
| request data
|
|
|
|
|
| request data
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
| request data
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
| request data
|
|
|

SRD_HIGH
DL
token
SRD
SRD_HIGH
HIGH
OK
fdl_status
SRD_HIGH
OK
token
SRD_HIGH
DL
token
SRD_HIGH
DL
fdl_status
token
SRD_HIGH
DL
fdl_status
token
SRD_HIGH
DL

Sd
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

Adr

SD2
SD2
SD4
SD2
SC
SD1
SD2
SC
SD4
SD2
SD2
SD4
SD2
SD2
SD1
SD4
SD2
SD2
SD1
SD4
SD2
SD2

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

01
01
01
01

->
<->
->
>

01 ->
01 ->
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01

->
->
<->
->
<->
->
->
<->
->
->
<-

Sap
Fc
Len
(hex)
(hex)
22 | 3E -> 3C | 6D |
22 | 3E <- 3C | 08 | 016
01 |
|
|
22 | 3E ->
> 3D | 5D | 017
|
|
|
00 |
| 49 |
22 | 3E -> 3E | 7D | 002
|
|
|
01 |
|
|
22 | 3E -> 3C | 5D |
22 | 3E <- 3C | 08 | 016
01 |
|
|
22 | () -> () | 7D | 004
22 | () <- () | 08 | 004
02 |
| 49 |
01 |
|
|
22 | () -> () | 7D | 004
22 | () <- () | 08 | 004
03 |
| 49 |
01 |
|
|
22 | () -> () | 7D | 004
22 | () <- () | 08 | 004

Data
(hex)
|
| 02 05 00 FF A4 00 0A
|
| B8 14 01 0B A4 00 00
|
| 2. Parameters
| 13 23
|
| 4. Diagnostics
|
| 00 0C 00 01 A4 00 0A
|
| 00 44 67 33
| 8A 08 FF DD
|
|
| 00 44 67 33
| 8A 08 FF DD
|
| 5. Data exchange
| 00 44 67 33
| 8A 08 FF DD

179
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The End

Ing. Dennis van Booma,


PROCENTEC Netherlands,
dbooma@procentec.com
180
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181

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182

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184

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92