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A Complete Book of Mcse by Amit Malhotra

Microsoft Certified System
Here System refers to performing a specific job.

Microsoft is a company which provides their certification for a system Engineer.

NETWORK: Two or more objects connected to each other.

Group of Pc’s physically connected through a communication media.

NETWORKING: The process in which network deployed for information and resource sharing.
Sharing of resources is known as Networking.
The sharing of information and resources within a network.

Benefits Of Networking

F For File Sharing.

P For Printer Sharing.
M For Mailing.
A For Application Sharing.
D For Database Sharing.

Topic 1 Media of Networking

There are three media of networking are:-

1) By Wire
2) By Air
3) By Light

First of all we discuss all media one by one

By Wire: - Wire is a common way of networking.

There are three types of cables:-

1) UTP/ STP:-This consists of two insulated copper conductors twisted around one another and enclosed
in a simple plastic encasement.

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Connector used for UTP/STP are RJ45 Connector

2) Co-axial: - This consists of two insulated copper conductor surrounded by a tube shaped copper braid.
Coaxial cabling is the primary type of cabling used by the cable television industry and is also widely used
for computer networks, such as Ethernet

Connector used for Co-axial are BNC Connector

3) Fiber Optic:-This consists of very fine fiber made from two types of glass, one for the inner core and
the other for the outer layer. The two glasses have different indexes of refraction. A light beam is carried
through this glass fiber and is modulated by the network to shape the signal. Pulses of light are used to
carry the signals.

Connector used for Co-axial are LC, ST/BFOC, SC, FC Connector

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By Air: - Air is a common way of networking.
There are three types of Air network:-
1) Low Frequency
2) Medium Frequency
3) High Frequency

1) Low Frequency: In Low Frequency the devices used are Infrared and Bluetooth.
30 kHz to 300 kHz
Basically Infrared rays are Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength
longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of microwaves.

Bluetooth are Bluetooth is an industrial specification for wireless personal area networks (PANs).
Bluetooth provides a way to connect and exchange information between devices such as mobile phones,
laptops, PCs, printers, digital cameras, and video game consoles over a secure, globally unlicensed
short-range radio frequency.
Bluetooth is a standard and communications protocol primarily designed for
low power consumption, with a short range (power-class-dependent: 1 meter, 10 meters, 100
meters)[1] based on low-cost transceiver microchips in each device.

2) Medium Frequency: In Medium Frequency the devices used are WLL, GSM & CDMA.
3 km to 300 km.

WLL:- Wireless Local Loop.Wireless local loop (WLL), is a term for the use of a wireless
communications link as the "last mile / first mile" connection for delivering plain old telephone
service (POTS) and/or broadband Internet to telecommunications customers. Various types of WLL
systems and technologies exist.

Other terms for this type of access include Broadband Wireless Access (BWA), Radio in the
Loop (RITL), Fixed-Radio Access (FRA) and Fixed Wireless Access (FWA).

GSM: - Global System for Mobile communications (GSM: originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile)
is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. Its promoter, the GSM Association,
estimates that 82% of the global mobile market uses the standard [1]. GSM is used by over 2 billion
people across more than 212 countries and territories.[2][3] Its ubiquity makes international roaming
very common between mobile phone operators, enabling subscribers to use their phones in many
parts of the world. GSM differs from its predecessors in that both

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signaling and speech channels are digital call quality, and so is considered a second generation (2G)
mobile phone system. This has also meant that data communication were built into the system using
the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).

CDMA: - Code/Call division multiple access (CDMA) describes a communication channel access
principle that employs spread-spectrum technology and a special coding scheme (where each
transmitter is assigned a code). In communications technology, there are only three domains that
can allow multiplexing to be implemented for more efficient use of the available channel bandwidth
and these domains are known as time, frequency and space. CDMA divides the access in signal
space. By contrast, time division multiple access (TDMA) divides access by time, while frequency-
division multiple access (FDMA) divides it by frequency. CDMA is a form of "spread-spectrum"
signaling, since the modulated coded signal has a much higher bandwidth than the data being

Basically Medium Frequency is based on Tower to Tower links.

3) High Frequency: In High Frequency the devices used are Satellite & VSAT.

Satellite:-In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object which has been placed into orbit by
human endeavor. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from
natural satellites such as the Moon.

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VSAT: - A Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) is a two-way satellite ground station with a dish
antenna that is smaller than 3 meters (most VSAT antennas range from 75 cm to 1.2 m). VSAT data
rates typically range from narrowband up to 4 Mbit/s. VSATs access satellites in geosynchronous
orbit to relay data from small remote earth stations (terminals) to other terminals (in mesh
configurations) or master earth station "hubs" (in star configurations).

By Light: - Light is a common way of networking.

An optical fiber cable is a cable containing one or more optical fibers. The optical fiber elements
are typically individually coated with plastic layers and contained in a protective tube suitable for the
environment where the cable will be deployed.

In practical fibers, the cladding is usually coated with a tough resin buffer layer, which may be
further surrounded by a jacket layer, usually plastic. These layers add strength to the fiber but do
not contribute to its optical wave guide properties. Rigid fiber assemblies sometimes put light-
absorbing ("dark") glass between the fibers, to prevent light that leaks out of one fiber from entering
another. This reduces cross-talk between the fibers, or reduces flare in fiber bundle imaging

For indoor applications, the jacketed fiber is generally enclosed, with a bundle of flexible fibrous
polymer strength members like Aramid (e.g. Twaron or Kevlar), in a lightweight plastic cover to form
a simple cable. Each end of the cable may be terminated with a specialized optical fiber connector to
allow it to be easily connected and disconnected from transmitting and receiving equipment.

For use in more strenuous environments, a much more robust cable construction is required. In
loose-tube construction the fiber is laid helically into semi-rigid tubes, allowing the cable to stretch
without stretching the fiber itself. This protects the fiber from tension during laying and due to
temperature changes. Alternatively the fiber may be embedded in a heavy polymer jacket,
commonly called "tight buffer" construction. These fiber units are commonly bundled with additional
steel strength members, again with a helical twist to allow for stretching.

A critical concern in cabling is to protect the fiber from contamination by water, because its
component hydrogen (hydronium) and hydroxyl ions can diffuse into the fiber, reducing the fiber's
strength and increasing the optical attenuation. Water is kept out of the cable by use of solid
barriers such as copper tubes, water-repellant jelly, or more recently water absorbing powder,
surrounding the fiber.

Finally, the cable may be armored to protect it from environmental hazards, such as construction
work or gnawing animals. Undersea cables are more heavily armored in their near-shore portions to
protect them from boat anchors, fishing gear, and even sharks, which

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may be attracted to the electrical power signals that are carried to power amplifiers or repeaters in
the cable.

Modern fiber cables can contain up to a thousand fibers in a single cable, so the performance of
optical networks easily accommodates even today's demands for bandwidth on a point-to-point
basis. However, unused point-to-point potential bandwidth does not translate to operating profits,
and it is estimated that no more than 1% of the optical fiber buried in recent years is actually 'lit'.

Modern cables come in a wide variety of sheathings and armor, designed for applications such as
direct burial in trenches, dual use as power lines [1], installation in conduit, lashing to aerial
telephone poles, submarine installation, or insertion in paved streets. In recent years the cost of
small fiber-count pole-mounted cables has greatly decreased due to the high Japanese and South
Korean demand for fiber to the home (FTTH) installations.

Cable types
• OFC: Optical fiber, conductive
• OFN: Optical fiber, nonconductive
• OFCG: Optical fiber, conductive, general use
• OFNG: Optical fiber, nonconductive, general use
• OFCP: Optical fiber, conductive, plenum
• OFNP: Optical fiber, nonconductive, plenum
• OFCR: Optical fiber, conductive, riser
• OFNR: Optical fiber, nonconductive, riser
• OPGW: Optical fiber composite overhead ground wire

Color coding
Individual optical fibers in a fiber-optic cable are often distinguished from one another by color-
coded jackets or buffers on each fiber. The identification scheme used in Corning Cable Systems
fiber-optic cables is based on EIA/TIA-598, "Optical Fiber Cable Color Coding." EIA/TIA-598
defines identification schemes for fibers, buffered fibers, fiber units, and groups of fiber units within
outside plant and premises optical fiber cables. This standard allows for fiber units to be identified by
means of a printed legend. This method can be used for identification of fiber ribbons and fiber
subunits. The legend will contain a corresponding printed numerical position
number and/or color for use in identification.

An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber designed to guide light
along its length. Fiber optics is the overlap of applied science and
engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers. Optical
fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communication, which permits
transmission over longer distances and at higher data rates than other forms
of communications. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals
travel along them with less loss, and they are immune to electromagnetic
interference. Optical fibers are also used to form sensors, and in a variety of
other applications.

Light is kept in the "core" of the optical fiber by total internal reflection. This
causes the fiber to act as a waveguide. Fibers which support many propagation paths or transverse
modes are called multimode fibers (MMF). Fibers which support only a single mode are called
singlemode fibers (SMF). Multimode fibers generally have a large-diameter core, and

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are used for short-distance communication links or for applications where high power must be
transmitted. Singlemode fibers are used for most communication links longer than 200
meters.Joining lengths of optical fiber is more complex than joining electrical wire or cable. The ends
of the fibers must be carefully cleaved, and then spliced together either mechanically or by fusing
them together with an electric arc. Special connectors are used to make removable connections.

The light-guiding principle behind optical fibers was first demonstrated by Daniel Colladon and
Jaques Babinet in the 1840s, with Irish inventor John Tyndall offering public displays using water-
fountains ten years later.[1] Practical applications, such as close internal illumination during dentistry,
appeared early in the twentieth century. Image transmission through tubes was demonstrated
independently by the radio experimenter Clarence Hansell and the television pioneer John Logie
Baird in the 1920s. The principle was first used for internal medical examinations by Heinrich Lamm
in the following decade. In 1952 physicist Narinder Singh Kapany conducted experiments that led to
the invention of optical fiber, based on Tyndall's earlier studies; modern optical fibers, where the
glass fiber is coated with a transparent cladding to offer a more suitable refractive index, appeared
later in the decade.[1] Development then focused on fiber bundles for image transmission. The first
fiber optic semi-flexible gastroscope was patented by Basil Hirschowitz, C. Wilbur Peters, and
Lawrence E. Curtiss, researchers at the University of Michigan, in 1956. In the process of developing
the gastroscope, Curtiss produced the first glass-clad fibers; previous optical fibers had relied on air
or impractical oils and waxes as the low-index cladding material. A variety of other image
transmission applications soon followed.

In 1965, Charles K. Kao and George A. Hockham of the British company Standard Telephones and
Cables were the first to suggest that attenuation of contemporary fibers was caused by impurities,
which could be removed, rather than fundamental physical effects such as scattering. They
speculated that optical fiber could be a practical medium for communication, if the attenuation could
be reduced below 20 dB per kilometer.[2] This attenuation level was first achieved in 1970, by
researchers Robert D. Maurer, Donald Keck, Peter C. Schultz, and Frank Zimar working for American
glass maker Corning Glass Works, now Corning Inc. They demonstrated a fiber with 17 dB optic
attenuation per kilometer by doping silica glass with titanium. A few years later they produced a
fiber with only 4 db/km using germanium oxide as the core dopant. Such low attenuations ushered
in optical fiber telecommunications and enabled the Internet. Nowadays, attenuations in optical
cables are far less than those in electrical copper cables, leading to long-haul fiber connections with
repeater distances of 500 - 800 km.

The erbium-doped fiber amplifier, which reduced the cost of long-distance fiber systems by reducing
or even in many cases eliminating the need for optical-electrical-optical repeaters, was co-developed
by teams led by David Payne of the University of Southampton, and Emmanuel Desurvire at Bell
Laboratories in 1986. The more robust optical fiber commonly used today utilizes glass for both core
and sheath and is therefore less prone to aging processes. It was invented by Gerhard Bernsee in
1973 by Schott Glass in Germany.

In 1991, the emerging field of photonic crystals led to the development of photonic crystal fiber
(Science (2003), vol 299, page 358), which guides light by means of diffraction from a periodic
structure, rather than total internal reflection. The first photonic crystal fibers became commercially
available in 1996 [2]. Photonic crystal fibers can be designed to carry higher power than
conventional fiber, and their wavelength dependent properties can be manipulated to improve their
performance in certain applications.

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Optical fiber communication
Main article: Fiber-optic communication
Optical fiber can be used as a medium for telecommunication and networking because it is flexible
and can be bundled as cables. It is especially advantageous for long-distance communications,
because light propagates through the fiber with little attenuation compared to electrical cables. This
allows long distances to be spanned with few repeaters. Additionally, the light signals propagating in
the fiber can be modulated at rates as high as 40 Gb/s [3], and each fiber can carry many
independent channels, each by a different wavelength of light (wavelength-division multiplexing).
Over short distances, such as networking within a building, fiber saves space in cable ducts because
a single fiber can carry much more data than a single electrical cable. Fiber is also immune to
electrical interference, which prevents cross-talk between signals in different cables and pickup of
environmental noise. Also, wiretapping is more difficult compared to electrical connections, and
there are concentric dual core fibers that are said to be tap-proof. Because they are non-electrical,
fiber cables can bridge very high electrical potential differences and can be used in environments
where explosive fumes are present, without danger of ignition.

Although fibers can be made out of transparent plastic, glass, or a combination of the two, the fibers
used in long-distance telecommunications applications are always glass, because of the lower optical
attenuation. Both multi-mode and single-mode fibers are used in communications, with multi-mode
fiber used mostly for short distances (up to 500 m), and single-mode fiber used for longer distance
links. Because of the tighter tolerances required to couple light into and between single-mode fibers
(core diameter about 10 micrometers), single-mode transmitters, receivers, amplifiers and other
components are generally more expensive than multi-mode components.

Fiber optic sensors

Optical fibers can be used as sensors to measure strain, temperature, pressure and other
parameters. The small size and the fact that no electrical power is needed at the remote location
gives the fiber optic sensor advantages to conventional electrical sensor in certain applications.

Optical fibers are used as hydrophones for seismic or SONAR applications. Hydrophone systems with
more than 100 sensors per fiber cable have been developed. Hydrophone sensor systems are used
by the oil industry as well as a few countries' navies. Both bottom mounted hydrophone arrays and
towed streamer systems are in use. The German company Sennheiser developed a microphone
working with a laser and optical fibers.

Optical fiber sensors for temperature and pressure have been developed for downhole measurement
in oil wells. The fiber optic sensor is well suited for this environment as it is functioning at
temperatures too high for semiconductor sensors (Distributed Temperature Sensing

Another use of the optical fiber as a sensor is the optical gyroscope which is in use in the Boeing 767
and in some car models (for navigation purposes) and the use in Hydrogen microsensors.Fiber-optic
sensors have been developed to measure co-located temperature and strain simultaneously with
very high accuracy. This is particularly useful to acquire information from small complex structures.

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Other uses of optical fibers

A frisbee illuminated by fiber optics

Fibers are widely used in illumination applications. They are used as light guides in medical and
other applications where bright light needs to be shone on a target without a clear line-of-sight path.
In some buildings, optical fibers are used to route sunlight from the roof to other parts of the
building (see non-imaging optics). Optical fiber illumination is also used for decorative applications,
including signs, art, and artificial Christmas trees. Swarovski boutiques use optical fibers to
illuminate their crystal showcases from many different angles while only employing one light source.
Optical fiber is an intrinsic part of the light-transmitting concrete building product, LiTraCon.

A fiber-optic Christmas Tree

Optical fiber is also used in imaging optics. A coherent bundle of fibers is used, sometimes along
with lenses, for a long, thin imaging device called an endoscope, which is used to view objects
through a small hole. Medical endoscopes are used for minimally invasive exploratory or surgical
procedures (endoscopy). Industrial endoscopes (see fiberscope or borescope) are used for inspecting
anything hard to reach, such as jet engine interiors.

An optical fiber doped with certain rare-earth elements such as erbium can be used as the gain
medium of a laser or optical amplifier. Rare-earth doped optical fibers can be used to provide signal
amplification by splicing a short section of doped fiber into a regular (undoped) optical fiber line. The
doped fiber is optically pumped with a second laser wavelength that is coupled into the line in
addition to the signal wave. Both wavelengths of light are transmitted through the doped fiber,
which transfers energy from the second pump wavelength to the signal wave. The process that
causes the amplification is stimulated emission.

Optical fibers doped with a wavelength shifter are used to collect scintillation light in physics

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Optical fiber can be used to supply a low level of power (around one watt) to electronics situated in a
difficult electrical environment. Examples of this are electronics in high-powered antenna elements
and measurement devices used in high voltage transmission equipment.

Principle of operation
An optical fiber is a cylindrical dielectric waveguide that transmits light along its axis, by the process
of total internal reflection. The fiber consists of a core surrounded by a cladding layer. To confine the
optical signal in the core, the refractive index of the core must be greater than that of the cladding.
The boundary between the core and cladding may either be abrupt, in step-index fiber, or gradual,
in graded-index fiber.

Multimode fiber

The propagation of light through a multi-mode optical


Fiber with large (greater than 10 μm) core diameter may be

analyzed by geometric optics. Such fiber is called
multimode fiber, from the electromagnetic analysis (see below). In a step-index multimode fiber,
rays of light are guided along the fiber core by total internal reflection. Rays that meet the core-
cladding boundary at a high angle (measured relative to a line normal to the boundary), greater
than the critical angle for this boundary, are completely reflected. The critical angle (minimum angle
for total internal reflection) is determined by the difference in index of refraction between the core
and cladding materials. Rays that meet the boundary at a low angle are refracted from the core into
the cladding, and do not convey light and hence information along the fiber. The critical angle
determines the acceptance angle of the fiber, often reported as a numerical aperture. A high
numerical aperture allows light to propagate down the fiber in rays both close to the axis and at
various angles, allowing efficient coupling of light into the fiber. However, this high numerical
aperture increases the amount of dispersion as rays at different angles have different path lengths
and therefore take different times to traverse the fiber. A low numerical aperture may therefore be

Optical fiber types.

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In graded-index fiber, the index of refraction in the core decreases continuously between the axis
and the cladding. This causes light rays to bend smoothly as they approach the cladding, rather than
reflecting abruptly from the core-cladding boundary. The resulting curved paths reduce multi-path
dispersion because high angle rays pass more through the lower-index periphery of the core, rather
than the high-index center. The index profile is chosen to minimize the difference in axial
propagation speeds of the various rays in the fiber. This ideal index profile is very close to a
parabolic relationship between the index and the distance from the axis.

Singlemode fiber

A typical single-mode optical fiber, showing diameters of the component layers.

Fiber with a core diameter less than about ten times the wavelength of the propagating light cannot
be modeled using geometric optics. Instead, it must be analyzed as an electromagnetic structure, by
solution of Maxwell's equations as reduced to the electromagnetic wave equation. The
electromagnetic analysis may also be required to understand behaviors such as speckle that occur
when coherent light propagates in multi-mode fiber. As an optical waveguide, the fiber supports one
or more confined transverse modes by which light can propagate along the fiber. Fiber supporting
only one mode is called single-mode or mono-mode fiber. The behavior of larger-core multimode
fiber can also be modeled using the wave equation, which shows that such fiber supports more than
one mode of propagation (hence the name). The results of such modeling of multi-mode fiber
approximately agree with the predictions of geometric optics, if the fiber core is large enough to
support more than a few modes.

The waveguide analysis shows that the light energy in the fiber is not completely confined in the
core. Instead, especially in single-mode fibers, a significant fraction of the energy in the bound mode
travels in the cladding as an evanescent wave.

The most common type of single-mode fiber has a core diameter of 8 to 10 μm and is designed for
use in the near infrared. The mode structure depends on the wavelength of the light used, so that
this fiber actually supports a small number of additional modes at visible wavelengths. Multi-mode
fiber, by comparison, is manufactured with core diameters as small as 50 microns and as large as
hundreds of microns.

Topic 2 Types of Network

There are two types of Network:-
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1) Simplex Network
2) Duplex Network
1) Simplex Network: - Simplex Network is that network in which Signals are running one way Like
TV & Radio. We can only receive TV signals but we cannot forward our voice or our photo through TV
or Radio. One sided signals are Simplex Network.

2) Duplex Network: - Duplex network is that network in which signals are running on both ways
like Mobile Phone. We can Send & receive messages at a same time.

Duplex Network is of two types:-

1) Full Duplex Network
2) Half Duplex Network

1) Full Duplex Network: - Example of Full Duplex Network is Mobile.

2) Half Duplex Network: - Example of Half Duplex Network is Walkie-Talkie.

Topic 3 Types of Cabling

1) Straight Cabling
2) Cross Cabling
3) Roll-over Cabling

1) Straight Cabling:-
Pin ID side A side B
1 orange-white orange-white
2 orange orange
3 green-white green-white
4 blue blue
5 blue-white blue-white
6 green green
7 brown-white brown-white
8 brown brown

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2) Cross Cabling:-
Pin ID side A side B
1 orange-white green-white
2 orange green
3 green-white orange-white
4 blue blue
5 blue-white blue-white
6 green orange
7 brown-white brown-white
8 brown brown
3) Roll-Over cable:-
Pin ID side A side B
1 orange-white brown
2 orange brown-white
3 green-white green
4 blue blue-white
5 blue-white blue
6 green green-white
7 brown-white orange
8 brown orange-white

Topic 4 Making a Cable

You need a special plier, RJ45 connectors, UTP cables, and a cutter.

Making Cable
Follow the steps below.

1) Remove the outmost vinyl shield for 12mm at one end of the cable (we call this side A-side).
2) Arrange the metal wires in parallel (refer the each section's wire arrangement table).

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3) Don't remove the shiled of each metal line.

4) Insert the metal wires into RJ45 connector on keeping the metal wire arrangement.
5) Set the RJ45 connector (with the cable) on the plier, and squeeze it tightly.
6) Make the other side of the cable (we call this side B-side) in the same way.
7) After you made it, you don't need to take care of the direction of the cable. (Any cable in this
page is directionless --- that means you can set either end of the cable to either device.)

How to see the wire arrangement

take the UTP cable with your left hand and a RJ45 connector with your righyt hand. Hold the RJ45
connector in the way you can see the contact metal face (the horn (?) of the RJ45 connector comes
invisible from you now). At this moment, I call Pin-number 1, 2, 3, from the upper side to the
bottom side. This is the same at both side of the cable.
There are several different color set of UTP cables, so if the cable you have is not same as the one
below, please re-map the color in a good way...
Topic 5 Protocols
A Protocol is a set of guidelines or rules.
Internet protocols
Internet protocols are rules that help in governing an operation on the internet and communications
over it. There are many types such as FTP, HTTP, and TCP/IP.
Protocol used to other device understand about other languages to accept data.
Protocols are of two types:-

1) Routable Protocols
2) Non-Routable Protocols

1) Routable Protocols :- A routing protocol is a protocol that specifies how routers communicate
with each other to disseminate information that allows them to select routes between any two nodes
on a network. Typically, each router has a priori knowledge only of its immediate neighbors. A
routing protocol shares this information so that routers have knowledge of the network topology at
large. For a discussion of the concepts behind routing protocols, see: Routing.

The term routing protocol may refer more specifically to a protocol operating at Layer 3 of the OSI
model which similarly disseminates topology information between routers.

Many routing protocols used in the public Internet are defined in documents called RFCs.

There are three major types of routing protocols, some with variants: link-state routing protocols,
path vector protocols and distance vector routing protocols.

The specific characteristics of routing protocols include the manner in which they either prevent
routing loops from forming or break routing loops if they do form, and the manner in which they
determine preferred routes from a sequence of hop costs and other preference
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factors.TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol) (Microsoft) / IPX/SPX (Novell)

2) Non-Routable Protocols: - A communications protocol that contains only a device address and
not a network address. It does not incorporate an addressing scheme for sending data from one
network to another. Examples of non-routable protocols are NetBIOS and DEC's LAT protocols.
Contrast with routable protocol. Net Buze (Microsoft) / Nwlink (Novell)

Topic 6 OSI Layers

The International Organization for standardization (ISO) began developing the open system
Interconnection (OSI) reference model in 1977.It has since become the most widely accepted model for
understanding network communication. In order for computers to communicate there must be accepted
rules of communication. For communication to take place on a network composed of a variety of network
devices, these rules must be clearly defined.
The OSI model simply defines which tasks need to be done and
which protocols will handle those tasks at each of the seven layers of the model.
The 7 Layers of the OSI Model

The OSI, or Open System Interconnection, model defines a networking framework for implementing
protocols in seven layers. Control is passed from one layer to the next, starting at the application layer in
one station, and proceeding to the bottom layer, the channel to the next station and back up the
This layer supports application and end-user processes. Communication partners are
identified, quality of service is identified, user authentication and privacy are considered, and
Application any constraints on data syntax are identified. Everything at this layer is application-specific.
(Layer 7) This layer provides application services for file transfers, e-mail, and other network software
services. Telnet and FTP are applications that exist entirely in the application level. Tiered
application architectures are part of this layer.

This layer provides independence from differences in data representation (e.g., encryption)
by translating from application to network format, and vice versa. The presentation layer
works to transform data into the form that the application layer can accept. This layer
(Layer 6)
formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network, providing freedom from
compatibility problems. It is sometimes called the syntax layer.

This layer establishes, manages and terminates connections between applications. The
session layer sets up, coordinates, and terminates conversations, exchanges, and dialogues
(Layer 5)
between the applications at each end. It deals with session and connection coordination.

This layer provides transparent transfer of data between end systems, or hosts, and is
responsible for end-to-end error recovery and flow control. It ensures complete data
(Layer 4)

This layer provides switching and routing technologies, creating logical paths, known as
Network virtual circuits, for transmitting data from node to node. Routing and forwarding are
(Layer 3) functions of this layer, as well as addressing, internetworking, error handling, congestion
control and packet sequencing.

Data Link At this layer, data packets are encoded and decoded into bits. It furnishes transmission
(Layer 2) protocol knowledge and management and handles errors in the physical layer, flow control
and frame synchronization. The data link layer is divided into two sub layers: The Media
Access Control (MAC) layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. The MAC sub layer
controls how a computer on the network gains access to the data and permission to
transmit it. The LLC layer controls frame synchronization, flow control and error checking.

Physical This layer conveys the bit stream - electrical impulse, light or radio signal -- through the
(Layer 1) network at the electrical and mechanical level. It provides the hardware means of sending
and receiving data on a carrier, including defining cables, cards and physical aspects. Fast
Ethernet, RS232, and ATM are protocols with physical layer components.
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Example of OSI Layer

Application-Encoding & Decoding of data

Session- Pack sizing & error
Transport- Create & maintain a
virtual source to destination.
Datalink- Divide data packets into
Physical- Bits & Bytes.
Topic 7 Encapsulation & DOD

Encapsulation: - Is the process in which

additional instructions are added to the
data packets, so that it can transmit
across the network with modification.
Editing the data through data transferring. This process is called encapsulation or DOD (Department
of defence) or OSI (Open System International).

Application Layer Upper Layer

Presentation Layer
Session Layer HTTP, FTP, SMTP, POP3
Transport Layer Host to host Layer + TCP Layer (TCP, UDP, ICMP)
Network Layer Lower layer IP Layer (IP, RIP, IGRP, OSPF, FIGR)
Data Layer Access layer/Bits & Bytes
Physical layer

64 bit 48 bit 48 bit 24 bit 24 bit

Preamble Source Destination SFD FCS

MAC MAC Start Frame DATA File Check
Address Address Delimator Sequence

0-1500 bit


Topic 8 TCP/IP & IP Addressing

TCP/IP ver 4.0

255. 255. 255. 255

27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
=255 All 0 & 1 is treated as 1.

1- 126 (IP) (0,1)

Subnet mask 255. 0.0.0

N/W Host
27 224

= 16777216

This class comes under American Reasons.

127 IP is loop back

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128-191 (IP) (1, 0)

27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

Subnet mask 255.255. 0.0

N/W Host
214 216
= 65536

This class comes under Europe Reasons.

192-223 (IP) (1,1,0)

27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

Subnet mask 255.255.255. 0

N/W Host
221 28

= 256

This class comes under Asia Reasons.

224-239 (IP)

For Multicasting Addressing

240-255 (IP)

For Research

• Class A -- NNNNNNNN.nnnnnnnn.nnnnnnnn.nnnnnnnn
• Class B -- NNNNNNNN. NNNNNNNN.nnnnnnnn.nnnnnnnn

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Class Leading bits Start End Default Subnet Mask in dotted decimal

A (CIDR /8) 0

B (CIDR /16) 10

C (CIDR /24) 110

D 1110

E 1111

The network is left out because it is designated for loop back and cannot be assigned to a

Class D multicasting

Class E reserved

IANA IP Addressing and Naming Authority

IP are of two types

1) Public IP
2) Private IP

1) Public IP:-Public IP is Reserve/Internet IP.It is used for WAN.

2) Private IP: - Private IP is Free/Intranet IP.It is used for LAN.

Private IP

Subnet mask

Subnet mask

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Subnet mask

Topic 9 Topologies

There are 7 types of Topologies.

1) Bus Topology: - In the bus topology the server is at one end, and the client PCs (devices) are
connected at different points or positions along the network. All signals pass through each of the devices.
Each device has a unique identity and can recognize those signals intended for it. It is easy and simple to
design and implement.
2) Star Topology:- This is a form of LAN architecture is which nodes on a network are connected to a
common central hub or switch, and this is done by the use of dedicated links.The Star topology is now
emerging as the most common network layout used today in LAN layout. Each workstation is connected
point-to-point to a single central location.

3) Ring Topology:- This topology is a simple design and consists of a single cable that forms the main
data path in the shape of a ring. Each device is connected to a closed loop of cable. Signals travel in one
direction from one node to all other nodes around the loop.

4) Tree Topology:- The Tree topology is essentially a hybrid of the bus and star layouts. The basic
topology is similar to that of a bus, with nodes connected in sequence to a linear central cable. But tree
networks may have "branches" that contain multiple workstations that are connected point-to-point in a
star-like pattern. Signals from a transmitting node travel the length of the medium and are received by all
other nod

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5) Star Wired Ring Topology:- A star-wired ring topology may appear (externally) to be the same as a
star topology. Internally, the MAU (multistation access unit) of a star-wired ring contains wiring that
allows information to pass from one device to another in a circle or ring (See fig.
3). The Token Ring protocol uses a star-wired ring topology.
6) Linear Bus Topology:- A linear bus topology consists of a main run of cable with a terminator at each
end (See fig. 1). All nodes (file server, workstations, and peripherals) are connected to the linear cable.
Ethernet and LocalTalk networks use a linear bus topology.

7) Mesh Topology:- Mesh networking is a way to route data, voice and instructions between nodes. It
allows for continuous connections and reconfiguration around broken or blocked paths by "hopping" from
node to node until the destination is reached. A mesh network whose nodes are all connected to each
other is a fully connected network. Mesh networking is a subclass of mobile ad hoc networking (MANET).

Topic 10 Difference between Hub & Switch

1) Shared Bandwidth 1) Provide full Bandwidth.
2) Physical layer device 2) Datalink layer device.
3) Single collision Domain 3) Multiple Collision Domain.
4) Multiport repeater. 4) Forward & Filtering Decision.
5) No VLAN (Virtual Lan) 5) VLan.

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Hub & Switch

Hub: - A hub is a "unintelligent" broadcast device -- any packet entering any port is broadcast out on
every port. Hubs do not manage any of the traffic that comes through their ports. Since every packet is
constantly being sent out through every port, you end up with packet collisions, which greatly impede the
smooth flow of traffic on your LAN. Provides Shared bandwidth. It is physical layer device. Single collision
Domain. Multiport Repeater. No VLAN (Virtual LAN).

Switch:-A switch, on the other hand, isolates ports -- every received packet is sent out only to the port
on which the target may be found (one caveat - if the proper port cannot be determined, then the switch
will broadcast the packet to all ports). Essentially, a switch is a router, but one operating at the MAC level
rather than the IP level. Since the switch is intelligently sending packets only where they need to go, and
not everywhere willy-nilly, the performance speed of your network can be greatly increased. Provide Full
bandwidth.Datalink layer Device. Multiple Collision Domains. Forward & Filtering Decision. VLAN available.

Topic 11 Difference between Switch & Router

Switch Router

1) Works on MAC address. 1) Works on IP address.

2) Single broadcast domain. 2) Multiple broadcast domain.

3) LAN Device. 3) WAN Device.

4) Data Link Layer Device. 4) Network Layer Device

Topic 12 Difference between Bridge & Switch

Bridge Switch

1) Maximum Support 16 port. 1) Support many ports.

2) It is an software part. 2) It is hardware based

Topic 13 Difference between Workgroup & Domain

Workgroup Domain

1) Local Users & Groups. 1) Global Users & Groups.

2) User have not assign network right. 2) User has right to network.

3) No Centralized authentication. 3) Centralized authentication.

4) Share level Permission. 4) Access level Permission.

5) Desktop level Security. 5) Full Security.

6) Local Profile of users. 6) Roaming Profile.

Topic 14 File Systems

In computing, a file system is a method for storing and organizing computer files and the data they
contain to make it easy to find and access them. File systems may use a storage device such as a hard
disk or CD-ROM and involve maintaining the physical location of the files, they might

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provide access to data on a file server by acting as clients for a network protocol (e.g., NFS, SMB, or 9P
clients), or they may be virtual and exist only as an access method for virtual data (e.g. procfs).

More formally, a file system is a set of abstract data types that are implemented for the storage,
hierarchical organization, manipulation, navigation, access, and retrieval of data. File systems share much
in common with database technology, but it is debatable whether a file system can be classified as a
special-purpose database (DBMS).


(New Technology File System) (File Allocation Unit)

1) Partition Supports up to 2 T.B. 1) Partition Support 32 G.B.

2) Security Access level right. 2) No Security, Share level.

3) Encryption. 3) No-Encryption.
4) File & Folder level Compression. 4) No-Compression.

5) Disk Quota. 5) No-Disk-Quota.

Topic 15 Commands Of Networking

PING:-Ping is the command which is used for check the connectivity between two devices.

Syntax: - ping (Enter)

Steps:- Start--- Run --- ping (Enter)

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Ping Extensions

Ping –t (Enter)

If we make –t then ping goes regular it does stop after 3 reply.
If we want to check how many packets we have loss in ping then press ctrl+break on running ping

IPCONFIG:-IP config shows your local host IP address and gateway.

Syntax: - ipconfig (Enter)

Steps:- Start--- Run --- cmd(Cmd refers to command prompt) --- ipconfig (Enter)

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IPCONFIG ALL: - This command shows all the configuration about local host in the network.
(Computer name, IP address, Mac address, DNS, gatewayand your domain/workgroup name and
type of addressing.

Syntax: - ipconfig /all (Enter)

Steps: - Start--- Run --- cmd (Cmd refers to command prompt) --- ipconfig /all (Enter)

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ARP: - ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) command is used for check the local host cache memory
to check within a short time period (2 minutes).How many devices are interact with this.

Syntax: - Arp -a (Enter)

Steps: - Start--- Run --- cmd (Cmd refers to command prompt) --- arp -a (Enter)
HOSTNAME: - This command shows local host name in the network.


NETNAME: - It runs in98.

Syntax: - hostname (Enter)

Steps: - Start--- Run --- cmd (Cmd refers to command prompt) --- hostname (Enter)

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NET VIEW: - This command is used to check how many computers are connected with your system
(In a local domain).

Syntax: - net view (Enter)

Steps: - Start--- Run --- cmd (Cmd refers to command prompt) --- net view (Enter)

WINIPCFG :- In 98 this command is used to check all the configuration. (IP address, Subnet mask,
gateway, DNS etc).

To check RAM, Processor etc .There is a utility.

Start---Run---dxdiag (Enter)
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Topic 16 USER ACCOUNT MANAGEMENT (Creating local user)

Step 1 My Computer Right Click.

Step 2 Click on Manage.
Step 3 Click on Local users & Groups.
Step 4 Click on users.

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Step 5 Right Click & Click on New user.
Step 6 Write username & Full name.
Step 7 Click on the check box
 User cannot change password.
 Password never expires.
Step 8 Click on Create.

Topic 17 Properties of USER ACCOUNT

Step 1 My Computer Right Click.
Step 2 Click on Manage.
Step 3 Click on Local users & Groups.
Step 4 Click on users.