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Name of the NTC Guidance Document

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Date approved:
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Guideline
Simone Cavallini
Angel-Luis Rivada
Samur Worasilpchai
2002-05-31

Table of contents
1. INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................................4
2. ADAPTIVE MULTI RATE......................................................................................................................4
2.1 WHY AMR?..............................................................................................................................................4
2.2 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF AMR....................................................................................................................5
2.3 WHAT IS LINK ADAPTATION (LA)?...............................................................................................................6
2.4 CODEC MODE ADAPTATION...........................................................................................................................6
2.5 LINK ADAPTATION........................................................................................................................................7
3. BENEFITS OF AMR................................................................................................................................8
3.1 SPEECH QUALITY ENHANCEMENT.....................................................................................................................8
3.2 CAPACITY AND COVERAGE GAIN......................................................................................................................9
3.3 SIGNALLING CHANNEL PERFORMANCE...............................................................................................................9
3.4 IMPROVED BCCH PLAN................................................................................................................................9
3.5 MIXED EFR AMR TRAFFIC NETWORKS.......................................................................................................9
3.6 HALF RATE UTILISATION..........................................................................................................................10
4. AMR PARAMETERS.............................................................................................................................10
4.1 INITIAL CODEC MODE SELECTION....................................................................................................................10
4.2 CODEC MODE ADAPTATION...........................................................................................................................11
4.3 CONFIGURATION IN HANDOVERS....................................................................................................................12
4.4 HO&PC THRESHOLDS PARAMETERS FOR AMR.............................................................................................12
4.5 CHANNEL MODE ADAPTATION.......................................................................................................................13
4.6 PRIORITISATION OF AMR CAPABLE CELLS DURING INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL HANDOVERS.....................................14
4.7 DIRECT ACCESS TO DESIRED LAYER/BAND (DADL/B).....................................................................................14
4.8 IFH AND IUO..........................................................................................................................................15
5. PERFORMANCE OF AMR...................................................................................................................15
5.1 AMR IN ONE-LAYER NETWORK....................................................................................................................15
5.2 AMR IN TWO-LAYER NETWORK (IFH).........................................................................................................17
5.3 PERFORMANCE IN HR AMR.......................................................................................................................19
5.4 PERFORMANCE IN BCCH LAYER..................................................................................................................21
6. PARAMETERS SUMMARY.................................................................................................................22
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7. BSC CAPACITY.....................................................................................................................................24
7.1 AMR HALF RATE.......................................................................................................................................24
8. PERFORMANCE INDICATORS..........................................................................................................25
9. TRAFFIC MEASUREMENTS...............................................................................................................25
9.1 TCH TRAFFIC TIME, ALL CALLS (TRF_119)...................................................................................................25
9.2 CS CALL SAMPLES, NON-AMR CALL (TRF_113)............................................................................................25
9.3 TCH TRAFFIC TIME, NON-AMR CALLS (TRF_115)........................................................................................26
9.4 CS CALL SAMPLES, AMR CALL (TRF_114)...................................................................................................26
9.5 TCH TRAFFIC TIME, AMR CALLS (TRF_116)...............................................................................................26
9.6 TCH TRAFFIC TIME, FR AMR CALLS (TRF_117)..........................................................................................27
9.7 TCH TRAFFIC TIME, HR AMR CALLS (TRF_118).........................................................................................27
9.8 AMR CAPABLE MOBILE USAGE RATIO............................................................................................................27
9.9 AMR TCH SEIZURES................................................................................................................................28
9.10 AMR TCH SEIZURES RATIO TO ALL TCH SEIZURES....................................................................................28
9.11 AMR TCH SEIZURES RATIO TO ALL SPEECH TCH SEIZURES.........................................................................28
9.12 TCH TRAFFIC SHARE OF AMR CALLS........................................................................................................29
9.13 TCH TRAFFIC SHARE OF FR AMR CALLS...................................................................................................29
9.14 TCH TRAFFIC SHARE OF AMR HR CALLS..................................................................................................29
10. QUALITY INDICATORS BASED ON BER MEASUREMENTS....................................................29
10.1 DL CUMULATIVE QUALITY % IN CLASS X, HR AMR,S10 (DLQ_4)..............................................................31
10.2 DL CUMULATIVE QUALITY % IN CLASS X, FR AMR,S10 (DLQ_5)...............................................................31
10.3 UL CUMULATIVE QUALITY % IN CLASS X, HR AMR,S10 (ULQ_4)..............................................................31
10.4 UL CUMULATIVE QUALITY % IN CLASS X, FR AMR,S10 (ULQ_5)...............................................................31
10.5 DL CUMULATIVE QUALITY % IN CLASS X,S10 (DLQ_6)................................................................................32
10.6 UL CUMULATIVE QUALITY % IN CLASS X,S10 (ULQ_6)................................................................................32
10.7 DL CUMULATIVE QUALITY % IN CLASS X FOR FR AMR CODEC MODE Z.......................................................32
10.8 DL CUMULATIVE QUALITY % IN CLASS X FOR HR AMR CODEC MODE Z......................................................33
10.9 UL CUMULATIVE QUALITY % IN CLASS X FOR FR AMR CODEC MODE Z.......................................................33
10.10 UL CUMULATIVE QUALITY % IN CLASS X FOR HR AMR CODEC MODE Z....................................................33
11. QUALITY INDICATORS BASED ON FER MEASUREMENTS....................................................33
11.1 DL QUALITY %, FER BASED, S10 (DLQ_3)...............................................................................................35
11.2 DL QUALITY 0-5 % EFR, FER BASED, S10 (DLQ_9)................................................................................35
11.3 DL QUALITY 0-5 % AMR FR, FER BASED, S10 (DLQ_11).......................................................................35
12. HANDOVER MEASUREMENTS.......................................................................................................36
12.1 HO ATTEMPTS, OUTGOING AND INTRA-CELL, S10, (HO_13 ).........................................................................36
12.2 AMR FR TO HR HO SUCCESS................................................................................................................37
12.3 AMR HR TO FR HO SUCCESS................................................................................................................37
13. IMPACT ON DROPPED CALL RATIO............................................................................................38
13.1 TRANSCODER FAILURE RATIO, AMR FR (DCR_19)......................................................................................38
13.2 TRANSCODER FAILURE RATIO, AMR HR (DCR_20).....................................................................................38
13.3 TRANSCODER FAILURE RATIO, (DCR_21)......................................................................................................38
14. AMR CODEC SET DOWNGRADES AND UPGRADES..................................................................39
14.1 CODEC SET UPGRADE ATTEMPTS, S10 (AMR_1)............................................................................................39
14.2 CODEC SET DOWNGRADE ATTEMPTS, S10 (AMR_2).......................................................................................39
14.3 CODEC SET UPGRADE FAILURE RATIO, S10 (AMR_3)......................................................................................40
14.4 CODEC SET DOWNGRADE FAILURE RATIO, S10 (AMR_4).................................................................................40
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15. CODEC MODE SHARE.......................................................................................................................40


15.1 CODEC MODE Z SHARE IN AMR FR CALLS.................................................................................................40
15.2 CODEC MODE Z SHARE IN AMR HR CALLS................................................................................................41
16. REFERENCES......................................................................................................................................42
17. ABBREVIATIONS................................................................................................................................42
18. APPENDIX A: NOKIA BSS10 AMR SOLUTION.............................................................................43
19. HISTORY...............................................................................................................................................43
.....................................................................................................................................................................43

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1.

INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this document is to explain the theory and the practice implementation of the
Nokia feature adaptive multi rate (AMR), how the AMR is implemented in Nokias network
elements, how to choose the right parameters related to AMR, how to analyse the quality of the
network and the optimisation process. Also some planning examples are presented.
2.

ADAPTIVE MULTI RATE

2.1

Why AMR?

GSM speech codecs (full rate - FR, half rate - HR and enhanced full rate - EFR) operate at a fixed
coding rate. Channel protection (against errors) is added also at a fixed rate. The coding rates are
chosen as a compromise between best clear channel performance and robustness to channel
errors. The AMR system exploits the implied performance compromises by adapting the speech
and channel coding rates according to the quality of the radio channel. This gives better clear
channel quality and better robustness to errors. These benefits are realised whether operating in
full-rate or half-rate channels. An example to explain this concept in a more intuitive way can be
this: consider the situation where the mobile is in a zone of the cell border where you have a bad
C/I (for example 7dB). With EFR you have a degradation of the quality of the speech due to
interference. On the other hand, with AMR similar quality can be achieved with a reduced number
of speech coded bits, which allows more bits to be used for error protection and correction (see
Figure 1).
As well as quality improvements, the need to enhance capacity by allocating half-rate channels to
some or all mobiles is also recognised. The radio resource algorithm, enhanced to support AMR
operation, allocates a half-rate or full-rate channel according to channel quality and the traffic load
on the cell in order to obtain the best balance between quality and capacity. An example of the
increase in capacity can be this: in normal C/I condition two voice channels can use a single
timeslot in the case of Half rate coding (HR) with little or no compromise in voice quality compared
to EFR (see Figure 2).
Optimal interworking with power control and handover algorithms together with enhanced quality
measurements (FER Measurement feature) will provide full benefits and interworking with prior
Nokia capacity features including Intelligent Frequency Hopping (IFH).
AMR Full Rate performance compared to Full Rate EFR in Clean Speech
MOS (Mean Opinion Score)
5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

EFR
AMR FR

1.0
No Errors

16 dB C/I

13 dB C/I

10 dB C/I

7 dB C/I

4 dB C/I

Figure 1: ETSI Mean Opinion Score test results for current EFR and AMR FR
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AMR Half Rate performance compared to Full Rate in Clean Speech


MOS (Mean Opinion Score)
5.0

4.0

3.0

FR

2.0

AMR HR

1.0

No Errors

19 dB C/I

16 dB C/I

13 dB C/I

10 dB C/I

7 dB C/I

4 dB C/I

Figure 2: ETSI Mean Opinion Score test results for current FR and AMR HR
2.2

General description of AMR

AMR consists of 8 different speech codec modes with total of 14 channel codec modes (see Table
1).
Table 1: Channel and speech codec modes for AMR
Channel Channel
mode
codec

Source coding
bit-rate, speech

Mode

TCH/FR

TCH/HR

Net bit-rate,
in-band
channel

Channel
coding
bit-rate,
speech

Channel
coding
bit-rate, inband

CH0-FS

12.20kbit/s
(GSMEFR)

0.10 kbit/s

10.20 kbit/s

0.30 kbit/s

CH1-FS

10.20 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

12.20 kbit/s

0.30 kbit/s

CH2-FS

7.95 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

14.45 kbit/s

0.30 kbit/s

CH3-FS

7.40 kbit/s (IS-641)

0.10 kbit/s

15.00 kbit/s

0.30 kbit/s

CH4-FS

6.70 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

15.70 kbit/s

0.30 kbit/s

CH5-FS

5.90 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

16.50 kbit/s

0.30 kbit/s

CH6-FS

5.15 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

17.25 kbit/s

0.30 kbit/s

CH7-FS

4.75 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

17.65 kbit/s

0.30 kbit/s

CH8-HS

7.95 kbit/s (*)

0.10 kbit/s

3.25 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

CH9-HS

7.40 kbit/s (IS-641)

0.10 kbit/s

3.80 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

CH10-HS

6.70 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

4.50 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

CH11-HS

5.90 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

5.30 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

CH12-HS

5.15 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

6.05 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

CH13-HS
4.75 kbit/s
0.10 kbit/s
6.45 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s
(*) Requires 16 kbit/s TRAU. Therefore it is not seen as a feasible codec mode and will not be
supported by Nokia BSS10.

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Codec mode adaptation for AMR is based on received channel quality estimation in both MS and
BTS, followed by a decision on the most appropriate speech and channel codec mode to apply at
a given time. In high-error conditions more bits are used for error correction to obtain error robust
coding, while in good transmission conditions a lower amount of bits is needed for sufficient error
protection and more bits can therefore be allocated for source coding.
An in-band signalling channel is defined for AMR that enables the MS and the BTS to exchange
messages on applied or requested speech and channel codec modes. The above mentioned
selected speech codec mode is then sent, by using the in-band signalling channel, to the
transmitting side, where it is applied for the other link. BTS commands the MS to apply a particular
speech codec mode in the uplink, but MS can only request BTS to apply a particular speech
codec mode in the downlink because BTS has an option to override the MS's request.
MS shall support all speech codec modes, although only a set of up to 4 speech codec modes is
used during a call. BSC supports all of speech codec modes, except 7.95 kbit/s on HR channel,
and it has one default set for each channel mode. The default codec sets include also a default set
of decision thresholds and hysteresis. The initial codec mode and codec set with thresholds and
hysteresis are transferred between network elements and MS by using the existing layer 3
signalling, i.e. the basic principles for EFR are reused. Only a few add-ons are needed.
The AMR system makes use of the in-band signalling for the link adaptation. Further, for each
codec mode set there is an associated set of decision thresholds for mapping the channel quality
measurements to the Mode Commands/Requests.
2.3

What is Link Adaptation (LA)?

Link Adaptation is the capacity of AMR feature to vary the codec used according to the link
conditions. In this way both network, for uplink, and MS, for downlink, measure the radio
conditions in each link and take decisions on which codec should be applied to each way. Two
different types of link adaptation algorithms are defined: Codec Mode Adaptation and Channel
Mode Adaptation.
Channel Mode Adaptation algorithm decides on whether the speech can be handled by a Full
Rate Channel or by a Half Rate Channel according to the link conditions. Whereas, for the
channel selected, the Codec Mode Adaptation algorithm decides which codec is the one that
provides the best speech quality for the current radio conditions. That is, as each codec has
different channel protection and speech encoding performance, the idea of the codec mode
adaptation is to select the codec that provides the best speech quality for the radio conditions that
the receivers are submitted to.
2.4

Codec Mode Adaptation

There are two link adaptation (LA) modes; the ETSI specified fast LA and the Nokia proprietary
slow LA. Fast LA BTS allows in-band codec mode changes on every other TCH frame, but in
Nokia proprietary slow LA BTS allows in-band codec mode changes only on SACCH frame
interval. The choice of the LA mode is done on BSC basis with the parameter
slowAmrLaEnabled: if it is set to "N" (default) it is used ETSI fast LA; if it is set to "Y" it used
Nokia slow LA. With slow LA, BTS allows in-band codec mode changes only on the SACCH frame
interval of 480 ms and this option give better flexibility with HO & PC algorithms.
During both LA modes BTS indicates the first and the last used codec during the last
measurement interval and the average quality. As already said BTS commands the MS to apply a
particular speech codec mode in the uplink, but MS can only request BTS to apply a particular
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speech codec mode in the downlink because BTS has an option to override the MS's request (see
Figure 3).
The codec mode bit-rate, i.e. the bit-rate partitioning between the speech and channel coding for a
given channel mode, may be varied rapidly (see Figure 4) to track changes in the radio link and to
account for specific input conditions (speech signal characteristics, acoustic environmental
characteristics, etc.).
The codec mode can be switched one up or one down at the time so that it is not possible to
switch from the mode 12.2 kbit/s to 4.75 kbit/s when for example the modes 5.9 kbit/s and 7.4
kbit/s are included to the mode set. Also, it should be noted that codec changes do not take place
immediately after the Codec Mode Command/Request is sent: there is a delay until a frame is
received with the new codec.
Codec mode adaptation operate independently on the up- and down- links. It is transparent to the
channel allocation and operate independently of it. Control depends mainly on measurements of
the quality of the respective links.
2.5

Link Adaptation

Link adaptation consists in channel mode (i.e. handovers between FR and HR) and codec mode
(i.e. source and channel bit-rates for a given channel mode). Details are explained in paragraph
4.2 and 4.4.
The channel mode (FR or HR) is switched to achieve the optimum balance between speech
quality and capacity enhancements. The up- and down-links shall use the same channel mode.
The channel mode is selected by the network based on measurements of the quality of the upand down-links.

Figure 3: Codec Mode Adaptation


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C/I

C/I

EFRoperation

AMRmode

AMR
Mode

30

12.2kbit/s

25

7.95kbit/s

[dB]

20

15

6.70kbit/s
5.90kbit/s

10

0
0

10

15

20

25

30

Time[s]

3.

Figure 4: Codec Mode Adaptation


BENEFITS OF AMR

3.1

Speech quality enhancement

There is a gain in quality by using AMR speech codecs compared to previous GSM speech
codecs (FR, EFR, and HR) (see Figure 5). At first, with high C/I the EFR quality is obtained. Then,
AMR link adaptation maintains good speech quality in the situation where the connection faces
low C/I due to high interference or low signal level. Therefore, the impact on average speech
quality based on AMR full-rate codec is clear. Naturally, this requires an effective link adaptation
algorithm.
MOS
5.0

4.0

3.0
EFR
12.2
10.2
7.95
7.4
6.7
5.9
5.15
4.75

2.0

1.0

No Errors

C/I=16 dB

Conditions
C/I=13 dB

C/I=10 dB

C/I= 7 dB

C/I= 4 dB

4.01

3.65

3.05

1.53

4.13

3.93

3.44

1.46

C/I= 1 dB

EFR

4.01

12.2

4.01

10.2

4.06

3.96

4.05

3.80

2.04

7.95

3.91

4.01

4.08

3.96

3.26

1.43

7.4

3.83

3.94

3.98

3.84

3.11

1.39

6.7

3.77

3.80

3.86

3.29

1.87

5.9

3.72

3.69

3.59

2.20

5.15

3.50

3.58

3.44

2.43

4.75

3.50

3.52

3.43

2.66

4.06

Figure 5: MOS values for certain C/I (clean speech in FR)


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3.2

Capacity and coverage gain

Link level results illustrated very high improvement in the terms of TCH FER when robust AMR
modes were used. As high as 6 dB improvement at 1% FER in C/I was achieved. Therefore, high
capacity gain can be expected when robust AMR modes are utilised. In addition, increased
robustness to channel errors can be utilised in the cell coverage, i.e. lower C/N can be allowed at
the cell edge. However, in the mixed traffic case the cell coverage has to be planned according to
EFR mobiles.
3.3

Signalling channel performance

With AMR the performance of traffic channels TCH for speech is improved. However, it is
interesting to check also the performance of signalling channels such as SACCH and FACCH
which are carried by the same TSL. From FER point of view, the robustness of those signalling
channels is not as high as for traffic channels (higher FER for the same CIR than in traffic
channels). However, for these signalling channels FER is not a fair parameter to pay attention to
but the probability of decoding success of the signalling message. In this way, due to
retransmissions schemes used by these channels the probability of signalling success maintain
very high even for very degraded conditions.
3.4

Improved BCCH plan

Since the average C/I found in a cell area can be measurably less than that used in a non-AMR
network and still provide comparable quality to EFR, the existing clean BCCH layer can be
tightened, potentially releasing frequencies to be used on the non-BCCH layer. This offers
improved speech quality and extra capacity for TCH, especially in the narrow band deployment
(frequency band less than 5 MHz). However, if EFR roaming mobiles are to be taken care of, the
BCCH will have to be planned accordingly.
3.5

Mixed EFR AMR traffic networks

In many real networks, the AMR mobile penetration will start to grow on top of EFR traffic.
Therefore, one major task to study is the mixed AMR EFR case. Is there any capacity gain when
the AMR penetration is small? How to plan networks to ensure the quality for the old EFR
mobiles?
One method to realise AMR gain is to use more aggressive power adjustment for AMR mobiles in
order to decrease the average interference level in the network. Due to better error correction
capability against the channel errors lower C/I target can be set for AMR mobiles hence lower PC
thresholds can be used. Therefore, the overall interference decreases in the network (smaller
average transmission power) and thus the quality of the existing EFR connections increase. For
example, when AMR FR mode of 7.4 kbit/s is in use instead of the mode 12.2 kbit/s, the target C/I
can be set 3 4 dB lower. Quality increase can be turned into capacity by allowing more users to
the network, or the number of frequencies can be decreased if the traffic remains the same.
Naturally, this increased frequency efficiency is a quality to capacity trade-off for AMR mobiles.
There is a small quality loss in the terms of speech quality when AMR codec mode of 7.4 kbit/s is
used instead of the mode 12.2 kbit/s.
The usage of AMR speech codecs offers an additional gain in two-layer IFH network where the
calls can be separated by the current quality. In that approach, the idea is to push all the good
quality connections to super layer where the frequency reuse is much tighter than in the regular
layer. Therefore, the frequency efficiency increases as a function of super layer usage. Since AMR
mobiles can be regarded as good quality connections with lower C/I value, lower access threshold
can be used for AMR connections. Then, the usage of the super layer increases in relation to
AMR penetration. Moreover, the regular layer ensures the good signal quality for the existing EFR
connections.
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3.6

Half Rate utilisation

Half-rate is an efficient way to increase capacity in the case of limited number of TRXs per cell. A
half-rate connection uses the channel only every second burst. In theory, HR utilisation doubles
the capacity of the cell since two half-rate connections can be allocated to fill only one timeslot.
When the comparison between AMR HR codecs and previous GSM HR codec is made, it is
noticed that AMR HR obtains remarkable better speech quality. Moreover, AMR FR obtains better
quality than AMR HR only when higher FR modes than 7.4 are used (due to higher number of
speech coding bits). For example, AMR FR 7.4 kbit/s mode and AMR HR 7.4 kbit/s mode have the
same speech quality when the C/I is high (error free case).
In theory for ideal frequency hopping about 11-12 dB C/I is required for AMR HR to obtain the
evaluated good speech quality limit (in real networks, depending on the BTS configuration and on
FH mode used, it might be necessary 1-4 dB higher). In theory, all connections having at least 12
dB C/I could be handed over to HR channel remaining the good speech quality. When two FR
connections are handed over to HR channel and allocated to fill only one timeslot, the other
timeslot will be free for new allocations (1 FR or 2 HRs). In reality the channel allocation and
repacking algorithms (see paragraph 4.5), measurement delays and increased intracell handovers
limit the performance. In addition, HR connections require higher C/I for the same quality than FR
thus higher transmission powers are needed for HR connections.
4.

AMR PARAMETERS

In this chapter the AMR related parameters are taken into account. In appendix A there is an
extract with all the ranges and the default values. Some aspects of the AMR functionality will be
explained with the related parameters. All the parameters are on cell basis.
4.1

Initial codec mode selection

The two parameters amrConfigurationFR: codecModeSet and amrConfigurationHR:


codecModeSet specify which of the possible speech coding bit-rate are implemented in the
serving cell: default values are 12.2, 7.4, 5.9 and 4.75 Kb/s (for FR) and 7.4, 5.9 and 4.75 Kb/s (for
HR). MS supports all speech codec modes, although only a set of up to 4 speech codec modes is
used during a call (codec set can be updated during the call, e.g. HO) and BSC supports all
speech codec modes, except 7.95 kbit/s on HR channel.
The Initial Codec mode to start the speech coding operation at call set-up and after handover may
be signalled by layer 3 signalling, in which case it shall be used by BTS and MS.
With the parameters amrConfigurationFr: initCodecMode, amrConfigurationFr: startMode,
amrConfigurationHr: initCodecMode and amrConfigurationHr: startMode you can select a
different codec mode from the default ones:
If the initial codec mode is set to

"0" (default) then the Initial codec mode is defined by the implicit rule provided in
GSM 05.09

"1" Initial codec mode is defined by amrConfigurationFr: startMode.

* The implicit rule provided in GSM 05.09

depending on the number of codecs in ACS:

1 mode, ICM = Only codec defined in ACS;


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2 or 3 modes, ICM = the most robust mode of ACS (lowest bit rate);

4 modes, ICM = second most robust mode of the set

* amrConfigurationFr: startMode

00: Codec mode 1 (the most robust mode of ACS)

01: Codec mode 2

10: Codec mode 3

11: Codec mode 4

* The most robust codec available (less bit rate for speech) is recommended.
With initAmrChannelRate parameter you define the initial channel in call set-up (except FACCH
call set-up), internal inter cell handover (HO) and external HO for an AMR call. The default value is
"Any Rate" and this means that the chosen channel rate is defined by taking into account the
currently used information (Channel Type IE, resource situation on radio interface, circuit pool,
current channel rate, handover parameters, etc.). The other option is "AMR FR", which means that
full rate channel is allocated despite of the values of the currently used information. If AMR FR
cannot be allocated, then allocation is continued with the currently used information. The reason
behind this last parameter is that quality may not be sufficient for HR AMR call set-up (radio
measurement is done on SDCCH).
4.2

Codec mode adaptation

With the parameters amrConfigurationFr: threshold1, amrConfigurationFr: threshold2,


amrConfigurationFr: threshold3 it is possible to define the thresholds for switching respectively
from codec mode 2 (second lowest bit-rate) to codec mode 1 (lowest bit-rate most robust), from
codec mode 3 to codec mode 2 and from codec mode 4 (highest bit-rate less robust) to codec
mode 3.
The recommended values are 4dB, 7dB, and 11dB (in ideal conditions simulations show that also
the values 6dB, 9dB and 13dB give good results in terms of FER (Frame Error ate) and MOS
degradation): higher thresholds means that most robust codecs are used, lower thresholds imply
that less robust codecs are used.
Aggressive (low C/I) thresholds increases the number of TCH frame errors since the high modes
are used even with low C/I values. Conversely, thresholds that are set too high decrease the
usage of higher modes thus some speech quality is lost due to lower number of speech bits.
With the parameters amrConfigurationFr: hysteresis1, amrConfigurationFr: hysteresis2 and
amrConfigurationFr: hysteresis3 together with AMR FR thresholds, it is possible to define the
threshold for switching from one codec mode to another. The thresholds and the related
hysteresis must be in consistent order, that is, AMR FR threshold 1 and AMR FR hysteresis 1
must be equal to or smaller than AMR FR threshold 2 and AMR FR hysteresis 2 and AMR FR
threshold 2 and AMR FR hysteresis 2 must be equal to or smaller than AMR FR threshold 3 and
AMR FR hysteresis 3.
For HR configuration there are the parameters amrConfigurationHr: threshold1,
amrConfigurationHr: threshold2, amrConfigurationHr: threshold3, amrConfigurationHr:
hysteresis1, amrConfigurationHr: hysteresis2 and amrConfigurationHr: hysteresis3. In case
of only three codec modes (default HR codecModeSet) threshold 3 and hysteresis 3 are set to "0"
in order not to use them.
The basic AMR set for FR and HR channels on BSC are in and in :

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Codec
Mode

Threshold
(C/I)

Hysteresis
(C/I)

12.2
7.4
5.9
4.75

11
7
4

1
1
1

Lower
threshold
(C/I)
11
7
4
-

Upper
threshold
(C/I)
12
8
5

Table 2: basic AMR FR codec set


Codec
Mode

Threshold
(C/I)

Hysteresis
(C/I)

7.4
5.9
4.75

14
11

1
1

Lower
threshold
(C/I)
14
11
-

Upper
threshold
(C/I)
15
12

Table 3: basic AMR HR codec set


Lower threshold in the tables above means towards more robust codec and upper threshold
means towards less robust codec.
4.3

Configuration in handovers

Two BSC related parameter refers to the behaviour during internal and external handovers:
amrConfInHandovers and amrSetGradesEnabl.
With the first parameter it is possible to define the preference between the currently used multirate
configuration and the one defined for the target BTS during internal and external handovers. With
the value "1" (default) the currently used multirate configuration is preferred in further channel
allocations; with the value "2" the multirate configuration of target BTS is preferred in further
channel allocations.
With the second parameter it is possible to define whether codec mode set downgrades during
internal HOs and upgrades after internal HOs are applied or not. Its value can be "Y" or "N": with
"Y" downgrades and upgrades are applied, with "N" (default value) these upgrades and
downgrades are not applied.
4.4

HO&PC thresholds parameters for AMR

RxQual thresholds (either HO and PC) are specified for FR and HR AMR sets:
Power Control
Handover
Pc lower threshold dl Rx qual AMR FR
threshold dl Rx qual for AMR FR
Pc lower threshold dl Rx qual AMR HR
threshold dl Rx qual AMR HR
Pc lower threshold ul Rx qual AMR FR
threshold ul Rx qual AMR FR
Pc lower threshold ul Rx qual AMR HR
threshold ul Rx qual AMR HR
Pc upper threshold dl Rx qual AMR FR
Pc upper threshold dl Rx qual AMR HR
Pc upper threshold ul Rx qual AMR FR
Pc upper threshold ul Rx qual AMR HR
With these parameters it is possible to define the threshold level of the signal quality
downlink/uplink measurements for triggering the handover. Default values for these new
thresholds are set according to the default AMR codec sets. Current Nx and Px values of RxQual
thresholds are used.
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If operator wants to replace or remove a most robust mode on AMR set, the corresponding PC
and HO RxQual thresholds has to be edited manually. This also applies to the least robust mode.
Replacement or removal of a middle mode on AMR set does not effect on the new PC and HO
thresholds.
One solution to benefit from AMR penetration is to use more aggressive (higher values) power
control for AMR mobiles and thus decrease the average interference. This can be done by having
different power control thresholds for AMR mobiles. By using higher thresholds for AMR mobiles
(1-2 classes more), lower transmission powers are used and therefore less interference is
caused.
4.5

Channel mode adaptation

RxQual HO thresholds are specified for FR and HR AMR and they are taken into account when
making intra-cell handovers between FR AMR and HR AMR: amrHandoverFR and
amrHandoverHR. Current Nx and Px values of RxQual thresholds are used. With these
parameter it is possible to define the threshold level of the signal quality downlink and uplink
measurements for triggering the intra-cell handover process for an AMR FR call in order to switch
it to an AMR HR call and vice-versa.
These two parameters together with the parameters lower limit for FR TCH resources and
upper limit for FR TCH resources (btsLoadDepTCHRate) and are used to control packing of
FR calls to HR AMR calls due to cell load and unpacking of HR calls to FR AMR calls due to call
quality. In fact half-rate channels can be used without a noticeable speech quality loss in high C/I
conditions. However, with low C/I the speech quality decreases a lot and therefore it is essential to
choose the best connections when FR to HR handovers are performed. In addition, if the
availability of full-rate timeslots is good in the certain cell, all connections could be kept in full-rate
in order to optimise the quality and minimise the number of intra-cell handovers.
In Figure 6 there is a simple example on way how packing works.
Spontaneous packing of FR AMR calls to HR AMR calls is triggered when the cell load is high
enough, i.e. the number of free full rate resources reduces below the value of the parameter
lower limit for FR TCH resources (according to the BTS level parameter, if it contradicts with the
BSC level parameter). Packing continues until the cell load is low enough, i.e. the number of free
full rate resources increases above the value of the parameter upper limit for FR TCH
resources (according to the BTS level parameter, if it contradicts with the BSC level parameter).
Spontaneous packing is triggered by any new channel allocation.
Free FR TCHs

Upper limit for free FR TCHs

Lower limit for free FR TCHs

No packing of
AMR FR calls

Packing of
AMR FR calls

No packing of
AMR FR calls

Time

Figure 6: packing of FR calls to HR AMR calls due to cell load

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BSC keeps record of the FR and HR AMR calls per BTS and corresponding counters are updated
during channel allocations and releases. After a new channel allocation BSC makes a request to
perform an intra-cell HO for N amount of calls. Packing request is done with a new
unacknowledged procedure. BSC performs the ordered HOs for FR AMR calls, whose quality is
above the amrHandoverFR (intra HO threshold RxQual for AMR FR) and which use the least
robust codec mode. A packing request is valid until it is overwritten by a new one. A packing
request, which indicates the amount N as 0, is used to remove any pending packing requests.
Moreover, algorithm tries to fill the timeslots in HR channel pairs or tries to find an empty half for
one HR channel allocation. Before FR HR handover decision the number of timeslots having
only one HR connection are measured. For example, if there is only one half timeslot available,
that is allocated first. Then, if more FR HR handovers are required, those will be made in pairs
so that two FR connections are selected and allocated to same timeslot.
Spontaneous unpacking of HR AMR calls to FR AMR calls is triggered when the quality of a HR
AMR call degrades below the amrHandoverHR (intra HO threshold RxQual for AMR HR). Cell
load does not have an effect.
FR and HR AMR call counters of BSC are again updated during channel allocations and releases.
With packing and unpacking hard blocking decreases compared to pure FR case. Moreover, low
average TCH FER can be maintained based on the allocation criteria that only the good quality
connections are allocated to HR channels.
4.6

Prioritisation of AMR capable cells during internal and external handovers

In order to support AMR call continuation also after internal or external HO, the handover target
cell list is manipulated so, that AMR capable cells which load is low, are on the top. The candidate
cells on the target list are already pruned by the adjacent cell parameter hoMarginPBGT. AMR
capable cells are verified by the adjacent cell parameter amrDadlbTargetCell (AMR target cell of
direct access to desired layer) and those AMR capable adjacent cells are prioritised that are below
the threshold of BTS parameter btsLoadThreshold (see Figure 7 n2). Prioritisation is only done
when AMR call is the current call type.
4.7

Direct access to desired layer/band (DADL/B)

In order to support 2nd generation BTSs in AMR environment, DADL/B is used to handover AMR
calls to co-located AMR capable cells during call set-up phase. Both intra and inter BSC DADL/B
handovers are possible and preferably inside one frequency band as the failure probability is
higher with DADL/B handovers between bands. Figure 7 n1 shows an example of DADL/B.
1)
1) DADL/B
DADL/B used
used to
to direct
direct AMR
AMR mobiles
mobiles to
to AMR
AMR capable
capable
cells
cells

SDCCH

2)
2) Prioritisation
Prioritisation of
of AMR
AMR capable
capable cells
cells in
in handovers
handovers

2nd gen BTS


UltraSite (co-located)

TCH

Figure 7: DADL/B and prioritisation


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TCH assignment vs. DADL/B handover start:


- if AMR call is the aim and there are no TCHs available in the accessed cell, then Directed
Retry (DR) due to congestion, with or without queuing, is made;
- if on the other hand there are TCHs available in the accessed cell and there are adjacent cells
defined as DADL/B handover target cells with the new parameter amrDadlbTargetCell, then
the DADL/B handover is applied. Adjacent cells are not verified according to the MS
capabilities (single band, dual band or tri-band), but they have to fulfil the current signal level
requirements in order to be considered as a target cell for DADL/B handover. Current method
for sorting the target adjacent cells is used;
- if there are no DADL/B handover target cells defined, the TCH is allocated from the accessed
cell and another speech codec than AMR is chosen.
4.8

IFH and IUO

AMR specific good and bad C/I thresholds are specified for HR and FR AMR:
- super reuse good C/I threshold for AMR HR
- super reuse bad C/I threshold for AMR HR
- super reuse good C/I threshold for AMR FR
- super reuse bad C/I threshold for AMR FR
Current Nx and Px values of C/I thresholds are used.
The new threshold values for HR AMR serve also the basic HR. The current good and bad
threshold pair (super reuse good C/I threshold and super reuse bad C/I threshold) is going to
serve the basic FR. With these new thresholds operator can absorb more traffic into Super layer.
E.g.

Reduce super reuse good C/I threshold from 15 dB to 12 dB (EFR, AMR FR)

Reduce super reuse bad C/I threshold from 12 dB to 9 dB (EFR, AMR FR)

Regular Super for normal EFR


C/I threshold 15/12

Figure 8.
5.

Super for AMR-FR


C/I threshold 12/9

AMR can absorb more traffic into Super Layer in IUO/IFH

PERFORMANCE OF AMR

In this chapter are presented some examples to better understand the performances of AMR
feature. As this feature is not yet widely implemented in real networks, it is not possible to have a
complete record of cases from the planning point of view.
5.1

AMR in one-layer network

It is now clear how the usage of AMR full-rate codecs improves the speech quality in the network.
There are several possibilities to turn this increased quality to additional capacity in the network.
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Naturally, if there would be only AMR mobiles in the network, the frequency usage could be easily
increased by using tighter frequency reuse. However, most of the practical cases there will be
mixed AMR and EFR mobiles in the network at the same time. Therefore, very tight frequency
plan may not be allowed in order to maintain good speech quality with existing EFR calls.
A way to benefit of AMR feature is to use more aggressive power control algorithm for AMR
capable mobile and thus decrease the average interference. In general, the uplink and downlink
transmission power of AMR capable mobile could be few dB less than non-AMR capable mobiles.
By this way, not only AMR capable mobile but also other mobiles will benefit from AMR solution
because AMR capable mobiles require lower C/I level and generate less interference. The level of
improvement is dependent on the amount of AMR capable mobiles in the network. The higher
AMR mobile penetration, the higher improvement could be achieved. With more aggressive power
control algorithm, AMR capable mobiles will also have longer talk time due to the lower
transmission power.
Figure 9 and Figure 10 depict the one-layer simulation results with different AMR penetrations. In
these simulations RxQual thresholds were two class higher for AMR capable mobiles. The number
of bad TCH frame samples is presented in the Figure 9. 1.92 seconds (4 SACCH periods)
averaging window was used in TCH FER measurement. Samples with higher FER than 4% were
marked as bad quality samples. It is clear that TCH FER decreases considerably when AMR
penetration increases. For example, at the traffic point where the number of bad TCH FER
samples is as high as 4.5% in the reference case with 25% AMR penetration the amount is below
3%. Moreover, with 63% AMR penetration there are about 1.3% of bad quality. With 100% AMR
penetration the % of bad TCH FER samples is negligible.
EFR vs AMR penetration

4.5%
4.0%
3.5%

TCH FER > 4%

3.0%
2.5%
2.0%
1.5%
1.0%
0.5%
0.0%
0%

5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

30%

35%

EFL(%)
0 % AMR / 100% EFR

25% AMR / 75% EFR

100 % AMR / 0% EFR

Poly. (100 % AMR / 0% EFR)

63% AMR / 37 % EFR

Figure 9: EFR vs. AMR penetration


Increased TCH quality can be turned into capacity by allowing more traffic to the network. Figure 9
shows that for the same FER as the reference case, there is a 145% capacity increase with 100%
AMR penetration. Figure 10 depicts the capacity increases for different AMR penetrations. 15%
additional traffic can be allowed to the network when AMR penetration is about 25%. With AMR
penetration of 63% the capacity gain is about 50%, and about 145% traffic increase is attained
with 100% AMR penetration.

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AMR capacity gain (%)

160%
140%

Capacity Gain (%)

120%
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
25% AMR

63%AMR

100%AMR

AMR penetration

Figure 10: Capacity gain versus AMR penetration


5.2

AMR in two-layer network (IFH)

Some operators may be looking for capacity solution to serve the growing traffic and maintaining
the speech quality. In many cases adding more capacity to existing cells is not an easy task or not
possible due to limited frequency bandwidth. With lower C/I requirement, the reuse frequency of
AMR network can be higher without speech quality deterioration. Nokias AMR solution works
together and adds more capacity on top of standard capacity solutions such as FH, HR and
Nokias proprietary capacity solutions such as IFH. The more AMR capable mobile in the network
(high penetration), the higher frequency reuse will be possible.
The usage of the AMR feature together with IFH/IUO allows for increased frequency efficiency
since AMR mobiles can be handed over to super layer with lower quality (C/I) limit than the EFR
mobiles. This increased absorption allows more TRXs to the super layer hence the frequency
efficiency increases.
Following IFH simulations demonstrates an example how the TRX configuration can be updated
when AMR penetration increases in the network. In this case, the reference IFH plan was as
follows:
-

Regular: 3 TRX, BCCH reuse 4/12, TCH reuse 3/9


Super: 3 TRX, RF-hopping reuse 1/1, 15 frequencies

The same number of frequencies was used in all the simulations. Therefore, when the traffic
increased, only the number of super TRXs was increased.
Figure 11 illustrates the maximum capacity with different AMR penetrations. Moreover, the
required number of super TRXs is shown. In the case of IFH network the blocking follows from the
quality limit in the super layer (assuming that the super layer is not soft blocking). In these
simulations the number of super TRXs was increased so that the super layer was not blocking
limited. Therefore, presented maximum capacities were found at 2% hard blocking limit. In the
reference case the outage of the bad quality samples indicated 1.4% (TCH FER samples > 5.4%)
at 2% blocking limit. Moreover, in all the cases the outage of the bad quality samples remained
between 1% and 2%.
It is found out that about 17% capacity increase can be attained with AMR mobile penetration of
25%. This requires one additional TRX to the super layer. With this 3+4 configuration about 35%
capacity increase can be handled when the AMR penetration is at least 50%. When the AMR
penetration increases up to 75% about 57% traffic increase can be allocated to the network. That
requires 2 additional TRXs for the super layer traffic.

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16

+57%
Effe c tiv e F r e q u e n c y Lo a d (%)

14

+35%

12

+17%
10
8
6
re g u la r + su p e r: 3 + 3

re g u la r + su p e r: 3 + 4
2

re g u la r + su p e r: 3 + 5

0
0

25

50

75

AM R m o b ile p e n e tr a t io n (%)

Figure 11: Capacity increase versus AMR mobile penetration in the IFH
network
In Figure 12 the two-layer case is compared to the one-layer network. In this comparison the onelayer set-up was, TCH reuse 1/3 with 7 TRXs, 30 frequencies divided into 3 MA lists, BCCH reuse
4/12. It is seen that two-layer IFH network achieves about 27 % higher capacity than the one-layer
network in the reference simulation (100% EFR traffic). Then, relative capacity increase as a
function of AMR mobile penetration is about the same in both of the cases.

16.00
14.0

Effective Frequnecy Load (%)

14.00
12.0

12.0

12.00
10.4

10.00

8.9

8.00

7.0

9.8

8.2

6.00

IFH (3/9 + 1/1)

4.00

One-layer (1/3)

2.00
0.00
0

25

50

75

AMR penetration (%)

Figure 12: One-layer vs. two-layer (IFH) network with mixed traffic
Even though the relative capacity gains were similar, one layer even slightly better, it should be
noted that in the IFH case the calls are distributed to the layers based on current quality thus it is
easier to serve an adequate quality for all users in the network. In the one-layer case all the
connections are using the same frequencies and are suffering from the same interference hence
the quality of the non-AMR connections can not be controlled. Therefore, IFH AMR interworking
offers more safe way to utilise the AMR gain in the case of mixed EFR - AMR traffic.

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5.3

Performance in HR AMR

Usage of the half-rate channels was studied to the one-layer simulation scenario. RxQual
threshold for HR capable connections was set to 1. Figure 13 presents the TCH FER outages of
the simulation case. The number of TCH FER is very similar compared to the pure AMR FR case.
In theory the usage of HR channel decreases the interference 3 dB since only every second burst
is used. However, HR channel requires higher C/I to obtain the same MOS than FR channel.
Therefore different power control thresholds can be used for HR and FR connections thus the
interference deduction is lost due to higher transmission power. In this simulation the PC
thresholds for HR traffic were 2 RxQual classes lower than for FR traffic.
Figure 14 shows the minimum number of TS required to serve with lower than 2% blocking the
traffic for each of the points of previous figures (for each EFL point, different number of users or
traffic was simulated). A reduction (saving) in the number of resources or channels needed when
using AMR-HR is clearly found. The percentage of resources saved by using AMR-HR is also
displayed. Up to 25% of resources can be saved for the simulations that have been run.
Additionally, it can be seen that the higher the penetration of HR, the higher the saving of
resources. Therefore, Erlang B table can not be used for dimensioning when AMR-HR
penetration is foreseen.
Table 4 displays the traffic that can be served for different number of Time Slots (TS) available
and different penetrations of AMR-HR. In this way, for example, for 70% HR penetration the
number of TS required to serve 16.7 Erlangs is just 16, while for pure AMR-FR it would require
around 24 time slots to serve the same traffic (around 33% saving in resources).

3.0%

AM R FR + HR

2.5%

22.98 %

AM R FR

TCH FER > 4%

2.0%

H R U sag e

1.5%

36.2 3%

31 .4 9%

44 .83%

5 4.48%
1.0%

0.5%

0.0%
17 %

19 %

21%

23%

25 %

27%

29%

3 1%

E ffec tive F requenc y Load (% )

Figure 13: AMR HR utilisation in one-layer simulation scenario

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40

100%

% of saved TSLs
Number of TSLs required for AMR FR

90%

Number of TSLs required for AMR FR + HR

80%

35

70%

30

60%

25

50%
20
15

40%
25.93%

30%

23.33%
18.18%

10

17.14%

16.67%

15.38%

20%

% TSL saved with HR channel mode

Number of TSLs required for 2% blocking

45

10%

0%
19.56%

22.25%

24.93%

26.91%

27.85%

30.20%

Effective Frequency Load (%)

Figure 14: Half rate gain in terms of timeslots requirements

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Table 4: Traffic that can be served with different number of TS for 1% and 2%
blocking and different penetrations (usage) of AMR-HR.
% of users with good conditions to use AMR-HR

1% GoS
# Time
Slots
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
24
32
40
48
56

2% GoS
# Time Slots
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
24
32
40
48
56

5.4

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

100%

0.01
0.15
0.46
0.87
1.36
1.91
2.50
3.13
3.78
4.46
5.16
5.88
6.61
7.35
8.11
8.88
15.30
22.05
29.01
36.11
43.32

0.01
0.16
0.47
0.89
1.40
1.97
2.59
3.25
3.94
4.66
5.40
6.16
6.94
7.73
8.53
9.35
16.16
23.31
30.69
38.23
45.88

0.01
0.16
0.49
0.94
1.48
2.09
2.76
3.46
4.20
4.96
5.75
6.56
7.38
8.22
9.08
9.94
17.17
24.77
32.58
40.55
48.62

0.01
0.17
0.53
1.02
1.61
2.27
2.99
3.75
4.54
5.36
6.21
7.07
7.95
8.84
9.75
10.67
18.37
26.47
34.75
43.17
51.68

0.01
0.19
0.58
1.13
1.78
2.51
3.29
4.12
4.98
5.86
6.77
7.69
8.64
9.59
10.57
11.55
19.79
28.44
37.26
46.20
55.21

0.01
0.21
0.66
1.27
2.00
2.79
3.64
4.54
5.47
6.43
7.42
8.42
9.43
10.47
11.52
12.58
21.45
30.71
40.16
49.72
59.36

0.02
0.26
0.77
1.47
2.27
3.15
4.08
5.06
6.08
7.13
8.20
9.29
10.39
11.52
12.66
13.81
23.42
33.39
43.57
53.88
64.28

0.01
0.31
0.92
1.70
2.60
3.57
4.61
5.69
6.80
7.95
9.12
10.32
11.53
12.76
14.00
15.26
25.69
36.49
47.54
58.77
70.15

0.03
0.41
1.13
2.03
3.05
4.14
5.29
6.49
7.73
9.00
10.29
11.61
12.95
14.30
15.66
17.05
28.46
40.27
52.34
64.65
77.15

0.07
0.59
1.45
2.50
3.65
4.89
6.19
7.53
8.92
10.33
11.77
13.24
14.73
16.23
17.74
19.28
31.88
44.90
58.20
71.72
85.45

0.15
0.87
1.91
3.13
4.46
5.88
7.35
8.88
10.44
12.03
13.65
15.30
16.96
18.64
20.34
22.05
36.11
50.59
65.32
80.22
95.24

10%
0.02
0.23
0.62
1.12
1.71
2.35
3.04
3.77
4.53
5.31
6.11
6.92
7.75
8.60
9.45
10.32
17.50
24.98
32.62
40.36
48.16

20%
0.02
0.24
0.65
1.18
1.81
2.50
3.24
4.01
4.82
5.65
6.51
7.37
8.25
9.15
10.06
10.98
18.60
26.52
34.61
42.80
51.05

0%
0.0204
0.2236
0.6024
1.0927
1.6578
2.2769
2.9367
3.6287
4.3468
5.0864
5.8443
6.6178
7.405
8.204
9.0137
9.8328
16.636
23.729
30.998
38.387
45.863

% of users with good conditions to use AMR-HR


30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.25
0.28
0.32
0.37
0.45
0.70
0.77
0.87
1.01
1.19
1.28
1.42
1.59
1.82
2.10
1.96
2.17
2.42
2.73
3.11
2.71
2.99
3.31
3.71
4.19
3.51
3.85
4.25
4.74
5.32
4.35
4.76
5.24
5.81
6.50
5.21
5.70
6.25
6.92
7.71
6.11
6.66
7.29
8.05
8.94
7.02
7.64
8.35
9.20
10.20
7.94
8.65
9.43
10.37
11.48
8.89
9.66
10.53
11.56
12.77
9.85
10.69
11.64
12.76
14.08
10.82
11.74
12.77
13.98
15.41
11.81
12.79
13.90
15.21
16.74
19.94
21.52
23.27
25.33
27.72
28.37
30.52
32.93
35.75
39.04
36.98
39.74
42.82
46.41
50.59
45.71
49.08
52.84
57.20
62.28
54.51
58.52
62.96
68.09
74.07

80%
0.06
0.58
1.44
2.47
3.60
4.80
6.06
7.36
8.69
10.05
11.44
12.84
14.26
15.70
17.15
18.61
30.62
42.99
55.58
68.32
81.16

90%
0.11
0.79
1.80
2.97
4.25
5.60
7.00
8.45
9.93
11.45
12.98
14.53
16.11
17.69
19.29
20.91
34.13
47.73
61.55
75.52
89.60

100%
0.22
1.09
2.28
3.63
5.08
6.61
8.20
9.83
11.49
13.18
14.90
16.63
18.38
20.15
21.93
23.73
38.39
53.43
68.69
84.10
99.62

Performance in BCCH layer

One of the main parameters to fix when planning the BCCH is the frequency reuse. In Figure 15,
the TCH FER performance of traffic-carrying channels in BCCH is shown both for AMR and EFR
traffic, for reuses 9 and 12. Note that the performance does not vary with traffic, since in BCCH for
DL BTS transmit permanently at full power in all time slots. It can be seen the performance of EFR
for reuse 12 is the same as the performance of AMR for reuse 9. In this example, this would allow
the usage of these three spare frequencies for the hopping layer, whose performance is higher,
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21 (43)

compared to BCCH's. Also, the figure shows that reuse more relaxed than 12 is needed in AMR to
achieve a performance comparable to hopping layer (TCH FER is about 3% for AMR with reuse
2).

PERFORMANCE OF TRAFFIC CHANNELS OF BCCH


FOR EFR AND AMR-FR
AND BOTH 9-BCCH AND 12-BCCH REUSES
16%
14%
TCH FER > 4%

12%
10%
8%
6%
4%
2%
0%
1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

Erlangs per cell in BCCH


AMR traffic; 12 BCCH

EFR traffic; 12 BCCH

AMR traffic; 9 BCCH

EFR traffic; 9 BCCH

Figure 15: Performance of traffic channels in BCCH for EFR and AMR, with
different reuse factors

6.

PARAMETERS SUMMARY

Q3 NAME
amrConfInHandovers
amrSetGradesEnabl
initAmrChannelRate
slowAmrLaEnabled
amrConfigurationFr: codecModeSet

ACH
ASG
IAC
SAL
FRC

1
Y
1
Y

RANGE
/
2
/
N
/
2
/
N

amrConfigurationFr: hysteresis1
amrConfigurationFr: hysteresis2
amrConfigurationFr: hysteresis3
amrConfigurationFr: initCodecMode
amrConfigurationFr: startMode
amrConfigurationFr: threshold1
amrConfigurationFr: threshold2
amrConfigurationFr: threshold3
amrConfigurationHr: codecModeSet

FRH1
FRH2
FRH3
ICMI(FRI)
FRS
FRT1
FRT2
FRT3
HRC

0
...
15
0
...
15
0
...
15
0
/
1
00, 01, 10,11
0
...
63
0
...
63
0
...
63

amrConfigurationHr: hysteresis1
amrConfigurationHr: hysteresis2
amrConfigurationHr: hysteresis3
amrConfigurationHr: initCodecMode
amrConfigurationHr: startMode
amrConfigurationHr: threshold1
amrConfigurationHr: threshold2
amrConfigurationHr: threshold3
btsLoadDepTCHRate
btsLoadDepTCHRate

HRH1
HRH2
HRH3
ICMI(HRI)
HRS
HRT1
HRT2
HRT3
HRL
HRU

0
...
15
0
...
15
0
...
15
0
/
1
00, 01, 10,11
0
...
63
0
...
63
0
...
63
0
...
100
0
...
100

UNIT

kbit/s

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0-7.5dB
0-7.5dB
0-7.5dB

0-31.5dB
0-31.5dB
0-31.5dB
kbit/s
0-7.5dB
0-7.5dB
0-7.5dB

dB
dB
dB
%
%

REC.
1
N
1
N
12.2 7.40
5.9 4.75
2 (1dB)
2 (1dB)
2 (1dB)
0
0
8 (4dB)
14 (7dB)
22 (11dB)
7.40 5.90
4.75
2 (1dB)
2 (1dB)
0
0
0
22 (11dB)
28 (14dB)
0
20
40

MMl
1
N
1
N
12.2 7.40
5.9 4.75
2
2
2
0
0
8
14
22
7.40 5.90
4.75
2
2
0
0
0
22
28
0
100
0

MML
EE
EE
EE
EE
EQ
EQ
EQ
EQ
EQ
EQ
EQ
EQ
EQ
EQ
EQ
EQ
EQ
EQ
EQ
EQ
EQ
EQ
EE
EE

22 (43)

amrHandoverFr
amrHandoverHr
Super reuse bad C/I threshold AMR FR
Super reuse bad C/I threshold AMR HR
Super reuse good C/I threshold AMR FR
Super reuse good C/I threshold AMR HR
Threshold dl Rx qual AMR HR
Threshold dl Rx qual AMR FR
Threshold ul Rx qual AMR FR
Threshold ul Rx qual AMR HR
amrPowerControlFr *lower threshold dl Rx Qual*
amrPowerControlHr *lower threshold dl Rx Qual*
amrPowerControlFr *lower threshold ul Rx Qual*
amrPowerControlHr *lower threshold ul Rx Qual*
amrPowerControlFr *upper threshold dl Rx Qual*
amrPowerControlHr *upper threshold dl Rx Qual*
amrPowerControlFr *upper threshold ul Rx Qual*
amrPowerControlHr *upper threshold ul Rx Qual*
amrDadlbTargetCell

IHRF
IHRH
BCIF
BCIH
GCIF
GCIH
QDRH
QDRF
QURF
QURH
LDRF
LDRH
LURF
LURH
UDRF
UDRH
UURF
UURH
DADLA

0
0
-127
-127
-127
-127
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Y

...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
/

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7
7
127
127
127
127
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
N

dB
dB
dB
dB

0...3
4...6
9
12
12
15
4...6
4...6
4...6
4...6
3...5
3...5
3...5
3...5
0...4
0...4
0...4
0...4
N

0
4
10
10
17
17
4
4
4
4
3
3
3
3
0
0
0
0
N

EH
EH
EH
EH
EH
EH
EH
EH
EH
EH
EU
EU
EU
EU
EU
EU
EU
EU
EA

23 (43)

7.

BSC CAPACITY

There are certain limits to the capacity, especially to the number of TRXs and the number of PCM
lines. These limits are presented in the table below.
Table 5: BSC capacity limits
Single-rack
Singlehigh capacity rack
BSC2i
BSC2E

Two-rack high
capacity BSC2i

Two-rack large
capacity BSC2E

BSC3i

No. of TRXs
supported

128 max

32 max

512 max

256 max

660 max

No. of 2 Mbit/s
PCM interfaces

32 max

32 max

144max

80 max

124 max

CCITT #7
signalling links

8 max

8 max

16 max

16 max

16 max

LAPD signalling
links

248 max

64 max

992 max

512 max

1020 max
(170*6 BCSUs)

7.1

AMR half rate

Introduction of AMR HR causes increased load in measurement reporting; therefore it can happen
that a capacity of 16 kbit/s LAPD signalling link is not sufficient in all cases. When the TRX
contains merely HR or DR TCH resources, the situation becomes even worse if the SDCCHs
(stand-alone dedicated control channels) have also been configured on the TRX. Therefore a 32
kbit/s LAPD link has been introduced to support the telecom signalling.
AMR codecs support in Nokia BSC and TCSM2 :

All the Nokia BSCs will have full AMR support, except 7.95 kbit/s on HR channel

Nokia TCSM2/E will have full AMR support

A TC PCM pool type is needed for transcoder configuration in the A interface. The
AMR pool type, which supports FR AMR and HR AMR (pool 23), will be implemented

Submultiplexing on highway PCM is 8/16 kbit/s, for example if AMR FR (16 kbit/s) is
used in the Abis interface, then the Ater interface rate is also 16 kbit/s

Correspondingly if AMR HR (8 kbit/s) is used in the Abis interface, then the Ater
interface rate is 2 * 8 kbit/s (the BSC transmits ones (= bit value 1) on the unused 8 kbit/s
sub-timeslot)

Nokia TCSM will not support AMR


With the AMR HR implementation the BSC's maximum channel capacity of 4096 must be taken
into account in dimensioning the number of TRXs in the BSC. For example the traffic processing
capacity of the BSC2i supports 512 full-rate TRXs or 256 half-rate TRXs. BSC TRX capacity can
be maintained by using FR to HR load threshold parameters. The maximum channel capacity of
the BSC3i is 5280.

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8.

PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

Activating AMR calls in the network has several impacts on the network performance. The most
important areas are the traffic, quality, handover, dropped calls, interference impacts. To be able
to observe the network performance after activating AMR calls some performance indicator
formulas has to be modified and also there is a need for new performance indicators especially for
the AMR speech calls. And some points that need to be addressed

New AMR counters are based on FR & HR codec mode 1 to 4, which may not
represent the actual used bitrate (12.2 kbps, if the codec mode set is not the
same through out the whole BSC or network. The measurements on different
objects (TRXs, BTSs) can be summed only if they use the same codec mode set.

The performance indicator for rxqual gives only usable result when slow link
adaptation is enabled. With fast link adaptation, codec modes can change every
second speech frame (40 ms) but the averaging period of the BER
measurements is one SACCH period (e.g. 480 ms). During a measurement
period, several codec modes can be used then after the measurement period,
the averaged BER is mapped to quality class with the last used codec mode. Due
to this reason the quality report from fast link adaptation is not accurate per
codec mode. On slow LA mode the codec mode can change only after each
SACCH period thus the counters indicate the only used codec mode on the
measurement interval.

These performance indicators have not yet verified and need to be verified with actual AMR traffic
in the field. Similar information is available in REF 16 and more updated information will be
available in Performance Statistics web page
9.

TRAFFIC MEASUREMENTS

Example: Report 246


9.1

TCH traffic time, all calls (trf_119)

Indicates TCH traffic time (sampling interval 480ms) in Erlang for AMR and non-AMR calls
.
Formula:
sum(nvl(freq_ul_qual0,0)+ .. + nvl(freq_ul_qual7,0) * 0,48 / 3600
Unit: erlang hours
Counters from table p_nbsc_rx_qual.
Known problems: In a high load situation (OMU link) it is possible that all call time is not
measured. In other words, calling time can show a lower value than it has in reality. Also in the
beginning of the call and in HO two samples are lost causing the time show shorter than reality.
9.2

CS call samples, non-AMR call (trf_113)

Indicates how many call samples (sampling interval 480ms) of non-AMR calls have been
detected.
Formula:
sum(
nvl(freq_ul_qual0,0)+ + nvl(freq_ul_qual7,0)
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-sum(
nvl(amr_fr_mode_1_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_fr_mode_1_ul_rxqual_7,0)
+ nvl(amr_fr_mode_2_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_fr_mode_2_ul_rxqual_7,0)
+ nvl(amr_fr_mode_3_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_fr_mode_3_ul_rxqual_7,0)
+ nvl(amr_fr_mode_4_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_fr_mode_4_ul_rxqual_7,0)
nvl(amr_hr_mode_1_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_hr_mode_1_ul_rxqual_7,0)
+ nvl(amr_hr_mode_2_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_hr_mode_2_ul_rxqual_7,0)
+ nvl(amr_hr_mode_3_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_hr_mode_3_ul_rxqual_7,0)
+ nvl(amr_hr_mode_4_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_hr_mode_4_ul_rxqual_7,0)
)
)
9.3

TCH traffic time, non-AMR calls (trf_115)

Indicates TCH traffic time (sampling interval 480ms) in Erlang for non-AMR calls
.
Formula:
trf_113 * 0,48 / 3600
Unit: erlang hours
Known problems: In a high load situation (OMU link) it is possible that all call time is not
measured. In other words, calling time can show a lower value than it has in reality. Also in the
beginning of the call and in HO two samples are lost causing the time show shorter than reality.
9.4

CS call samples, AMR call (trf_114)

Indicates TCH use (sampling interval 480ms) for AMR calls.


Formula:
sum(
nvl(amr_fr_mode_1_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_fr_mode_1_ul_rxqual_7,0)
+ nvl(amr_fr_mode_2_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_fr_mode_2_ul_rxqual_7,0)
+ nvl(amr_fr_mode_3_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_fr_mode_3_ul_rxqual_7,0)
+ nvl(amr_fr_mode_4_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_fr_mode_4_ul_rxqual_7,0)
nvl(amr_hr_mode_1_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_hr_mode_1_ul_rxqual_7,0)
+ nvl(amr_hr_mode_2_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_hr_mode_2_ul_rxqual_7,0)
+ nvl(amr_hr_mode_3_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_hr_mode_3_ul_rxqual_7,0)
+ nvl(amr_hr_mode_4_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_hr_mode_4_ul_rxqual_7,0)
)
9.5

TCH traffic time, AMR calls (trf_116)

Indicates TCH traffic time (sampling interval 480ms) for AMR calls.
Formula:
trf_114 * 0,48 / 3600
Unit: erlang hours
Known problems: In a high load situation (OMU link) it is possible that all call time is not
measured. In other words, calling time can show a lower value than it has in reality. Also in the
beginning of the call and in HO two samples are lost causing the time show shorter than reality.
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9.6

TCH traffic time, FR AMR calls (trf_117)

Indicates TCH use (sampling interval 480ms) for full rate AMR.
Formula:
sum(
nvl(amr_fr_mode_1_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_fr_mode_1_ul_rxqual_7,0)
+ nvl(amr_fr_mode_2_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_fr_mode_2_ul_rxqual_7,0)
+ nvl(amr_fr_mode_3_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_fr_mode_3_ul_rxqual_7,0)
+ nvl(amr_fr_mode_4_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_fr_mode_4_ul_rxqual_7,0)
)
* 0,48 / 3600
Unit: erlang hours
Known problems: In a high load situation (OMU link) it is possible that all call time is not
measured. In other words, calling time can show a lower value than it has in reality. Also in the
beginning of the call and in HO two samples are lost causing the time show shorter than reality.
9.7

TCH traffic time, HR AMR calls (trf_118)

Indicates TCH use (sampling interval 480ms) for half rate AMR.
Formula:
Sum(
nvl(amr_hr_mode_1_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_hr_mode_1_ul_rxqual_7,0)
+ nvl(amr_hr_mode_2_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_hr_mode_2_ul_rxqual_7,0)
+ nvl(amr_hr_mode_3_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_hr_mode_3_ul_rxqual_7,0)
+ nvl(amr_hr_mode_4_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_hr_mode_4_ul_rxqual_7,0)
)
* 0,48 / 3600
Unit: erlang hours
Known problems: In a high load situation (OMU link) it is possible that all call time is not
measured. In other words, calling time can show a lower value than it has in reality. Also in the
begining of the call and in HO two samples are lost causing the time show shorter than reality.
9.8

AMR capable mobile usage ratio

There can be different approaches to calculate the AMR capable mobile usage ratio. One
possibility is to select the AMR capable mobile stations from the list of used mobile stations in the
PLMN. The problem of this approach is that this will not reflect the real usage rate. Better measure
is as follow.
sum(tch_call_req_for_AMR)
100 * --------------------------------------------------------------- %
sum(tch_request_success_and_unsuccess)
Counters from p_nbsc_traffic table.

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The counter 001184 is updated when the Radio Resource Management receives a TCH request
in a call set-up or HO attempt and speech codec version 3 (AMR) is the preferred one. The
counter 001010 is updated when the RRM receives a request for a TCH either in call or a
handover attempt. The formula can be applicable in PLMN, BSC or cell level. Both counters count
the successful and unsuccessful call attempts and the handover attempts as well. That has some
disadvantages but also some advantages. The major disadvantage is that the formula gives
reliable result only if the call success ratio in AMR calls and normal calls are equals. Because of
the handover attempts are also counted it is important that the handover attempts per call-minute
would be the same in AMR calls and in the normal calls. If any of the above-mentioned
requirements is not fulfilled the formula gives an unreliable result. In normal circumstances
however these values should not differ too much.
Advantage of calculating the TCH requests instead of the TCH seizures: if the AMR capable
mobile requests an AMR call but the network is not capable to serve this request (lack of A
interface circuit or BTS does not support AMR etc.) this call will be counted to AMR mobile usage.
Also there is an advantage calculating the handover attempts into the formula: the number of
handover attempts statistically reflects the length of the call (i.e. if the AMR calls were statistically
longer that would lead to more HO attempts per call and so the numerator of the formula would be
higher and that would indicate a higher AMR mobile usage ratio which is somehow true in this
situation).
9.9

AMR TCH seizures

This formula gives overall AMR (full rate and half rate) TCH seizures.
sum(full_tch_seiz_speech_ver3 + half_tch_seiz_speech_ver3)
counters from p_nbsc_traffic table.
Note that the counters are updated in channel release even if the call is dropped.
9.10

AMR TCH seizures ratio to all TCH seizures

This formula gives a picture about the ratio of the number of the AMR speech calls to the number
of calls. This performance indicator differs from the AMR capable mobile usage ratio since AMR
TCH seizure will only be triggered when the mobile really use this codec. If AMR capable mobile
station uses codec version 1 or version 2 it will not be counted as an AMR call.
sum(full_tch_seiz_speech_ver3 + half_tch_seiz_speech_ver3)
100 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- %
sum(tch_norm_seiz + tch_ho_seiz + seiz_due_sdcch_con)
The formula gives reliable result if the handover attempts per call-minute and the HO success ratio
are the same in AMR calls and in the normal calls. Also note that the denominator counts also the
data calls.
9.11

AMR TCH seizures ratio to all speech TCH seizures

This formula gives a picture about the ratio of the number of the AMR speech calls to the number
of all speech calls. This performance indicator differs from the AMR TCH seizure ratio to all TCH
seizures since the denominator counts only the speech calls.
sum(full_tch_seiz_speech_ver3 + half_tch_seiz_speech_ver3)
100 * ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- %
sum(full_tch_seiz_speech_ver1 + full_tch_seiz_speech_ver2 + full_tch_seiz_speech_ver3 +
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half_tch_seiz_speech_ver1 + half_tch_seiz_speech_ver2 + half_tch_seiz_speech_ver3)

counters from p_nbsc_traffic table.


The formula gives reliable result if the handover attempts per call-minute and the HO success ratio
are the same in AMR calls and in the normal calls.
9.12

TCH traffic share of AMR calls

This performance indicator gives a more precise value of the traffic share of the AMR calls.
Formula:
100 * trf_114 / t rf_119 %
Known problems: In a high load situation (OMU link) it is possible that all call time is not
measured. In other words, calling time can show a lower value than it has in reality. Also in the
beginning of the call and in HO two samples are lost causing the time show shorter than reality.
9.13

TCH traffic share of FR AMR calls

This performance indicator gives the traffic share of the full rate AMR calls.
Formula:
100 * trf_117 / t rf_119 %
Known problems: In a high load situation (OMU link) it is possible that all call time is not
measured. In other words, calling time can show a lower value than it has in reality. Also in the
beginning of the call and in HO two samples are lost causing the time show shorter than reality.
9.14

TCH traffic share of AMR HR calls

This performance indicator gives the traffic share of the half rate AMR calls.
Formula:
100 * trf_118 / t rf_119 %
Known problems: In a high load situation (OMU link) it is possible that all call time is not
measured. In other words, calling time can show a lower value than it has in reality. Also in the
beginning of the call and in HO two samples are lost causing the time show shorter than reality.
10.

QUALITY INDICATORS BASED ON BER MEASUREMENTS

Important network performance indicators can be derived from quality measurements. However
the results will differ on the quality measurement method (BER or FER). The following
performance indicator formulas defined already in earlier software versions can be still used when
part of the calls are AMR calls:

DL BER, S1 (dlq_1)
DL cumulative quality % in class X, S1 (dlq_2)
UL BER, S1 (ulq_1)
UL cumulative quality % in class X,S1 (ulq_2)

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In this case the UL/DL cumulative quality % performance indicators give cumulative percentages
of call samples (non-AMR and AMR) in classes 0 to X. X=5 is normally used as quality indicator. If
X=5 and this figure is 100 %, then the MS users should not perceived any quality problems.
Known problem with this PI was after DTX is enabled quality showed worse. The impact is about
1% unit (1% of samples more in classes 6 and 7). When investigated with field tests no real
degradation of quality could be found.
Example: Report 244
Table 6: AMR FR counters
AMR FR
Uplink/
Mode 1
Downlink
RX Quality 0 014021 /
014022
RX Quality 1 014023 /
014024
RX Quality 2 014025 /
014026
RX Quality 3 014027 /
014028
RX Quality 4 014029 /
014030
RX Quality 5 014031 /
014032
RX Quality 6 014033 /
014034
RX Quality 7 014035 /
014036

AMR FR AMR FR AMR FR


Mode 2

Mode 3

Mode 4

014037 /
014038
014039 /
014040
014041 /
014042
014043 /
014044
014045 /
014046
014047 /
014048
014049 /
014050
014051 /
014052

014053 /
014054
014055 /
014056
014057 /
014058
014059 /
014060
014061 /
014062
014063 /
014064
014065 /
014066
014067 /
014068

014069 /
014070
014071 /
014072
014073 /
014074
014075 /
014076
014077 /
014078
014079 /
014080
014081 /
014082
014083 /
014084

AMR HR
Mode 3
014117 /
014118
014119 /
014120
014121 /
014122
014123 /
014124
014125 /
014126
014127 /
014128
014129 /
014130
014131 /
014132

AMR HR
Mode 4
014133 /
014134
014135 /
014136
014137 /
014138
014139 /
014140
014141 /
014142
014143 /
014144
014145 /
014146
014147 /
014148

Table 7: AMR HR counters


AMR HR
Uplink/
Downlink
Mode 1
RX Quality 0 014085 /
014086
RX Quality 1 014087 /
014088
RX Quality 2 014089 /
014090
RX Quality 3 014091 /
014092
RX Quality 4 014093 /
014094
RX Quality 5 014095 /
014096
RX Quality 6 014097 /
014098
RX Quality 7 014099 /
014100

AMR HR
Mode 2
014101 /
014102
014103 /
014104
014105 /
014106
014107 /
014108
014109 /
014110
014111 /
014112
014113 /
014114
014115 /
014116

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10.1

DL cumulative quality % in class X, HR AMR,S10 (dlq_4)

This PI gives a cumulative percentage of call samples (downlink half rate AMR) in classes 0 to X.
X=5 is normally used as quality indicator.
sum(nvl(amr_hr_mode_1_dl_rxqual_0,0)+ + nvl(amr_hr_mode_4_dl_rxqual_X,0)
100 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- %
sum(nvl(amr_hr_mode_1_dl_rxqual_0,0)+ + nvl(amr_hr_mode_4_dl_rxqual_7,0)
Counters from table p_nbsc_rx_qual.
Because this performance indicator is based on BER measurements the results are independent
of the used codec.
10.2

DL cumulative quality % in class X, FR AMR,S10 (dlq_5)

This PI gives a cumulative percentage of call samples (downlink full rate AMR) in classes 0 to X.
X=5 is normally used as quality indicator.
sum(nvl(amr_fr_mode_1_dl_rxqual_0,0)+ + nvl(amr_fr_mode_4_dl_rxqual_X,0)
100 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- %
sum(nvl(amr_fr_mode_1_dl_rxqual_0,0)+ + nvl(amr_fr_mode_4_dl_rxqual_7,0)
Counters from table p_nbsc_rx_qual.
Because this performance indicator is based on BER measurements the results are independent
of the used codec.
10.3

UL cumulative quality % in class X, HR AMR,S10 (ulq_4)

This PI gives a cumulative percentage of call samples (uplink half rate AMR) in classes 0 to X.
X=5 is normally used as quality indicator.
sum(nvl(amr_hr_mode_1_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ + nvl(amr_hr_mode_4_ul_rxqual_X,0)
100 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- %
sum(nvl(amr_hr_mode_1_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ + nvl(amr_hr_mode_4_ul_rxqual_7,0)
Counters from table p_nbsc_rx_qual.
Because this performance indicator is based on BER measurements the results are independent
of the used codec.
10.4

UL cumulative quality % in class X, FR AMR,S10 (ulq_5)

This PI gives a cumulative percentage of call samples (uplink full rate AMR) in classes 0 to X. X=5
is normally used as quality indicator.
sum(nvl(amr_fr_mode_1_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ + nvl(amr_fr_mode_4_ul_rxqual_X,0)
100 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- %
sum(nvl(amr_fr_mode_1_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ + nvl(amr_fr_mode_4_ul_rxqual_7,0)
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Counters from table p_nbsc_rx_qual.


Because this performance indicator is based on BER measurements the results are independent
of the used codec.
10.5

DL cumulative quality % in class X,S10 (dlq_6)

This PI gives a cumulative percentage of all non-AMR call samples in classes 0 to X. X=5 is
normally used as quality indicator.
sum(freq_dl_qual0 + ... + freq_dl_qualX)
-sum(nvl(amr_hr_mode_1_dl_rxqual_0,0)+ + nvl(amr_hr_mode_4_dl_rxqual_X,0)
-sum(nvl(amr_fr_mode_1_dl_rxqual_0,0)+ + nvl(amr_fr_mode_4_dl_rxqual_X,0)
100 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- %
sum(freq_dl_qual0 + ... + freq_dl_qual7)
-sum(nvl(amr_hr_mode_1_dl_rxqual_0,0)+ + nvl(amr_hr_mode_4_dl_rxqual_7,0)
-sum(nvl(amr_fr_mode_1_dl_rxqual_0,0)+ + nvl(amr_fr_mode_4_dl_rxqual_7,0)
Counters from table p_nbsc_rx_qual.
Because this performance indicator is based on BER measurements the results are independent
of the used codec.
10.6

UL cumulative quality % in class X,S10 (ulq_6)

This PI gives a cumulative percentage of all non-AMR call samples in classes 0 to X. X=5 is
normally used as quality indicator.
sum(freq_dul_qual0 + ... + freq_ul_qualX)
-sum(nvl(amr_hr_mode_1_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ + nvl(amr_hr_mode_4_ul_rxqual_X,0)
-sum(nvl(amr_fr_mode_1_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ + nvl(amr_fr_mode_4_ul_rxqual_X,0)
100 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- %
sum(freq_ul_qual0 + ... + freq_ul_qual7)
-sum(nvl(amr_hr_mode_1_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ + nvl(amr_hr_mode_4_ul_rxqual_7,0)
-sum(nvl(amr_fr_mode_1_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ + nvl(amr_fr_mode_4_ul_rxqual_7,0)
Counters from table p_nbsc_rx_qual.
Because this performance indicator is based on BER measurements the results are independent
of the used codec.
10.7

DL cumulative quality % in class X for FR AMR codec mode Z

This performance indicator gives a cumulative percentage of FR AMR call samples with codec
mode Z (Z=1, 2, 3 or 4) in classes 0 to X.
sum(nvl(amr_fr_mode_Z_dl_rxqual_0,0)+ + nvl(amr_fr_mode_Z_dl_rxqual_X,0)
100 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- %
sum(nvl(amr_fr_mode_Z_dl_rxqual_0,0)+ + nvl(amr_fr_mode_Z_dl_rxqual_7,0)
Counters from table p_nbsc_rx_qual

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10.8

DL cumulative quality % in class X for HR AMR codec mode Z

This performance indicator gives a cumulative percentage of HR AMR call samples with codec
mode Z (Z=1, 2, 3 or 4) in classes 0 to X. X=5 is normally used as quality indicator. If X=5 and this
figure is 100 %, then the MS users obviously have not perceived any quality problems.
sum(nvl(amr_hr_mode_Z_dl_rxqual_0,0)+ + nvl(amr_hr_mode_Z_dl_rxqual_X,0)
100 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- %
sum(nvl(amr_hr_mode_Z_dl_rxqual_0,0)+ + nvl(amr_hr_mode_Z_dl_rxqual_7,0)
Counters from table p_nbsc_rx_qual.
Probably the most robust codec mode will give the worst quality results since as the radio link
becomes worse the link adaptation would force to use the most robust codec.
10.9

UL cumulative quality % in class X for FR AMR codec mode Z

This performance indicator gives a cumulative percentage of FR AMR call samples with codec
mode Z (Z=1, 2, 3 or 4) in classes 0 to X. X=5 is normally used as quality indicator. If X=5 and this
figure is 100 %, then the MS users obviously have not perceived any quality problems.
sum(nvl(amr_fr_mode_Z_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ + nvl(amr_fr_mode_Z_ul_rxqual_X,0)
100 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- %
sum(nvl(amr_fr_mode_Z_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ + nvl(amr_fr_mode_Z_ul_rxqual_7,0)
Counters from table p_nbsc_rx_qual.
Probably the most robust codec mode will give the worst quality results since as the radio link
becomes worse the link adaptation would force to use the most robust codec.
10.10

UL cumulative quality % in class X for HR AMR codec mode Z

This performance indicator gives a cumulative percentage of HR AMR call samples with codec
mode Z (Z=1, 2, 3 or 4) in classes 0 to X. X=5 is normally used as quality indicator. If X=5 and this
figure is 100 %, then the MS users obviously have not perceived any quality problems.
sum(nvl(amr_hr_mode_Z_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ + nvl(amr_hr_mode_Z_ul_rxqual_X,0)
100 * --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- %
sum(nvl(amr_hr_mode_Z_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ + nvl(amr_hr_mode_Z_ul_rxqual_7,0)
Counters from table p_nbsc_rx_qual.
Probably the most robust codec mode will give the worst quality results since as the radio link
becomes worse the link adaptation would force to use the most robust codec.
11.

QUALITY INDICATORS BASED ON FER MEASUREMENTS

Important network performance indicators can be derived from quality measurements. However
the results will differ on the quality measurement method (BER or FER). Frame Erasure Rate is
the best available indicator in a GSM system to characterise the voice quality observed by user.
FER measurement is an optional feature in S10 and most of the operators still use BER based
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quality indication in voice calls. The BER is measured by the mobile station or by the BTS before
the decoding process so this value does not take into account the error correction while the FER is
associated with the corrected BER after the decoder and this is in connection with the voice
quality observed by the subscriber. The only problem with the FER measurements that present
mobiles are not able to report downlink FER. The correlation of BER (reported by the mobile) and
FER is not constant so only estimated FEP (Frame Error Probability) can be used in downlink. In
S11 downlink FER measurements will be available.
Example: Report 245
Table 8: FER measuremnt counters
No

Note ( UL and DL )
FER < 2% ==> FER class 0
077007 Class 1 boundary
20
FER >= 2% and < 4% ==> FER class 1
077008 Class 2 boundary
40
FER >= 4% and < 6% ==> FER class 2
077009 Class 3 boundary
60
FER >= 6% and < 8% ==> FER class 3
077010 Class 4 boundary
80
FER >= 8% and < 10% ==> FER class 4
077011 Class 5 boundary
100
FER >= 10% and 12% ==> FER class 5
077012 Class 6 boundary
120
FER >= 12% and < 14% ==> FER class 6
077013 Class 7 boundary
140
FER >= 14% ==> FER class 7
Normal channel types:
1 = half rate speech traffic channel
2= full rate speech traffic channel
3 = enhanced full rate speech traffic channel
Adaptive Multi Rate (AMR) Codecs:
4 = adaptive multirate half rate speech, 7.95kbit/s
5 = adaptive multirate half rate speech, 7.5kbit/s
6 = adaptive multirate half rate speech, 6.7kbit/s
7 = adaptive multirate half rate speech, 5.9kbit/s
8 = adaptive multirate half rate speech, 5.15kbit/s
9 = adaptive multirate half rate speech, 4.75kbit/s
10 = adaptive multirate full rate speech, 12.2kbit/s
11 = adaptive multirate full rate speech, 10.2kbit/s
12 = adaptive multirate full rate speech, 7.95kbit/s
13 = adaptive multirate full rate speech, 7.4kbit/s
14 = adaptive multirate full rate speech, 6.7kbit/s
15 = adaptive multirate full rate speech, 5.9kbit/s
16 = adaptive multirate full rate speech, 5.15kbit/s
077002 Used codec type
17 = adaptive multirate full rate speech, 4.75kbit/s
FER measurements are available for different codec type objects that are defined by the counter
used_codec_type. Different performance indicators can be defined based on the codec type
object selection. The following performance indicators have been defined and more detail could be
found from REF 16

Counter name

Default

DL quality % FER based, S10 (dlq_3) for all codec types


UL quality % FER based, S10 (ulq_3) for all codec types
DL quality 0-5 % HR, FER based, S10 (dlq_7) for codec type=1 (half rate)
UL quality 0-5 % HR, FER based, S10 (ulq_7) for codec type=1 (half rate)
DL quality 0-5 % FR, FER based, S10 (dlq_8) for codec type=2 (full rate)
UL quality 0-5 % FR, FER based, S10 (ulq_8) for codec type=2 (full rate)
DL quality 0-5 % EFR, FER based, S10 (dlq_9) for codec type=3 (enhanced full rate)
UL quality 0-5 % EFR, FER based, S10 (ulq_9) for codec type=3 (enhanced full rate)
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DL quality 0-5 % AMR HR, FER based, S10 (dlq_10) for codec type=4-9 (all AMR
HR codecs)

UL quality 0-5 % AMR HR, FER based, S10 (ulq_10) for codec type=4-9 (all AMR
HR codecs)

DL quality 0-5 % AMR FR, FER based, S10 (dlq_11) for codec type=10-17 (all AMR
FR codecs)

UL quality 0-5 % AMR FR, FER based, S10 (ulq_11) for codec type=10-17 (all AMR
FR codecs)
E.g.
11.1

DL quality %, FER based, S10 (dlq_3)

The share (in percentage) of call samples in FEP classes 0 to 7.


sum(NBR_OF_DL_FER_CL_X)
100 * --------------------------------------------- %
sum(NBR_OF_DL_FER_CL_0++NBR_OF_DL_FER_CL_7))
11.2

DL quality 0-5 % EFR, FER based, S10 (dlq_9)

FER based quality benchmark for EFR calls.


Codec_type = 3
sum(NBR_OF_DL_FER_CL_0++NBR_OF_DL_FER_CL_5)
100 * --------------------------------------------- %
sum(NBR_OF_DL_FER_CL_0++NBR_OF_DL_FER_CL_7))
11.3

DL quality 0-5 % AMR FR, FER based, S10 (dlq_11)

FER based quality benchmark for EFR calls.


Codec_type = 10-17
sum(NBR_OF_DL_FER_CL_0++NBR_OF_DL_FER_CL_5)
100 * --------------------------------------------- %
sum(NBR_OF_DL_FER_CL_0++NBR_OF_DL_FER_CL_7))
FER class boundaries are modifiable as measurement parameters so not always the FER classes
0-5 mean good speech quality. By monitoring AMR (FR and HR) FER
The aim of the AMR codec usage is to get better voice quality in the network. Thus it is desired to
get better results in dlq_10-11 and ulq_10-11 than in dlq_3 and ulq_3 respectively. However if
aggressive PC and HO quality thresholds are applied to the AMR calls it may be different but even
in this case the AMR results should not be worse than the overall case.
With the help of the FER measurements the link adaptation algorithm and settings can be possibly
observed and optimised. A possible method can be to compare the distribution of the measured
(or in downlink the estimated) FER class 0-7 results codec by codec. In a good link adaptation
there should not be too much results in the least robust codec type with bad FER classes since in
this case codec mode change should occur to more robust codecs. And similarly there should not
be too much measurement sample at the most robust codec type with very good FER classes
since in this case codec mode change should occur to less robust codecs. But this assumption is
depending on the FER class boundary setting and on the used codec types. This requires further
study.
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12.

HANDOVER MEASUREMENTS

AMR calls have impact on the handover KPIs in several aspects. There has been new handover
cause counters introduced that implies updates in performance indicator formulas. New
performance indicators are needed to the AMR specific handovers. Activating the AMR in the
network will possibly modify the earlier used performance indicators' results. In the AMR handover
process there are some additional failure possibilities to normal call handovers. This could lead to
a slightly higher handover failure ratios after activating AMR calls in the network. However it is
difficult to observe because of the low numbers of AMR capable mobiles.
There is a failure possibility in AMR call handovers because of the A interface circuit pool
handling. The A interface speech circuits are divided into pools according to the
transcoder/submultiplexer capabilities. The main factors when dividing the circuits into pools is the
channel rate and the speech codecs supported. Currently only circuit pool number 23 is
supporting AMR.
Because of the possible A interface circuit pool change or the target BSC speech codec
possibilities the following handover failures are possible:

If the permitted speech version identifiers in the target BSC are not valid and correspond to the
channel rate requirements the handover is interrupted with A interface cause Invalid Message
Contents.
If the enhanced speech codecs are not allowed in the target BSC and the MSC offers them
then a handover failure with the cause Requested SpeechVersion Unavailable is sent to the
MSC.
If there is no circuit pool on the A interface which is able to support the requested type of TCH
and speech codec then a handover failure with the cause Requested SpeechVersion
Unavailable is sent to the MSC.
If there is circuit pool on the A interface which is able to support the requested type of TCH
and speech codec but the pool implied by the speech circuits is totally contradictory with the
TCH type requirement then a handover failure with the cause Circuit Pool Mismatch is sent to
the MSC.
If the mobile station does not support the indicated mode in the handover command or the
Multirate Configuration IE in handover command is inconsistent the MS returns a handover
failure with the cause Channel Mode Unacceptable.

Unfortunately there is no specific counter or formula that could show the impact of the handover
failures due to the above mentioned causes. To monitor the handover performance, handover
failure and success rate should be compared before and after activating AMR.
The AIBSEB of the source BSC sends a Handover Required message with the cause Switch
Circuit Pool if an A interface circuit pool change is required during handover. A message is sent if
the successful allocation of a suitable TCH and speech codec in intra BSS handover requires the
change of the pool. The extra circuit switch changes caused by AMR calls can be observed
comparing the measurements of the counter ho_att_due_switch_circ_pool from table
p_nbsc_handover before and after activating AMR.
12.1

HO attempts, outgoing and intra-cell, S10, (ho_13 )

Because of the new handover cause counters introduced in AMR the ho_13 formula needs to be
updated.
sum(cause_up_qual+cause_up_level+cause_down_qual+cause_down_lev+cause_distance
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+cause_msc_invoc+cause_intfer_up+cause_intfer_dwn+cause_umbr+cause_pbdgt+cause_omc
+cause_dir_retry+cause_pre_emption+cause_field_drop
+cause_low_distance+cause_bad_CI+cause_good_CI
+ cause_ho_due_slow_mov_ms+ho_att_due_switch_circ_pool ;S5
+ ms_slow_speed + ms_high_speed ; S6
+cause_dir_retry+ho_due_ms_high_speed+ ho_due_ms_low_speed
+ho_att_due_bad_super_rx_lev+ho_att_due_good_regular_rx_lev
+ho_att_due_direct_access+ho_att_due_erfd; S7
+ ho_att_due_dadlb+ ho_att_due_to_bsc_contr_trho ; S8
+ ho_att_due_to_gprs ; S9
+ho_att_for_amr_to_hr + ho_att_for_amr_to_fr ; S10.
Counters from table p_nbsc_handover.
The formula gives the outgoing and intracell handover attempts from the different handover
causes that must also contain the AMR specific handover causes: number of channel rate change
HO attempts from AMR FR to AMR HR and number of channel rate change HO attempts from
AMR HR to AMR FR.
12.2

AMR FR to HR HO success

It would be useful to measure the success ratio of the handovers from AMR FR channel to AMR
HR channel (also called channel rate packing). The formula can be:
sum(a.half_tch_seiz_intra_amr_ho)
100 * --------------------------------------------------- %
sum(b.ho_att_for_amr_to_hr)
counters from tables a=p_nbsc_traffic, b=p_nbsc_handover
or
sum(a.intra_ho_to_amr_hr)
100 * -------------------------------------------- %
sum(b.ho_att_for_amr_to_hr)
counters from tables a=p_nbsc_cc_pm, b=p_nbsc_handover
The above-mentioned performance indicators differ in the numerator. The
half_tch_seiz_intra_amr_ho is triggered when the Radio Resource Manager allocates a HR TCH
for intra-cell HO as a response to a TCH request and the channel rate is changed from FR to HR
and speech codec versions 3 are in use while the intra_ho_to_amr_hr is updated after
HO_PERFORMED message is sent to MSC in an intra-cell HO as a response to a TCH request
and the channel rate is changed from FR to HR and speech codec versions 3 are in use.
12.3

AMR HR to FR HO success

It would be useful to measure the success ratio of the handovers from AMR HR channel to AMR
FR channel (also called channel rate unpacking).
The formula can be:
sum(a.full_tch_seiz_intra_amr_ho)
100 * --------------------------------------------------- %
sum(b.ho_att_for_amr_to_fr)
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counters from tables a=p_nbsc_traffic, b=p_nbsc_handover


or
sum(a.intra_ho_to_amr_fr)
100 * -------------------------------------------- %
sum(b.ho_att_for_amr_to_fr)
counters from tables a=p_nbsc_cc_pm, b=p_nbsc_handover.
The above-mentioned performance indicators differ in the numerator. The
full_tch_seiz_intra_amr_ho is triggered when the Radio Resource Manager allocates a FR TCH
for intra-cell HO as a response to a TCH request and the channel rate is changed from HR to FR
and speech codec versions 3 are in use while the intra_ho_to_amr_fr is updated after
HO_PERFORMED message is sent to MSC in an intra-cell HO as a response to a TCH request
and the channel rate is changed from HR to FR and speech codec versions 3 are in use.
13.

IMPACT ON DROPPED CALL RATIO

In the AMR handover process there are some additional failure possibilities to normal call
handovers. The result of that can be a slightly higher dropped call ratio in different dropped call
formulas than before activating AMR. There are some new failure counters that can be used for
dropped call performance indicators.
13.1

Transcoder failure ratio, AMR FR (dcr_19)

This performance indicator gives the ended TCH conversation ratio due to transcoder failure in the
AMR full rate speech calls.
sum(tch_ended_due_transc_fr_rate3)
100 * -------------------------------------------------------- %
sum(tch_full_seiz_speech_ver3)
Counters from table p_nbsc_traffic.
13.2

Transcoder failure ratio, AMR HR (dcr_20)

This performance indicator gives the ended TCH conversation ratio due to transcoder failure in the
AMR half rate speech calls.
sum(tch_ended_due_transc_hr_rate3)
100 * -------------------------------------------------------- %
sum(tch_half_seiz_speech_ver3)
Counters from table p_nbsc_traffic.
13.3

Transcoder failure ratio, (dcr_21)

This performance indicator gives the ended TCH conversation ratio due to transcoder failure
speech calls.

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sum(tch_ended_due_transc_fr_rate1+tch_ended_due_transc_hr_rate1
+tch_ended_due_transc_fr_rate2
+tch_ended_due_transc_fr_rate3+tch_ended_due_transc_hr_rate3)
100 * -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- %
sum(tch_full_seiz_speech_ver1++tch_half_seiz_speech_ver1
+tch_full_seiz_speech_ver2
+tch_full_seiz_speech_ver3+tch_half_seiz_speech_ver3)
counters from table p_nbsc_traffic.
14.

AMR CODEC SET DOWNGRADES AND UPGRADES

The idea behind the downgrade is to allow the utilisation of the unidirectional downlink speech
path connection on target BTS side in order to minimise the experienced muting on speech during
internal inter-cell handovers. The idea behind the upgrade is to utilise the BTS defined AMR codec
set. In the channel allocation procedure the RDNSEB determines the need for AMR codec set
downgrades (during internal inter-cell HO on source BTS side) and upgrades (after internal intercell HO on target BTS side).
When the AMR codec sets currently used on source side and BTS defined on target side are the
same then there is no need to perform codec set downgrade. If the codec sets are different but the
channel rates are the same the following cases can happen:

The codec set defined on target side differs from the current codec set but it can be aligned
with the source side by selecting the current codec set. This alignment depends on the codec
mode support of the target BSC. If the amrConfInHandovers parameter prefers the codec set
of the target BTS then the target side is upgraded to its original AMR codec set after the
handover if amrSetGradesEnabl parameter allows it.
The codec set can not be aligned because of the target side codec mode support. In this case
triggering a downgrade procedure on the source side if the parameter amrSetGradesEnabl
allows it aligns the source side. If the downgrade is not allowed then utilisation of the
unidirectional downlink speech path connection on target side is not possible.

The total number of codec set upgrades and downgrades as well as the failure ratios can be
calculated by the formulas given below.
14.1

Codec set upgrade attempts, S10 (amr_1)

This performance indicator gives the total number of codec set upgrade attempts.
sum(succ_amr_codec_set_upgr+unsucc_amr_codec_set_upgr)
counters from table p_nbsc_traffic.
14.2

Codec set downgrade attempts, S10 (amr_2)

This performance indicator gives the total number of codec set downgrade attempts.
sum(succ_amr_codec_set_downgr+unsucc_amr_codec_set_downgr)
counters from table p_nbsc_traffic.
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14.3

Codec set upgrade failure ratio, S10 (amr_3)

This performance indicator gives the codec set upgrade failure ratio.
sum(unsucc_amr_codec_set_upgr)
100 * ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- %
sum(succ_amr_codec_set_upgr+unsucc_amr_codec_set_upgr)
counters from table p_nbsc_traffic.
Note that the denominator can be 0.
14.4

Codec set downgrade failure ratio, S10 (amr_4)

This performance indicator gives the codec set downgrade failure ratio.
sum(unsucc_amr_codec_set_downgr)
100 * -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- %
sum(succ_amr_codec_set_downgr+unsucc_amr_codec_set_downgr)
counters from table p_nbsc_traffic.
Note that the denominator can be 0.
15.

CODEC MODE SHARE

It can be interesting to observe the different codec mode shares in the AMR calls. The full rate and
half rate calls are calculated separately.
15.1

Codec mode Z share in AMR FR calls

This performance indicator shows the codec mode Z (where Z= 14) usage ratio in the AMR full
rate calls.
sum(nvl(amr_fr_mode_Z_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_fr_mode_Z_ul_rxqual_7,0))
100 * ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- %
sum(nvl(amr_fr_mode_1_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_fr_mode_1_ul_rxqual_7,0)
+ nvl(amr_fr_mode_2_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_fr_mode_2_ul_rxqual_7,0)
+ nvl(amr_fr_mode_3_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_fr_mode_3_ul_rxqual_7,0)
+ nvl(amr_fr_mode_4_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_fr_mode_4_ul_rxqual_7,0))
Counters from table p_nbsc_rx_qual.
Note that the denominator can be 0. The numerator indicates AMR FR codec mode 1 traffic
(sampling interval 480ms) and the denominator indicates AMR FR traffic (sampling interval
480ms)
.
Known problems: In a high load situation (OMU link) it is possible that all call time is not
measured. In other words, both numerator and denominator can show a lower value than it has in
reality. Also in the beginning of the call and in HO two samples are lost causing the time show
shorter than reality.

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15.2

Codec mode Z share in AMR HR calls

This performance indicator shows the codec mode Z (where Z= 14) usage ratio in the AMR half
rate calls.
sum(nvl(amr_hr_mode_Z_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_hr_mode_Z_ul_rxqual_7,0))
100 * ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- %
sum(nvl(amr_hr_mode_1_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_hr_mode_1_ul_rxqual_7,0)
+ nvl(amr_hr_mode_2_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_hr_mode_2_ul_rxqual_7,0)
+ nvl(amr_hr_mode_3_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_hr_mode_3_ul_rxqual_7,0)
+ nvl(amr_hr_mode_4_ul_rxqual_0,0)+ .. + nvl(amr_hr_mode_4_ul_rxqual_7,0))
Counters from table p_nbsc_rx_qual.

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16.

REFERENCES
(1) Adaptive Multi Rate (AMR) Speech Codec Implementation Specification version 1.3
DN09757, Nokia internal document 01/03/01.
(2) Laboratory Test Specifications for AMR draft, Nokia internal document 30/12/01.
(3) Nokia Adaptive Multi Rate Codec Solution Description version 1.1 Nokia internal
document 24/04/02.
(4) BSS Radio Network Parameter Dictionary 10.5 issue 18, DN9813866 2002.
(5) Adaptive Multi Rate (AMR) Performance Simulations version 2.0, Nokia internal
document 17/05/01.
(6) Blocking Probability for Half and Full Rate Access, by Salvador Pedraza, Nokia Internal,
2001.
(7) STUDY OF BSS S10 COUNTER FORMULAS OF NOKIA NMS/2000 DATABASE v.73

17.

ABBREVIATIONS

AMR
BSC
BSS
BTS
C/I
DL
DTX
EFR
EFL
FER
FH
FR
HO
HR
IUO
LA
MOS
MS
MSC
PC
RX
TRX
TX
UL

Adaptive Multi Rate Codec


Base Station Controller
Base Station Subsystem
Base Transceiver Station
Carrier To Interference Ratio
Down Link (connection from BTS to MS)
Discontinuous transmission
Enhanced Full Rate
Effective Frequency Load
Frame Error Rate
Frequency Hopping
Full Rate
Handover
Half Rate
Intelligent Underlay Overlay
Link Adaptation
Mean Opinion Score
Mobile Station
Mobile Switching Centre
Power Control
Receiving
Transceiver
Transmitting
Up Link (connection from MS to BTS)

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18.

APPENDIX A: NOKIA BSS10 AMR SOLUTION

AMR codecs are supported by different Nokia base station generations as follows:
Nokia 2nd Generation base stations:
Nokia 2nd generation DE21 BTS will not support AMR.
Nokia Talk-family base stations:
Nokia Talk-family BTS will have AMR support for FR modes 4.75, 5.9, 7.4 and 12.2
as well as for HR modes 4.75, 5.9 and 7.4. With this approach, the link adaptation
between full scale of FR modes and almost full scale of HR can be achieved.
Nokia PrimeSite base station:
Nokia PrimeSite base station AMR support is similar to that of Nokia Talk-family
base stations. Due to limited DSP processor/memory capacity the frequency hopping
functionality will be removed from PrimeSite BTSs to enable this SW modification.
This means that the last PrimeSite SW release supporting frequency hopping will be
DF5.0.
Nokia InSite base station:
Nokia InSite BTS will not support AMR.
Nokia MetroSite GSM and MetroSite EDGE and UltraSite EDGE base stations:
Nokia MetroSite and UltraSite base stations will have full AMR support however
Nokia UltraSite EDGE TRXs will have AMR support in CX3.1 software release.
AMR codecs support in Nokia BSC and TCSM:
All the Nokia BSCs will have full AMR support.
- except 7.95 kbit/s on HR channel
Nokia TCSM2/E will have full AMR support.

New TC PCM pool type is needed for transcoder configuration in A-interface. At minimum the
basic AMR type, which supports FR AMR and HR AMR (pool 23), is at least implemented. The
other pool types support is still for further study.
Submultiplexing on highway PCM is 8/16 kbit/s, e.g. if AMR FR (16 kbit/s) is used in Abis
interface, then Ater interface rate is also 16 kbit/s. Respectively if AMR HR (8 kbit/s) is used in
Abis interface, then Ater interface rate is 2 * 8 kbit/s (BSC transmits ones (= bit value 1) on the
unused 8 kbit/s sub-timeslot).
Nokia TCSM will not support AMR.
With the AMR HR implementation BSCs maximum channel capacity 4096 must be taken into the
account in BSCs TRX amount dimensioning. For example the BSC2i provides with 512 full-rate
TRXs capacity or 256 half-rate TRXs. BSC TRX capacity can be maintained by using FR to HR
load threshold parameters described in earlier chapters.
19.

HISTORY

Date

Version

Author

Change Note No./Notes

07 May 2002

0.1

Simone Cavallini

First Draft

31May 2002

1.0

Simone Cavallini

Approved (incorporating results of Adaptive


Multi Rate (AMR) Performance Simulations
version 2.0

Dec 2002

1.1

Samur Worasilpchai

Add AMR Pis and some update

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