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Sociology

Culture and Society

Define the key components of a culture.

Explain the difference between culture and society.

Differentiate between the types of societies and analyze societies through


this understanding.

Generate examples of cultures and societies, and various sub-types of groups


and formal organizations.

Culture

Lesson 1: Components of Culture

Culture

Society and Culture NOT interchangeable

Society consists of people

Culture: consists of shared products of human groups.

Material Culture: physical objects that a culture creates

Nonmaterial Culture: Abstract human creations.

Material Culture

Automobiles

Books

Buildings

Clothing

Nonmaterial Culture

Beliefs

Family patterns

Ideas

Language

Political and economic systems

Lesson 2: Components of Culture

Norms

Norms are shared rules of conduct that tell people how to act in specific
situations.

Groups use Norms to enforce cultural values

Norms are expectations for behavior, not actual behavior

Some norms apply to everyone in society, others to select groups

Types of Norms

Folkways

Norms that describe socially acceptable behavior but do not have


moral significance attached to them.

Failure to follow results in minor punishment or reprimand

Some non-conformity to Folkways is permitted because it does not


endanger society.

Mores

Great moral significance is attached to them

Societies establish punishments for violating in order to protect social


well-being

Serious mores are formalized as laws

Group Assignment

Your group should pick a situations, place, or event and identify the norms.

Create a 1-2 minute skit which shows a violation of norms (both folkways and
mores)

Perform the skit

Lesson 2: Components of Culture

Lesson 3: Culture

Activator: Components of Culture

Cultural Variation

Cultural Universals

Cultural Universals: features evident in all cultures

What are some features that all cultures have?

(Try and Guess 7)

Cultural Universals

Cultural Variations: Assignment

Read with a Purpose: Using the material on p. 39-40 in your textbook, answer
the following question: What is the difference between a subculture and
counter culture?

Identify and example of each. (In addition, to what can be found in the
reading)

Share in cooperative groups

Cultural Variations: Subculture

Subculture: Groups that share values, norms, and behaviors that are not
shared by the entire population.

Cultural Variations: Counterculture

Counterculture: Groups that rejects the major values, norms, and behaviors
that is practiced by larger society

Response to Variation

Ethnocentrism: the tendency to view one's own culture and group as superior
to all other cultures and groups

Cultural relativism: a belief that cultures should be judged by their own


standards

Cultural Change

Cultural diffusion: the process of spreading cultural traits from one society to
another

Cultural leveling: the process through which cultures become more and more
alike

Lesson 4:
Value System

ACTIVATOR: One of the 5 components of culture discussed was that of values.


Values are defined as shared beliefs about what is good or bad, right or wrong,
desirable or undesirable. Brainstorm and record American values.

Value Systems

American Values: A Pictorial

The American Value System

Personal Achievement

Doing Well at school and at work is important. Gaining wealth and prestige is a sign
of success.

Progress and Material Comfort

History is marked by ongoing progress, and this progress improves peoples lives.

Work

Discipline, dedication, and hard work are signs of virtue

Individualism

Hard work, initiative, and individual effort are the keys to personal achievement.

Efficiency and Practicality

Every problem can be solved through efficiency and practicality. Getting things done
well in the shortest time is very important.

Morality and Humanitarianism

Judgments should be based on a sense of right and wrong. This sense of morality
also involves helping the less fortunate.

Equality and Democracy

Everyone should have an equal chance at success and the right to participate freely
in government.

Freedom

Personal freedoms, such as freedom of religion, speech, and the press, are central
to the American way of life

American Values: Assignment

New Values: Narcissism

Narcissism: the feeling of extreme self-centeredness

Values: Assignment

1. In a written response, explain how YOLO is a reflection of a value system based in


narcissism and self-fulfillment.
2. When directed, discuss your responses in assigned groups.

Lesson 5: Social Structure

ACTIVATOR:
What is the difference between ROLE and STATUS?

Social Structure

Status: Ascribed and Achieved

Status: Activity

Roles

Statuses serve simply as social categories. Roles are the components of


social structure that bring statuses to life.

Most of the roles that you perform have reciprocal roles. These are
corresponding roles that define the patterns of interaction between related
statuses.

EX. doctor-patient, teacher-student, or coach-athlete

Role Conflict, Strain, and Exit

Role Conflict: a situation that occurs when fulfilling the expectations of one
status makes it difficult to fulfill the expectations of another status

Role Strain: a situation that occurs when a person has difficulty meeting the
expectations of a single status

Role Exit: the process that people go through to detach from a role that has
been central to their self-identity

Social Institutions

Definition: a system of statuses, roles, values, and norms that is organized to satisfy
one or more of the basic needs of society

The family, the most universal social institution, takes responsibility for
raising the young and teaching them accepted norms and values.

The economic institution organizes the production, distribution, and


consumption of goods and services.

The political institution is the system of norms that governs the exercise and
distribution of power in society.

Education ensures the transmission of values, patterns of behavior, and


certain skills and knowledge.

Religion provides a shared, collective explanation of the meaning of life.

Social Structure: Summarizer

QUESTIONS REMAINING

Lesson Activator

Any questions prior to the culture quiz?

Lesson 6: Social Interaction

ACTIVATOR:
What motivates you in your actions with others? Think of 3 separate interactions
with individuals or groups. What was your motivation for interacting with them?

Social Interaction

Exchange

Most basic and common form of social interaction.

Dating, family life, friendship, and politics all involve exchanges.

Reciprocity is the basis for exchange

the idea that if you do something for someone, that person owes you
something in return.

Exchange Theory

Definition: a theory that holds that people are motivated by self-interests in


their interactions with others.

People do things primarily for rewards. Behavior that is rewarded tends to be


repeated. Exchange theory appears to run counter to some social norms such
as altruism.

Social Interaction Assignment

Read p. 59 in the text and identify the Difference between Conflict and Competition

Competition

Definition: an interaction that occurs when two or more people or groups


oppose each other to achieve a goal that only one can attain.

A common feature in Western society.

Basis behind capitalism and democracy

If it follows accepted rules of conduct, most sociologists view it as a positive


means of motivating people to perform the roles society asks of them.

Negatively, competition can lead to psychological stress, a lack of


cooperation in social relationships, inequality, and even conflict.

Conflict

Definition: The deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose


someone, or to harm another person.

Few rules of accepted conduct, and even these often are ignored.

May range from the deliberate snubbing of a classmate to the killing of an


enemy.

Four sources of conflict: wars, disagreements within groups, legal


disputes, and clashes over ideology (religion or politics)

Can be useful

Reinforces group boundaries

Strengthen group loyalty

Bring about social change

Cooperation

Definition: interaction that occurs when two or more persons or groups work
together to achieve a goal that will benefit many people

No group can complete its tasks or achieve its goals without cooperation from
its members.

Competition may be used along with cooperation to motivate members to


work harder for the group.

Accommodation

Definition: a state of balance between cooperation and conflict

Accommodation helps to ensure social stability.

It can take a number of different forms

Compromise

Truce

Mediation

Arbitration

Social Interaction Assignment

Using p. 60-61 and a graphic organizer like the one below, sequence the four forms
of accommodation in terms of their ease of achievement. Explain your placements
with annotations.

Lesson: Social Interaction

Lesson 7: Types of Societies

ACTIVATOR:
As time goes on, societies advance and change. Using your knowledge of world
history, identity and describe 3 different types of societies. In groups, discuss and
write your consensus on the board.

Social Interaction

Types of Societies Assignment

Separate into groups of 3. Each member should take one of the 3 types of
societies and identify the key characteristics of the society.

Reconvene as a group and share the key characteristics. When discussing


each societal type, identify real world examples of that type of society.

ENRICHMENT: Following the directions on p. 66 question 7, Sequence the 6


types of societies. (4 of the types are found in preindustrial societies)

Preindustrial Societies

Food production through the use of human and animal labor is the main
economic activity

Subdivided according to technology and method of food production

Hunter-Gatherer

Pastoral

Horticultural

Agricultural

Hunter-Gatherer

Constantly moving searching for food

Do not build permanent villages

Limited artifacts

Rarely exceed 100 people

Status fairly equal

Family is the main social unit

Pastoral

Rely on domesticated herds

Nomadic: moving herds from pasture to pasture

Horticultural

Food grown in garden plots

Slash and burn techniques

Simple tools

Move to new land when land becomes barren

30-2,000 people

Similar in technology and social structure to Pastoral

Agricultural

Animals are used to cultivate land

Increased technology allows to plant more crops

Irrigation increases crop yield

Large crop yield support large/permanent societies

Increased specialization leads to cities

Wealth becomes more concentrated

Barter system emerges

The Effects of Industrialization

Preindustrial Society

Emphasis is food production

Economic activities in the home

Produced entire product

Family is the primary socialization and education agent

Social status fairly fixed

Industrial Society

Emphasis is manufactured goods

Economic activities in the factory

Division of labor

Education and socialization take place outside the family

Increased potential to change status

Postindustrial society

Emphasis in on the provision of information and services

Standard of living for much of the population as wages increase

Strong emphasis on roles of science and education

Technological advances are viewed as the key to future prosperity

Sociology and Society

Preindustrial Societies

Mechanical Solidarity: when people share values and tasks they become
united

Gemeinshaft: most people know each other. Activities center on the family
and community. Strong sense of solidarity

Industrial Societies

Organic Solidarity: with increased specialization, relationships become less


personal and people are less able to provide for their own need.

Gesellschaft: Relationships are impersonal, temporary, and based on need


rather than emotion. Values are weak and individual goals are more
important than group goals

Types of Societies: Summarizer

QUESTIONS REMAINING

Lesson 8: Groups

ACTIVATOR:

Groups Within Society

What is a group?

Definition: A set of people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and
who possess some degree of common identity.
The Four Features of a Group
1. Two or more people
2. Interaction among members
3. Shared expectations
4. Sense of common identity

Aggregates (Not A Group)

Definition: When people gather in the same place at the same time but lack
organization or lasting patterns of interaction.

Varying Features of a Group


SIZE
TIME

ORGANIZATION

Dyad

Two members

Each member has direct control over the groups existence

Decision making can be difficult if they dont agree

Triad

Three member

Group takes on life of its own

Cant be disbanded by one member

Tie breaker make decisions easier

Formal Group

Structure, goals, and activities are clearly defined

Informal Group

There is not official structure or established rules of conduct

Primary Group

Small group that interacts over a long period

Communication deep and intense

Intimate/ face-to-face

Entire self-shared

Secondary Group

Interaction is temporary and impersonal

Casual and limited in personal involvement

Personal importance based on function performed

Individual easily replace

Partial self-shared

In-group

A group that a person belongs to & identifies with

Separate themselves through use of symbols

See themselves as (+) and out-groups as (-)

Compete with out-groups

Out-group

A group that a person does not belong to or identify with

Reference Group

Definition: Any group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and
values they adopt.

Groups chosen are important because they can have positive and negative
effects

As a person grows older, reference groups change.

Assignment: Using the different types of groups, label each of these pictures
using as many applicable terms as possible.

Electronic Communities & Social Networks

Electronic Communities demonstrate behaviors similar to primary groups


argue, engage in intellectual discussions, share intimate details, gossip, play
games, and flirt.
Social Networks: A web of relationships formed by the sum total of a persons
interactions with others.

Unlike a group there is not a common identity

Provide interaction and career advancement

Can provide support during stressful periods

Group Functions

1. Must define boundaries for belonging


2. Need to set goals, assign tasks, and make decisions
3. Need to control members behavior - Conformity
4. Must select leaders (People who influence the attitudes and opinions of
others)

Instrumental leaders: Task-oriented

Expressive leaders: emotion-oriented

Groups need both to be successful

Assignment: Simulation

Are You In or Are You Out?


Textbook p. 80-81

Groups Within Society: Summarizer

QUESTIONS REMAINING

Lesson 10: Formal Organizations

ACTIVATOR:

Lesson 10: Formal Organizations

Formal Organizations

Definition: a large, complex secondary group that has been established to achieve
specific goals
Formal organizations include:
Most formal organizations are structured in a form that is known as a bureaucracy

Bureaucracy

Definition: a ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules


and procedures
Webers Model
1. Division of Labor
2. Ranking of Authority
3. Employment based on formal qualifications
4. Written rules and regulations
5. Specific lines of promotion and advancement

Effects of Bureaucracy

Positives

Creates order through clearly defined job tasks and rewards

Provide stability and are not reliant upon an individual

Negatives

Can undergo goal displacement abandon the original purpose and replace
with self-continuation.

Encourage the development of bureaucratic personalities

Employees feel alienated

Power concentrates at the top iron law of oligarchy

Exam Review

EQ: What do I need to study for the exam?

Take practice exam and use answer key to correct

Use Culture and Society Unit Map vocabulary and practice exam results to
identify areas of weakness

Prepare questions related to areas of weakness

Review as class

Study
for the
Culture and Society Exam

Lesson Activator

Any questions prior to the Culture and Society Exam?