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Lecturer:

Dr. Hala Mahmoud


P
i i Courses:
C
Prerequisite
Thermodynamics & Fluid Mechanics
Ref. Text
Yunus A. Cengel, Heat Transfer A Practical Approach
International. 3rd Ed. New York: McGrawHill, 2003
FrankP.Incropera andD.P.Dewitt,Fundamentalofheatand
masstransfer7th ED.JOHNWILEY&SONS,2011
Objectives
To understand the basic principles of heat transfer,
To be able to analyze the thermal applications and equipments
(Temperature distribution & Heat rate).
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Introductiontoheattransfer
Steadystateonedimensionalconductionheattransfer
Onedimensionalconductionheattransferwithheat
generation
Steadyconductionheattransferintwodimensions
TransientHeatConduction
FundamentalsofConvectionHeatTransfer
ForcedConvectionrelations.
FreeConvectionrelations
Mixedconvectionheattransfer
Finsandextendedsurface
Heattransferwithphasechange
Heatexchanger

Grading
Grading will be based on the following distribution:
Writtenexamination(Final)90marks
MidTermExamination20marks
Mid TermExamination20marks
Assignments/classwork10marks
Oralexam
30marks

HINTS
*DatabookwillbegivenandwillbeusedalongthetermandFinal
Exam,
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BasicConceptsofHeatTransfer
Inthischapterwewilllearn
Whatisheattransfer
h
h
f
Howisheattransferred
Relevanceandimportance
Thermodynamics:
Energycanbetransferredbetweenasystemanditssurroundings.
Asysteminteractswithitssurroundingsbyexchangingworkandheat
Dealswithequilibriumstates
Doesnotgiveinformationabout:
Ratesatwhichenergyistransferred
Mechanismsthroughwithenergyistransferred

HeatTransferExamples

Example:Designofacontainer
Aclosedcontainerfilledwithhotcoffeeisinaroomwhoseairand
wallsareatafixedtemperature.Identifyallheattransferprocesses
thatcontributetocoolingofthecoffee.Commentonfeaturesthat
wouldcontributetoasuperiorcontainerdesign.
wouldcontributetoasuperiorcontainerdesign

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Conduction Of Heat
Through A Material

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THERMALCONDUCTIVITY
Therateofheattransferthroughaunitthicknessofthe
materialperunitareaperunittemperaturedifference
Kinetictheory: thermalconductivityof gases isproportional
tothesquarerootoftheabsolutetemperatureandinversely
proportionaltothesquarerootofthemolarmass.
independentofpressureinawiderange
Inliquids decreaseswithincreasingtemperatureandalso
withincreasingmolarmass
Insolids dependsuponlatticevibrationalwavesandthefree
flowelectrons

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THERMALDIFFUSIVITY
Thermaldiffusivityisamaterialpropertywhichrepresentshowfastheat
diffusesthroughamaterial.
Theratioofheatconductedthroughamaterialtotheheatstoredperunit
volume
Thermaldiffusivity
heat conducted
k
C P Specificheat

C P
heat stored
HighkorlowCP

largethermaldiffusivity

Thelargerthethermaldiffusivity,thefasterthepropagationofheatintothe
medium.Asmallvalueofthermaldiffusivitymeansthatheatismostlyabsorbedby
thematerialandasmallamountofheatwillbeconductedfurther.

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CONVECTION
Convection is the transfer of
h t by
b th
t l
heat
the actual
movement of the warmed
matter.
Convection is the transfer of
heat energy in a gas or
liquid by movement of
currents.
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CONVECTION

Hot water
rises, cools,
and falls

Heated air
rises, cools,
then falls

Air near heater is


replaced by cooler
air, and
the cycle repeats
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CONVECTION

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SEABREEZEAND
LANDBREEZE

SEA BREEZE

LAND BREEZE
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2.Convection
Energytransferbyrandommolecularmotion(asin
conduction)plusbulk(macroscopic)motionofthefluid.
Convection:transportbyrandommotionofmoleculesandby

bulkmotionoffluid
bulkmotionoffluid.

Forcedconvection:Causedbyexternalmeans
Natural(free)convection:flowinducedbybuoyancyforces,

arisingfromdensitydifferencesarisingfromtemperature
variationsinthefluid

Theabovecasesinvolvesensibleheat(internalenergy)ofthefluid
Latentheatexchangeisassociatedwithphasechanges boiling

andcondensation.

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RADIATION
Sunlight is a form of
radiation that is radiated
through space to our planet
without the aid of fluids or
solids.
Since there are no fluids in
space,
p
, convection is not
responsible for transferring the
heat. Thus, radiation brings
heat to our planet.
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RADIATION

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RADIATIONAMONGOBJECTS

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