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LESSON NAME: PLUS

PREPARED BY: Jarvis Nicole Ouano/ Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in


English
DESCRIPTION:
Adverbs tell how, when, where, or how frequent the action was made. It modifies
a verb, adjective or another adverb.

OBJECTIVE:
At the end of the lesson, the students will be able to:
1. Distinguish adverbs from any other parts of speech,
2. Value the importance of adverbs in putting expressions to ideas, and
3. Write sentences with the correct use of adverbs.

TOPIC: ADVERBS

CONTENT:
I. WHAT ARE ADVERBS?
II. ADVERBS VS. ADJECTIVES
III. KINDS OF ADVERBS (PLUS RELATIVE ADVERBS)
IV. RULES IN ADVERBS
V. ORDER AND POSITIONS OF ADVERBS (VIEWPOINT, FOCUS AND
NEGATIVE)
VI. COMPARATIVE FORMS
VII. NOUNS AND ADVERBS
APPENDIX: LIST OF ADVERBS
EXERCISES AND ANSWER KEYS
BIBLIOGRAPHY

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CONTENTS
Contents..................................................................................................................... 2

I. WHAT ARE ADVERBS?..............................................................................................3

Nouns used as Adverbs...........................................................................................................6

II. Adverb or Adjective?...............................................................................................7

III. Kinds of Adverbs....................................................................................................8

ADVERBS OF MANNER..........................................................................................................8

ADVERBS OF CERTAINTY...................................................................................................14

ADVERBS OF DEGREE........................................................................................................14

INTERROGATIVE ADVERBS................................................................................................17

RELATIVE ADVERBS............................................................................................................18

IV. Rules in Adverbs:.................................................................................................20

V. Positions of Adverbs.............................................................................................21

VI. Viewpoint, Focus, and Negative Adverbs.............................................................22

VII. Order of Adverbs................................................................................................ 23

VIII. COMPARATIVE FORMS OF ADVERBS..................................................................25

APPENDIX: LIST OF ADVERBS...................................................................................27

EXERCISES, ACTIVITIES AND QUIZ............................................................................39

Answer Keys.............................................................................................................48

Bibliography:............................................................................................................50

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I. WHAT ARE ADVERBS?
An ADVERB is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb.

An adverb answers one of the four questions about the word it modifies: Where?
When? In what manner? To what extent?

An ADVERB modifying a verb can answer any of the four questions. On the otherhand,
an adverb modifying an adjective or another adverb will only answer one of the
questions: To what extent?

ADVERBS MODIFYING VERBS


Where? When?
Duck under Often talks
Walk near Eats daily
Stand there Should have answered promptly
stayed between Soon will fall
In what manner? To what extent?
Reacted negatively Widely read
Silently appealed Barely walks
Left hurriedly Arrived unexpectedly
Rudely insulted Had just finished
Was cheerfully dancing Must not have fallen
ADVERBS MODIFYING ADJECTIVES ADVERBS MODIFYING ADVERBS
To what extent? To what extent?
Very long Very thoroughly
Somewhat satisfied Not exactly
Frequently absent More quickly
Not sad Quite definitely

Adjective Adverb
slow slowly
delightful delightfully
hopeless hopelessly
aggressive aggressively

However, this is NOT a reliable way to find out whether a word is an adverb or not, for
two reasons: many adverbs do NOT end in -LY (some are the same as the adjective
form), and many words which are NOT adverbs DO end in -LY (such as kindly, friendly,
elderly and lonely, which are adjectives). Here are some examples of adverbs which are
the same as adjectives:

Adjective Adverb
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fast fast
late late
early early

The best way to tell if a word is an adverb is to try making a question, for which the
answer is the word. If the question uses how, where or when, then the word is probably
an adverb. Here is an example:

Word in context Question Adverb?


Junko plays tennis How does Junko play Yes -- uses HOW.
aggressively. tennis?
They have a small house. What kind of house do No -- uses WHAT KIND OF, so
they have? this is an adjective.
Matthew called the police When did Matthew call Yes -- uses WHEN.
immediately. the police?

It can be seen that ADVERBS MODIFYING VERBS have their adverbs before or after
the verb they modify (He drove slowly. — How did he drive?). In ADVERBS
MODIFYING ADJECTIVES AND ANOTHER ADVERBS, they are placed before every
adjective or adverb. Adjective: (He drove a very fast car. — How fast was his car?)
adverb: (She moved quite slowly down the aisle. — How slowly did she move?)

If a group of words containing a subject and verb acts as an adverb (modifying the verb
of a sentence), it is called an Adverb Clause:

• When this class is over, we're going to the movies.

When a group of words not containing a subject and verb acts as an adverb, it is called
an adverbial phrase. Prepositional phrases frequently have adverbial functions
(telling place and time, modifying the verb):

• He went to the movies.


• She works on holidays.
• They lived in Canada during the war.

And Infinitive phrases can act as adverbs (usually telling why):

• She hurried to the mainland to see her brother.


• The senator ran to catch the bus.

But there are other kinds of adverbial phrases:

• He calls his mother as often as possible.

Adverbs can modify adjectives, but an adjective cannot modify an adverb. Thus we
would say that "the students showed a really wonderful attitude" and that "the students
showed a wonderfully casual attitude" and that "my professor is really tall, but not "He
ran real fast."
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Like adjectives, adverbs can have comparative and superlative forms to show degree.

• Walk faster if you want to keep up with me.


• The student who reads fastest will finish first.

We often use more and most, less and least to show degree with adverbs:

• With sneakers on, she could move more quickly among the patients.
• The flowers were the most beautifully arranged creations I've ever seen.
• She worked less confidently after her accident.
• That was the least skillfully done performance I've seen in years.

The as — as construction can be used to create adverbs that express sameness or


equality: "He can't run as fast as his sister."

A handful of adverbs have two forms, one that ends in -ly and one that doesn't. In
certain cases, the two forms have different meanings:

• He arrived late.
• Lately, he couldn't seem to be on time for anything.

In most cases, however, the form without the -ly ending should be reserved for casual
situations:

• She certainly drives slow in that old Buick of hers.


• He did wrong by her.
• He spoke sharp, quick, and to the point.

Adverbs often function as intensifiers, conveying a greater or lesser emphasis to


something. Intensifiers are said to have three different functions: they can emphasize,
amplify, or downtone. Here are some examples:

• Emphasizers:
o I really don't believe him.
o He literally wrecked his mother's car.
o She simply ignored me.
o They're going to be late, for sure.
• Amplifiers:
o The teacher completely rejected her proposal.
o I absolutely refuse to attend any more faculty meetings.
o They heartily endorsed the new restaurant.
o I so wanted to go with them.
o We know this city well.
• Downtoners:
o I kind of like this college.
o Joe sort of felt betrayed by his sister.
o His mother mildly disapproved his actions.
o We can improve on this to some extent.
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o The boss almost quit after that.
o The school was all but ruined by the storm.

Adverbs (as well as adjectives) in their various degrees can be accompanied by


premodifiers:

• She runs very fast.


• We're going to run out of material all the faster

NOUNS USED AS ADVERBS


Nouns used as adverbs answer the question Where? Or When? about a
verb.Some of the nouns that can be used as adverbs are home, yesterday, and today.

Nouns Adverbs
Our home is in Lubbock. Let’s go home. (Go where?)
The summer nights have been humid. My father works nights. (works when?)

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II. ADVERB OR ADJECTIVE?
Remember that an adverb modifies a verb, an adjective and another adverb. An
adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun.

Examples:
Adverb: He walked straight down the path.

Adjective: The path was straight.

They both have different forms but most of the time, adverbs are formed by adding –ly
at the ending.

Adjectives Adverbs with –ly Endings


Beautiful girl decorated beautifully
Cheerful student danced cheerfully

Adjectives ending in –ly are few like: Her daily allowance is a hundred yen.

Slowly by James Reeves


Slowly the tide creeps up the sand,
Slowly the shadows cross the land.
Slowly the cart-horse pulls his mile,
Slowly the old man mounts his stile.

Slowly the hands move round the clock,


Slowly the dew dries on the dock.
Slow is the snail – but slowest of all
The green moss spreads on the old brick wall.
With the given poem, there is a distinguishing factor between adjectives and adverbs
which can be seen by the formulation of the words. Adverbs are usually ending with –ly
and modifies verbs, adjectives and adverbs.

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III. KINDS OF ADVERBS
ADVERBS OF MANNER
Adverbs of manner tell us how something happens. They are usually placed after the
main verb or after the object.

Examples:

• He swims well, (after the main verb)


• He ran... rapidly, slowly, quickly..
• She spoke... softly, loudly, aggressively..
• James coughed loudly to attract her attention.
• He plays the flute beautifully. (after the object)
• He ate the chocolate cake greedily.

BE CAREFUL! The adverb should not be put between the verb and the object:

• He ate greedily the chocolate cake [incorrect]


• He ate the chocolate cake greedily [correct]

If there is a preposition before the object, e.g. at, towards, we can place the adverb
either before the preposition or after the object.

Example:

• The child ran happily towards his mother.


• The child ran towards his mother happily.

Sometimes an adverb of manner is placed before a verb + object to add emphasis:

• He gently woke the sleeping woman.

Some writers put an adverb of manner at the beginning of the sentence to catch our
attention and make us curious:

• Slowly she picked up the knife.

(We want to know what happened slowly, who did it slowly, why they did it slowly)

However, adverbs should always come AFTER intransitive verbs (=verbs which have
no object).

Example:

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• The town grew quickly
• He waited patiently

Also, these common adverbs are almost always placed AFTER the verb:

• well
• badly
• hard
• fast

The position of the adverb is important when there is more than one verb in a sentence.
If the adverb is placed after a clause, then it modifies the whole action described by
the clause.

Notice the difference in meaning between the following pairs of sentences:

• She quickly agreed to re-type the letter (= her agreement was quick)
• She agreed to re-type the letter quickly (= the re-typing was quick)
• He quietly asked me to leave the house (= his request was quiet)
• He asked me to leave the house quietly (= the leaving was quiet)

She moved slowly and spoke quietly.

ADVERBS OF PLACE
Adverbs of place tell us where something happens.
They are usually placed after the main verb or after the object:

Example:

after the main verb:

• I looked everywhere
• John looked away, up, down, around...
• I'm going home, out, back
• Come in

after the object:

• They built a house nearby


• She took the child outside

'Here' and 'there'

With verbs of movement, here means towards or with the speaker:

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• Come here (= towards me)
• It's in here (= come with me to see it)

There means away from, or not with the speaker:

• Put it there (= away from me)


• It's in there (= go by yourself to see it)

Here and there are combined with prepositions to make many common adverbial
phrases:

down here, down there;


over here, over there;
under here, under there;
up here, up there

Here and there are placed at the beginning of the sentence in exclamations or when
emphasis is needed.

They are followed by the verb if the subject is a noun:

• Here comes the bus. (followed by the verb)

Or by a pronoun if this is the subject (it, she, he etc.):

• Here it is! (followed by the pronoun)


• There she goes! (followed by the pronoun)

NOTE: most common adverbs of place also function as prepositions.

Examples:

about, across, along, around, behind, by, down, in, off, on, over, round, through,
under, up.

Go to Prepositions or Phrasal Verbs

Other adverbs of place: ending in '-wards', expressing movement in a particular


direction:

backwards northwards
forwards southwards
downwards eastwards
upwards westwards
inwards homewards
outwards onwards

Example:
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• Cats don't usually walk backwards.
• The ship sailed westwards.

BE CAREFUL! 'Towards' is a preposition, not an adverb, so it is always followed by a


noun or a pronoun:

• He walked towards the car.


• She ran towards me.

expressing both movement and location:

ahead, abroad, overseas, uphill, downhill, sideways, indoors, outdoors

Example:

• The child went indoors.


• He lived and worked abroad.

She has lived on the island all her life.


She still lives there now.

ADVERBS OF TIME
Adverbs of time tell us when an action happened, but also for how long, and how
often.

Examples:

• When: today, yesterday, later, now, last year


• For how long: all day, not long, for a while, since last year
• How often: sometimes, frequently, never, often, yearly

"When" adverbs are usually placed at the end of the sentence:

• Goldilocks went to the Bears' house yesterday.


• I'm going to tidy my room tomorrow.

This is a "neutral" position, but some "when" adverbs can be put in other positions to
give a different emphasis

Compare:

• Later Goldilocks ate some porridge. (the time is more important)


• Goldilocks later ate some porridge. (this is more formal, like a policeman's
report)

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• Goldilocks ate some porridge later. (this is neutral, no particular emphasis)

"For how long" adverbs are usually placed at the end of the sentence:

• She stayed in the Bears' house all day.


• My mother lived in France for a year.

Notice: 'for' is always followed by an expression of duration:

• for three days,


• for a week,
• for several years,
• for two centuries.

'since' is always followed by an expression of a point in time:

• since Monday,
• since 1997,
• since the last war.

"How often" adverbs expressing the frequency of an action are usually placed before
the main verb but after auxiliary verbs (such as be, have, may, must):

• I often eat vegetarian food. (before the main verb)


• He never drinks milk. (before the main verb)
• You must always fasten your seat belt. (after the auxiliary must)
• She is never sea-sick.(after the auxiliary is)
• I have never forgotten my first kiss. (after the auxiliary have and before the main
verb forgotten)

Some other "how often" adverbs express the exact number of times an action
happens and are usually placed at the end of the sentence:

• This magazine is published monthly.


• He visits his mother once a week.

When a frequency adverb is placed at the end of a sentence it is much stronger.

Compare:

• She regularly visits France.


• She visits France regularly.

Adverbs that can be used in these two positions:

• frequently,
• generally,
• normally,
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• occasionally,
• often,
• regularly,
• sometimes,
• usually

'Yet' and 'still'

Yet is used in questions and in negative sentences, and is placed at the end of the
sentence or after not.

• Have you finished your work yet? (= a simple request for information) No, not
yet. (= simple negative answer)
• They haven't met him yet. (= simple negative statement)
• Haven't you finished yet? (= expressing slight surprise)

Still expresses continuity; it is used in positive sentences and questions, and is placed
before the main verb and after auxiliary verbs (such as be, have, might, will)

• I am still hungry.
• She is still waiting for you
• Are you still here?
• Do you still work for the BBC?

ORDER OF ADVERBS OF TIME

If you need to use more than one adverb of time at the end of a sentence, use them in
this order:

1: 'how long'
2: 'how often'
3: 'when' (think of 'low')

Example:

• 1 + 2 : I work (1) for five hours (2) every day


• 2 + 3 : The magazine was published (2) weekly (3) last year.
• 1 + 3 : I was abroad (1) for two months (3) last year.
• 1 + 2 + 3 : She worked in a hospital (1) for two days (2) every week (3) last
year.

She tries to get back before dark.


It's starting to get dark now.
She finished her tea first.
She left early.

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ADVERBS OF CERTAINTY
These adverbs express how certain or sure we feel about an action or event.

Common adverbs of certainty:

certainly, definitely, probably, undoubtedly, surely

Adverbs of certainty go before the main verb but after the verb 'to be':

• He definitely left the house this morning.


• He is probably in the park.

With other auxiliary verb, these adverbs go between the auxiliary and the main verb:

• He has certainly forgotten the meeting.


• He will probably remember tomorrow.

Sometimes these adverbs can be placed at the beginning of the sentence:

• Undoubtedly, Winston Churchill was a great politician.

BE CAREFUL! with surely. When it is placed at the beginning of the sentence, it means
the speaker thinks something is true, but is looking for confirmation:

Example:

• Surely you've got a bicycle?

Adverbs of Purpose
She drives her boat slowly to avoid hitting the rocks.
She shops in several stores to get the best buys.

ADVERBS OF DEGREE
Adverbs of degree tell us about the intensity or degree of an action, an adjective or
another adverb.

Common adverbs of degree:

Almost, nearly, quite, just, too, enough, hardly, scarcely, completely, very,
extremely.

Adverbs of degree are usually placed:

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1. before the adjective or adverb they are modifying:
e.g. The water was extremely cold.
2. before the main verb:
e.g. He was just leaving. She has almost finished.

Examples:

• She doesn't quite know what she'll do after university.


• They are completely exhausted from the trip.
• I am too tired to go out tonight.
• He hardly noticed what she was saying.

Enough, very, too

Enough as an adverb meaning 'to the necessary degree' goes after adjectives and
adverbs.

Example:

• Is your coffee hot enough? (adjective)


• He didn't work hard enough. (adverb)

It also goes before nouns, and means 'as much as is necessary'. In this case it is not an
adverb, but a 'determiner'.

Example:

• We have enough bread.


• They don't have enough food.

Too as an adverb meaning 'more than is necessary or useful' goes before adjectives
and adverbs, e.g.

• This coffee is too hot. (adjective)


• He works too hard. (adverb)

Enough and too with adjectives can be followed by 'for someone/something'.

Example:

• The dress was big enough for me.


• She's not experienced enough for this job.
• The coffee was too hot for me.
• The dress was too small for her.

We can also use 'to + infinitive' after enough and too with adjectives/adverb.

Example:
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• The coffee was too hot to drink.
• He didn't work hard enough to pass the exam.
• She's not old enough to get married.
• You're too young to have grandchildren!

Very goes before an adverb or adjective to make it stronger.

Example:

• The girl was very beautiful. (adjective)


• He worked very quickly. (adverb)

If we want to make a negative form of an adjective or adverb, we can use a word of


opposite meaning, or not very.

Example:

• The girl was ugly OR The girl was not very beautiful
• He worked slowly OR He didn't work very quickly.

BE CAREFUL! There is a big difference between too and very.

• Very expresses a fact:


He speaks very quickly.
• Too suggests there is a problem:
He speaks too quickly (for me to understand).

Other adverbs like very

These common adverbs are used like very and not very, and are listed in order of
strength, from positive to negative:

extremely, especially, particularly, pretty, rather, quite, fairly, rather, not


especially, not particularly.

Note: rather can be positive or negative, depending on the adjective or adverb that
follows:

Positive: The teacher was rather nice.


Negative: The film was rather disappointing.

Note on inversion with negative adverbs:

Normally the subject goes before the verb:

SUBJECT VERB
I left
She goes
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However, some negative adverbs can cause an inversion - the order is reversed and
the verb goes before the subject

Example:

I have never seen such courage. Never have I seen such courage.

She rarely left the house. Rarely did she leave the house.

Negative inversion is used in writing, not in speaking.

Other adverbs and adverbial expressions that can be used like this:

seldom, scarcely, hardly, not only .....


but also, no sooner .....
than, not until, under no circumstances.

INTERROGATIVE ADVERBS
These are:

why, where, how, when

They are usually placed at the beginning of a question.

Examples:

• Why are you so late?


• Where is my passport?
• How are you?
• How much is that coat?
• When does the train arrive?

Notice that how can be used in four different ways:

1. meaning 'in what way?':


How did you make this sauce?
How do you start the car?

2. with adjectives:
How tall are you?
How old is your house?

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3. with much and many:
How much are these tomatoes?
How many people are coming to the party?

4. with other adverbs:


How quickly can you read this?
How often do you go to London?

RELATIVE ADVERBS
Adjectival clauses are sometimes introduced by what are called the relative adverbs:
where, when, and why. Although the entire clause is adjectival and will modify a noun,
the relative word itself fulfills an adverbial function (modifying a verb within its own
clause).

The relative adverb where will begin a clause that modifies a noun of place:

My entire family now worships in the church where my great grandfather used to be
minister.

The relative pronoun "where" modifies the verb "used to be" (which makes it adverbial),
but the entire clause ("where my great grandfather used to be minister") modifies the
word "church."

A when clause will modify nouns of time:

My favorite month is always February, when we celebrate Valentine's Day and


Presidents' Day.

And a why clause will modify the noun reason:

Do you know the reason why Isabel isn't in class today?

We sometimes leave out the relative adverb in such clauses, and many writers prefer
"that" to "why" in a clause referring to "reason":

• Do you know the reason why Isabel isn't in class today?


• I always look forward to the day when we begin our summer vacation.
• I know the reason that men like motorcycles.

Authority for this section: Understanding English Grammar by Martha Kolln. 4rth Edition.
MacMillan Publishing Company: New York. 1994.

The following adverbs can be used to join sentences or clauses. They replace the more
formal structure of preposition + which in a relative clause:

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where, when, why

Examples:

• That's the restaurant where we met for the first time.


(where = at/in which)
• I remember the day when we first met.
(when = on which)
• There was a very hot summer the year when he was born.
(when = in which)

Tell me (the reason) why you were late home.


(why = for which, but could replace the whole phrase 'the reason for which')

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IV. RULES IN ADVERBS:
Adverbs modify verbs. They tell you How something is done. Example: How does he
she sing? - She sings beautifully.

Rule: Adverbs are often formed by adding -ly to an adjective

Example: beautiful - beautifully, careful - carefully

Be Careful!

• Some adjectives don't change in the adverb form. The most important of these
are: fast - fast, hard - hard
• Good is probably the most important exception. The adverb form of 'good' is
'well'. Unfortunately, this is a common mistake that many Americans make!

NOT!!: He plays tennis good.

Rule: Adverbs can also modify an adjective. In this case, the adverb is placed before
the adjective.

Example: She is extremely happy. They are absolutely sure.

Be Careful!

• Do not use 'very' with adjectives that express an increased quality of a basic
adjective Example: good - fantastic

NOT!!: She is a very beautiful woman.

Rule: Adverbs of frequency (always, never, sometimes, often, etc.) usually come before
the main verb

Example: He is often late for class. Do you always eat in a restaurant? They don't
usually travel on Fridays.

Be Careful!

• Adverbs of frequency expressing infrequency are not usually used in the


negative or question form. NOT!!: Does she rarely eat fish? They don't seldom go
to the cinema.
• Adverbs of frequency are often placed at the beginning of a sentence. Example:
Sometimes, he likes to go to museums.

Adverbs of frequency follow - come after - the verb 'to be'. Example: He is sometimes
late for work.

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V. POSITIONS OF ADVERBS
One of the hallmarks of adverbs is their ability to move around in a sentence. Adverbs
of manner are particularly flexible in this regard.

• Solemnly the minister addressed her congregation.


• The minister solemnly addressed her congregation.
• The minister addressed her congregation solemnly.

The following adverbs of frequency appear in various points in these sentences:

• Before the main verb: I never get up before nine o'clock.


• Between the auxiliary verb and the main verb: I have rarely written to my brother
without a good reason.
• Before the verb used to: I always used to see him at his summer home.

Indefinite adverbs of time can appear either before the verb or between the auxiliary
and the main verb:

• He finally showed up for batting practice.


• She has recently retired.

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VI. VIEWPOINT, FOCUS, AND NEGATIVE
ADVERBS
A viewpoint adverb generally comes after a noun and is related to an adjective that
precedes that noun:

• A successful athletic team is often a good team scholastically.


• Investing all our money in snowmobiles was probably not a sound idea
financially.

You will sometimes hear a phrase like "scholastically speaking" or "financially speaking"
in these circumstances, but the word "speaking" is seldom necessary.

A focus adverb indicates that what is being communicated is limited to the part that is
focused; a focus adverb will tend either to limit the sense of the sentence ("He got an A
just for attending the class.") or to act as an additive ("He got an A in addition to being
published."

Although negative constructions like the words "not" and "never" are usually found
embedded within a verb string — "He has never been much help to his mother." — they
are technically not part of the verb; they are, indeed, adverbs. However, a so-called
negative adverb creates a negative meaning in a sentence without the use of the usual
no/not/neither/nor/never constructions:

• He seldom visits.
• She hardly eats anything since the accident.

After her long and tedious lectures, rarely was anyone awake.

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VII. ORDER OF ADVERBS
There is a basic order in which adverbs will appear when there is more than one. It is
similar to The Royal Order of Adjectives, but it is even more flexible.

THE ROYAL ORDER OF ADVERBS

Verb Manner Place Frequency Time Purpose

Nix eats Quickly in the every morning before to get ready


kitchen dawn for work.

Nel walks slowly into the this afternoon before to hide from
room supper his mother.

Tashonda Boisterously in her every morning before


laughs room with her lunch.
classmates

In actual practice, of course, it would be highly unusual to have a string of


adverbial modifiers beyond two or three (at the most). Because the
placement of adverbs is so flexible, one or two of the modifiers would
probably move to the beginning of the sentence: "Every afternoon before
supper, Dad impatiently walks into town to get a newspaper." When that
happens, the introductory adverbial modifiers are usually set off with a
comma.

As a general principle, shorter adverbial phrases precede longer adverbial phrases,


regardless of content. In the following sentence, an adverb of time precedes an adverb
of frequency because it is shorter (and simpler):

• Dad takes a brisk walk before breakfast every day of his life.

A second principle: among similar adverbial phrases of kind (manner, place, frequency,
etc.), the more specific adverbial phrase comes first:

• My grandmother was born in a sod house on the plains of northern Nebraska.


• She promised to meet him for lunch next Tuesday.

Bringing an adverbial modifier to the beginning of the sentence can place special
emphasis on that modifier. This is particularly useful with adverbs of manner:

• Slowly, ever so carefully, Jesse filled the coffee cup up to the brim, even above
the brim.
• Occasionally, but only occasionally, one of these lemons will get by the
inspectors.
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The adverbs enough and not enough usually take a postmodifier position:

• Is that music loud enough?


• These shoes are not big enough.
• In a roomful of elderly people, you must remember to speak loudly enough.

(Notice, though, that when enough functions as an adjective, it can come before the
noun:

• Did she give us enough time?

The adverb enough is often followed by an infinitive:

• She didn't run fast enough to win.

The adverb too comes before adjectives and other adverbs:

• She ran too fast.


• She works too quickly.

If too comes after the adverb it is probably a disjunct (meaning also) and is usually set
off with a comma:

• Yasmin works hard. She works quickly, too.

The adverb too is often followed by an infinitive:

• She runs too slowly to enter this race.

Another common construction with the adverb too is too followed by a prepositional
phrase — for + the object of the preposition — followed by an infinitive:

• This milk is too hot for a baby to drink.

24
VIII. COMPARATIVE FORMS OF ADVERBS
In general, comparative and superlative forms of adverbs are the same as for
adjectives:

• add -er or -est to short adverbs:

Adverb Comparative Superlative


hard harder the hardest
late later the latest
fast faster the fastest

Example:

• Jim works harder than his brother.


• Everyone in the race ran fast, but John ran the fastest of all.

with adverbs ending in -ly, use more for the comparative and most for the superlative:

Adverb Comparative Superlative


quietly more quietly most quietly
slowly more slowly most slowly
seriously more seriously most
seriously

Example:

• The teacher spoke more slowly to help us to understand.


• Could you sing more quietly please?

Some adverbs have irregular comparative forms:

Adverb Comparative Superlative


badly worse worst
far farther/further farthest/furthes
little less t
well better least
best
Example:

• The little boy ran further than his friends.


• You're driving worse today than yesterday !

BE CAREFUL! Sometimes 'most' can mean 'very':

• We were most grateful for your help


25
• I am most impressed by this application.

26
APPENDIX: LIST OF ADVERBS
abandonedly, abasedly, abashedly, abatedly, abatingly, abbreviatedly, aberrantly,
abeyantly, abhorrently, abidingly, abjectly, ably, abnormally, abominably, abortedly,
about, abrasively, abruptly, absent-mindedly, absently, absentmindedly, absolutely,
absorbantly, absorbedly, absorbingly, abstainedly, abstentiously, abstinently,
abstractedly, abstractly, abstrusely, absurdly, abundantly, abusedly, abusively,
abysmally, academically, acapella, acceptingly, accessibly, accidentally, acclamatorily,
accommodatingly, accomplishedly, accordingly, accurately, accusatorily, accusingly,
accustomably, acerbically, achingly, acidly, acknowledgingly, acquiescently,
acquisitively, acridly, acrimoniously, acrobatically, actively, actually, acutely, adamantly,
addictedly, addictively, additionally, adeptly, adequately, adherently, adhesively,
adjacently, admirably, admiringly, admonishedly, admonishingly, adorably, adoringly,
adroitly, adulatingly, adulterously, advantageously, adventurously, adversarially,
adversely, aesthetically, affably, affectedly, affectingly, affectionately, affirmatively,
affirmingly, affrontedly, after, afterwards, again, agape, agedly, agelessly, aggravatedly,
aggravatingly, aggressively, aggrievedly, aghastly, agilely, agitatedly, agonisedly,
agonizedly, agreeably, agreeingly, aimlessly, airily, alarmedly, alarmingly, alertly,
allegorically, alliteratively, alludingly, alluringly, allusively, almost, alone, aloofly, aloud,
already, also, alternatingly, alternatively, altruistically, amateurishly, amatively,
amazedly, ambiguously, ambitiously, ambivalently, amblingly, ambrosially, amenably,
amiably, amicably, amorally, amorously, amply, amuck, amusedly, amusingly,
analytically, anarchically, anciently, anew, angelically, angrily, anguishedly, angularly,
animalistically, animatedly, annoyedly, annoyingly, answeringly, antagonistically, anti-
climatically, anticipatingly, anticipatorily, anticlimactically, antisocially, anxiously,
anyway, apart, apathetically, apodeictically, apologetically, appalledly, apparently,
appealingly, appeasedly, appeasingly, appositely, appraisingly, appreciatively,
apprehensibly, apprehensively, appropriately, approvingly, approximately, aptly,
aquatically, arbitrarily, arcanely, archly, ardently, arduously, argumentatively, aridly,
aristocratically, arm-in-arm, around, arousedly, arousingly, arrantly, arrogantly,
aromatically, artfully, articulately, artistically, artlessly, ascendingly, ascetically,
ashamedly, aside, asininely, askance, askew, aspiringly, assentingly, assertively,
assessingly, assiduously, assimilatedly, assimilatingly, assumingly, assuredly,
assuringly, astonishedly, astoundedly, astringently, astuciously, astutely, asunder,
asymmetrically, athletically, atrociously, attemptingly, attentively, attractively, atypically,
audaciously, audibly, augustly, auspiciously, austerely, authoritatively, autocratically,
automatically, autonomously, avariciously, avidly, away, awedly, awesomely,
awestruckly, awfully, awhile, awkwardly, axiomatically.

back, back-and-forth, backhandedly, back-to-back, backward, backwardly, backwards,


bad-temperedly, badly, baffledly, bafflingly, balancedly, balancingly, baldly, balefully,
balletically, ballistically, banally, banefully, banteringly, barbarically, barbarously,
barefacedly, barefootedly, barely, basely, bashfully, basically, bawdily, beadily,
beamingly, bearishly, beatifically, beauteously, beautifully, becalmingly, beckoningly,
27
becomingly, bedraggledly, befittingly, beforehand, befuddledly, begrudgingly,
beguilingly, belatedly, believably, believingly, bellicosely, belligerently, bemusedly,
beneficently, beneficially, benevolently, benignantly, benignly, bent, berserkly,
beseechingly, besottedly, bestially, better, bewilderedly, bewilderingly, bewitchingly,
biasedly, bibulously, biliously, billowingly, bird-like, bitchily, bitingly, bitterly,
bittersweetly, bizarrely, blackly, blamelessly, blandly, blankly, blasphemously, blatantly,
blazingly, bleakly, blearily, blessedly, blindly, blissfully, blithely, blithesomely, blockedly,
bloodily, bloodthirstily, blotchily, bluffly, bluishly, bluntly, blurrily, blushingly, blusteringly,
boastfully, boastingly, bodily, boilingly, boisterously, boldly, bolsteringly, bombastically,
bookishly, boomingly, boorishly, bootlessly, boozily, boredly, boringly, bossily,
botheredly, bothersomely, both-ways, bouncily, boundingly, boundlessly, bountifully,
bovinely, bowingly, boyishly, bracingly, braggingly, brashly, brassily, brattily, bravely,
brazenly, breakingly, breathily, breathlessly, breathtakingly, breezily, briefly, bright-
eyedly, brightly, brilliantly, brimmingly, briskly, brittlely, broadly, broken-heartedly,
brokenly, broodingly, brotherly, bruisedly, brusquely, brutally, brutishly, bubblingly,
bulkily, bullheadedly, bullyingly, bumblingly, buoyantly, burdenedly, burdensomely,
burningly, busily, businesslike.

caddishly, cagily, cajolingly, calculatingly, callously, callowly, calmingly, calmly,


calumniously, candidly, cannily, cantankerously, capably, capriciously, captiously,
captivatedly, captivatingly, carefully, carelessly, caressingly, caringly, carnally,
carnivorously, casually, casuistically, catastrophically, catatonically, cat-like, cattily,
caustically, cautiously, cavalierly, ceaselessly, celibately, censoriously, centrally,
ceremonially, ceremoniously, certainly, chagrinedly, challengingly, chantingly,
chaotically, characteristically, charily, charismatically, charitably, charmingly, chastely,
chastenedly, chattily, chauvinistically, cheekily, cheerfully, cheerily, cheeringly,
cheerlessly, cheesily, cherishedly, cherishingly, cherubically, chidingly, childishly,
chillily, chillingly, chimingly, chipperly, chirpily, chivalrously, chokingly, chronologically,
chubbily, chunkily, churlishly, circuitously, circularly, circumspectly, circumstantially,
civilly, clairvoyantly, clammily, clandestinely, clarifyingly, clashingly, classically, classily,
classlessly, clatteringly, claustrophobically, cleanly, cleansingly, clearer, clearly,
cleverly, climatically, clingingly, clinically, clinkingly, clockwise, close-mindedly, closely,
closer, cloudily, clubbily, cluelessly, clumsily, coarsely, coaxingly, cockily, cogently,
cognisantly, cognizantly, coherently, coincidentally, cold-bloodedly, coldheartedly,
coldly, collectedly, collectively, colorfully, colorlessly, colourfully, colourlessly, coltishly,
comatosely, combatively, comfortably, comfortedly, comfortingly, comfortlessly,
comically, commandingly, commendatorily, commodiously, commonly,
communicatively, compactly, companionably, comparatively, comparingly,
compassionately, compellingly, compensatingly, competently, competitively,
complacently, complainingly, complaisantly, complementarily, completely, complexly,
compliantly, complicatedly, complicitly, complimentarily, composedly, comprehendingly,
comprehensibly, compromisingly, compulsively, compulsorily, concealingly,
concedingly, conceitedly, concentratedly, concernedly, concertedly, conciliatorily,
concisely, concludingly, conclusively, concupiscently, concurrently, concurringly,
condescendingly, conditionally, confidentially, confidently, confidingly, confinedly,
confirmingly, conflictedly, confoundedly, confusedly, confusingly, congenially,
congestedly, congratulatorily, congruently, conjointly, connately, connivingly,
conscientiously, consciously, consecutively, consensually, consentedly, consentingly,
28
consequently, conservatively, considerably, considerately, consideringly, consistently,
consolingly, conspicuously, conspiratorially, constantly, constrictedly, constrictingly,
constrictively, constructively, consumedly, consumingly, consummately, contagiously,
contemplatively, contemptibly, contemptuously, contentedly, contentiously, contently,
continently, continually, continuingly, continuously, contradictorily, contrarily,
contrastingly, contritely, contrivedly, controlledly, contumaciously, contumeliously,
conveniently, conversationally, conversely, convincedly, convincingly, convivially,
convolutely, convulsively, coolingly, coolly, cooperatively, coordinately, copiously,
coquettishly, cordially, correctedly, correctively, correctly, correspondingly, cosily,
coughingly, counter-clockwise, counterproductively, courageously, courteously, covertly,
covetously, cowardly, coyly, cozily, crabbily, craftily, crankily, crassly, cravenly, crazily,
creakily, creamily, creatively, credulously, creepily, crescendingly, crestfallenly,
cringingly, crisply, critically, croakily, croakingly, crookedly, crossingly, crossly,
crowdedly, crudely, cruelly, crunchily, crushedly, crushingly, crustily, cryptically,
cultivatedly, culturedly, cumbersomely, cunningly, curiously, curmudgeonly, cursorily,
curtly, curvedly, customarily, cutely, cuttingly, cynically.

daffily, daftly, daintily, damply, dancingly, dangerously, dapperly, daringly, darkly,


dashingly, dauntedly, dauntingly, dauntlessly, dazedly, dazzlingly, deadpan,
deafeningly, deafly, dearly, debasedly, debonairly, decadently, deceitfully, decently,
deceptively, decidedly, decisively, decoratively, decorously, decreasingly, dedicatedly,
deductively, deeper, deeply, defamatorily, defeatedly, defectingly, defencelessly,
defenselessly, defensively, deferentially, defiantly, definitely, deflatedly, deflectingly,
deformedly, deftly, dejectedly, delectably, deliberately, delicately, deliciously,
delightedly, delightfully, deliriously, deludedly, demandingly, dementedly, demonstrably,
demonstratively, demurely, densely, denunciatorily, denyingly, dependably,
dependantly, dependently, deplorably, depravedly, deprecatingly, deprecatively,
depreciatorily, depressedly, depressingly, derangedly, derisively, derivatively,
derogatively, descendingly, descriptively, deservingly, desirously, desolately,
despairingly, desperately, despisingly, despondently, despotically, destructively,
desultorily, detachedly, determinedly, detrimentally, devastatedly, devastatingly,
devilishly, deviously, devotedly, devotionally, devoutly, dexterously, diabolically,
diagonally, dictatorily, didactically, differently, difficultly, diffidently, dignifiedly, diligently,
diminutively, dim-wittedly, dimly, dimwittedly, diplomatically, directly, direly, dirtily,
disagreeably, disagreeingly, disappointedly, disappointingly, disapprovingly,
disarmingly, disastrously, disbelievingly, discernibly, discerningly, discomfortingly,
discomposedly, disconcertedly, disconcertingly, disconnectedly, disconsolately,
discontentedly, discordantly, discouragingly, discourteously, discreetly, discretely,
discretionally, discriminatingly, disdainfully, disenchantedly, disfavorably, disgracefully,
disgruntledly, disguisedly, disgustedly, disgustingly, disharmoniously, disheartenedly,
disheveledly, dishonestly, dishonorably, disillusionedly, disingenuously, disinterestedly,
disjointedly, dismally, dismayedly, dismayingly, dismissively, disobediently,
disobligingly, disorganizedly, disorientedly, disparagingly, dispassionately, dispiritedly,
displeasedly, disproportionally, disproportionately, disquietedly, disquietingly, disquietly,
disrespectfully, disruptively, dissatisfiedly, dissentingly, dissimilarly, dissolutely,
dissonantly, dissuasively, distantly, distastefully, distemperately, distinctively, distinctly,
distinguishedly, distractedly, distractingly, distraughtly, distressedly, distrustfully,
distrustingly, disturbedly, disturbingly, ditzily, divertedly, divertingly, dividedly, divinely,
29
dizzily, dizzyingly, docilely, dodgily, doggedly, dogmatically, dolefully, dolorously,
domestically, dominantly, domineeringly, dotingly, doubly, doubtfully, doubtingly,
doubtlessly, doughtily, dourly, downcastly, downheartedly, downtroddenly, downward,
downwardly, draconially, draftily, drainedly, dramatically, drastically, drawlingly,
dreadfully, dreadingly, dreamily, dreamlessly, drearily, drenchedly, drolly, droopily,
drowsily, drunkenly, dry-eyedly, dryly, dubiously, duely, dulcetly, dully, dumbfoundedly,
dumbly, duplicitously, duskily, dustily, duteously, dutifully, dwindlingly, dynamically.

eagerly, earnestly, earsplittingly, easily, eastward, eastwardly, ebulliently, eccentrically,


echoingly, economically, ecstatically, edaciously, edgily, educationally, eerily,
effectively, effeminately, effervescently, effetely, efficaciously, efficiently, effortfully,
effortlessly, effusively, egotistically, elaborately, elatedly, elegantly, eloquently,
elsewhere, elusively, emaciatedly, embarrassedly, embitteredly, emotionally,
emotionlessly, empathetically, emphatically, emptily, empty-handedly, enamouredly,
enchantedly, enchantingly, encompassingly, encouragedly, encouragingly, endearingly,
endlessly, energetically, engagedly, engagingly, engrossedly, enigmatically, enjoyably,
enlightenedly, enormously, enquiringly, enragedly, enrapturedly, ensuingly,
enterprisingly, entertainedly, entertainingly, enthralledly, enthrallingly, enthusedly,
enthusiastically, enticingly, entirely, entrancedly, entrancingly, entreatingly, enviably,
enviously, epigrammatically, epithetically, equally, equivocally, erectly, erratically,
erroneously, eruditely, esoterically, especially, esuriently, eternally, ethereally,
euphemistically, euphoniously, euphorically, evaluatingly, evanescently, evasively,
evenly, eventually, ever-so-slightly, everywhere, evidently, evilly, evocatively,
exactingly, exactly, exaggeratedly, exaltedly, exasperatedly, exasperatingly, excellently,
exceptionally, excessively, excitedly, excitingly, exclusively, excruciatingly, excusingly,
exemplarily, exhalingly, exhaustedly, exhaustively, exhilaratedly, exhilaratingly,
exigently, exorbitantly, exotically, expansively, expatiatingly, expectantly, experiencedly,
experimentally, expertly, explanatively, explicitly, exploratorily, explosively,
expressionlessly, expressively, expressly, exquisitely, extemporaneously, extemporarily,
extensively, extortionately, extraordinarily, extravagantly, exuberantly, exultantly,
exultingly.

face-first, facetiously, facilely, factually, faintheartedly, faintly, fairly, faithfully, faithlessly,


fallaciously, falsely, falteringly, familiarly, famishedly, famously, fanatically, fancifully,
fancily, fantastically, farcically, fascinatedly, fashionably, faster, fastidiously,
fatalistically, fatally, fatefully, fattily, fatuously, favorably, favourably, fawningly, fearfully,
fearlessly, fearsomely, featherly, fecklessly, feebly, feelingly, feet-first, feignedly,
felicitously, femininely, ferally, ferociously, fervently, fervidly, festively, fetchingly, fetidly,
feudally, feverishly, ficklely, fiendishly, fiercely, figuratively, filially, filthily, finally, finely,
finickily, finickingly, firmly, first, firstly, fishily, fitfully, fittingly, fixatedly, fixedly,
flabbergastedly, flagrantly, flakily, flamboyantly, flamingly, flashily, flashingly, flatly,
flatteredly, flatteringly, flauntingly, flavoressly, flavorfully, flavourfully, flavourlessly,
flawlessly, fleetingly, flexibly, flickeringly, flightily, flimsily, flippantly, flirtatiously, flirtingly,
florally, floridly, floutingly, flouncily, flounderingly, flourishingly, flowingly, fluctuatingly,
fluently, fluffily, fluidly, flummoxedly, flushedly, flusteredly, flutteringly, focusedly, foggily,
followingly, fondly, foolishly, foppishly, forbiddingly, forcedly, forcefully, forcibly,
forebearingly, forebodingly, foreignly, foreknowingly, foresakenly, foreseeingly,
foresightedly, forgetfully, forgivingly, forlornly, formally, formidably, formlessly, forth,
30
forthcomingly, forthrightly, fortuitously, fortunately, forward, forward-and-back, forwardly,
foully, foxily, fractionally, fractiously, fragilely, fragrantly, frailly, frankly, frantically,
fraternally, fraudulently, frazzledly, freakishly, freely, freezingly, frenetically, frenziedly,
frequently, freshly, fretfully, friendlily, frighfully, frightenedly, frighteningly, frightfully,
frigidly, friskily, frivolously, frolicsomely, frontally, frostily, frothily, frowningly, frozenly,
frugally, fruitfully, fruitlessly, frustratedly, frustrately, fully, fulsomely, fumblingly,
functionally, funereally, funnily, furiously, furrily, further, furthermore, furtively, fussily,
futilely, fuzzily.

gaily, gallantly, gamely, garbledly, garishly, garrulously, gaspingly, gaudily, gawkishly,


geekily, generally, generously, genially, genteelly, gently, genuinely, geographically,
germanely, ghastly, giddily, gigantically, gigglingly, gingerly, girlishly, gladly,
glamorously, glassily, gleefully, glibly, glintingly, glisteringly, glitteringly, gloatingly,
gloomily, gloopily, gloriously, gloweringly, glowingly, glumly, gluttonously, goadingly,
good-humoredly, good-humouredly, good-naturedly, goofily, gorgeously, gracefully,
gracelessly, graciously, gradually, grammatically, grandfatherly, grandiloquently,
grandiosely, grandly, graphically, gratefully, gratifiedly, gratifyingly, gratingly,
gratuitously, gravely, greasily, greatly, greedily, gregariously, grimily, grimly, grindingly,
grinningly, groaningly, groggily, gropingly, grossly, grotesquely, grouchily, growlingly,
grudgingly, gruesomely, gruffly, grumblingly, grumpily, gruntingly, guardedly, guardingly,
guessingly, guidingly, guilefully, guilelessly, guiltily, guiltlessly, gullibly, gurglingly,
gushingly, gustily, gutturally, gymnastically.

habitually, hackingly, haggardly, hair-raisingly, half-heartedly, halfheartedly, half-


nakedly, halfway, haltingly, hamfistedly, handily, hand-in-hand, handsomely,
haphazardly, haplessly, happily, harassingly, hard, harder, hardly, harmfully,
harmlessly, harmonically, harmoniously, harriedly, harshly, hastily, hatefully, haughtily,
hauntedly, hauntingly, hawkishly, hazily, head-first, headily, headlong, head-to-toe,
healthily, heart-breakingly, heartbrokenly, heartenedly, heartfeltly, heartily, heartlessly,
heartrenderingly, heartrendingly, heatedly, heavenly, heavily, heavy-handedly, heavy-
heartedly, hedonistically, heedfully, heedlessly, heftily, heinously, hellishly, helpfully,
helplessly, heraldically, heretically, hermetically, heroically, hesitantly, hesitatingly,
hiddenly, hideously, higher, highly, hilariously, hintingly, historically, hissingly,
histrionically, hoarsely, hoggishly, hollowly, honestly, honorably, honoredly, honouredly,
honourably, hopefully, hopelessly, hopingly, horizontally, horribly, horridly, horrifically,
horrifiedly, horrifyingly, hospitably, hostilely, hotly, however, hubristically, huffily, hugely,
huggingly, humanely, humbly, humiliatedly, humorlessly, humorously, humourlessly,
hungrily, huntedly, hurriedly, hurtfully, hurtly, hushedly, huskily, hyperactively,
hypnotically, hypocritically, hypothetically, hysterically.

icily, idealistically, identically, idiosyncratically, idiotically, idly, idolisingly, idolizingly,


ignorantly, ill-humoredly, ill-naturedly, ill-temperedly, illegibly, illiberally, illogically,
illuminatedly, illustratively, imaginatively, imbalancedly, imitatively, immaculately,
immaturely, immeasurably, immediately, immensely, immoderately, immodestly,
immovably, immutably, impalpably, impartially, impassively, impatiently, impeccably,
impededly, imperatively, imperceptibly, imperfectly, imperiously, impersonally,
impertinently, imperturbably, impetuously, impiously, impishly, implacably, implausibly,
impliably, implicitly, imploringly, impolitely, importantly, importunately, importunely,
31
imposingly, impotently, imprecisely, impressedly, impressionably, impressively,
improbably, improperly, improvidently, improvisationally, imprudently, impudently,
impulsively, impurely, inaccurately, inadequately, inadvertently, inanely, inappropriately,
inaptly, inarticulately, inattentively, inaudibly, inauspiciously, incapably, incautiously,
incessantly, incestuously, incidentally, inclusively, incoherently, incompetently,
incompletely, incompliantly, incomprehendingly, incomprehensibly, inconceivably,
inconclusively, incongrously, inconsequentially, inconsequently, inconsiderately,
inconsistently, inconsolably, inconspicuously, inconveniently, incoordinately, incorrectly,
incorrigibly, increasingly, incredibly, incredulously, incrementally, incurably, incuriously,
indebtedly, indecently, indecisively, indecorously, indefinately, indefinitely, indelicately,
independently, indeterminedly, indicatively, indifferently, indignantly, indirectly,
indiscernibly, indiscreetly, indiscriminately, indiscriminatingly, indistinctly, individually,
indivisibly, indolently, indulgently, industrially, industriously, inebriatedly, ineffectively,
ineffectually, inelegantly, ineloquently, ineptly, inevitably, inexactly, inexcusably,
inexorably, inexperiencedly, inexpertly, inexplicably, inexpressively, infatuatedly,
infectiously, inflexibly, influentially, informally, informatively, infrequently, infuriatingly,
ingeniously, ingenuously, ingratiatingly, inhalingly, inharmoniously, inhospitably,
inhumanely, inhumanly, inimically, iniquitously, initially, injudiciously, injuredly,
innocently, innocuously, inoffensively, inopportunely, inordinately, inquiringly,
inquisitively, insanely, insatiably, inscrutably, insecurely, insensibly, insensitively,
insidiously, insightfully, insignificantly, insincerely, insinuatingly, insipidly, insistently,
insolently, insouciantly, inspiredly, inspiringly, instantaneously, instantly, instead,
instinctively, instinctually, instructively, insubordinately, insubstantially, insufferably,
insufficiently, insultedly, insultingly, intangibly, intangily, intelligently, intelligibly,
intemperately, intensely, intentionally, intently, interestedly, interestingly, interminably,
intermittently, internally, interrogatively, intimately, intimidatedly, intimidatingly,
intolerantly, intoxicatedly, intoxicatingly, intractably, intransigently, intrepidly, intricately,
intriguedly, intriguingly, introductorily, introspectively, introvertedly, intrusively, intuitively,
inutilely, invasively, invectively, inventively, invigoratedly, invigoratingly, invitingly,
involuntarily, inward, inwardly, inwards, irascibly, irately, irenically, irksomely,
ironhandedly, ironically, irrationally, irregularly, irrelevantly, irreligiously, irrepressibly,
irresistibly, irresolutely, irresponsibly, irreverently, irrevocably, irritably, irritatedly,
irritatingly, isolatedly, itchily.

jadedly, jaggedly, janglingly, jarringly, jauntily, jazzily, jealously, jeeringly, jejunely,


jerkily, jestingly, jocosely, jocularly, jointly, jokingly, jollily, joltingly, joshingly, jovially,
joyfully, joylessly, joyously, jubilantly, judgementally, judiciously, juicily, jumpily, just,
justifiedly, justly, just-so.

keenly, kiddingly, kindheartedly, kindly, kinkily, kissingly, knavishly, knottily, knowingly,


knowledgeably, kookily.

laboredly, laboriously, labouredly, lachrymosely, lackadaisically, lacklustrely, laconically,


ladylike, lamely, lamentingly, languidly, languishingly, languorously, lasciviously,
latently, laterally, lauditorily, laughingly, lavishly, lawfully, laxly, lazily, leadenly,
leadingly, learnedly, lecherously, leerily, leeringly, left, left-and-right, left-handedly, left-
to-right, leftward, leftwardly, leisurely, legalistically, lengthily, lengthwise, leniently, less,
lethally, lethargically, levelly, lewdly, libelously, liberally, libidinously, licentiously,
32
lifelessly, lightfootedly, lightheadedly, lightheartedly, lightly, likewise, liltingly, limberly,
limitedly, limpidly, limply, lingeringly, linguistically, lispily, lispingly, lissomely, listlessly,
literally, lithely, lively, lividly, loathingly, loftily, logically, lonesomely, long-sufferingly,
long-windedly, longingly, loosely, lopsidedly, loquaciously, lostly, lots, louder, loudly,
lousily, lovingly, lower, lowly, loyally, lucidly, luckily, ludicrously, lugubriously,
lumberingly, luminously, luridly, lushly, lustfully, lustily, lustrelessly, luxuriously, lyrically.

macabrely, maddeningly, madly, magisterially, magnanimously, magnificently,


magniloquently, maidenly, majestically, malevolently, maliciously, malignantly,
malodorously, manageably, manfully, maniacally, manically, manipulatedly,
manipulatively, mannerly, mannishly, manually, marginally, markedly, martially,
marvelously, masculinely, masochistically, massively, masterfully, materialistically,
maternally, mathematically, matronly, matter-of-factly, maturely, mawkishly, mean-
spiritedly, meanderingly, meaningfully, meaninglessly, meaningly, meanly, meanwhile,
measuredly, measuringly, mechanically, meddlesomely, medicinally, meditatively,
meekly, melancholically, mellifluously, mellowly, melodically, melodiously,
melodramatically, memorisingly, menacingly, mendaciously, mentally, mercifully,
mercilessly, mercurially, merely, merrily, mesmerizedly, mesmerizingly, messily,
metallically, metaphorically, methodically, meticulously, middlingly, mightily, mildly, mild-
manneredly, militantly, militaristically, mimickingly, minaciously, mincingly, mindfully,
mindlessly, minimally, minisculely, minutely, mirthfully, mirthlessly, mischievously,
miserably, misgivingly, misguidingly, misleadingly, mistakenly, mistily, mistrustfully,
mistrustingly, mockingly, moderately, modestly, moistly, mollifiedly, mnemonically,
momentarily, momentously, monosyllabically, monotonically, monotonously,
monstrously, monumentally, moodily, mopingly, morally, morbidly, mordaciously,
mordantly, more, moronically, morosely, mortally, mortifiedly, mostly, motherly,
motionlessly, motivatedly, mournfully, mousily, movingly, muddledly, muffledly, mulishly,
mullishly, mumblingly, mundanely, munificently, murderously, murkily, murmuringly,
muscularly, mushily, musically, musingly, mutedly, mutely, mutinously, mutteringly,
mysteriously, mystically, mystifiedly.

naggingly, naively, nakedly, narcissistically, narrow-eyedly, narrow-mindedly, narrowly,


nasally, nastily, nationalistically, natively, nattily, naturally, naughtily, nauseatedly,
nauseatingly, nauseously, nearer, nearly, neatly, nebulously, necessarily, needfully,
needily, needingly, needlessly, nefariously, negatively, neglectedly, neglectfully,
negligently, nervelessly, nervously, neurotically, neutrally, next, nicely, niggardly,
nigglingly, nimbly, nobly, noddingly, noiselessly, noisily, noisomely, non-competitively,
nonchalantly, noncommittally, noncompetitively, noncompliantly, nonetheless,
nonjudgmentally, nonplussedly, nonsensically, non-stop, nonverbally, normally,
northeastwardly, northward, northwardly, northwestwardly, nosily, nostalgically, notably,
noticeably, now, now-and-then, noxiously, nudely, numbly, numinously, nuttily.

oafishly, oathfully, obdurately, obediently, obeisantly, objectively, obligatorily, obligedly,


obligingly, obliquely, obliviously, obnoxiously, obscenely, obscurely, obsequiously,
observantly, observingly, obsessively, obstinately, obstreperously, obtrusively, obtusely,
obviously, occasionally, occupiedly, oddly, odorously, off, off-balancingly, off-key,
offendedly, offensively, offhandedly, officially, officiously, off-tune, often, oilily,
ominously, once, one-handedly, onerously, only, onward, onwardly, onwards, open-
33
mindedly, open-mouthedly, openhandedly, openly, operosely, opinionatedly,
opportunely, opportunistically, opposedly, oppositely, oppressively, optimally,
optimistically, oracularly, orderingly, orderly, ordinarily, organizationally, organizedly,
organizingly, ornamentally, ornately, ornerily, ostensibly, ostentatiously, otherwise,
orthodoxly, out, outlandishly, outragedly, outrageously, outrightly, outspokenly, outward,
outwardly, outwards, over-eagerly, over-enthusiastically, over-joyedly, over-zealously,
overbearingly, overconfidently, overeagerly, overenthusiastically, overhead, overmuch,
overprotectively, overtly, overwhelmedly, overwhelmingly, overzealously, owlishly,
oxymoronically.

painedly, painfully, painlessly, painstakingly, palely, paler, pallidly, panickingly,


pantingly, paradoxically, parallel, paranoidly, parenthetically, parochially,
parsimoniously, partially, particularly, partingly, partly, partway, passably, passingly,
passionately, passionlessly, passively, past, patently, paternally, pathetically, patiently,
patriarchally, patriotically, patronisingly, patronizingly, pausingly, peaceably, peacefully,
peculiarly, pedantically, peevedly, peevishly, pejoratively, pellucidly, penetratingly,
penitentially, penitently, pensively, penultimately, perceptibly, perceptively, percussively,
peremptorily, perfectly, perfidiously, perfunctorily, periodically, peripherally, perkily,
permissively, perpendicularly, perpetually, perplexedly, perseveringly, persistently,
personally, perspicaciously, perspicuously, perspiringly, persuadedly, persuasively,
pertinaciously, pertinently, pertly, perturbedly, perversely, pervertedly, pessimistically,
pesteringly, pestiferously, petrifiedly, pettishly, petulantly, philosophically,
phlegmatically, physically, pickily, picturesquely, piercingly, pietistically, piggishly,
piously, piquantly, piteously, pithily, pitifully, pitilessly, pityingly, pivotally, placatingly,
placidly, plainly, plaintively, plangently, platitudinously, platonically, plausibly, playfully,
pleadingly, pleasantly, pleasedly, pleasingly, pleasurably, plentifully, pliantly, pluckily,
poetically, poignantly, pointblank, pointedly, pointlessly, poisedly, poisonously, pokingly,
polishedly, politely, politically, poltroonishly, pompously, ponderingly, ponderously,
pontifically, poorly, portentously, positively, possessively, possibly, potently, poutily,
powerfully, powerlessly, practically, practicedly, practisedly, pragmatically, prayerfully,
pre-emptively, precariously, preciously, precipitately, precipitously, precisely,
precociously, precognizantly, predatorily, predictably, predictively, preferentially,
prejudgementally, prejudicedly, preliminarily, prematurely, preoccupiedly, preparatorily,
preparedly, preposterously, presentably, presently, pressingly, pressuringly,
presumingly, presumptively, presumptuously, pretentiously, prettily, preventively,
previously, pridefully, priggishly, primarily, primitively, primly, prissily, pristinely,
privately, proactively, probably, probingly, problematically, proceedingly, processionally,
proddingly, prodigally, productively, profanely, professionally, proficiently, profligately,
profoundly, profusely, prognostically, prognosticatively, progressively, prohibitively,
prolifically, prolongedly, prominently, promiscuously, promisingly, promptingly, promptly,
properly, prophetically, propitiatingly, propitiously, proprietarily, prosaically, prosily,
prospectively, protectively, protestingly, protractedly, proudly, providently, provincially,
provisionally, provocatively, prudently, prudishly, pruriently, pryingly, puckishly,
puerilely, puffily, pugnaciously, puissantly, pulchritudinously, pulsatively, punctiliously,
punctually, pungently, punishingly, punitively, puppyishly, purely, puritanically,
purposefully, purposelessly, purposely, pursuingly, pushily, pusillanimously, putridly,
puzzledly.

34
quaintly, quakingly, quarrelsomely, quaveringly, queasily, queerly, quellingly,
querulously, queryingly, questionably, questioningly, quicker, quickly, quiescently,
quietly, quintessentially, quirkily, quiveringly, quixotically, quizzically.

rabidly, racily, radiantly, raggedly, ragingly, railingly, rakishly, ramblingly,


rambunctiously, rancidly, rancorously, randily, randomly, rankly, rantingly, rapidly, raptly,
rapturously, rarely, rashly, raspily, raspingly, rationally, rattlingly, raucously, raunchily,
ravenously, ravishingly, readily, realisingly, realistically, realizingly, really, reasonably,
reasonlessly, reassuredly, reassuringly, rebelliously, rebukingly, recalcitrantly,
recallingly, receptively, reciprocatively, recklessly, reclusively, recollectively, recordingly,
red, red-facedly, red-handedly, reddeningly, redundantly, reelingly, refinedly,
reflectively, reflexively, refreshedly, refreshingly, regally, regardfully, regardless,
regardlessly, regretfully, regularly, reinforcingly, rejectedly, rejoicingly, relatedly,
relaxedly, relaxingly, relentingly, relentlessly, relevantly, reliably, relievedly, relievingly,
religiously, relishingly, reluctantly, remarkably, remedially, rememberingly,
reminiscently, remonstrantly, remorsefully, remorselessly, remotely, renewedly,
repeatedly, repellently, repentantly, repetitiously, repetitively, reprehensively,
repressedly, reprimandingly, reproachfully, reprovingly, repulsedly, repulsively,
resentfully, reservedly, resignedly, resolutely, resolvedly, resonantly, resoundingly,
respectably, respectfully, respectively, resplendently, responsibly, responsively,
restfully, restively, restlessly, restrainedly, restrainingly, restrictedly, restrictively,
retaliatingly, reticently, retractively, retributively, retroactively, retrospectively,
revealingly, revengefully, reverberantly, reverently, revoltingly, revolutionarily,
rewardingly, rhapsodically, rhetorically, rhythmically, rhythmlessly, ribaldly, richly,
ridiculously, right, right-and-left, righteously, rightfully, right-handedly, rightside-up, right-
to-left, rightward, rightwardly, rigidly, rigorously, ringingly, riotously, ripely, risibly,
risquely, ritualistically, ritually, robustly, roguishly, roisterously, rollickingly, rollingly,
romantically, roomily, rosily, rottenly, rotundly, roughly, roundly, rousingly, routinely,
rowdily, royally, rudely, ruefully, ruggedly, rumblingly, ruminatingly, ruminatively, rustily,
ruthlessly.

sacramentally, sacredly, sacrificially, sacrilegiously, saddenedly, sadistically, sadly,


safely, sagaciously, sagely, salaciously, saltily, salutatorily, sanctimoniously, sanely,
sanguinely, sappily, sarcastically, sardonically, sartorially, sassily, satedly, satirically,
satisfactorily, satisfiedly, satisfyingly, saturatedly, saturninely, saucily, savagely,
savoringly, savouringly, savvily, scandalously, scantily, scantly, scarcely, scaredly,
scarily, scathingly, scatteredly, sceptically, schemingly, scholastically, scientifically,
scintillatingly, scoffingly, scoldedly, scoldingly, scorchingly, scornedly, scornfully,
scowlingly, scratchily, scrumptiously, scrupulously, scurrilously, seamlessly,
searchingly, searingly, secondarily, secretively, secretly, sectionally, securely, sedately,
seditiously, seductively, sedulously, seekingly, seemingly, seethingly, selectively, self-
absorbedly, self-approvingly, self-assuredly, self-centeredly, self-centredly, self-
confidently, self-consciously, self-critically, self-deprecatingly, self-effacingly, self-
importantly, self-indulgently, self-interestedly, self-mockingly, self-pityingly, self-
possessedly, self-righteously, self-satisfiedly, self-servingly, self-sufficiently, selfishly,
selflessly, semantically, semi-circularly, semi-consciously, sensationally, senselessly,
sensibly, sensitively, sensually, sensuously, sententiously, sentimentally, separately,
sepulchrally, sequentially, serendipitously, serenely, seriously, serpentinely, serviceably,
35
servilely, severely, sexily, shabbily, shaggily, shakenly, shakily, shakingly, shallowly,
shamefacedly, shamefully, shamelessly, shapelessly, sharply, shatteringly, sheepishly,
shiftily, shiftingly, shimmeringly, shinily, shiningly, shirkingly, shiveringly, shockedly,
shockingly, short-sightedly, short-temperedly, shortly, showily, showingly, shrewdly,
shrewishly, shrilly, shrinkingly, shudderingly, shyly, sibilantly, sickeningly, sickly, side-
by-side, side-to-side, sidewardly, sideways, sighingly, sightlessly, significantly, silently,
silkily, sillily, similarly, simperingly, simplistically, simply, simultaneously, sincerely,
sinfully, singingly, single-handedly, single-mindedly, singlehandedly, singlemindedly,
singularly, sinisterly, sinuously, skeptically, sketchily, skillfully, skimpily, skittishly,
skyward, slackly, slanderously, slavishly, sleekly, sleepily, slenderly, slickly, slightingly,
slightly, slimily, slipperily, slippingly, slobberingly, sloppily, slothfully, slovenly, slower,
slowly, sluggishly, slurringly, sluttishly, slyly, smarmily, smartly, smilingly, smirkingly,
smokily, smolderingly, smoothly, smotheredly, smotheringly, smugly, smuttily, snappily,
sneakily, sneeringly, snidely, sniffily, snippily, snobbily, snobbishly, snootily, snowily,
snuffingly, snugly, soaked, soapily, sobbingly, soberly, sobersidedly, sociably, soddenly,
softer, softheartedly, softly, soggily, solely, solemnly, solicitously, solidly, solitarily,
somberly, somehow, sometimes, somewhat, somnolently, sonorously, soon, soothedly,
soothingly, sophisticatedly, soporifically, soppily, soppingly, sordidly, sorely, sororially,
sorrowfully, sottily, soulfully, soundlessly, soundly, sourly, southeastwardly, southward,
southwardly, southwestwardly, spaciously, sparingly, sparkily, sparklingly, sparsely,
spartanly, spasmodically, spastically, spatially, specially, specifically, speciously,
speculatively, speechlessly, speedily, spellbindingly, spicily, spikily, spinelessly,
spiritedly, spiritlessly, spiritually, spitefully, splendidly, splenetically, spoiledly,
spontaneously, spookily, sporadically, sportively, spotlessly, spottily, spritely, sprucely,
spryly, spunkily, squarely, squeakily, squeamishly, squelchily, stably, staidly, stalely,
stalwartly, stammeringly, stand-offishly, standoffishly, starchily, starkly, startledly,
startlingly, stately, statuesquely, staunchly, steadfastly, steadily, steadyingly, stealthily,
steamily, steelily, steeply, sternly, stickily, stiffledly, stiffly, stifledly, still, stiltedly,
stimulatingly, stingily, stingingly, stintingly, stodgily, stoically, stolidly, stonily, stormily,
stoutly, straight, straight-facedly, straightfacedly, straightforwardly, straightly, strainedly,
strangely, strangledly, strategically, strenuously, stressedly, stressfully, strictly,
stridently, strikingly, stringently, strongly, structurally, stubbornly, studiously, stuffily,
stumblingly, stunnedly, stunningly, stupefiedly, stupendously, stupidly, stupified,
stuporously, sturdily, stutteringly, stylishly, suavely, subconsciously, subduedly,
subjectively, subliminally, submissively, subsequently, subserviently, substantially,
subtly, subversively, successfully, successively, succinctly, succulently, suddenly,
sufferingly, sufficiently, suffocatingly, suggestingly, suggestively, suitably, sulkily,
sullenly, sultrily, summarily, sumptuously, sunnily, superbly, superciliously, superficially,
superfluously, superiorily, superstitiously, supplely, suppliantly, supplicatingly,
supportedly, supportively, supposedly, suppressedly, surely, surefootedly, sure-footedly,
surlily, surprisedly, surprisingly, surreally, surrenderingly, surreptitiously, suspectingly,
suspensefully, suspiciously, susurringly, sveltely, swaggeringly, sweatily, sweepingly,
sweetly, swiftly, swinishly, swishingly, swollenly, sycophantically, symbolically,
symmetrically, sympathetically, systematically.

tacitly, taciturnly, tactfully, tactically, tactilely, tactlessly, tactually, talentedly, talkatively,


tamely, tangentially, tantalisingly, tantalizingly, tardily, tartly, tastefully, tastelessly,
tastily, tauntingly, tautly, tawdrily, tearfully, tearily, tearingly, teasingly, tediously,
36
tellingly, temerariously, temperamentally, temperately, tempestuously, temporarily,
temptedly, temptingly, tenaciously, tenderly, tensely, tentatively, tenuously, tepidly,
terribly, terrifiedly, terrifyingly, territorially, tersely, testily, testingly, tetchily, thankfully,
thanklessly, theatrically, then, theoretically, therapeutically, thickheadedly, thickly, thinly,
thirstily, thornily, thoroughly, thoughtfully, thoughtlessly, threatenedly, threateningly,
thrice, thriftily, thrillingly, throatily, throbbingly, thuggishly, thumpingly, thunderingly,
thunderously, thusly, thwartedly, ticklishly, tidily, tighter, tightly, timidly, timorously,
tinglingly, tinklingly, tippily, tipsily, tiredly, tirelessly, tiresomely, tiringly, to-and-fro,
together, tolerably, tolerantly, tomboyishly, tonelessly, too, toothily, toothlessly, topically,
tormentedly, tormentingly, tornly, torpidly, torridly, torturously, totally, touchedly,
touchily, touchingly, toughly, tousledly, toweringly, toxically, traditionally, tragically,
trailingly, traitorously, tranquilly, transfixedly, translucently, transparently, transportedly,
trappedly, traumatically, treacherously, treasonably, treasonously, tremblingly,
tremendously, tremulously, trenchantly, trepidly, triangularly, trickily, trillingly, trimly,
tritely, triumphantly, troubledly, truculently, truly, trustingly, trustworthily, truthfully,
tumidly, tumultuously, tunefully, tunelessly, turbulently, turgidly, twangily, twice,
twinklingly, twistedly, twitchily, twitchingly, two-handedly, typically, tyrannically.

ultimately, unabashedly, unaccountably, unaccustomedly, unaffectedly, unaggressively,


unambitiously, unamiably, unamicably, unamusedly, unannounced, unapologetically,
unappetizingly, unappreciatively, unashamedly, unassumingly, unathletically,
unattractively, unavoidably, unawares, unbearably, unbecomingly, unbelievingly,
unbelligerently, unbendingly, unbiasedly, unblinkingly, unblushingly, uncannily,
uncaringly, unceremoniously, uncertainly, unchangingly, uncharacteristically,
uncharitably, unchastely, uncheerfully, unchivalrously, uncivilly, unclearly, uncleverly,
uncomfortably, uncommunicatively, uncompetitively, uncomplainingly, uncompliantly,
uncomplicatedly, uncomprehendingly, uncompromisingly, unconcernedly,
unconditionally, uncongenially, unconsciously, unconsolably, uncontrollably,
unconvincedly, unconvincingly, uncooperatively, uncoordinatedly, uncordially,
uncourageously, uncouthly, uncritically, unctuously, unctuousnessly, undauntedly,
undecidedly, undecipherably, undefeatedly, undeniably, underfoot, underhandedly,
understandably, understandingly, understatedly, undeservingly, undignifiedly,
undistractedly, undividedly, undoubtedly, undulatingly, uneasily, unemotionally,
unendingly, unenlightenedly, unenthusiastically, unenviously, unequally, unequivocally,
unerringly, unethically, unevenly, unexpectedly, unfairly, unfaithfully, unfalteringly,
unfamiliarly, unfashionably, unfavorably, unfavourably, unfazedly, unfearingly,
unfeelingly, unfemininely, unflappably, unflickeringly, unflinchingly, unfocusedly,
unforgetfully, unforgivingly, unfortunately, ungainly, ungallantly, ungenerously,
ungenially, unglamourously, ungraciously, ungratefully, ungrudgingly, unguardedly,
unguiltily, unhaltingly, unhappily, unharmoniously, unhealthily, unheedingly, unhelpfully,
unheroically, unhesitantly, unhesitatingly, unhurriedly, uninformatively, uniformly,
unimaginatively, unimpeachably, unimportantly, unimposingly, unimpressedly,
unimpressively, unindulgently, uninhibitedly, uninquisitively, uninspiredly, unintelligently,
unintelligibly, unintentionally, uninterestedly, uninterruptedly, uninvitedly, uninvitingly,
uniquely, unitedly, universally, unkindly, unknowingly, unmelodiously, unmercifully,
unmindfully, unmotivatedly, unmovingly, unmusically, unnaturally, unnecessarily,
unnervedly, unnervingly, unnoticeably, unobservantly, unobservedly, unobtrusively,
unofficially, unorthodoxly, unostentatiously, unperturbedly, unpleasantly, unpoetically,
37
unprecedentedly, unpredictably, unpreparedly, unpretentiously, unproductively,
unprofessionally, unproficiently, unpropitiously, unprotectedly, unquestioningly,
unrealistically, unreasonably, unreceptively, unrefinedly, unregretfully, unrelatedly,
unrelentingly, unreluctantly, unremorsefully, unrepentantly, unrequitedly, unreservedly,
unresponsively, unrestrainedly, unrevealingly, unrhythmically, unromantically,
unruffledly, unsatisfactorily, unsatisfiedly, unscrupulously, unseasonably, unseeingly,
unseen, unselfconsciously, unselfishly, unsettledly, unsettlingly, unshakably, unskillfully,
unsmilingly, unsociably, unsolicitously, unsparingly, unspeakingly, unsteadily,
unstintingly, unsubmissively, unsubtly, unsuccessfully, unsurely, unsurprisedly,
unsurprisingly, unsuspectingly, unswervingly, unsymmetrically, unsympathetically,
unsystematically, unthinkingly, unthreateningly, untruly, untrustingly, untruthfully,
unusually, unvirtuously, unwantedly, unwarily, unwaveringly, unwelcomingly, unwillingly,
unwisely, unwittingly, unyieldingly, up-and-down, upbeat, upliftingly, upright, uprightly,
uproariously, upsetly, upside-down, upward, upwardly, urbanely, urgently, usefully,
uselessly, usually, utterly, uxoriously.

vacantly, vacillatorily, vacuously, vaguely, vaingloriously, vainly, valiantly, validly,


valorously, vapidly, vastly, vauntingly, vehemently, venally, venerably, veneratively,
vengefully, venomously, venturesomely, veraciously, verbally, verbatim, verbosely,
veritably, vertically, vexedly, vibrantly, vibratingly, vicariously, viciously, victoriously,
vigilantly, vigorously, vilely, villainously, vindicatedly, vindictively, violently, virginally,
virtuously, virulently, viscously, visibly, visually, vituperatively, vivaciously, vividly,
vocally, vociferously, voicelessly, volatilely, voluminously, voluntarily, voluptuously,
voraciously, voyeuristically, vulgarly, vulnerably, vyingly.

waggishly, waifishly, wakefully, wanderingly, wanly, wantingly, wantonly, warily, warmly,


warningly, waspishly, watchfully, waveringly, waywardly, weakly, wearily, wearisomely,
weepily, weightily, weirdly, welcomingly, well-meaningly, well-timedly, westward,
westwardly, wetly, wheedlingly, wheezingly, whimperingly, whimsically, whinily,
whiningly, whisperingly, wholeheartedly, wholly, wickedly, wide-eyedly, widely, wildly,
wilfully, wilily, willfully, willingly, wimpily, wimpishly, wincingly, windedly, winningly,
winsomely, wintrily,wisely, wishfully, wispily, wistfully, withdrawn, witheringly, witlessly,
wittily, wittingly, wobbily, woefully, wolfishly, wonderfully, wonderingly, wondrously,
woodenly, woozily, wordily, wordlessly, workably, worriedly, worrisome, worshipfully,
worshippingly, worthily, worthlessly, woundedly, wrathfully, wrenchingly, wretchedly,
wrinkledly, wrongly, wryly.

yawningly, yearningly, yieldingly, youthfully.

zealously, zestfully, zestily.

38
EXERCISES, ACTIVITIES AND QUIZ
EXERCISE A : Encircle the adverb ad tell if it is adverb of manner, time, place or
frequency

e.g manner 1. The children prayed fervently for the recovery of their friend.

__________ 1. The brand is illegally sold in the market.

__________ 2. He seldom visits his grandparents in the farm.

__________ 3. We look forward to better days in the coming millennium.

__________ 4. Ryan lives farther from school than Kevin.

__________ 5. The verdict was announced yesterday.

EXERCISE B: Recognizing Adverbs. Underline the adverb or adverbs in each


sentence.

1. We will be leaving for the movie soon.


2. The starving refugees needed much more food.
3. Will you definitely move to Ohio?
4. Everyone thought the movie was too violent.
5. He frowned rather sternly at the boy’s antics.
6. He slowly caught colds from his sick brothers.
7. The multicolored balloons floated away.
8. Some students have nearly completed their papers.
9. Todd accepted the suggestion surprisingly quickly.
10. Sharon was remarkably indifferent.

ACTIVITY I: ADVERB ACTING ADVERBS


From Alicia Danyali (http://www.education.com/activity/article/Adverb_Game_fifth/)

It's difficult to find a student who doesn't enjoy performing every once and awhile. Get
your little thespian in the spotlight while reinforcing the ever so important part of speech-
the adverb. Try this adverb “acting out” game with your student for a few laughs and
learning fun.

39
What You Need:

• 20 index cards
• 20 strips of paper
• pencil
• 2 paper bags

What You Do:

1. After a refresher with your student of what adverbs are, and how they help other
parts of speech, ask your student to write out 20 that they know, one adverb per
each index card. To get them going, suggest a few, like “angrily,” “quietly,” and
“sneakily.” Once complete, place all 20 cards into one of the paper bags.
2. Next, on strips of paper, have your student write out 10 sentences about things
they do or say during day. For example, “Can you give me directions to the
grocery store?”
3. Now the game begins! Have your student choose one card and one slip of paper
from each paper bag, and tell him to act out the sentence slip using the adverb
character. Can he ask what's for dinner sneakily? How about hungrily asking for
a hall pass?

Guess which adverb he's acting out. As he gets better at the game, add more complex
adverbs for vocabulary development, as well as a bigger acting challenge!

Exercise C: Recognizing Nouns Used as Adverbs. Highlight with your favorite color the
two adverbs in each sentence. Then, put a circle to each noun used as an adverb.

Example: Yesterday, I took a very difficult test.

1. Evenings, my parents and grandparents would loudly discuss politics.


2. I was sent home because I had a very high fever.
3. Tuesday was an extremely bad day, but the things that happened Wednesday
were worse.
4. You must definitely see a doctor today.
5. If you decide to visit tomorrow, please come early.
6. Saturdays I usually babysit my brother.
7. I did not see her yesterday.
8. I ran approximately two miles Friday.
9. She works days and attends school nights.
10. Winters are always dreadfully cold in that province.
40
Exercise D: Distinguishing Adverbs from adjectives. On the space provided, write AV if
the underlined word is an ADVERB or AJ if it is an ADJECTIVE.

Example: AJ 11. His room is very neat.

___1. The mounted moose head looked real.


___2. I really believed the weather forecast.
___3. Bertram walks to the office daily.
___4. Our office runs ads in the daily newspaper.
___5. Matilda spoke darkly of her husband’s past.
___6. No light filtered in the dark cell.
___7. Immigrants worked hard to build the railroads.
___8. Sandstone is not a hard rock.
___9. Zack is an early riser.
___10. Mildred starts the day early and ends late.

Exercise E: Adding Adverbs. Write the paragraph, filling in the blanks with appropriate
adverbs.

Example: I have _____ been in such an enormous place!


I have never been in such an enormous place!

(1) ______ perched in the top of the superdome, a family is (2) _____ watching a
circus (3)______. It is (4) _____ odd to see a high wire act ten floors (5) _____. But
that happened at the (6) _____ large Louisiana Superdome.
The Superdome can (7) _____ astound even the (8) ______ casual observer. A tour
alone leads the visitors (9) _____ through a maze of twists and turns, (10) _____
covering over two miles. This (11) _____ massive structure reaches (12) _____ for
(13) _____ twenty stories; the roof stretches 680 feet in diameter. A television
system is (14) _____ located, composed of six individual screens, each one the size
of a (15) _____ large living room floor. Created (16) _____ for the Superdome, the
system cost (17) _____ 1.3 million pesos. For those (18) _____ wealthy and devoted
sport fans, the Superdome designers (19) _____ provided sixty four private suites,

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(20) _____ decorated with couches and wall – to – wall carpeting, for mere Php 150,
000 a year.

Developing Writing Skills: Writing sentences with adverbs. Rewrite the sentences
provided before you by adding necessary adverbs. Include nouns used as adverbs in
the sentences.

Example: Francis kicked the ball


Francis kicked the ball fearlessly.

1. Tony will go to the grocery store for us.


________________________________________________________________
2. Barn swallows are helpful because they eat insects.
________________________________________________________________
3. His poor posture made him seem shorter that he was.
________________________________________________________________
4. The sorcerer cast terrible spell upon the town.
________________________________________________________________
5. We were sad about the end of the summer.
________________________________________________________________
6. Many people think snails are delicious.
________________________________________________________________
7. The boat docked and lowered its sails.
________________________________________________________________
8. Their enthusiasm faded.
________________________________________________________________
9. Night fell and the celebration began.
________________________________________________________________
10. Can the helicopter rescue those men?
________________________________________________________________

QUIZ ON ADVERBS

For each question, you will be asked to select the most appropriate order of modifiers or
the only appropriate placement of modifier(s).

1. Select the sentence in which usually appears in an appropriate position.


A. She usually shops for clothes at the local thrift store.
B. Usually she shops for clothes at the local thrift store.
C. She shops for clothes at the local thrift store usually.
D. Either "A" or "B" is fine.
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2. Select the sentence with the most appropriate order of adverbial phrases.
A. She leaves the island during the months of December and January after dark.
B. She leaves the island after dark during the months of December and January.
C. Either "A" or "B" is fine.

3. Select the sentence with the most appropriate order of adverbs and adverbial
phrases.
A. Ramonita prays at St. Matthew's Church fervently for her grandmother's
recovery.
B. Ramonita prays fervently for her grandmother's recovery at St. Matthew's
Church.
C. Ramonita prays fervently at St. Matthew's Church for her grandmother's
recovery.
D. Any one of the above is fine.

4. Select the sentence with the most appropriate order of adverbial phrases.
A. Juan made an appointment to see his doctor at two o'clock on the first Thursday
of July next summer.
B. Juan made an appointment next summer to see his doctor next July at two
o'clock on the first Thursday.
C. Either "A" or "B" is fine.

5. Select the sentence with the most appropriate order of modifiers.


A. My father was born in Cleveland in the backroom of a bakery.
B. My father was born in the backroom of a bakery in Cleveland.
C. Either "A" or "B" is fine.

6. Select the sentence with the most appropriate order of modifiers.


A. Dry the car carefully with a soft fluffy towel.
B. Dry the car with a soft fluffy towel carefully.
C. Carefully dry the car with a soft fluffy towel.
D. Either "A" or "C" is fine.

7. Select the most emphatic position for the adverbial modifier of this sentence.
A. Rarely do we see this kind of talent on a small-town high school baseball team.
B. We rarely see this kind of talent on a small-town high school baseball team.
C. "A" and "B" are equally emphatic.

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8. Select the sentence with the most appropriate order of adverbial modifiers.
A. He found the golf clubs that his father had used to win the U.S. Open in the car
trunk.
B. In the car trunk, he found the golf clubs that his father had used to win the U.S.
Open.

9. Select the sentence with the most appropriate position for the adjectival modifier.
A. These miniature roses only grow to be an inch across.
B. These miniature roses grow to be only an inch across.
C. Either "A" or "B" is fine.

Additional Exercises for Adverbs

Open ended story


With the given starting point of discussion, the students should be able to continue it
with a corresponding idea connected to it and with an adverb.

Gracefully,
The mermaid slid into the freezing, cold water.

Breathlessly,
The prince rode into the kitchen.

Loudly,
The giant stormed into the kitchen.

Luckily,
Jack got up the gigantic beanstalk.

Sadly,
Cinderella swept the really messy floor.

Beautifully,
The ugly sisters put on their gorgeous make-up.

Suddenly,
Rapunzel let down her long, plaited hair.

Bravely,
The prince climbed up the steep tower.

Suddenly,
The story ends.

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Excitedly,
The shoe maker watched
as the elves quickly and
quietly made the shoes.

Joyfully,
Hansel and Gretal skipped to
the house of beautiful candy.

Uncomfortably,
The princess tried to get
some decent sleep.

Carefully,
The queen put the pea
in the right place between the
mattresses.

Sadly,
The story ended.

Greedily,
The children ate the gingerbread house.

Dangerously,
The child got trapped in the cage.

Restlessly,
The princess couldn't sleep.

Awkwardly,
The princess walked to the breakfast table.

Hurriedly,
The gingerbread man ran away.

Slowly,
The old lady took the gingerbread man out of the oven.

Slowly,
The story ended.

Excitedly,
Hansel and Gretel gazed at the gingerbread house.

Bravely,
Gretel pushed the witch into the fire.

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Fiercely,
The man tugged at the turnip.

Suddenly,
The turnip flew out.

Carefully,
Rumpelstiltskin spun the straw.

Loudly,
Rumpelstiltskin sung his name.

Quickly,
The pig built his house.

Slowly,
The wolf took a deep breath in.

Quietly,
The story ends.

Essay Review: With the essay cropped from a writer in the internet, pick out the
adverbs and using the same adverbs in the article, write another essay with a different
topic.

Everday Heroes

By Steven

Patriot is one who loves his or her country and zealously guards its welfare; especially, a
defender of popular liberty. In my own words I think a patriot is someone who helps our
country succeed and truly cares about the country they live in.
There are patriots everywhere: in your own town, city, and state. Patriots are all around us.
Some are every day average Joes' and some are professional athletes or men and women in the
military.
John F. Kennedy was a patriot. Kennedy was confident, energetic, ambitious, and had many
goals for our country. He showed that he truly cared about our country and the people that lied
in it. Kennedy was very focused on Americas' youth and how they can help the country. He
stated "Ask not what your country can do for you…Ask what you can do for your country."
Martin Luther King Jr. was another patriot. King was a black activist who believed that
everyone should be treated equally, no matter what race. He believed peace instead of violence
and love instead of hate. King wanted blacks to be able to go to school with whites, share the
same water fountains with whites, and be able to sit in the front seats of the bus with whites.

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King said to his followers "Blood may flow…before we receive our freedom…but it must be our
own blood."
People should all look up to our patriots, and should also step up and be a patriot. I believe
everyone should contribute to his or her country and show their support.

Skills Review and Writing Workshop


USING GRAMMAR SKILLS IN WRITING
Writing an advertisement

PREWRITING: Think of an object or a product you wish to advertise (like Washing


machine, robots, cars, etc.) Remember its greatest qualities which will make it best
seller in the market. Convince the people for them to buy the item.

WRITING: Describe the item as specific as possible. Use the five senses – eyes, nose,
ears, tongue, and sense of touch in describing the item. Also remind them that they will
save money.

REVISING: Read it. Would it persuade you enough? Is it worth buying? After revising,
proofread it. Not yet satisfied, revise it again.

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ANSWER KEYS
EXERCISE A
1. MANNER – illegally
2. FREQUENCY – seldom
3. TIME – forward
4. PLACE – farther
5. TIME – yesterday

EXERCISE B
1. SOON
2. MUCH
3. DEFINITELY
4. TOO
5. STERNLY
6. SLOWLY
7. AWAY
8. NEARLY
9. SURPRISINGLY
10. REMARKABLY

ACTIVITY I – JUST PREPARE THE LOGISTICS

EXERCISE C
1. EVENINGS – LOUDLY
2. HOME – VERY
3. EXTREMELY – WEDNESDAY
4. DEFINITELY – TODAY
5. TOMORROW – EARLY
6. SATURDAYS – USUALLY
7. YESTERDAY
8. APPROXIMATELY – FRIDAY
9. DAYS – NIGHTS
10. ALWAYS – DREADFULLY

EXERCISE D
1. AJ – REAL
2. AD – REALLY
3. AD – DAILY
4. AJ – DAILY
5. AD – DARKLY
6. AJ – DARK
7. AD – HARD
8. AJ – HARD
9. AJ – EARLY
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10. AD – EARLY OR LATE

EXERCISE E – THE ANSWERS DEPEND ON THE IDEA OF THE STUDENTS.

DEVELOPING WRITING SKILLS


1. TONY WILL GO HURRIEDLY TO THE GROCERY FOR US.
2. BARN SWALLOWS ARE MAGNIFICENTLY HELPFUL BECAUSE THEY
EAT INSECTS.
3. HIS POOR POSTURE MADE HIM SEEM TERRIBLY SHORTER THAN
HE WAS.
4. THE SORCERER CAST BEGUILINGLY TERRIBLE.
5. WE WERE TERRIBLY SAD…
6. MANY PEOPLE THINK SNAILS ARE REALLY DELICIOUS.
7. THE BOAT DOCKED SLOWLY…
8. THEIR ENTHUSIASM FADED ABRUPTLY.
9. NIGHT FELL ENTHUSIASTICALLY AND THE CELEBRATION LIVELY.
10. CAN THE HELICOPTER SURELY RESCUE THOSE MEN?

QUIZ ON ADVERBS
1. A
2. A
3. C
4. A
5. B
6. C
7. B
8. B
9. B

ADDITIONAL EXERCISE ON ADVERBS

ESSAY REVIEW
1. ZEALOUSLY
2. ESPECIALLY
3. TRULY
4. EVERYWHERE
5. TRULY
6. VERY
7. EQUALLY

SKILLS REVIEW AND WRITING WORKSHOP


USING GRAMMAR SKILLS IN WRITING
WRITING AN ADVERTISEMENT

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BIBLIOGRAPHY:
http://esl.about.com/od/grammarforbeginners/a/adverb_use.htm
http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/adverbs.htm
http://www.websitestyle.com/parser/adverbs.shtml
http://www.english4today.com/englishgrammar/grammar/ADVERBS13.cfm
http://www.oppapers.com/essays/Everday-Heroes/66716

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