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25 OCTOBER 1944

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COMBAT INFORMATION CENTER· VOL. I, NO.8· 25 OCTOBER 1944

Contents Page

Loran, the Electronic Navigator

A ship or plane hundreds of miles at sea vith visibility zero because of fog or storm, unable to break radio silence because of enemy forces

nearby, can still fix its position accurately ill a lew minute.

Loran- (LOng RAnge avigation) is the new radio instrument which provides this solution of the age-old problem of navigation. Loran receivers interpret special signals from transmitting stations strategically sited on distant shores, and the operatOr quickly determines .his ship's geographical position by making a reading and referring to Loran charts whi h show a line of position for each reading. Loran has a number of unique features and advantages which no other navigational system enjoys:

(1) It can obtain accurate fixes at ranzes of 600 to 700 mile from a transnutting station in daytime and 1,200 to 1,400 miles at night. Accuracy is comparable to that of celestial observations.

(2) Loran is almost completely independent of the weather. It works dUTing the most adverse weather, in rough sea or air, and under all conditions e.'{cept heavy lightning in the immediate vicinity.

(3) No transm ission from th e plane OJ" hip is req uired and radio silence thus may 1J maintained.

(4) Loran fixe may be obtained b a killed operator in about two minute. No calculations are necessary.

(5) Becau e the transmitted ignal are coded in their timing the use of Loran is re tricted to friendly craft ha ing app.op iate charts or tables; the enemy cannot use the system, even if he has recei ing equipment,

(6) oran fixes are not dependent upon compass, chronometer, or other radio OT radar sets; special Loran equipment is used.

LORAN

the electronic navigator

"Rules Are So tutJid" 11

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A Confidential magazine published monthly by the Chief of N_aval o perations for the information of commissioned~ warrant, enlzsted personnel, and persons authorized, whose dutt~s are conn~cted with the tactical use and operation of electron" and r:sso.ctate~ eq1.Lipmenl. The information contained in this tJUbhcatt01' lS

CONFIDENTIAL

and asssuah. 'shpJl not be; transmit ed or reuealed in any mannel', to any unautho'fi;t.ed pers~:fts. The publication is t.o be handl~d in accordance with Article 76, U. . Navy Regulations, and. taill. be d~slroyecl /)'Y burning when it has. served its p~rpose. Neither quarterly reports nor reports of burnmg are required.

When Watch Is Relieved in CIC

Destroyer Fighter Direction Handles Va'ricd Assignments Revised Fighter Director Vocabula?'Y Bandits Use Radar

The Menace of [apanese Radar

Eyes and Ears of Countermeasures Fade Charts without Mathematics

"Ma}J-i1:t-Molion" PPI Repeater The Mark 8 Is Deadly

The Mark 8 and Shore Bombardments

Lessons Learned

Combat Problems Train Escort CIC Teams

sa Radar Is Put through Its Pace

Imagination and Corner Refiectors The Care and Cleaning of Plastic Plots

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LOIlAN SEIlJlleE

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-~ -""._ • lift ANTJ /l1C/ff

(7) Because Loran measures lime of arrival of radio waves, instead of direction of arrival as in radio direction finding a simple straight WIre antenna without any special requirement may be used.

oran stations TIm\' provide coverage in the [ orth Atlantic and the ' orth Pacifi . The orth

tlantic from Hatteras and Bermuda to the British Isles is navigable hy Loran. The North Pacific has Loran coverage throughout the Bering Sea and the Aleutians by day, and for an additional 1,000 miles southwest of the Aleutians at night. In the Central Pacific the Hawaiian chain is beginning operation this month. 0 her rations are being erected and in a few months service will be available from 1,000 miles east of Hawaii to New Guinea and northwest Australia.

Special installations of Loran have been completed by the. RAF for coverage of • ngland and Europe. The AAF i completing installations in India and China.

BRIEF HISTORY OF LORAN

Loran was developed by the Radiation Laboratory of the National Defense Research Committee.

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The first tests were so promising that the Na Department immediately made arrangernentswi • the National Defense Research Committee to introduce the system into war service, and to in tall the first stations as quickly as possible on the D€lrthwest Atlantic coast. These first stations, seven in number, were erected two years ago, using laboratory built equipment. The Radiation Laboratory has continued work on developm nt and improvement of the system, radio manufactut r ha e taken up production of the equipment, and the armed services now install and operate it. Since the VoTar Department also was interested. the project was considered by the J oint Chiefs of taff, and joint plans were set up for its introduction. Chief among these was the list of priorities of areas to receive service, because immediate equipment production was of course limited. The North Atlantic was-given first priority, and the North Pa ific ond, because these bad weather areas most needed a navigational aid independent of weather. Later directives have provided for other areas, Chiefly in the Pacific.

The Joint Chiefs of Staff assizued to the avy Department and the U. S. Coast Guard the de-

WICHT Ol/l,~

lo pme nt, installation, and operation of ground tions to give Loran- service, and of shipboard recei' ing apparatus. Cognizance of aircraft receiving apparatus was given to the War Department. This division of the project wa made to avoid duplication of effort, to maximize production efficiency, and to assure standardization of equipment in the two service. s a result, the ame recei ing quipment i used b 1 th Naval and Army Air Forces aircraft, and one system of ground stations serves both, a.vy and Army requirements.

Most of tbe stations in operation have been installed, and are operated, by the . S. Coast Guard. One group in the northeast Atlantic is operated by the Royal Navy, one in the northwest Atlantic by the Canadian Navy, one in the southwest Pacific by the Army Air Forces, and one in Europe by the Royal Air orce.

By the end of 1944, about 1 000 SOl-face ships and several thousand aircraft wj.ll have been equipped. Experience to date indicates definitely that Loran provides a vitally needed service, and one which will grow rapidly in importance. Also it seems clear that the method will have permanent, peacetime application in both surface and air

vigatiou,

UNIQUE POSSIBILITIES OF LORAN

snal1y it is consid red that knowledge of accurate position is not especially useful to surface ships at long distances from shore, and that such knowledge is important only when they approach coasts. Howe er, there are case where accurate long distance na igation is very useful, even to surface Ships. One uch case i that of rendezvous between air and surface craft, particularly in areas where visibility is poor.

The greatest usefulness of Loran is to aircraft on long Bights over water becau e it is the only naviza tional aid which, under weather conditions which prevent celestial observations, assures sufficiently accurate navigation to bring the aircraft within range of local radio navigational aids at the destination.

Homing by following a Loran line of position is a new method of readily and accurately reaching a desired destination. Every point in the area of a pail: of Loran stations has a Loran line of position through it. If a ship desires to reach a particular destination the navigator determines the Loran chartwhich Loran line of position through the destination. He then navigates to reach that line of po ition, and having reached i , steers the ship to remain on it (by watching

1 7:he basic principle of Loran can be ilI)l.Straled by this simple diagram. Loran, modern miracle of elecironies, measures time of arriual. of radio waves. If two radio stations, A and B, are sendi11g out pulses of radio energy simultaneously, they asrlu« at lLny point on the center line at the same instant. Therefore a ship or plam! +eceioing II- time diQe1'ellce reading o{ leTO wOl!'/d. be somewhere on the center line. It has therefore established iu litle of positiotl.

2 A. s!Zip 01" pl1l11e which -receives the pltZse 1rom station d earlier than the olle from station. B by II certain qmoulll. is somewilere 011. this iillC-of-Posilion. This line 0/ time diUercllce . II hyperbola (tI"Olltld stati07l 11.

2:.___~C~O~N!.;F~ID::!E=.::N~T.!!:IA~L:._ __::__ _.,;.;. ........ :.M. ~ ~_~~_~ __ ~~_~_~_~_CONFII)ENTIAL

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OPERATIONAL REPORTS

From DD 429: "By means of Loran, a trans-Atlantic convoy made .a pe1'fect landfall following a three days storm in. which no reliable celestial fixes were obtained. Making landfall 'Was the acid test. Another test, off Montauk Point showed position about Ijooyards [rom. the actual one."

From USCG Gutter: "Loran has been used regularly for the past three weeks and vesults were most successful. During voyage Dutch Harbor to AUu, unit became separated tram convoy due to force 9 wind and condition 9 seas. No sights possibt«. Loran used and later found correct. Er1'01"S var.ied [rom. zero to one mile. Loran is considered by this unit to be th« outstanding single piece ofequitJmenl yet installed."

Fm1n USS TUSCALOOSA: "Experience with Loran to date· has gl:ven the personnel of this ship confidence in its accuracy and nseiulness ."

the "pips" on the Loran scope), This method is particularly useful to aircraft.

- The above method of "homing" can be adapted advantageously to parxolling a given area. In patrolling, instead of laborious and continuous computation for dead-reckoning positions and courses, the Loran method is to steer the ship 110 remain on one Loran line for the requisite time, then reverse course- and follow an adjacent Loran line. Thus, in "lawn-mower" fashion. the area is covered with certainty and Little labor.

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ACCURACY OF LORAN

The accuracy of Loran lines of position varies over the service area of each pair of sta tions. It is very high-a few hundred yards-near the base line between the stations, very low near the base line beyond the stations, and quite high over the rest of the area. Except near the extensions of the base line, a rough but usable idea of the accuracy may be had from the rule that the error will not be more than 1 % or the distance to tile stations .. For example, at 1,000 miles the reading will be within 10 miles of correct value.

Inaccuracies enter from such causes as slightly incorrect maintenance of timing at the transmitring stations. uncertainties of the sky-wave correc-

CONFIDENTIAL

tiOl~ fa.c .•. to.r,~n~uffic.ient.Sk.i11 ?f.' the r.ec.eiving op .. ~ .. ~, tor lllldentuymg and matclung pulses when taRll

readings, variable propagation conditions making it difficult to match pulses precisely,

TYPES OF LORAN EQUIPMENT

Shipboard Loran equipment includes Model LR'l, LRN-IA, and DAS series models. These models are all similar, ana the fundamental manipulation andalignment is the same for all. Certain improvements found in later models have been issued as modification kits for earlier models.

Aircraft Loran equipment includes SCR-722·A (essentially the same as DAS-l) and AN/APN-4 (SCR·622).

New-equipment is under development for both aircraft and surface ships and will be available m 1945. oflLoran Handbook for Shipboard (Ships 278) fully explains the operation equipment and the principles of the system.

AVAILABILITY OF RECEIVING EQUIPMENT Installation of Loran shipboard receiving equip. ment is authorized for practically all types of .. 11 nOIl.,'egiuered confidential PlIbUCfllion(/islriIJlIled RegisteFed Publications issuing OUices.

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Figure 3 FrN an)' two LOT/!tI stalicp'l$, a series at !1}'ptlT~alic lines may be drawn, each r~pre.s~nllllg a c{.Il!Slarlt tuTIC '!,ner- 11'IC8, 11 A aud B OFe pulsmg s~,",u.lta'leOll>sly,the Tea~mgllt the center line is ;rem wilh symmf(tTical lime difference Imer Oh each side.

Figure 4 A sys~el!'()f,sp.aciug puls~ in aspeeial way p~~

a 1IIdhod of dlstmgUlshlllg the IJl~lses from. the tlliO $laIIOn5 .• The interval [rom. receipt ofa master statfcFj pulse to the lIe:l:' slave station: pulse is nlwa),s gretHet awn the inUN1,1iI1 between.

ssels, hut sufficient quantities of equipment are t presently available to meet total requirements.

Priority of installation on individual ships is under the cognizance of CinCLant and CinCPac with installation by the respective Service Force. Allocations are necessarily confined to authorized types of vessels and to individual ships operating in those areas where Loran service exists, .

LORAN TRAINING G!VEN FLEET PERSONNEL

Operational training is given ina four-daycurriculum which teaches the necessary information to operate Loran equipment issued to ships. Naval Training Schools (Loran) instructing under this curriculum have been established as follows:

Navy Yard, Boston, Mass ..

Navy Yard, New York, N. Y. Navy Yard, Philadelphia, Penn. Navy Yard, Norfolk, Va.

Navy Yard, Charleston, S. C. Naval Station, New Orleans, La,

NTSch (Direction Finders), Casco Bay, Portland, Me.

Operational Training School, Treasure Island, CaL

Naval Operating Base, Adak, Alaska.

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tile slao« .(ma ?1-ext master station tnllsB. As a "!l$IlU, llie lilll./) dilJeFenCt#; over I h e service area rail ge fr-oml ow -readinlP lIeaF the slave s./alicmto high reodings ncar the master station, There is there/are only one line for each lime·difference rcoding.

, tire 5 X marks the s-pol. This lone destroyer, tmceTt(lin of .P?~ilioll, is a'Fai~ ,I~ ,~re~k mdiasilence beClwse of e71em;y ctw.t.u t.e{l·rby. P'IJ',bl/ltyu zero, In. mOmeflt:i S1lchlU this LOTan. isprotling its worth as a 11(llligator, Without the fue oj radio or' compass, by tbree simp{e:. acts, the destroyeF eslall.

aval Repair Base, San Diego.

Naval Operating Base, Manus Island.

Materiel training is conducted at the Radio Materiel Schools at the end of the regularcurriculum. Radio Technicians are trained for assignment to the vessels for which Loranequipment is provided. The schools are:

NTSch (Radio Materiel), Belleville, Md ... NTSch (~dlo Materiel), San Francisco, California.

Navy Pier, Chicago, Illfnois,

HOW LORAN OPERATES

TJ-Il~ principleso.f. transmission and r-eception which Loran utillzes may be stated SImply:

(i) Radio signals consisting of short pu lses are broadcast from a pair of special shore-based transmitting stations,

(2) These signals are received aboard ship on a specially designed radio receiver.

(3) The difJlwence in time of arrival of the signals from the two stations is measured on a special indicator. By means of a cathode l'ay tube, this distance m-ay be measured in microseconds (millionths of a second),

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lishes point X ..

I. It obl·aima time·diU'erence Teadil!g from statio" P and R (2500 miCl'OSeC071tU on the indicator scope) mul eJtablishes tile (lQrr-tJ,$polid ing line-oj-pos i t iOIl 011 t Ii e a host,

2. ttFeceives a similar rcadingand /i,u·ot-PwitiOlI from

stations P MId Q ($000 miCl'Oseconds)." .

II_ It finds tile spot 011 lire LOTan chart where the twa lines cress. A1rd there is pa.int X, U,e exact position of the deSll'O)'e:r lil willlin a 'raalio'Tl o] ami/e.

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(4) This time-difference establishes a single lineof-position by reference to special charts or tables.

(5) Two or more lines-of-position from different pairs of stations are crossed to obtain a. fix.

Loran is different from Radio Direction Finding because it measures time of arrival of radio waves rather than direction of arrival. It is differ·ent from radar in that no transmission takes place from ship or plane and there<is no reception of echoes.

In order to explain the principle upon which Loran operates, a specific ilhrstration will be helpful. A and B are two Loran transmitting stations. sending out pulses of radio energy in call directions at once. Each pulse Iastsabour 40 microseconds. These pulses recur at regular intervals but with a relatively long interval between pulses (such as 40,000 microseconds). Thus the- transmitter is active for 40 microseconds, inactive for 40,000 rnicrosecondsyetc,

The line between the two stations is called the base-line, the line bisecting it at right angles the center-line. If stations A and B were transmitting pulses simultaneously (which, as will be explained later, never actually occurs in practice), a ship located at any point on the center line would receive both pulses at the same time .. The time difference reading on the Loran indicator aboard ship would be ZeT(1) , Therefore, a ship receiving a time difference of zero would know that it was somewhere on the center line (its Iine-of-position) but would Dot know at what point on the line, (See Fig. 1.)

If the ship were nearer to station A than station B, (see Fig. 2), the pulse from station A would arrive first. Because the line of position on which every particular time difference actually occurs is nota straight Iine, but a hyperbola, the ship would be somewhere on a curved Iine-of-position, but still would not know the distance from either station or the direction of the radio waves.

A series of hyperbolas :may be drawn for a pair of stations (Fig. 3) each representing a constant time difference. The time difference would be zero on the center line and a maximum on the base line extensions beyond each station.

A difficulty would arise here however, with both stations transmitting simultaneously, as there would be no way of distinguishing between signals from stations A and B .. The time difference could be measured but it would be impossible to tell which signal arrived first and the ship might be on either one of two lines of position, one nearer A or one nearer B. For actual practice it is neces-

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CON FIDENliAL

Fmm USS WAINWRIGHT: uA' proaching N ew York. celestial observations tuere not obtainable for thre« da.ys. Loran used exclusiuely except for soundings checks. LandfaU moae withi'l'lone mile of Loran position."

From USS ATLANTA: "Accuracy of our Loran fixes has been tuel! within the one percent probable error."

From USS AUSTIN: "By means of L01'an, this ship has been able to maintain Us station within a patml asea (Aleutians) and each time has mad8 an excellent land-

fall. where no other naVigational meam were p'resent."

F1'om USCGC FA UNCE: "Because of greo,t amount oj ouercast uieather peculiar _L_'.'" to higher latitudes, the value of the Loran

syslem operating therein can not be overemphasized."

From A tlanticFlee.t Air Force Patrol Sq'uadron 74: "Pilot 'reaction very tav01'~ able, receiving unqualified endorsement of all pilots who have used it. Accuracy of I r" (of dis lance to shore stations) is fai1' index, but a large number of three line fixes have been made with triangles as small as pencil work thickness. Caae must be used to match up the correct waves in each train,"

From Blimp Squad?'on Eleven: "L01:an positions .obtained by ai1'ships during tbe month of A pdt were very acc-urate. No equipment failures were experienced dur-

ing the month." .

6 Whell ionospheric Tl1flecticnlis present, many siWldls ma}' be received. by the ship [rom: Q ..... e trt;m.!milfcd pulse. The olles trallclling langei paths will arrive laterll'nd shoUi tef}arately D1! the scope.

sary to eliminate this ambiguity.

In order to identify the signals from each station an ingenious system ef timing the pulses is used. Station A, designated as the Master Station, sends out a pulse. The second station B,the slave station, receives the pulse from the master station, waits a designated Incervalequal to one half the recurrence interval plus a small delay known as the coding delay, and then transmits its pulse. Because the slave station always waits at least half of the recurrence interval before transmitting its pulse, the interval 'from receipt of a master station puls~ to receipt of the next slave station pulse is alw greater than from a slave station pulse to the next master station pulse. This gives a positive method

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Ti~e . diUcre.nce is measured on th« SC'Yef'lTl by the horizontal distance bet}lJcen lilt tndse 011 fh~. t/,PJllfr and lower_ traces, wllh rejerenee 10 calibrauon marker ftulses which can be srlJi.tclied on ale scone

for reading purposes. .

of distinguishing pulses from the two stations. The time difference measured is always the interval from the master station pulse to the slave station pulse. The time-difference readings of lines-ofposition now range from a minimum reading on the slave baseline extension to a maximum reading on the master baseline extension (Fig. 4) and there is now only one line for each time difference. In Fig. 4 thecoding delay is r.ooo microseconds. On the indicator aboard ship, the time delay of one half the recurrence interval is automatically eliminated.

After a time-difference reading is obtained, it s necessary only to consult a Loran chart to find the location of the Iine-el-pesition in regard to the

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ACllU1i plHllogtaphs Qllhe scope ll(i.juSI('ti for 5101<1, medi!"11 IItld- fast swe~ps, th.tl$ permWingreading of thetifne diDer. C1(Ce in ChO.tlSlIllds, lumdrcd5,.ten.s (I'ld units oj microseconds. The toto_l (elld· illg shown is 34,24.

earth's surface.

In order to obtain a fix, the ship must obtain lines of position from two pairs of Loran stations in the vicinity. Loran stations are always arranged so that two or more pairs • vill cover strategic areas. Two operating pairsare usually formed from three stations, by arranging one master station to operate in both pairs, sending out two different sets of pulses to two different slave stations. (See Fig. 5.) Byestablishing two lines of position the n.avigator can determine where these lines intersect and find his position. Ifa third pair of stations is present it is wise to check the fix by obtaining a third reading and resultant third lineof position.

Loran charts are marked for ·latitllde and longi-

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tude and how the position 0 important land and water areas. Line of po ition with the time difference readinz are .drawn in different colors fOT each pair of stations in the area. These charts, prepared by the Hydrographic Office, are available for all areas in which Loran stations operate, and a cata- 100"ue- is available to using forces which indicates which charts appl to each area (FLO. Pub. TO. l-L(c)).

Loran tables may be used instead of charts, and the positions mu t then be plotted on the regular navigation plotting board.

IDENTIFYING PAIRS OF STATIONS

In order to obtain lines of position from a Loran chart, it is necessary to identify the pair of stations

AN jAPN'4 airborn!! LOHlrl, receiver Ollel indicatoT.

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from whi~h pulses ha e been recei ed and .mel' ured, Pan-s of Loran stations are iden tified ) . three characteristics - radio freq uency channel, basic pulse rate, and pulse recurrence rate.

Originall y all Loran station operated on one freq uency channel, 1950 kilocycles. N ow two 0 ther channels have been added, namely 1850 and 1750 kilocycles. A few special pUll)ose, special area tations operate on 1900 kilocycles. Some of the older receivers were provided with one channel ·oni . However kits of the necessary parts to install are being provided so that the additional Channels can be received on old design receivers also.

A number of pairs of stations in the same vicinity may operate on the same radio frequency but each of these pairs operates on a different pulse recurrence rate. These different rates are identified by the numbers a to 7 inclusive. All of th stations on one frequency will appear on the scope but will drift across the screen. The -receiver may be adjusted to any desired pulse rate, and then pulses from the pair of stations having that rate will be stationary on the scope, while the other continue to drift and are disregarded.

In addition to the above mean of differentiation of station pairs, that is the pulse 'rates (from 0 to inclusive), these rates may be built upon differ fundamental bases. Two such bases are used at present, one designated L (40,000 microseconds) and the other H (30,000 microseconds). Therefore the possible station pair assignments 011 one radio frequency channel are as follows, and oran charts are marked in this terminology:

1 L 0 1 HoE ample

1 L 1 1 H 1 l-L-3 2-H-4

1 L 2 1 .H; 2 3. . . . Pulse Rate . . . . . : .. 4

1 L 3 1 H 3 L Base H

1 L 4 1 H 4 . 1 Radio Frequency 2

lLS 11 5 (195oKc) (150Kc)

lL6 IH6

IL7 IH7

When the navigator wishes to obtain a fix, he obtains from the Loran chart for his area the information needed for identification of the Loran stations in the vicinity, sets the Channel switch, the Basic Recurrence Rate (Base) Switch, and the Station Selector (Pulse Rate) Switch appropriately, obtain a reading for one pair of stations then sets these witches for another pair of stations ill the area, and takes reading on that pair.

GROUND AND SKY WAVES

,\<Vh en signa Is are transmi tted from Loran sta lions, some of the waves parallel the surface of the earth

Squad1'on 84,' "In this area accuracy is somewhat better than the estimated I% (of distance to stations). A cC'uracy of homing on one pair has been excellent with errors of 300 to 500 ya1'ds while homing on Montlluk lighfJ. Homing on a Loran line of position has definite advantages over homing by means of a direction finder or radio compass} since in Loran homing compensation of heading for wind is taken care ot. Pilot reaction to the Loran system of navigation has been favorable as has been the comment of a number of navigation instructors on test fl'ights in' this area:" .

From the I7lh Naval District: "Loran is considered a tn'imary navigational means

in the Aleutian area."

From Miscellaneous Craft and Organizations: "Navigators are fTequently troubled with sky-wave splitting. They show impatience in waiting for sky-waves to assume normal shape for matching. This usually requires no longe» than two 01' three minutes. However) these same navigators find no objeclJion in waiting fifteen minutes or longer for the sun or stars to appear [rom. under clouds."

"Accurate fix was taken while act'ualiy in a front and flying on instruments. Snow static interfered with the signals, but not to the extent chat they were obliterated."

and are known as ground waves. (Fig. 6.) Other waves travel upward, encounter electrified layers of the atmosphere known as the ionosphere, and will be reflected back. to the receiver near the earth if conditions are favorable. These reflections are

own as sky waves. There are two significant lay-

s of the ionosphere effecti e on the radio frequencies used 'in Loran the E layer at a height of about 50 miles, and the F layer at about 150 miles. Multiple reflections between the ionosphere and the earth al 0 occur. These are known as hop waves.

In Figure 6, the receiver is receiving both ground and sky waves from the transmitter. Since the e waves travel different distances to the reo cei VeT, they arrive at differen t times, and appear as a series of pulses on the scope} the shortest path wave appearing first. The fir t pulse 'will be the ground wave, followed by pulses from the one-hop E layer, multiple hop E layer, and F layer pulses. Very rarely do all of these pulses appear at the same time, but at least a few will appeal' every night. Ground waves may be absent at great distances, and sky waves may be absent or unstable.

The navigator may obtain a readinz from the ground or sky waves which appear, but he must be certain that he is matching the corresponding pulses tram both stations. Ground wa es should always be used if they are preseDt, because they are more stable. Sky waves may be used if the correct ones are matched. At times when the pulses

variable and unstable, the navigator must study t re scope carefully to make sure that he is using the correct "pips" on the scope.

It may be seen that sky waves travel longer paths than do the ground waves, and therefore the time necessary for them to reach the receiver will be greater than for ground waves. Since the Loran charts are computed assuming that the lines of position will be determined by matching ground waves, a correction must be applied when sky waves are used. These correction aloe precomputed, and appear on the charts. They must be added up (if marked plus) or subtracted hom (if marked minus) the time reading given by the receiver to determine the Iine-of-position. This procedure is very similar to that of correction Ear "variation" in magnetic compasses, and just as simple.

Occasionally, when a pair of stations has a long base line, or land intervenes between the station and the ship or plane, it will be impossible to receive two ground waves or two useable sky waves. In this case, a ground wave from one. station of the pair may be matched with a sky wave from the other station of the pair, providing a special correction is made. The e al'e supplied in Loran tables for certain areas. This matching should never be relied upon except in emergencies.

Many factors enter into th reception and range of sky and ground waves. Among these are distance hom transmitter and time of day, geographical and atmospheric conditions, signal path over water or over land, and altitude of aircraft. It is important to understand the effect of these conditions in order to interpret pulses which ·appear.

Ground waves are strongest near the transmitter.

They may be received for a distance of about 700 nautical miles from the transmitter by day over

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sea. At night this may decrea e to about 450 nautical miles in heavy static areas. They var with noise conditions and are not received well over land.

Sky waves vary greatly with time of day, seasonal and geographical conditions. They are usually received in sufficient strength to obtain a reading at nizht only. They are numerous at night and in medium latitudes may appear in the late afternoon and early morning. Sky waves will ordinarily be weak or completely absent in the daytime. Sky waves are .too unreliable to be u ed within 250 mile of a station. Under this distance, they need not be used, because the ground waves are available. The best range for sky waves is from 300 to 1200 miles from the station.

The one-bop E sky waves become weak beyond 1200 miles and only the mulri ple-hop-E waves and F layer waves are received beyond 1400 miles. Various waves may be received at distances of two or three thousand miles, but they are of no operational u e because their path lengths and times of travel are too uncertain.

Reception of both ground and sky waves is better in the polar regions than in the tropics. Sky waves sometimes may be received 'in polar regions during most ·0£ the day in winter.

Intervening land greatly reduces the range of g:round waves, but does not greatly affect sky waves unless the land is within 20 or 30 miles of the receiver or transmitter. Increa ed altitude of

planes reduces the effect of land. In general, ~ altitude of 3000 feet or more increases the ran.' of ground waves.

Because 0' corrections necessary for sky wave, it is essential to distinguish between ground and sky waves when taking readings on the indicator. Bearing in mind the type of waves that might be expected in the location, the navigator can determine the type of waves by the appearance of the signals under observation and the spacing of the pulses in the train. IE frequent observations are taken, changes in the location and appearance of the pulses will become apparent, and the danger of mistaken readings reduced. An operator can easily obtain good readings on strong ground wave signals, but training and experience are necessary to obtain good readings on sky waves.

JAMMING

Like any other radio receiver the Loran receiver is susceptible to interference. This may be due to transmitters aboard ship, aboard other ships, on shore, or to enemy jamming. Radiotelegraph, radiophone, or radar interference is possible. The receiver itself has a certain amount of inherent noise known as "grass." The receiver is provided with a special filter which can be switched in which is effective toward reduction of some types of interference. In general, however, the interference problem is not erious, except in the case of transmitters on board the same ship or aircraft.

) RULES ARE SO 5THP//).' Ikj 1ffM/~

IMAGINE THAT ow WINOBAu TELLING US WI-IAT TO 00/,1

Security of Communications has gro'wnincreasingly important.

Its 1Jroblems change and they are sometimes complicated. Relia,biliflJ is peramown: but t'he pf'Oper balance between speed and security must be found in many situations when both cannot be fully achieved.

Pertinent information on this subject, umtten in interesting style, is contained in the aval Communications Securit Bulletin (Op j av 20-6).

In the current issue, Volume I, o. 2, which has been distributed, VHF Is r at Secure is a concise article on VHF communications and the consequent lack. of secu1'ity due to guided propagation.

Another short article discusses "Authentication" which is to communications what recognition signals and IFF are to ships and aircraft.

Interested officers and communication personnel arc urged to lake a Look at this very excellent publication. A third issue of this bulletin will probably be out in December or January. The second

issue, however, is "on board" at the present time. •

.. _ ... .........- __ _---

_ _--

CONFIDENTIAL



CON FIDENJIAL

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« One of the best ways for a CIC Watclt Officer to (lvoid embarrassing moments is t~ TRahe sure

of getting esselltial inforTRotion before the officer Ite is relieving goes beloa»; This is tile b imurance against being cal~ght napping by an unexpected deoelopment,

I:he following suggested Chec.k Off List, kept on the cli.pboarcl or poste,d 01t rke bulkheasl; and gone OVer at each relieving oj the soatch. loiLZ aid the. WatelL Officer in being

ready Jor (my silllalion likely to arise, »

cc WATCH OFFICER'S CHECK-OFF LIST SURFACE STATUS

A. SHIP'S GEOGRAPHIC POSITIO

l. What latitude and longitude? Time zone?

2. How recently has DRT been checked with the navigator against a fix or his more accurate DR position?

3. Any factors, .such as current, that might cause serious discrepancy in DR position?

4. What scale is DRT on?

5. I landfall possible during watch? If so, what? When?

6. What are most likely radar reference points?

7. What, where is nearest friendly or enemy land?

6. Are all ship's on station?

7. Has SG operator an overlay or plot of disposition?

8. "Vhen is next change of course expected?

9. Will any ships leave formation? How?

"When?

10. What are the sectors of responsibility?

11. Wllat gunnery condition is set and what are arrangements for holding fire?

12. Have clocks been checked by quartermaster?

C. OTHER FORCES

8. What is variation? g. What is current?

1. Have any surface contacts been made during previous watch or watches? Are any

anticipated? re any now present?

2. If so, what information is available regarding them? (IdentiEy-Gourse-Speed-Minimum Range, etc.)

3. Hav-e Bridge and Flag been notified?

4. What, where, and how strong are nearest friendly and enemy forces? Submarines?

B. OWN FORCE

1. Read and under tand operation orders.

2. Read and understand captain's night orders.

3. What is base cour e, speed, and fleet axis?

4. What is zigzag plan, if any?

5. What.is disposition? What ship is in each station?

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AIR STATUS

OW PLANES

1. Read and understand Air Operations Plan.

12

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

z. What are YG sectors in effect?

3· When is next launching or recovery? What planes are in olved?

4. What planes are airb me, on search, inner or intermediate, patrol?

5. What sectors are they flying? What are plane numbers and pilots' names?

6. What time should returning search planes be first detected?

7· What VF are on CAP 01' standing by? What are CAP stations? What are division numbers, pilots' names, plane numbers?

8. What are IFF codes and radio frequencies or channels?

9. Any special orders for CAP?

10. What is position of friendly aircraft in vi-

cinity of the force? Are all accounted for?

11. What is Flight deck condition of CV's?

12. I~ YJ on?

1.3· What is Air-Sea rescue plan?

B. 0 HER PLANES

1. Have other friendly aircraft or bogies been detected recently?

2. Are any now on the screen, and are any expected? If So, obtain full data.

3· Ha e they been-reponed to Flag and Bridge? 4· Strength of reported enemy air bases?

WEATHER

Determine the following:

1. Time of sunrise and se t.

2. Dewpoint.

3· Barometric Pressure. 4· urface wind direction and elocity-upper

air wind direction and velocity.

5. Cloud conditions.

6. Forecast.

7· Vi ibility: Plane to ship, ship to plane, plane to plane.

8. Possibility of temperature inversion and effect on radar.

Ioon rise, set.

--#

RADAR STATUS

1. 'What condition of Radar silence exists, if any? Is it being complied with?

2. nder what onditions and by whose au.

thorit may it be broken?

3· What is the Radar guard plan for the force? 4· Which of your Radars is on?

5· What are our particular responsibilities? (Long range search, short range search, sectors, IFF guard, etc.)

6. On what scales are OUT search radars operating? At what elevation is SM searching? Is this consistent with above requirementsi' 7· Who has identification IFF guard?

8. Are radars and PPI's operating at peak eBi· ciency? If not, has this been reported/

9· Do operators have necessary information and orders?

10. Has crew chief or section leader reported the operators' watch properly relieved?

COMMUNICt1 TIONS

1. What condition of radio silence exists?

2. nder what conditions and by who e authority rna y it be broken?

3· What channels or frequencies are in use for what purposes?

if· What outlets for these channels or frequencies are currently operative? What channels are monitored?

5· What standby frequen ies are available?

6. What are the calls of hips in the force, or aircraft airborne?

7· Are you familiar with force voice code currently in use and proper authenticators and their use?

8. When do code and authenticators change?

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RECOGNITION

1. What are the recognition signals currently effective? (Ship's challenge and reply, submarine recognition signals, planes' reply,

fighting lights.) ..

2. When, in terms of local zone ume, IS the next change? What will the changes be?

3. Is this an odd or even-numbered day, ac-

cordinz 0 Greenwich Civil Time? ~

4. t wh:t hOUT, local zone time, will ~

this change?

GENERAL

1. ny special orders or instructions?

2. Have you read recent dispatches?

3. Who and where is Duty echnician?

4. Who is D.D.?

5. vVho is Staff Duty Officer?

6. Is C.LC. log up-to-date? Signed?

A Fighter Director superintending the defense of the force agains air attack, and the Intercept Officer conducting an interception, must remember .a million and one items of miscellaneous information (or so it seems). In the excitement, and sometimes the confusion, that may accompany me early stages of an interception, several of these items may easily escape their attention. Here is a check off list to help memo

FIGHTER DIRECTION CHECK-OFF LIST

A. PRELIMINARY

1. From what enemy forces or bases are at-

tacks possible?

2. What types of aircraft and in what numbers?

3. Is contact with enemy aircraft likely?

4. Are VF assigned to defense adequate?

5. What is tactical organization of all VF

squadrons?

6. Are sufficient VF airborne on ~?

7. Ar ufficient VF in readiness on deck?

8. Are re1iefs Eor CAP properly scheduled?

g. Is CAP properly positioned? ...

(a) Altitudes '"

(b) Advanced stations

1 o. What provision or understanding exists with Flag £01' interception of snoopers?

1 J. '!\That provision or understanding exists with Flag and Bridge for launching additional F? 'What step are necessary?

12. What provisions Eor vi ual control?

13. What facilities e i t for air-sea rescue? VVhat is proper procedure?

14. What radio channels and frequencies are

CONFIDENTIAL

15· 16.

17·

allocated to what use? What standby fr quencies 01' channels are available?

What steps nece sary to break radio silence? What VF have be t communications? Remember-it i better t-o start tOO many, to soon, too high and too fast: rather than too few, too late, too low, and too slow.

B. I TERCEPTION

I. Are you using enough VF for this Taid?

2. Do you still have cover overhead?

3. Have you sufficient VF for next raid or raids?

4. Have you launched additional VF if necessary, or all VF, as well as all VT and VB in commission, if a large raid? tU

5. Are intercepting VF high enough? . ~

6. Are ,they on the bearing of the raid?

7. Are you giving VF an the dope?

8. What is the weather in the intercept area?

g. Is a vertical formation necessary?

10. Are you taking all possible advantage of sun and cloud cover without exaggerating?

1 L If using a controlled interception watch the timing of intercept vector.

12. If using au orbit interception, if no tally ho has been obtained when raid is three mil on plot from orbit, start return 00 base.

13. For either case, if no tally ho is obtained. the first thing to check is altitudes and cloud formation.

J 4. Are you putting out me proper information to remote stations in your ship, and to other vessels in the force?

15. Have you received the omplete taUy ho report from VF?

16. Are there VT in the raid? If 50, don't lose track of them.

C. AFTER HE INTERCEP ION I. Are all VF accounted for?

2. Are all VF joined-up and reorganized?

3. Steps been taken to home an lost planes?

4. U any aircraft have been shot down, ha

posi tion been plotted and OTC notified?

5. What is fuel and ammunition state of VF?

6. Condition of Hight decks in ask Force?

7. Provisions made to recover damaged planes, or others for refuelinz and re-arming? Have these planes been relieved if others are available?

g. Is present AP needs?

10. I ave Bridge, Flag, and Force notified of urrent VF availability?

adequate for anticipated FDO bel

estroyer fighter direction handles

TACTICS ALTERED FOR CENTRAL PACjFIC CAMPAIGN

During the Central Pacific Campaign against the Gilbert and 4:arshalls Islands, de troyers were used to. provide fighter direction from positions where carrier and other large hip could not be exposed for the necessary period of time.

The destroyer now were better equipped in

I ersonnel and materiel for lessons learned in the South Pacific were applied. crc teams bad a fighter director offi er, assistant intercept officer, radar maintenance officer qualified on SC, FD, BL-BK radar, and VHF radio, and scope reader practiced in interception work. he ships were equipP d with four channel H' and special hip-to-ship and hip-to. hore ra-

dio for an Inter Fighter Director net.

This inter-Fl) net was de igned for exchange of information between the DD'/i, the carrier up plying the planes, and the arnphibiou command stationed on a battleship. However, weakness of the circuit and distances between ships limited the eIfectivene of the net.

The de troyers were stationed about 25 miles out from the islands being assaulted in he direction of enemy bases hom whi h air atta k might be expected. Planes wer upplied by e ort car-

varied assi9nments

ONE valuable u e of destro er in providing fighter direction is exemplified in the landinzs on Vella LaVella in the early winter of .1943· DD's not only guarded the landing forces against surface attack but handled combat air patrols in keeping off Japanese dive bombers and strafing plane. D's effectively handl d the same type of du several months later in the Southwest Pacific, (See "DD' and Army Planes

Team Su ce fully" in the September "C.1"C.")

It was necessary to provide q ualified tel' Director Officers for the use

the destroyers in these missions.

Some of them were constantly on the go, barely returninz from duty with one ship before they were off on another. t that time, the des myers were also handicapped by having n

PPI with their ail- search radars, They al 0 la keel VHF radio which caused difficulty in contracting ombat patrols and often made it necessary to maintain radio silence until raids were actually on the way.

Despite the handicaps, however, the destroyers performed their duty in creditable fashion. Jap" anese air efforts to inflict heavy damage on our force and to break up the landing operations were thwarted.

-l." __

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~ ,,~~'L, <, ,_ ..... '-_-....:::>~ ~-...._ ~~Q.

~ !:)...::':':.:... '-., ....... '''. ~--:::--..__ '., _.:.: ..... >

... - .... ~.. ~

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CONFI DENTIAL

15

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riel's in daylight patrols of four to eight fia-hters. hese were orbited over

__ the force, or the DD's,

or island points. Jap

_,..

raids were Iew, and the

DD' intercepted these successfull y.

Perhap the most interesting fact ab ut the operation of the D 's in these ilbert-Marshalls a aults was that they acted almost in complete independence f any outside instructions in their handling of the combat air patrol, The job was well done, furthermore; but the lack of adequate communications with the heavier ships was keenly felt on occasions, particularly in the task of returning patrols to their own carriers, the C possessing little information on the position of those hips.

In a report on the occupation of Southern Islands of the Kwa_jalein Atoll in early 1944 the Fighter Directors said, "The position of the carriers is a matter which always comes up for attention. This operation was no exception. On more than one occasion while enroute, emergency lights were required to pick up V 's who were unable to locate their base. The assistance which the DD FDO can furnish is usual1y limited by lack of any definite knowledge of such positions other than appro imations. Neverthele s be is usually asked by the pilot for a vector to his base, The fighter should be acquainted with the limitations attached to fighter direction from a destroyer." In the same report, they recommended that "permission be secured for the Bight leader of the CAP to indicate by appropriate grid coordinate the carrier's position,"

---

Other interesting recommendations, revealing the problems the DD's faced, were that "Task Force common be broadca t on a low frequency which would permit use of the TAJ transmitter, eliminating need for the TBK. a move which would aid the destroyers," also that "fighter directors attached to the Flag did a magnificent job furnishing us with pertinent information at all times, and in acting as Liaison between the Commander Support air and fighter director; this representation on the Flag should be continued." It was also recommended that DD fighter director teams, once organized and shaped through experience. be retained as a unit.

CON FIDENTIAL

ANOTHER PHASE BEGINS

During the interim between the occupation of the Gilberts and Marshall and the assault on the the Marianas came new developments affecting the use of. destroyer Fighter Direction for landing operations. Chief among these was the introduction of the mphibious Force lagship possessing complete communi ations facilities and large, carrier-type erc, hom which a For e ighter Dire tor om- er coordinat d all fighter direction for an operation.

By this time, Commander Destroyers Pacific was getting results with an enlightened program of

tandardizing all CICs in their command, making possible higbly coordinated figbter direction and radar reporting. The pro{[ram also incl uded having a trained intercept officer aboard each destroyer and. 0 far as pos ible, equipping all destroyers with VH' radio. t least two destroyers per squadron were required to be 0 equipped, thus allowing fi~hter direction from destroyers to keep pace with the carriers. ,

In this period. the destroyer intercept teams, instead of coming direct to the destroyers from the service pool of the Pacific Fleet Radar Cen ter 4j formerly, were assigned direct to the amphibious command under a senior FD , the latter serving on the staff Flag. This y tern centralized control in the AGe. and the destroyer acted as advanced pickets or intercept information stations. Primary responsibility 11 w re ted on the Bag shi p and the Force FDO.

In this fashion, the individual destroyers lost independence but the result was great~l' efficiency as Illustrated by the night work done during the battle for Saipan. On the west side of the- island were the AGC and other transports, and destroyers with CIC teams were stationed on the north ea t. and south. vVhenever Jap planes came in the FFDO would ve tor the fight en towards the raid and the ship nearest the conta t would take control. In several instances con trol was passed from ship to ship as the enem.y circled the island. all ships passing available information on altitude to the control ship. This fine coordination was the resul t of mutual acquaintance and joint training of the teams, advance agreement on. procedure, and the free use of high frequency radio for interfighter director information. •

It is interesting to note the transition from complete independence of the destroyers to practically

te mt rd p ndence wi thin a force. uder

centralized control of the Force Fighter Director, these DD CI teams did a grand job in he Marianas.

THE CURRENT PHASE

In this survey of the phases through which destroyer fighter dire tion has passed under the pressure of cir um tanc , it is important t remember that each phase has had iLS roots in those pr ceding it and that it i hard to draw a line between them. As better train d I personnel and bett r equipment be arne available. and the number O( DD's used for fighter direction 'increa ed, idea formulated and hoped for could be put into practice. The fourth phase has only become possible of late, and it is this phase that requires the highest degree of coordination in a force. Thi i the use

(he for 'I" prop r. Thouzh lana- range 50 to 100 miles ha e been tried, th e nearer ta tions wi thin TB range-about 15 mile from the force-have so far been found the most ali factor .

Having four such picket stations equidistant around a force provides complete, additional 360 degree visual coverage. During large scale flight operations, this gives invaluable service in identifying approaching planes and potting enemy snoopers. Speed of control and of reporting are essential to getting fullbenefit IT m uch potting. since the period of time between sighting enemy shadowers prior to their sighting the fore is mall In one of the operating groupsvgreat effort was expended to reduce the time lag in reporting and controlling the planes. Any ship having an unidentified visual contact was permitted to start interception immediately, reporting the contact and action t-aken in the meantime. his procedure proved j ts worth.

Needless to ay, this pra ti i onl possible where mutual onfidence exists that all ships have qualified CIa teams and adequate radar and radio.

his can best be settled to the atisfaction of all by a meeting of senior representatives from each ele before an operation. The importance of such a meeting to establish mutual acquaintance and understanding of the projected operation can hardly be overemphasized. Such a meeting also permits the destroyer alCs to sell themselves to the Force Fighter Director Officer who naturally wants to be ure that he can depend on the pickets to do a thorough job.

The destro er fighter direction picket has amply demonstrated its value for early warning, spotting snoopers, and making fast interceptions. It has produced other signal advantages as well. The Combat Air Patrols are helped by having fixed points of orientation outside the force limits. It is on record that urfacing submarines have been surprised and unk, On one occasion the enemy mistook til pickets for a part of the close-in force screen and launched a disastrous (to them) night air attack. 13 no means have all the advantages of the fighter direction destroyer been realized. For example, in positions more or Ies remote from a force, these pickets may relay altitude estimates on low flying Jap planes for night interception.

When the equipping and training of each fighter direction destroyer in the fleet has reached the ontemplated level, the only limitation on their u efulne will be the ingenuity of a particular for e in devising means of impro ing Q erage and attaining finer tactical control of air patrols.

CONFI DENTIAL

of fighter direction destroyers as pickets in a fast carrier force. capitalizing on the maneuverability of the speedy DDs.

The defensive coverage which a force can provide itself in this deployment of its shiFls encompasses arious areas of range, with the DDs variously stationed according to visual range, short range, radar range, aircraft patrol range, or lonz

nge radar coverage. The most favored practi e t present is the stationing of destroyers within visual or short range, at positions detached from

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REVISED FIGHTER DIRECTOR VOCABUlAR

By euthori+v of the Combined Communications Board, the revised vocabulary CCBP 1 1-2 supersedes CCBP I I, which should be destroyed without report.

This revised, up-to-date Fighter Director vocabulary is provided for the passing of orders and information clearly, briefly. and in a standardized manner. No alternatives are to be used, and any proposed amendments or additions are to be submitied to the Combined

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CONFIDENTIAL

19

Communications Boerd through appropriate channels.

The vocabulary is for intra service and joint use and is authorized for issue to Allied Forces. Classification of the vocabula.ry is RESTRICTED.

Distribution of printed copies of the revised vocabulary to previous holders is scheduled to begin about 28 September via Registered Publications Service. The vocabulary is effective upon receipt.

PART I: RjT CODE AND VOCABULARY USED FOR THE DAY CONTROL OF FIGHTER AIRCRAFT E1THER UNDER SHORE OR SHIP CONTROL

RjT MEANING W/T

*A.bove A.mmo Minus timmo Plus A.mmo Zero Anchored Angels

*Away

Bandit

Base

Bemn *Belolv *Blallket

*Bogey

*Bombers *BlLTst

Blul.er

*Center

Chickens Clara *Close Drop it

Aircratt above you AB

Have less alan half ammunition leJt AM-MN

Have more than half ammunition left AM-PS

Have no ommunuion left AM-O

Am orbiting a visible orbit point. . AK

Height in thousands oj feet AG

Aircraft is flying away from directing ship AW

Ide1ltified enem .. y aircraft (Nu.m.ber may be

indicated) . _ . . . . . , . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . BT

Home airfield (Note: Wi.th ship based aircraft

.d:'· '. . "C'· ~') >II co

lifilS means arrser HU

Beam approach. , BM

Aircraft beloto you BE

A.mount of clouds, (With Cl nun Iser ; amount

in tenths.) BK

Unidentified aircraft (Note: Implies C investi-

gale with caution-may be friendly" ) BG

High level bombers BS

Am about to fire B.A. SIrens to bll.rst at eslimaLel! height: of and in direction oj enemy .. UR Fly (It. normal full speed (Note: Indicate Air Speeds T{Jill normally be u.sed by shore con-

trollers) . , _ BU

Center oj Vni.t or Indicated part oj Vnit (See

CLOCK. CODE) CT

Own fighters CN

Radar screen is clear . . . . . . . . . _ . . CA

Keep near directi-ng shi1). . . . . . . . CL

Do not attack or cease auack., . . . . . . . . . DI

*(i'islr.es "'Freddie *Freddie

lndicnting

1:

*Friertdly Flwl

Gnte

Give your DR position

Grand Slam

*Hawks Beads Up Hey Rube

"'Left (Port)

"'Lights Lilte,r

*Mattress

.... o'clock

Oran{!e8 Sweet Oranges So"r Orbit

Orbit Lett

(Port)

Orbit Right

(Starboard) Pancake Pancack Ammo Pancake Fuel Pancake Hurt; *Pigeons

*Pil1ow Popeye *Quilt

'Rats *Rear

Reques, homing *Resume

Torpedo aircraft FS

F'ighter Direcdng Ship ED

Am identifying myself as Fighter Directing Ship

by making puOs oj smoke and/or orne ocher

prearranged signal ED-PD

Aircraft is/are friendly FY

Qu.antity (If !:.el remaining (Number of gal.-

lons e.g., ' FIwt forty-boo' ) FL

Fly at maximu.m possible speed (Note: Not to

be maintained [or more "han five minutes) .. GA

Report 'weather giving: DR

V-· Visibility in miles

A-· Amount oj loud, in. tenths

T-Bei-ght of clotul top, in "howands of feel B-Height o] clOIul base, in tllODsands of [eet (Note: Reply is a series o] Jour numbers. A._" Il.nknown item is answered by "~ero". The seq"erlCe of items mlty be vurietl locally.)

Enemy aircraft shot down. (Followed by a

number, indicates nlunber shot down) GR

Dive bombers HS

Enemy got through (part or all) HU

Need 1Jelp, come to. my. assiStance. (Normally

used only by Fighter Director) HC

Alter course to lett (Port) (ccircraft normally nl-lers course 300) •••.•.•••.••••••••••• LF

Ma1r.e your recognition signal LT

Fly at economical crll,ising speed. (Note: Indi,cated Air Speeds will normally be ,,,,ed by

shore controllers) Ll

Below cloud. (Witl, a number, height. oj clo"d

base in thousan.ds of feet) MT

Aircrale i" clock code sector indicated. (See

CLOCK CODE) Q

Weather is good OR-SW

Weather is bad OR-SO

Circle and search. . . . . . . . . . . . OR

Circle andsea.rch to left (Por.t) , OP

Circle and search to right (Starboard) OS

Land, refuel and remn PK

Relll.ruing short of ammunition. Wish. to land. PK-AM

Returning short of fuel. Wish to land PK-FL

Returning wounded or dantaged. Wi,sh to tand. PK-HU The bearing (magnetic) a.nd distance of your

base from you is . . . . degrees . , . . mile«. . . PG

Visibility. (With (J nlu"ber, visibility in miles. PI

In ClOltd ......•..........•......•.••.• py

Above. cloud. (With a number, hei iht oj clo".d

top in thousands oj feet) QL

lclentified eltemy figllters RS

Rear of Unit or in.dicated part oj Unit. (See

CLOCK CODE) RE

Request cou.rse to steer for "home". . . . . . f1.H

Resume palrol RM

CONFIDENTIAL

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*Right (Stcrrboard)

*Salvoes

Saunter Scramble

See you *Shad "Snooper Steer

Tallyho

Touch

* Towcrrds *'Pan

Vector

J' ector lelt (Port)

J'ectorright (Starboard)

What state

Alter course to riKll" (Starboard) ( aircraft

normally alters course 30° ) XT

A1n obou: W open fire (magnetic bearing may

be indicated). Keep clear SJT

Fly at lOIC/est speed possible without losing height. SA Take oD. (May be fol1mved by course and alti-

tude instn!ct.ions.) SC

Fleet in sight. . . . . . . . . . . .. '.' CU

Shacl01f)·er SD

Low Shadower (beloiD 2000 [ees} SP

Set course . • • (magnetic cour e indicated) [or

"home" SR

Aircraft sighted arid recognized as hostile. (Note:

In reporting this, number type ,md height of

enemy aircraft sighted should be given) TL

I" touch on lloming beacon. . . . . . . TH

Aircraft is flying towards directing .ship .....• TO Front of Unit or indicated part oj Unit. (See

CLOCK CODE) VN

Alter course to magnetic course indicated.

(Note: Must be used with tl .. ree figu.re gruup e.g. ~'Vector zero six sero" NOT "J' ector six sero" nor "Vector si~ty." For homing

course "STEER" is used (q.v.).) VC

Alter course '0 ... magnetic course Indicated,

turni.ng to LEFT (Port) VC·PO

A.lter course to ... magnetic course inilicateil,

turnin.g to RIGHT (St~rboard) JTC~T

Report fuel and ammunition remaining WT

"'NOTE: E:qtressioD Marked ,*" are used by ships with hore-based fighters under

shore control. •

PART II; RjT I.F.F. CODE

(a) I.F.F.

Cockerel

Make Your Cockerel Crow Strangle Your Cockerel Cockerel is Strangled Check your Cockerel

J. .. F.F.

Switch on your I.F.F. All MARKS

Switch off your I.F.F.

I.F.F. is switched off.

Adi.ust your I.F.F. (Le .. , COCk.]

erel (up one down two) MARK n

-Turn I.F.F. (up one G

notch down two notches).

ore: The-word "Dorch' is never us

• Co kerel"C.row " acnd i 'heard" and not "seeD."

Mayday Cockerel

O!; LU co

o IU o

U

20

CON FIDENTIAL

Switch on your I.F.F. in the Distress position (only used by F.U.O. afler receipt of a distress lnessage fro.m the aircraft).

I.F.F. ("G" Band) Press' G" Auto Button. Switch on "G' manual

switch.

Switch off "G" manual switch.

MARK nr c. "G" Band Anto and Manu

tf



PART III; R/T CODE AND VOCABULARY USED WITH NIGHT FIGHTERS UNDER SHORE OR SHIP CONTROL

The following code -words and pin-a es ar u ed in addition to tho in Pari I l(a) G.C.I. Control.

Weapon

Contact Contact Lost Punch

Judy

(b)

MOther} Grannie

Cousin Maude} COUBin Jim Baby

Searchlight Aided CandJes

Douse

Trade

'"'SNAP" (Ship or Station call Bign)

NEGATIVE (Negat) Snap

A.I.

Flash your Weapon-"Swilc.b on your A.I. Darken your Weapon-'·Switch off your A.I. I My Weapon is flashing-"My A.I. is switched on."

My Weapon is beot-"1\ly A. 1. is unser-vfeeable.

I have an indicalion on my A.I.

The indication on my A.L has faded.

You should very Boon be obtaining a "CON· TACT" on the aircraft that is being intercepted.

Take over (or "am talOng over") the inter· ception.

Homing Beacons, (Radar)

Patrol Beacons. (Radar)

A.I. Beam Approach Beacon. (Radar)

Sector Control.

Searchli .... ht beams. Extinguish searchlights.

Enemy raiders are in the offing. ('this is a. warning mcssa.ge and is followedLy the general direction of the approach of the raiders e.g., "T.rade South").

Cease orbiting and proceed in direction indio cated.

Am leaving ordit to investigate (e.g. "Smack·

ing South.")

Abandon chase and return to orbit beacon, Am leaving orbit to attempt an incerceptiou. Do not volunteer gauntlet.

Cannot find the raid allotted to me.

"OVER TO SNAP"

PART IV: RjT CODE AND VOCABULARY FOR VISUAL CONTROL OF FfGHTERS •

UP (may be repeated) DOW}'li (may be repeated) STEADY

LEVEL

MAST·HEAD OR

ON THE WATER PRONTO (Left (Poet) or

Right (St.arboard))

Yon are 10 be directed visually-fly at sustained combat speed. All turns and movements are to be done as fast as possible. Acknowledgment of orders is not required beyond "Roger'. When confuSion cannot sri e all signs willnOl he used.

Call ign of visual or directing ship.

Revert to nonnal direction control. (Full procedure to be used.)

Climb (indicating target iB above).

Lose height (indicating target is below). Strai.ghten out or maintain pre ent height. Enemy' at your heiaht,

Fly al sea level. (May be used to indicate target is at sea Ievel.)

Go into tight turn in direction indicated.

CONFIDENTIAL

21

(h) Canary Canary Canary Please

Make YonI' Canary Sing

Strangle Your Canary

Smack

Smacking

Re-orbit Ganntlel

Cancel Gauntlet No Joy

o o o ()

o

1;0 rn ;;0

ffi

a::o

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o

22

bandits use rada

Type 2 Large Flying Boat

ALTITUDf RANGE IN MILES

,

, ,

-,

" ,

-, ,

<,

<,

,

,

,

....

....

.... ,

" "

SIDE

DEAD ANGLE

FORWARD

9840

3280

1640

6560

1640

6560

6560

3280

1640

4.5-6.5

35

32

27

38

32

27

7.5-12

7.5-9

TARGET-IO,OOO TON SHIP

BEARING ERROR 7"_10"

Type I Land Attack Plane

ALTITUDE RANGE IN MILES

CONFIDENTIAL

'"-;

. ,"-

'"-

<,

''"-

,

-,

....

,

,

'",

SIDE

DEAD ANGLE

iFORWARD

1640

330

6560

3280

3280

6560

6560

30

27

32

7.,5-9

2.7-3.8

38

TARGET-IO,OOO TON SHIP

BEARING ERROR AT ±7KM 3"; AT 20Kt"vl ±5"

',NFOR fATION on how and where. the Japan, ese are using radar continues to roll in. The

latest comes from prisoners of war, captured Japanese documents and reports from OUI own forces. Some descriptions of the captured equip" ments were given in the September issue of C.l.C.

'very scrap of information on the enemy's use of its airborne radars isof use to the ships and aircraft of the Pacific Fleet as it closes the gap to the Asiatic mainland. 'rom the reports already in, the effectiveness of the airborne equipment cannot be determined=but good guesses can be made.

One prisoner of war said that Belty's of a Japanese air group carried a radar Em detecting enemy ships and aircraft and for navigational purposes. He stated, also, that planes of other types are using radar. Another POW, a j)lane captain, said the external gear on Betty consisted of three antennas, one extending forward from the nose and one extending horizontally from each side of the fuselage.

This Qquipment is believed to be of the ASP type used by alUed .aircmft since its location on the enemy plane indicates that search elm be made !o1'ward or to either side:

A captured Japanese pilot confessed that radar . uipmeru is being delivered as .fast as possible to ll jwin-engined aircraft, but further stated that Jap airmen, as a whole, do not have much Iaith "in

Type 97 Carrier Attack Plane

SIDE

radar, due primarily to lack of trained operators.

A carrier reported some months ago that the use of detecting equipment by Japanese night torpedo aircraft has defini tely limi ted the effecti veness of purely passive defense measures of evasion and maneuvering.

In the far western parts of the Pacific, radar on patrolling Jap planes is becoming a problem to our submarines. However, in several cases the use of AN illtercept equipment (described in The Eyes and Ears of Counlermeasures] gave ample warning of the approach of the Bandits before they were sighted by the subs' radar. During one .of these interceptions, the enemy's radar appeared to sweep periodically. In this instance the equipmene was operating at about 140 megacycles.

Taking advantage of radar, one pilot (or several) succeeded in harassing one of our subs for four hours usiqg gambil search tactics and dropping the well-known float indicator lights.

It is possible that enemy planes not equipped with radar may carry equipment to home on OUT radio and radar. During successi \Ie attacks on a carrier task force, the tactics of the Japanese pilots indicated that they were either using radar on some of the planes. or a combination of radar and intercept-homing devices. The snoopers as well as the attacking aircraft appeared to know where the force was even when flares were not dropped.

' .....

......

......

.......

....... .......

<,

......

<,

......

.......

<,

DEAD ANGLE

FORWARD

6560

~I 640

ALTITUDE ANGE IN MilES

19

BEARING ER'ROR AT 20KM ±3°: AT 7KM ±5"

24

TARGEt::":"'IO,OOO TON SHIP

1640 330 I 6560 1640

---~ --

2.7-3.8 1.6-2.1 35 27

CON FIDENTIAL

23

the

'menace of Japanese radar

Dyane inclined to laugh off Japanese radar is a likely candidate fa trouble. uch is the sobering implication of recent discoverie .

Between 26 July and 2 Augu t, VB 116 employed "ReM (radar counter measures) to surve enemy radar installations at Truk. This tOUT of investigation consisted of six night "snooper" coverages of the water surrounding 'Truk Atoll and one daylight low altitude reconnaissance within the lagoon.

RGM equipment intercepts radar pulses and accurately measures the frequency and pulse rate of the intercepted set. The plane's radar equipment can provide an e timate of the range to the intercepted station. Intelligent analysis of the results reveals important information on operational procedures and efficiency of the crews manning the radar station. In effect, the ReM operator is able to "project" .hirnself before the control panel of the Jap radar and to see what happens when his own plane comes into radar range.

It is significant to note that the data obtained from each of the three RGM planes used by VB 116 was identical, proving the effectiveness of this tactical use 0'£ the planes and the reliability of information to be expected from future surveys.

• See "The Eycs and Ea7"£ of Cozmter Measures" it. this issue.

~ UJ o:c

o

I-

U o

o

WHAT THE SURVEYS REVEALED

The initial flight on 26 July uncovered three enemy radar installations with frequencies and ranges as follows:

24

CON FtDENT1AL

Altitude of Intercepting

Frequencies Plane Range

Radar A 97.5 8,000 feet 157 miles

Radar B 98.5 8,000 feet 15? miles

Radar C 500 6,000 feet 11 a miles

Stations A and B worked in close cooperation in holding the "snooper" on the screen, transferrins their target from one to the other as they in turn swept for other targets. The e two stations were able to track their target a the altitudes and di - ranee tabulated below:

Altitude: 2,000'-1,800'-1,200'- 00'-500'-400'-200'-50'

Distances in miles:

llS J06 89 75 68 62 57 37

he above ranges at the various altitudes were

btainable b enemy radar in the unobstructed

tors. I lands or mountainous obstructions between the station and target red uced these ranges by 25% at low altitudes. Inside the lago n these stations were unable to track the tar et plane,

Station C ,,,,as noted on reconnaissance flights on the 26th and2?tb and 2 August, but Dot on the other days. Bearings on this station revealed that it was located fi e to six miles north of Moen Island within the lagoon. It may have been. a portable station set up on a small i land in this area or perhaps a hipborne set, though no shipping was observed in the area at that time.

Station C (300 megacycles) had much less effective performance than the 97-98 megacycle stations A and B, It was not picked up at all by the ReM gear on hITO slln1eys and only imermittently all the other two flights. This station seemed to

experien orne diffi ulty in tracking. a a harp turn or quick change in altitude would cause them to lose the target, This might be explained by lack. oE operational kill on new gear or by very IlalTOW beam width.

No bearings could be taken on the two stations (A and B) below 100 megacycles because ofequipment limitations. Locations oE the stations were determined however, by a careful plot of the 200 foot altitude in ercept circle around the geographic center of ruk Lagoon. A 200 feet, on various bearinzs from an 8 foot hill on M en, nulls were detected, hich indicated from ant ur chart tbe only possible location for transmitr 1"5. A second concentric altitude intercep circle at 1500 to 2000 feet verified these null channels.

The data obtained from the 'ruk survey shows the enemy radar to be more flexible and 0 have

" .. il is expected that they will be eliminated."

longer range of interception at lower altitudes than prior information had led us to believe. The enemy's method of tracking indicates that there is ooperarion between their station and a central control, and that the Japanese operators on ruk are well trained. The slot rate of sector scanning by enemy radar made it impossible or extremely difficult for them to track at low altitude at close range as was shown by ReM when our plane was inside the .reef of Truk. The lower frequency stations did not pick up tbe target at all and the higher frequency stations were weak and could not stay on the target. This may be partially due to a low persistence scope and loss of reflected signal strength in the lower part of the lobe.

The dawn reconnaissance within T'ruk Lagoon conducted on the 28th was intercepted by enemy radar at an altitude of 50 feet 37 miles from the station's location on Moen. However, as soon as the outlying reefs were crossed, intercepts from stations 97,5 and 98.5 were no longer detected. At this point two additional stations, 10"lV' powered on frequencies 196 and 262 mega ycles, were detected in the vicinity of the target plane. Since the 97'5-98.5 megacycle stations are Iocated at an elevation of approximately 700 feet, it is believed that, at the reef line, the attacking plane moved under the lowest point of the radar beam. Location of the 262 megacycle station was impossible dne to the necessity of radical maneuverinz, search for targets, trafing and general offensive tactics of the ReM plane. These last-detected stations were so weak as to be considered of no use to the enemy for tracking.

HOW THE ENEMY STATIONS PERFORMED

O! W In

o

1--

U o

U

Unexplainable was the persistent lack of fighter interception or AA alertness on the part of the enemy despite obvious early warning by their radar. he daylight run of the ReM plane was not intercepted by fighters until a retiring course from the southeast corner of the reef was set, a full thirty minutes from the time enemy radar had

26

CONFIDENTIAL

27

definitely established the presence of our plane. AA batteries on Dublon, Moen and 'ten were manned and firing but concentration of flak could net be considered as strong as could have been expected, It is possible that low altitude approaches as mentioned before, cannot positively

be identified by the type of Jap udal'S at 'Truk, because of poor definition, until some time after the target is picked up. It would hardly be safe however, to count on this OI to assume that the Japs.will habitually make such poor use of their

e cellent ability in spotting and tracking OUT planes. It is wiser to assume that their fishters and will take speedy advantage of the ex eUent radar warning.

Night fizhter interception was used on thre

occasions against OUT "snooper." • nerny rada

was successful in vectoring fighters to within two miles on two of the three occasions. Altitude of

the "snooper" at the time was 800 to 1500 feet,

at approximately 40 to 80 mile distance from the islands. There was no indication that the night fighters had radar. Visual contact is apparently relied on. "Snooper" planes were able to track night fighters with ease at ranges up to 30 miles using AN / APS-2. On one occasion an enemy night fighter 'was tracked overtaking our "snooper" plane at 220 knots estimated.

The skill of enemy radar operators at these particular stations, VB 116 reponed, was apparently better than our own land based average. Both stations worked together in covering the target and. searching simultaneously. At irregular, but apparently well coordinated intervals the target would be shifted from one station to the other and despite violent maneuvers and altitude change. enemy radar bad no difficulty in tracking. 0 window was used since information as to maximum capabilities of the stations under observation was desired. VB 1 J 6 concluded their report, "Since no lurther information of importance can I be obtained from stations at _present ascertained t - be in TTUk, it is expected that they will be eliminated."

he eyes and ears of countermeasures

TN-I/LLPR" couers certain {re· quencies i1l the VHF band.

TN-a/APR-1 C()VeT5 still higher frequencies.

When the enemy goes on the air in. the ~ombal a~e~s with his ,radar OUT intercept units are busy turmnz his tran mISSIOns to OUI own advantage, compiling valuable information for the us~ of our forces. Intercept and countermeastlres equipments, . uch as ~e airborne APR-l and shipborne PR-l, are the e es and ears of mteTceptlO~. They rev.eal the frequency, range, and location of enemy sets. hey dis~los: operan.on procedure of the enerm . bey snare the enemy's OmmnlliC~t1ons, which are translated by our interpreters and the messa es turned .agamst the Japs. These equipments can hunt down and catch the enemy radio or radar trans-

missions in the VHF and HF bands. .

ime and azain, such information has proved immensely useful, 111

planning our assa~lts on enemy base.s: in s~tting up ~ur ope~ation p~ans for all types of missions, such as bombing strikes by a~r, and ill .loca.tlng and desrroying enemy radar installations before a landing operation IS undertaken. In brief. countermeasures help us to deny to the enemy the full value of his radio and radar while making it become of value to us,

JAP RADAR IS GOOD

Radar reconnaissance by submarines and aircraft shows that the Japanese know how to use their radars-witness The Menace of Japanese Radar on page 24. While obvio~s disae.pancies exist in th~ir sys~em we mu t not be misled by any superficial crudity of some of their eqlllpment.

Once in awhile their searching beams are turned upon us-to our advantage. One of our ships, plowing through the £og-shroude~ waters of the islands of Japan, intent upon a bombardment task ';~s ~el~ev:~ to see the pulsing signal of the enemy's radar on ~e scope. By spli~t1ng t,he en~naring beam, a preci ion bearing Was obtained on the radar slte: a site al! eady accurately located. by rada.'f and aerial reconnaissance .. Adding to thI~ the accurate ranging by the SG, a point of aim w~s e tabhsh~d from which a very effective bombardment run was made-all ill a dense fog.

The enemy's radar "signed off" after a couple of alvoes left the guns!

CONFIDENTIAL

o o o

~

o

IX! m 7=!

TACTICAL USES ARE MANY

The enemy's radar and radio system is an open book to the AN/APR-t in reconnaissance aircraft and submarines and to its running mate the AN/SPR-Iaboard combatant ships.

The effectiveness of the enemy's radio and radar is plainly shown. Areas of radar search are ascertained and evasive courses can be used to elude his radar or the situation may dictate the use of countermeasures to jam his equipment. Radio transmissions, spotted, can be jammed or, as is usually the case, monitored, intercepted and translated to gain tactical and strategical information of value to our striking forces.

In association with related Countermeasures jamming equipment "AlJR" and "SPR" will by serving as frequency monitors, assure correct frequency adjustment and make jamming more effective.

After interception, radio or radar signals must be analyzed and evaluated 50 that effective Countermeasures can he devised. It is not possible to build an effective jammer until the frequency of operation, type of service and modulation characteristics of enemy equipment is determined.

Additional information can be obtained from the PR'g and associated equipment:

1. Sweeping rate of enemy radar antenna.

2. Determination of time of target detection by enemy radar as indicated by stopping of antenna sweep.

3. Approximate range to enemy radar by reference to signal strength related to known performance data.

4. Determination of type of polarization used by enemy radar by connection to various antennas accessory to receiver.


~
Q-
0:::
!.!.!
co
0
I-
0
0
0
- 6.
d In association with its Companion Panoramic Adaptor, Model RDK, and Companion Pulse Analyzer, Model AN/SPA-lor AN / AP A.6, a measure of the enemy radar pulse width, pulse repetitive rate and r.f. spectrum occupied. Thus, enabling qualitative analysis of enemy radio and radar modulation characteristics.

In association with its, Companion Direction Finder Equipment, Models DBB and CXGA,

28

CON FIDENTIAL

directivity in azimuth ill relative bearin only with an accuracy of plus or minus se eral degrees.

SPECIAL SHIP AND AIRCRAFT RECEIVERS

The receivers supplied for radio and radar interception and reconnaissance are Model AN /SPR-l for shlpborne service and Model AN/APR-l for ail-borne service. Each equipment is a search receiver of the superheterodyne type, complete in itself, designed to measure the freq uency of radio and radar transmissions.

This frequency range in the VHF and UHF bands is covered by means 0.£ four separate "plugin" types of tuners.

The complete AN/APR-} or A /SPR-l equipment consists of the receiver proper which contains dlepower supply and amplifier strip, the four above mentioned tuning heads (used one at a time), and the necessary antenna to cover the frequency range of the tuning head in use.

AGES

mage interference isa type of Interference in which two stations are heard at the same time. 'one being the desired station wbose Erequem::y is (for example) bc.low the local oscillator frequency by an amount equal to the inrermediate frequency, and the other b~g an undesiredstalio~ w~ose b;~uency is above me local os. dIlator frequency by the mtcnnediate frequency. In Ihis case, bam signals are tunable.

Image 'responses are present because [he local oscillator can be tuned above and below me Incoming signal ehus producing the difference or me Intermediate frequency in eithercase, "This causes the appearance of the signal at two places on lne dial. These responses are separated by a frequency dili&ence of tWice, the intermediate frequency (60 mes) 01: some submultiple thereof. Such responses gener:al!y an: undesirable but can be useful j n so me cases,

An ei1't)H is made Ie:;> minimize these types o( inte.r:fer€nce by "troddng"the local oscillator and antenna-mixer tuned circuits rhroughcut the frequency range 01 the individual tuning headS (TN-4- excepted), . (For example, the local oscillator in the TN-4 bead is tuned toa frequency So megacycles hi.ghe.r than that of the antenna-mixer tuned circuit.) The average image rejection is greater than ren to one in terms of voltage .. This meanstha:t if two such responses are obtained, one will he stronger than we other by this. l<I.ti'o, and the stronge.t will usually, but not always. bethe correct signal frequency of the received signal.

A panoramic adal?tor used in conjunceion ,with the receiver is an aid in detennming whether or not a signal is an image response by noting: the dlreclion.of the travel of me signal on jhe panoramic adaptor as ehe companion 'r'Cteiver is tuned. A_ direcuon opposite ro tbe normal indicates an image. Normal direction is oppOSite. r.elatil'el.y speaking, on. TN-2 and TN-3,

Ih.e two responses on. the dial may be 30~ 20, I!;, 12 o.r 10 megacycles. ThiS determines the order of the 10ca1ostillator harmonjc beaung with the signal. The details 0.£ OOITe<:t signal frequency determinatlon will be fully treated 'later,

The panoramic adaptor is helpful in identifying resporu;Cli caused or undesired oscillator harmonies. by noting that as the receiver IS tuned the .rat~ of travel of the signal is greater than normal and the \vidlhQf the r.I, speclr!.IIll presented is less bya factor proportional to the order of the harmonic being used.

INTERFERENCE BY OTHER SIGNALS

The intermediate frequency of the amplifier strip is !lo megaqcles. If a. stT(loggo megacycle signal is present, i,t wiu be picked up and amplified in the receiver,

Another example is when two strong signals. whose frequency difference is 30 megacycles, is present. 'These two signals beating r~ether in tbe mixer ~cuit of the tu.nln,g h~d genera~e a differen.ce.1requel~CY that is ':'Iual to the Intennedtare frequency andth.e signal Will be'amRlified.

Suchsignals are not-tunable. That is. they are present at all

settings 0 f the dial. .

OTHER HARMONICS

Il is possible that transmitters will radiate enough second harmonic energy. to beat with the 10c:a1 oscillator signal in the tuning head ·of the receiver to give a response that appeal'S as if it were the rransmtrter's fundamental frequency. Too, harmonies of a received ~ignal. can be gener ... at.ed in the tunl.·ng heads themselves. To ldomfy such responSes. as bemg caused by harmonics, it is only. nece;;sary W tulle to the sub-harmonics of the signal and note the much stronger response.

When u:>in.g the receiver as a monitonrig d.evic~ to set a jamrnI;CT uansm-itteron 11;eql1.encl'.spuriolls responses . appear which are caused by harmonics oftbe· jammer rransmiuer beating with harmcniss of the local oscillator. These .. responses are caused by the closecoupling between the recerver and the Jammer. These respons.es are tunable, but not easily identified due to their great numbers.

To determinea;ccurately the frequency o·f any l'eceivedsigWll I'equiresoonsiderable effort ontbe part of an operator, With anyone tuning head in use in the receiver, the operator should zune nom one frequency extreme to me other, identifying eadl response. Nonnally the .receiver fs used with the ANjAl'A-6 Pulse .Analyzer and the .RDK Panoramic Adaptcrto help identify such responses.

The operaeer should make a notation ofrochresponse as read from the dial of the runing head; the relative stretlgth o·f each. response as noted on the tuning meter in the receiver; theduradon of the pulse ill. time (mkroseconrh). repedtion rate (PRF). and the' pulse shape~ as observed from the pulse analyrer equipment,

The procedure ltsed: to detenaine the correct signal Ereqneocy diffeD withea.ch tuning head. b:danoatio.n. helpful in iletermining the correct signal rr-equency is jneluded in the receiver instruction Pook.

In lhis c.onneCtioo. it is pointed out thaI researchand design are cow-pleteon two. wave trap systems [or use with the AN/APR-) and 1i.NjSPR-I . .By use of a special manual switcb, it is possible to feed the. signal cr:0w- the ao.tenna intO the 'Fig/UPR or _Fllo/UPR and by teU-nmg the condenser type to resonance. or measuring the .nnll points when using the eoaxial rype, determine definitely the fundameneal frequ_encyot the received signal.

The, operato~ nowknowing the actual funda:mental frequency, throws. the switch dlTecUy over to the receiver position. and proceeds as usual.

The Flg/UPR is a condense:!: typ .. e wa~e ttap l~nmg manually OVe:!: the frequency band ']6-320 Me. and III used w,thTN II heads. . The F20/UPR ili acoaxlat stub rype wave trap l!uniQg manually over the, frequericy band 300-3000 Mc.and is used with TN/!l and TN /3 heads.

It is boped that luge scale production of these units will commence in Occober or November.

Tbe electrical operation of- lhis receiver is oompara.hle mal of the more OJmmOI1 types of superheterodyne recetve TIie per Inrm a nee 0 f the rece i vee is no too mplerely sad s factory dUe to the lack of radio 11'equency amplification or "preselection" ahead. of the tuned mixer stage.

To facilitate searclung fOl'enemy transmissions, provision is made feu· u~lng· a panoramic adaptor with the 'reci:jver. Also, the r~ceiver is designed to supply sufficient video ontpur to drive a pulse analyzer which is useful in determining the pulse rate, pulse widm, and pulse shape of enemy radar transmisaicns,

Single dial tuning is used (exocpt 'I:N-,O and the frequency of the recei ved vsigu al is read, directly from [ he dial (except TN-4J. A tunil1,g meter is included in the equipment to indicate maximum and relative 'amplitudes of signals. Headphones are used to give an aural indicaticn of received signals.

.In opetaling the receiver, normally the Sigllal frequency is read directly ErQID the dial. However, in the presence of a streng sigoa], it is possible to receive the same. signal at more than one place on tile dial. This causes ootlilis.iOD among eperators and unless all signals are properly analp.ed will :result 1-n erroneous information.

OPERATION SIMILAR TO SUPERHET

A PROBLEM OF IDENTI.FICATION

The preseaeeof some signals cannot be readily explained unless 0 pera tors are trai {led to iden tify properJ y spurious lie" sporues and other types of interference, For the purpose of analysis these .spurious responses result Irom. one 0.£ four muses. These causes are listed below inord.erof prevalence:

I. Image interference and image respqoaes.

2, Harmonies of the local oscillator beating wirh signals of desired frequency and giving undesired _responses.

3, Interference due to signals at the intermediate frequency and from signals separated br the Intermediate frequen

4. Harmonies of the signal beating with the local oscillat_ [:undam en tal or harmonics to pl'oducethe intermediate frequency.

c

c

due to their local oscillatOr:!; being tracked on opposite sides of the signal frequency.

HARMONICS OF THE LOCAL OSCILLATOR

Spurious responses due to this cause are tunable and any one strong signal lI1iU give several responses 011 the d1alof a. tuning ~cad as lire rl;lnethr~ugh .me frequency ran.g~.o.f tile head. This Iii because th~ local oscillator' 1n the mmng head ~e:tales harmonics, which beat with tbe desired signal to give multiple resl?onseso[l. a dial. SUdl respoos.e:! call be eal;i1y identified it

Ilmage response can also be obtained. When using the correct

, monic or the local oscillamr the iJlla.ge response will be

arated by a frequeney spacing of 60 megacycles on the dial from the correct signal. However, if 3Jl uadeslred harmonic of the oscillator is beating with 'the signal, !.he spacing between

CON FI DENTlAl

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CD m ;iQ

29

~ II a e
~
• fade cha ts

.~
~
~
Ii
m
m
a mm~m_mmmg~e ~

ill

~ m m ~ ~ ~ m ~ ~

m mam~m~rm1mem.~

T the Lime the French PhySicis.t, Fresnel, was working on optical problems, the influence of ir Isaac Newton was so great that few scientists questioned. his theory that light was of the nature of projected bullets-though Newton had been dead over roo years and, more important, his th(01)1 was incapable of explaining many phenomena observed in the, laboratory. But Fresnel was not one to be held down by awe of a scientist long dead. Therefore, he argued that light was propagated as waves.

The Academy scientists of Paris greeted this idea and its originator with complacent derision. Then one of them had an idea which he knew would dispose of Fresnel and his theories once and [or all. If, he said, light is actually propagated as waves, then the waves should flow around an object. Furthermore, at a point precisely on a line with the center of the object (shown as C on the drawing) the ttuo waves should have travelled the same distance and would, therefore, reiniorce each other. The conclusion was as simple as it was

rY:

UJ =

o IU o

(j

30

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

t

laughable; directly in the center of the sha,dotlJ cast by the obfect would be a bright spot. EtJeryone knew this was not so.

Fresnel was impressed by the logic of his detractor's proposition. The1'e should be a bright spot in the shadow. So he tried it. With infinite care he set up his experimen t using a very small P.oint-soUJ·ce of light and an absolutely round object. Then he exa.mined the shadow. In the center was a bright spot.

his principle of the reinforcement and can-

cellation by energy waves as they meet after travelling over different paths bas now been finally established by practical experiment. And it is this

arne principle that finds . u eful application shipboard radars used f l' aircraft search.

hour mathematics

Let us con ider a radar antenna far removed from the earth's surface,

The strenzch of the signal at point P is represented by the length of the arrow OF. Actually. howe er, the antenna is by no mean far removed from the earth's surface.

A portion f the energy strikes the ea and, since salt water is a good reflector of radio energy, some of the energy will be reflected upward. Thus at point P radio frequency energy will arrive by two paths-the direct and the reflected, ow by the same principle which Fresnel developed, it follows

that if the difference in the length of the paths of the direct and reflected wave is an even number of half wavelengths the L, a waves will cancel each other, and if the path difference is an odd

number of half wavelengths, they will rein-

I~NUIl4

I Null]

~tlil 2

I ~/-- --;;:;

force each other.'

There 'will be a whole series of point at which cancellation occurs and they will fall on a straight line. There i one line on which the direct and reflected paths differ by two half wavel en z ths (null I), another on

which they differ by fall! hall wavelengths (nuIT 2), and so on. Similarly there will be lines of maxima. Thus the actual field pattern of radar antenna may be considered as a series of finger .

A p1ane fl in in this pattern, as indicated by the dotte'!. line would reflect a signal of strength proportional to the field strength at any given point. Thus the signal as seen on the radar scope wiU rise and fall as the plane passes through positions of maxima and minima.

A formula can be derived which enable us to plot these null lines as a function of altitude - rainst range. It i :

Foot note 1. There is a .So· reuetsa! in phase at the point of reflection of Hie radio wave.

1476 .1625

h=--O '+ __ Dz

h-E 106

where

h = altitude of the air-

raft in feet

ho = antenna height ill ft. D = slant range in yards f = frequency in MC N = number of null line The se and term is a correction due to the earth's curvature and when this curvature is considered, the null lines are not straight but curves.

he plotting of these curves from the equation may take considerable time. Also any time the frequency is changed, a new set of curves will have to be plotted. The Fleet Administrati e Office, Navy Yard, New York has devised a rapid method of constructing fade charts without th€ need for any mathematics. By this method, a ship can quickly con cruet the chart iand, just as quickly change it if the transmitter frequency is altered.

To understand how the charts work, let us work out a specific example. Assume a radar with an antenna height of 85 feet and a frequency oE 200 megacycles. Follow these instructions:

(1) Multiply transmitter frequency in fly antenna height in feet-too M x 85 Ft.= 17000. (2) Find thi number on the bottom of Graph No. l and draw a st.raight line vertically from it, cutting all the curves. (See page 33.)

(3) Read across from where this line crosses the first curve (Tan u1]]) and Obtain the value from the left side of the graph, ~ark.ed "tangents". This value establishes the angle of the fiTSt null. (For 17000 this tangent equals 0.029).

(4) ow, on the 'ade Chart locate this arne value OD the righ: hand ide, also marked "tangents". Mark this point and connect it by a straight line to the lower left hand corner. his is the line of the first N all.

(5) On Graph O. 1 read the value of the tangent where the vertical line crosses the second curve (Tan Null 2). Locate this value on the right hand ide of the Fade Chart and chaw the line of the second null. (For 17000 the second tangent equal 0.058) .

(6) U e this same procedure for each ucceeding null. Beyond the third null in mo t cases, it

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OJ m ;;g

31

is necessary LO read cotangent alues. Read these from where the vertical line osses the curves marked "Cotan Null 4", "Ootan ull 5", etc" from the right side of the graph. Then locate these arne cotangent values on the top of the Fade Chan, (For 17000, cotan null 4 equals 8.64. cotan null !i equals 6.83) and drav in each succeeding Null line,

One of the advantage of this Fade Chart is that ir is constructed so that correction for the earth's curvature is automatically made. Thus looking at the Fade Chart which. was made for the radar of the example, as ume a plane is first contacted at a range' of 60 miles, As it is tracked in, the signal decreases and passes through a minimum at 49 miles. As the range decreases, the signal grows in size for a time, then begins to decrease, and finall passes through another point of minimum, If this

F_oot note 1. Range u.s used in the chart is the slant 7·angc. That IS, the range as '(cad from tile '!'adar indicator.

occurs at a range of approximate! 28 miles, a

uming a level flight, it appears from the Fa Chart that the plane's altitude is LO,OOO feet. This can be confirmed by the range of the third null which should occur at about 19 miles.

So far we have considered Fade harts and null line entirely from the standpoint of theory. Theoretically the signal from an aircraft passing through a null line will drop to nearly zero. A ctually this is by no means the case under all conditions. Many Factor which' e assumed in deriving our basic equation do not bold rigidly in practice. Null areas hift, or they may be very broad, he signal may be small Over a considerable range. Therefore, it may be very difficult for an operator to state exactly when the signal is minimum, Conditions of weather and the sea will affect the charts. Therefore, check the accuracy of your Fade Charts by actual flight tests whenever possible. If you do this. the actual-null line mil he omewhat differ-

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CALI8RATION FOR TWO FIGHTER PLANES

A NT EN NA ~~ I Gn - 91 Ff. NU"U ... 'N~IC·An SIGNH STAE NGT~'N E-UH'rs,

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100 Rol.NijE IN MILH

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32

CONFIDENTIAL

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. ,'
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\ ,/ -_ --~ .~
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\ \ v ...:'
,/ r-
\ \ r- ..
\ \ I-
I-e-.. e-..
V 1-1- 1-1- ..
\ I- 1-1-
\ I 1/ V c-f-. t--e-.. 1-1-
\ \ V v - t::~ "'"
\ v 1--
I v fo- t-- I-
1"-1- l-
v I-f-. I-f-. H- f- .,.
\ ,/ V. I- I-f-
/ V I- r-f-. 1-1- l-
v i-I- 1-:.-
v ~ ~~ i'-~& I!O 1-1- I-f-
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~ ~ i'-rT. po I-r-I-f-f-f-
~ fo- t--I-I-f-I-I-~
'0 l!Il'
.., .. t--I-f-I-I-I-J-.
AN EXAIoIP1.E IN' TIlE: lIIiE OF THE sc:.u.J;' 'fit ..... AVT~ MIte "" '" r-r--I-f-.f-f-f-
AIR SEARCH /MtllJI Fl>J)E C114~ ( ..... _\1 "" --,,:,-..._ ..._.._ '- I'



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,

em from those obtained by following the above directions.

An interesting example of this is furnished by the Fade Chan prepared by the U.S.S. WHIT PLAINS (CVE-56) from experimental data. Two fighter planes were u ed for tracking and the signal

rengths were indicated in E units. The white areas indicate the location of the nulls. We have plotted over the actual curves the position of the null lines computed theoretically. The variation between theory and practice is clearly seen.

Actual experience ill the preparation and effectiveness of these charts is well sec forth in a Ieuer from the U.S,S. BELLEAU WOOD: "SK and c-~ allilllde determination charts were pre· pared from the following data:

(a.) Actual observa tion of signal variation, using all targets foUl' aircraft Hying at known altitudes between 100 and 20,000 feel.

(b) Reduorlon of altitude dtiU"tS contained in in auction books for respective radars. These charts were corrected for exact frequencies and antenna heights.

(c) Data from both sources was plotted and final charts represent a compilation of boLh. Where theoretical and empirical values d iffered, a mean value was computed,

"Sub eqUCnI experience bas shown the charts to be sufficiently rella ble fur altitu de determination to an accuracy of 2,00() feet. During a period or si . months no consrant errors have become apparent and oonsequetly there has been no occasion [0 revise the charts,

"In recording altitude calibration data from the .radar screen, t.he following Ell ethod is recommend ed;

(a) Personnel required=One operator and one recorder for each radar.

(b) At maximum range increments of one mile, the operator hall make known to the .recorder the range and relative signal strength, designating the latter as large, medium, or small. or null.t It is important for the operator to bear in mind that these relative signal strength variations vary with the magnitude of tbe range. For example, whae might be called a large "pip" at seventy miles would be considered medium at forty miles and SIl1.;iU at fifteen miles.

TH1<ORniCAL MINIMUMS AS COMPUTED fR.OM TilE fADE C~AFlT

--r--,
_.L V V V
If'' A V ..-
-CHI V V V --
-. V " V V It.-
I"
-"'11 V V .v VV ~rQ_
-'" V l' I.-J' v- I--- ....
r-, t.--
- L.s "'" v >0-
I"" V y r---- J.-- 1...-
- ~ I--' :1
V J:::::" b-:"" V r- ~ I-- J--
I k..-: ~ ~I---"' L .... ~ K I-- I--' J...- I-- e
LV ~ r- I--' ~ ~ l- t> "'-
!:::::: ~ i-- P j-<: -
_ r- I-S l- I-- , I- Je-
V V I-- !---"'
r:.- ~ J:? I;:;: ~ l-- t--- l-- ..,_
V i"S I-:: l- t- t---
J.-: I:::::!:::::: 1;::: 1'-1
p ~"':l'2r~ ~.Q:':: to
- ... ... ~j'''"j'- /.-
I T~w'f~ !---..1-I,.....,..,.j" i" "The following recommedarions are made with regard to interpretation of data:

(a) In the ab ence of any nulls and where ibere are three or more consecutive small indications, a null may be considered to exist.

(b) In flte absence of boLh null and small indications, null areas may be considered to exist equidistant between areas 0.£ maximum ignal strength.

(e) Where null and small areas appear to extend over excessively large range increment. refer to adjacent maxima. and minima FO a ist in. location of null center and extent.

(d) 'Where empirical data i skerchy or obviously inaccurate use theoretical concepts for "Iilling in" and "correction."

It mn e be remembered that this ystem of altitude deten:n:inarion does not pretend La be a precision method, but in the absence of a radar specifically designed LO determine elevation, it 4 the best available.

When properly understood, prepared, and applied these Fade Charts can supply valuable information and enlarge the mpa-

bilities of your ndar. .

Foot note'_ It may be more adUll1Itageous to use E units as was dotll: by the WRITE PLAINS in preparing its ChaTI.

CON FIDENTtAl

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~~map in motion" PPI repeater

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

TAKI radar information from anyone of five radars, proje ting it by means of an optical sy tern onto a 24" flat desk-like glass surface and present' g an instantan ous pattern on a working plot is the function of the new VG Projection P.P.I. Repeater.

Because of its unusual versatility and ease of operation the new repeater is an exceptionally welcomed aid in the evaluation of radar information. Instead of the conventional plotting on the relative intercept plot or a remote P.P.I. face, plotting and tactical calculations can now be made directly on the large desk-like plot surface,

A constant' map-in-motion" picture of the radar sweep coupled 'with the II e of a parallel motion protractor offers many advantages in tracking air and surface craft directly on the viewing screen and is ideal for "controlled" interceptions. Either tracing paper 011 a glass surface or a finely ground opal gla s is employed as th.e viewing screen.

OPTICAL SYSTEM IS KEYNOTE

OF DIRECT PLOTTING

The keynote at the unit is th optical projection sys em which projects the radar pattern nt the viewing screen, The image i a magenta color on a white background, which may be "erased" by the controlled application of heat and light diffusion,

or h Lb. he linage or pattern may be "erase ..

in a matter of econd or may be retained inde nit I , the retention being controllable.

In addition to projecting the radar presentation onto he viewing screen it also projects two concentric circular dials, of roughly 12" outside diameter and marked with the 3600 of a compass rose. One circl gives the bearing of the target relative to the ship's headinz and the other gives the true bearing of the target.

The full screen may be empl yed to map an area of 4, 10, 20, 0, or 200 mile radius, choi 'e of range being made b a Ranee Selector witch. For calibration purpo e electronicall generated range-marks which divide the screen into four concentric rings can be employed as is necessary'.

CONSTRUCTION IS BATILE PROOF

The repeater is designed for permanent hi P: board installation at a point remote from the main radar apparatus: Overall m a urements of the unit, on its shock mounts, are approximately 5' x 3' x 3'.

Toe iewing screen is horizontal at table-top/ level with all normal operating controls conveniently located adjacent to it on an inclined panel. The unit's frame is constructed of heavy welde iron. and is shock-mounted for battle conditions .•

READING THE PROJECTED PATIERN

The patteTIl on the VG Repeater is in tel'pre ted. imilarly to other P.P,I. rep ater , except that the VG also supplies true bearing and ship's heading.

nlike the usual pre entation. however, there i 11 Hash along the line of the 51' eep trace. so that . the pattern call be ob erved by the eye as soon as it appears. rather than Jagging the line of the sweep

It is also po ible La differentiate between r and moving targets b the appearance of "trails", whose persistence can be controlled.

Ranging is done by estimating or scaling the number of miles from the target to the center of the viewing screen. The range mark circles are the basis on which the actual range of a target is determined, the representative ranges of tbe range marks being dependent upon the position of tile Selector Switch.

Reading from the center of the viewing screen toward the edge, the four concentric range mark. circles, for each ele tor Switch po ilion, are:

Range Selector Range in Miles

Switch Position (1 mile = 2000 yards)

4 Miles I 2 3 4
10 21/2 5 71/2 10
20 5 10 15 20
0 20 40 60 80
200 50 100 15° 200 Permanent ranze and bearing line may be drawn on the plotting screen and u ed in preference to the .. erasable" electronic range marks and the projected true bearing diaL

'The bearing of a particular target can be dermrned by projecting a line from the center of the screen, through the middle of the target, and reading the bearing on the inner, or fixed, compass dial. The inner dial reads true bearing if the relative pilot lights are NOT lit. If the relative pilot Iighc ARE lit the inner dial then reads relative bearing, with zero representing the Ship' bow.

Providing thar the relative pilot lights are NOT lit, the outer orrotating dial· indicates ship's heading, with zero representing ship's bow, and 1800

.................................................................. ' .

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• The complete Itn'il is known as the ve Radar Illdicating Equipment, which include the Projection P.P'!. iIIU/ Selector witch 1.1 11 its. Illustrated lire the VG ami I'G-I units. The VG is the "righl-homlet/"nlade/: the VG·) is the "left-handed" model but is identiaa! to the JIG /IS described ill these j)(Lg.CS.

(j

34

CON FIDENTIAl

• Tflt; artist's conception of the VG, indicating ih« uarim opetallonal eontrols, The "desk" mY/ace is ml.lghly 35" the ([eeh, with the viewillg screen <m the right and work $1;0

{or tHtrsol1tJel on the left. I

.

• Tile Viewing 'creell a,nd plotti'Tlg l~T/IJCe of the VG occupies 'prmdmately one-hal], of the top surjac« of the unit. The ar presentation i 24" itt diameter, bu: is otherwise imilar the conventional' P.P.I. presentation. Shown in: tile artist's illll.drlltion above are tile range circles, fixed ~md "oLaci,lg com-

pass roses, arid rolniiu« pilot lig/lt.s.

representing hip's stern. This dial. when Tead against the inner 01' true bearing dial, indicates the ship' heading. If zero on the outer dial is oppo ite 3150 or the inner dial, the shi P is headed Northwest (bearing 315°).

If the relative pilot lights ARE lit, the gyro is out of the system and the outer dial is non-functional, no lonzer indicating ship's heading.

TWO CONTROLS TO ERASE TRACES

Because of the unusually long persi ence time of the pattern on the cathode ray tube, there may be times when a pattern or series of patterns, will make a semi-permanent record on the tube's face, and thus interfere with subsequent patterns. To "clean" the face of the tube the operator bas two controls, used together 01: individually.

Of these controls=Picture Erase and Picture

'adeoLlt-the "Erase" method uses light and heat and is preferred because it does a better job, is qui ker, and doe not interrupt the operation of the equipment. The "Fadeout" method erases by diffusion and involves the removal of the video presentation, which makes the unit ineffective during tile erasing operation. Erasing a pattern by "Fadeout" alone is impractical; using "Erase" with it speeds the cleaning.

USES PARALLEL PROTRACTOR

Provision is made for the mounting of a Mark 11 r parallel motion protractor on top of the unit, for u e over the plotting surface. Thi mounting is furni hed in the spare parts box.

A removable co er over the viewing screen is also provided, for the protection of the glass surface when the unit is not in use.

All power circuits are fused, and all fuses are mounted in a single compartment on the lower front of the end chassis. Spare fuses and tools are mounted in a special compartment behind the front panel d or which leads to the optical unit,

Detailed in tructions concerning the installation and adjustment theory of operation of electrical parts, de cription of the optical system, oReration, and maintenance, may be found in the in truction manual accompanying each unit.

.AVAILABILITY

Di tribution schedules will have VG and VG-l units assigned to all major installation activities. The reI eater unit however, will not be generally available before 1 I ovember 1944, and then only in limite 1 quantities. . ailabihty will be greatly ac elerated bv January 19'15, a full pmduction of about go units pel' month is planned.

CONFIDENTIAL

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36 CONFIDENTIAL

A

Four gut! /ir(;cl. range llo,740 yards. Rimge errors are 388 yttrds over, 808 ouer, 64 over, Ilmi ~2 short. The spot was actu.ol/)l made on the upper two, [or the loiuer two were merged WIUI tlu: target.

B

Three trims finia, range 20.9B.; yards. EQtlge errors are 127 y4Tfis Oller, 114- over, and 31 short. The two splashes over merged to give one pip, merg· ing par'tially with target. The one splash short is not visible, having merged with lhe ,'ange /i1le.

c

Three 8'1'11$ fired, range '9,36:; yards. Rauge eTTa,. are go yards short, 113 short, and ~30 short, The two splashes closest to target merged to give Olle pip, which again is merged with tile HInge line.

D

Three trims fireli, Tallge 19,325 yards, ROflge er'rors 143 yards shari, 246 short, ami lP9 short. Each splash III::nJ shows a distisrct pip.

E

One gun firir1g, ,"ange 19,320 yards. Range errer was 159 yards over. Spat made was 'Dawn 200' but a "Down 150' would have pv.t next salvo dea'd Or! target,

F

One gtm fired, range 19.370 yards, Range error was 7~ yards ooer. Pip of shell is shown m-6Tging witll the lat·gel. Ji idlll of pip of sptash is 100 yards,

G

Nine guns firing, range 19~t40 yards, Range errors were 580 yards over, 450 over, 352 over, ~70 ooer, 249 over, 240 over, 234 over, 186 OVlli' and 77 short. Tile first thre« splashes over are seen as three distinct pip . The tlext five splashes ouer all merge in One pip, and the spla3h ShOTI is merged witll the "a?"ge line,

SPOTTING the plashes of a salvo of 16" pI: jectiles 15 mile a w -ay, in the dead of nig isn't 'dope' out of a comic book. It is routine for Radar Mark 8, Mod. 1 or 2-a deadly complement to the Fleet's big guns. And with perhaps a "down 400, left 5", as indicated on the radar scope, the next salvo disappears into the darkness. The projectiles streak. to the target and their splashes become clearly visible on the Precision Sweep of the B-scope as they drop in a "straddle" around the enemy.

To the fire control radar operator handling the control of the Mark 8 goes the responsibilit of interpreting the "splash;' picture to make the straddle possible. He knows that he has a "hot" instrument in front of him and that it must be used properly. Of the three sweeps-main, expanded, and precision-it is the Precision sweep that spots a splash pip which is normally about 40 mils wide and 100 yard deep in range. Actually, the width of one splash is only a few mils, but the beam width of the Mark 8 is about 2° or 35 mils wide and as the beam flashes back and forth acros a 30° arc ten times a second, targets show up as approximately a beam width plus their actual width. Although targer pips and splash pips var ve1:islightly in width with variations in Tange,. t

MARK 8 SPaDER CALLED

Down 300 (See A).
Down 100 (See B}.
Up 150 (See C).
Up 300 (See D)_
Down 200 (See E).
Down 50 {See Fl·
Down 300 (See G), ACTUALLY SHOULD HAVE BEEN (by camera triangulation)

Down 185 Down 70 Up 145 Up 236 Down 159

Down 72 Down 276

otting technique (interpreting pip of splashes B-scope) i not affected.

ESTIMATING THE M.P.L ON B~SC_OPE THE SECRET

One splash rarely appears, for the ship usually brings as many gUllS as it can to bear. After a ninegun salvo ha been fired, a spotter may find anywhere from 0 to 9 splash pips on the B-scope, depending upon the 'fall of shot' pattern and the positions of the splashes with re pe t to the target. This variance in number of splash pip appearing on B-scope i hown 'ir the spotting diagrams.

Knowing the rea ODS for these variation i irnperati e for accurate spotting, These reasons may be listed as follows:

1. If all splashes are within 50 yards of target .it i probable that no splash pips will be seen. Acruall all splash pips will have merged with the target pip and xange line.

2. If all splashes are separated by one hundred yards and also at least this distance from target=one hundred yards-it is probable that 9 separate splash pips will be seen.

ormally, hom a 9~gun salvo, only 3 or 4 splash pips are seen because of merging of

spla he with each other or with target pip and range line.

The approximate center of any group of splashes, called the M.P.I. (Mean Point of Im-

A precise and deadly i71l'trUmenl is tne Mal'lt 8. t~e Gf1' le1l114 of which is shown here mounted 011 (181m dlrllctor ;'!'lark 34.

pact), is the point which is spotted. to the target. Thus, the spotting coordinator can see the errors and apply corrections to the guns to make them hit on the next salvo.

pedal tests have been conducted recently to

ERROR OF MARK 8 SPOT

115 Yards 30

5 64 41 22 24

43 YARDS-AVERAGE ERROR OF RADAR SPOT

the Mark· 8 is deadly ...

i"LAN E SPOTTER CALLtD

Down 100 No Change Up 100

Up 300 Down 200 No Change Down 200

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CONFIDENTIAL 37

·'DOlU,. 200, left 6" t;)Qldd be the C01'rlltll spa! 10 apply orl this splash pip. Picture depic!s. what fire CP.lltrol mtiClf"fII.ol1 actually sees an the B,sliope's PreClSlOTI Sluecp. Tile Mai'/! a 1$ of] target by' (I few mils here. which makes deflection correction estimate« diffiC1llt.

determine accurately the spotting capabilities and limitations of the Radar lark 8. In these tests an inexperienced spotter, having however a thorough knowledge of the scope presentation and the dimensions involved, spotted ten single gun salvoe within an average of only 35 yards of their accurately triangulated positions. Maximum error on anyone spot was 69 yards.

lvlultiple gun salvoes, in these special tests) were spotted with less accumcy, but with very few exceptions the spots were in error by less than IOO yards. Only three deflection spa were attempted, but these three were in error by less than one mil. It is believed that with careful attention and prac-

tice, a constant deflection spotting accuracy of thr mils or le can be easily attained.

SPODING TECHNIQUE IS SIMPLE

Spotting technique 'with the Radar Mark 8 using B-scope Precision Sweep is quite simple. The Precision Sweep shows a range interval of approximately 2,000 yards, or 1,000 yards on either side of the range line. The target pip and single splash pips are approximately 100 yards deep in range. These values can be used as "measuring sticks" for estimating the distance of a splash. from the target.

scale may be constructed, if desired, but the precision noted above indicates that a scale is unneces ary, Deflection spots may be estimated from a knowledge of the pip width and estimates of the relative fractional parts on either side of the bearing line.

The principal limitation in spotting with the Mark. 8 results from the merging of splash pips with each other and with the target pip or range line. Because of this several splashes in any salvo - may not be seen on the B-scope and a spot made on the M.P.I. of the visible pips. will be correspondingly off.

These tests inclica.te that accurate knowledge ., the scope presentation and interpretation of tl!'C! 'fall of shot' pattern in terms of number of guns fired, will enable the spotter to arrive at the correct M_P.!' to put the next salvo right on target.

The operation of the Mark 8 is portrayed in the new training film, "The Radar Mark 8 at Sea", MN 3202 a and b. This film includes actual pic" tures of the Brscop«, showing pips of splashes as Lhey form near a target.

MARK 8 SPOTIER CAllED

PLANE SPOTIER CALLED

ERRORS OF MARK 8 SPOT

Down 450 Down 350 Down 200 Up 100 Up 200 Down 200

(No ""por) No Change Down 100 Up 100

Up 100

No Change

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ACTUALLY SHOULD HAVE BEEN

(by cernere triangulation) Down 447

Down III

Down 145

Up 144

Up 185

Down 15+

3 Yards

239 55 44 15 ~b

67 YARDS-AVERAGE ERROR OF RADAR SPOT

In this tesl. the (iring 1"Gllge IAIIIS [rom 27,000 to 29,noo Y01·ds. The (lvel'Oge tn'7"Or of radar spoH7 yards-would have been still /1:55 if the spotter had obtnined compensated {P.I. i1l the second saluo by considering number of guns fired and of splash pips seen.

38

CONF)DENTIAL

39

he Mark 8 and shore bombardments

Action off tl. 1 e is. land of T i nian d u. ring .f U.l Y revealed aaain the vet: atili of the Mark 8

in presenting land contours and man-made objects that served as reference paints in bombardments. One ship fixed it po irian by ranging over land and picking upon the Bvscope a radio tower and a tack. The tower and stack were inland and were difficult to pick up. Once "on", however, their freedom from side-lobe interfer nee rendered them ideal all all bearing .

Recent shore bombardment tests have revealed

that the Mark B's B-scope is capable of presenting land contours accurately within the resolving limits of the equipment. Knowing these limits and distortions enables the preparation of charts showing predicted B-seope patterns Ear specified positions of ship with respect to predetermined shore areas.

The expected pattern should show:

1. The best Iocations of own ship for obtaining an accurate radar fix on a cho en bombardment area.

2. A close enough approximation to the actual

• pattern for uncharted objects (enemy ships, for example) to be d.i tinguished and identified as possible targets.

B-SCOPE DISTORTS LAND OUTLINES IN PROPORTION TO RANGE

Figure J illustrates how land outlines are distorted in the Mark 8's B- ope pre ision sweep. Since the 2000 yards (19,000 to 2 I ,000) range in-

I

'21000 YARDS

\ I

\

s.UP

Lyi'lg 1I0,OOO yard!; off of island "X" the illustration shows the extent Of (lie a.rea covered by the Mar" 8. The observed [J-saojJe put/ern shows a± 1000 ya1'ds. Careful handling 0/ the gain 071 the Mark 8 distinguishes hi lls from 10TIIIl1' land returns.

(0.)

. ,

.

,0000 ulllJS

tAl Htnu iI/mill" X" would appear ill Ow B·!f<iope from different ship po~iliQ'!.I, i« ,,'f, owl'! 116,·e. Distortion. fir th« island's outtine is CIISU" understood by noting that I he 2000 yard T"(I.l1 ge ill te TV(I./ and the 30° bearing interua! hnu« nbou! tile same dimensions on the B- c(ltJl,!.

terval and the 30° bearing interval have about the

arne dimensions on the cope, it is appa;ren t that the island's outline will be distorted in bearing with respect to range. Distortion is smallest at about 3000 yards, 0 the scope pattern should closely resemble the true outline for this range only.

Radar maps (theoretical or expected patterns) of au island have been prepared [OJ' three position of own hiI as hown above (Figure 2). The ranges and true bearings of designated hilltop J o. 2 are: . 20,000 ard and 0, B. 20.000 yard and 3300, C, 3000 yards and 300 •.

For medium to long ranges the strange t reflection will ome from land elevation which are definitely above the antenna's horizon, reflecting best from ro ky land masses. For this reason, and also to simplify calculations, only island elevations

CONFIDENTIAL

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00 m ;;c

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U

of 40 feet or more are used in preparing the two . zo 000 yard range map , bu t the elevation limit is lowered to 20 feet (or the first contour) for the 3000 yard range map. In calculating the position and size of the indication (pip) on the radar map.

ill No .. ~ is taken as the target and its pip is centered on the 00 bearing line, just above the range line. The center of the base of any other pip is then determined by calculating the number of mils (or degrees) right or left and the range difference, Width of pip is approximately 35 mils (or the 2° beam width) plus the width of the hill in mils (or degrees). Depth of the. pip in range is approximately 100 yards (approximate pulse length as received) plus the distance from contour line to hill top.

In analyzing the radar maps of Figure ~ it is suggested hat the page be oriented for each direction. Then note the following points:

1. For (A) hills NO.1 and NO.2 are about the same range and too dose in bearing for discrimination as separate target. Centering on the single pip representing these two hills would result in an indeterminate point of aim about midway be-

tween them, .

2. For (B) definite discrimination in both range and bearing is provided all hill o. 2, so that direct radar controlled fire is possible on this hill.

3. For (C) only two-thirds of the island appears' on the sv.'eep, but Iosel, resembles the true outIine of the island as seen from a ship at 3000 yards. 4. In all cases ship 100 to soo yards from the

(belOw)' Portion of nouigalional chart of 'UI area s elected for I! radar predicted-pattern test. The pener! pom/s .to ~I!e 1II0uill ot ~ creek, which was US5um6d to be of military s'IJ",{iIJcmCl!.. Ship s position was anticipated to be due south, ra'ige 8000 yards, (right) The lema radar paUem was deoeloped. and. 1!redicte'!IUi shoum, ilrrt>w poiflli to entrance of creeu, from which beanflg.~ and ranges Otl otner objectives could be made.

(below right) Theoctual pattern olt~ul tested shore area reueals the accuracy 0/ s: 1mUern predictions. Arroto marks the entrance at the creek; atld even tuith the high gain ,awl .was "s~d in the test, the ability to range on other objectives IS rea(llly ll/)paretll.

hare would probably alter the pattern to uch extent that they could be detected easily .

DEMANDS CAREFUL GAIN CONTROL

Just below is a copy of a rough drawing made by actual observation of a Mark 8 radar B-scope. when the ship was approximately 20,000 yards south of the island. The slight difference between calculated, and actual patterns is partially accounted for ey the non-linearity 6£ the creen in range. For higher receiver gain the three upper pips merged into a single large pip, indicating that appreciable reflection were then received from lower island elevations. This indicated that careful adjustment of the gain control will enable the radar operator to distinguish hills (rom the lower portions of the land.

Because of the timeliness and increasing value of the Radar Mark 8 in fleet operations against enemy island objectives this article is published. The original article was published in the Bulletin of Ordnance Information) No. 2-43.

Figures )} 4} and 5 showing the development of a particular land area and how it looked on the B-scope of the Ma1'R 8) ere taken from the Ma1-k 8 Operation Film, M -32:02 a and b ..

Excerpts on Communications from Action Reports •

1. U.S.S. BLACK (DD 666) while Flagship for an LST Group during the Marianas Operation.

"It is best to take station in a position most favorably 10 ated to break up a coordinated attack at long l'ange, opening fire at extreme range. This immediately indi ate direction of the attack and generally gets the word around that enemy aircraft are in the vicinity. With 39 small craft spread out over five square miles of ocean, there is always someone who doesn't get the word. despite voice radio, Haghoists and signal light. Communications are slow and often erratic. t the first indication of Eriendly aircraft, "Fox" was hoisted and warning given 0 er the o ice Radio (SCR). The importance of getting this word out early can not be stressed too much. LST zuns are easy to start firing but hell to stop. For example, a companion group shot down an inquisitive TBF at point blank range despite "Fox" Bying, and their destroyer screaming over the Voice Radio."



2. .S.S. PRINGLE (DD 477)

on Fire Support CommurucationsTinian Island.

"When ordered to work with a SFC, two .receivers were used initially. One receiver was set on the frequency assigned and the second used to search above. and below the frequency until, satisfactory communication was established. The Naval Gunfire Common circuit was guarded continuously using the

CS-5. This et gave excellent performance throughout the entire operation. Batteries were changed daily on this set."



3. A TaSK Unit Commander= Guam Operation.

"However, the directive that the hip sb uld seek the frequency of the Shore parties should be amplified. During the latter part of the operation the JOHN RODGERS was 45 kcs off frequency in order to maintain communications. During a Iull the ship should coach the SFCPs back to the correct frequency."



4. A Task Group CommanderSaipan Operation.

"In view of bitter experience with failure of contact reports 0 get through, T.G. took

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the following steps to insure positive and accurate reception of contact reports, with notably good results:

(1) All search pilots were rebriefed on contact-report instructions.

(2) Search planes were directed to use trailingwire antenna where available and to broadcast with full power on a course alright angles to the bearing of the receiving force.

(3) In order to receive off-frequency reports, the flagship used three receivers, one on - kcs, one searching slighdy above and one searching slightly below this frequency. Three cruisers supported with the same system, one intercepting - kcs, the others searching aboe and below,"



5, Commander Destroyer Squadron Normandy Invasion,

"The ELLYSON on the other hand, although lacking FM crystals, communicated very successfully with three shore fire control parties, and delivered most effective gun.fire controlled by keyed CW communications, It is considered that this is, after all, the most reliable means of communications for operations of this nature."



6. U.S.S. JOHNSTON (DD 557)Guam Operation.

"Pre-operation briefing of radar operators on the topography at the objective paid dividends in that precise radar fixes were obtained smoothly from time of arrival until comple-

ion of operation. Further, condition watch teams were able to carry out this function during night illumination and harassing fire a abl y as the general quarters crew."



7. Commander Transport Division EIGHTEE 1_

Guam Operation.

(a) "Despite the bandicap of being a reserve grOLIp ordered at the last mo-

(b)

ment into the GUAM Operation without benefit of any communication conference or discussion prior to the landing with the other elements in the assault, we consider that amphibious communications ran with extraordinary smoothness. What made this possible was the conception behind CENTCOM TWO of one overall communication plan for the SAIPAN - TIN IAN - GUAM Operation. No game of tick-tack-toe had to be played with the circuits to find the various commands."

"Communications with LeT's at GUAM were the best experienced in any operation. Each LCT was equipped with SCR 610 properly tuned, and maintained a continuous watch. Much of the credit for this excellent performance goes to Commander LCT Group 38 who required regular reports from his group and saw to it they were made. He kept a constant check on their radio equipment and on the alertness of the individual LCT in keeping a proper guard."

"The usefulness of the Fleet Common circuin underway as an auxiliary maneuvering channel to the TBS has been demonstrated, on several occa-sions, At a critical point thi command's TBS failed momentarily and the necessary signals transmitted over the Fleet Common channel. The U.S.S. BOLIVAR had a complete breakdown of their entire power system both steam and electric the night of :p j uly-) August. Their only means of raising the alarm and signalling their breakdown was by means of the battery-powered SCR 608. The precautions already in effect against the use of this equipment in broad daylight> however, were corroborated again when we heard snatches of transmissions between ships in ENIWETOK while we were about 600 mile to the westward."

-~,

-" ~

... "'"

{ Attacker fired thre« iorpedoes during this problem.

combat problems train escort

C.I.C. teams ...

S S CAN 0 recommends a maneuvering contest for escort destroyers which simulates combat problems in guarding a convoy against atta k and gives valuable training in tactics and operation procedures to CIC teams. It closely parallels the interception problems with simulated . ndly and bogey planes which have pro ed to the most practical means of training fighter director and intercept officers and supporting CIC personnel. Here is the CA lON'S description. . "Although Task Group 42.5 is a heterogeneous group of escort vessels, containing at various times, PCs and AMs in addition to DEs. a game has been developed which offers the CIC aboard the destroyer escort an opportunity to exercise its personneL Basically the game consists of sending one of the escorts, designated the attacker, ou t to a di tance 8,000 yards away from another es ort, designated the defender, in the latter's sector. he attacker is allowed a speed slightly in excess of the defender, based somewhat upon con oy speed. In a 10 knot convoy a 16 knot attack speed and a 14 knot defending speed seems to make for good Sort. The objective of the attacker is to get with-

3,000 yards of any merchant shi p ill the convoy without leaving the defender's sector and without allowing the defender to come within "/00 yards

(c)

42

CONFIDENTIAL

Plot of problem with ~ isling ship conning defending Ship b)! 'rns.

of her. Jight conditions are simulated and the contestants act only upon Radar and Sonar information, and lise onlythe information from erG to conn and to direct guns, torpedo to bes and searchlights, The attacker can develop agility in eIC by shifting torpedo and gunnery targets as the tactical situation develops. Thus, if the defender offers a likely target, the solution of her problem may be obtained and gun fire simulated. The other escorts and various merchant ships in the convoy offer targets of opportunity for the alert crc. CIC torpedo solutions can be checked against those obtained visually, using the Heath-Solier sight ..

"Another modi:fi ation of this game assumes that the defender bas no Radar in operation and that another escort must "see" for her. The assisting ship then sets up a plot in CIC which enables her to direct the defender by TBS so a to intercept the attacker. This affords GIC an excellent drill in double plotting and rapid transmission of information over TBS.

"The proceedings are sometimes enlivened by .running plots on patrolling aircraft or by the soundmen obtaining contact which have to be investigated. All in all this game has served to maintain the interest and enthusiasm of CIC personnel to an extent not thought possible otherwise,"

CONFI DENTIAL

43

SU radar is put through its paces

Foul' ships recently went through complicated maneuver in the waters near Bermuda. Their purpose was to make a thorough test of the performance and target di crimination of the U Radar. Commander, Fleet Operational Training Command. Atlantic Fleet recommends that all ships with SU study the results.

The tests were staged by the Commander, DDDE Shakedown Group, Atlantic Fleet, using three ships as targets and a fourth, a DE with SU Radar. acting as the radar observing ship. Following is a description of the various tests and the results obtained.

Ship testing radar will be known as radar ship; maneuvering ship "will be designated A, B, and C, and where all three are u ed, that is the order in which the column will be formed. Tests involving a land background will be carried out 1500 yards from the shoreline.

1 Three ships in column aspect beam on, disd tance A to B steady at 500 yards, distance from B to C variable from 1000 yards to 200 yards in 200 yards steps. Maintain each step Ear fi e minutes. Radar ship will be 1"2,000 yards from column's beam and on parallel course. Speed of all ships is 15 knot. (See Fig. 1.) Results: Two pips on both A Scope and PPI with B to C distant 1000 yards, and SO separation B to C. Only one continuous pip on A Scope or PPI with 4° separation B to C.

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1 b Same as I (a) except range 8000 yards. Re-' sults, two distinct pips on A Scope and PPI, with 5° separation B to C. One continuous pip with 40 separa tion.

2 Same startingoneliti us as 1 (a) except di - a tance tram B to C is 500 yards. Then B takes station 450 on starboard quarter distance 1000 yards from A. C then steam on ba e course overtaking B (close aboard) and A (about 400 yards). (See Fig. '2.J Results: Twa pips visible throughout test, 3 pips intermittently. Clear range eli crimination could be seen with 300 yards between targets.

3 Three ships in column, distance A to B 500 a yards, distance B to C 250 yards. Radar ship steams across head of column at a range of 12,000 yards. Speed of all ships is t5 knots. (See Fig. 3.) Results: All targets clearly distinguishable when target angle was between 600 and 3000.

4 Three ships in column steaming 15 knots a parallel to land background. Distance A to B 500 yards; B to C 250 yards. Radar ship steams all parallel course, ranze 12,000 yards, speed 10 knots. Column steams to limit of area and chan course l800 with. full rudder. (See Fig. 4.) Results:

Land had no effect and targets were always clear.

5 d Ship steaming in circles using standard .rudder, speed 10 knots. Radar ship initial range over 15,000 Y!lrds, do ing to '2,000 yards, speed 20 knots. (See Fig. 5.) Results: Target angle had no effect.

6a Three ships in column, speed 15 knots. Distance A to B, and B to C, 500 yards. Radar ship abeam on same base course and speed as column. "When ready, ships turn away in column. (See Fig. 6.) Results: One pip before turn, 3 pip after tum on both A Scope and PPI. Turn could be determined when leading ship had changed course abou t 30 degrees.

7 Single hip speed 20 knots laying chemical d make screen. Radar ship speed 15 knots, closes range from 12,000 yard to 2000 yards. (ee Fig. 7.) Results: Chemical smoke screen had no effect.

COTCLANT SUMMARIZES THE RESULTS

1, The SU radar performs very well. Its angular discrimination is about 4 degrees and its range di crimination about 300 yards. The detail visible on the PPI Scope is excellent, the best of any search radar on DD's or DE's. The principle difficulty encountered is that it is somewhat affected by clouds and mist and some trouble may be expected. from this cause in trying to navigate during periods of low visibility by use of radar, and ill general searching.

2. The general perfonnance of the SU radar compares favorably with the SL radar. Its electrical construction, however, is a great deal more complicated. To date no experience has been gained in maintenance problems because the engineers (civilian) have been aboard the ship.

3. At present only one speed is provided for antenna sweep. Two or three speeds would seem more desirable. The antenna may be stopped and trained at will while ranging on target. Since a range marker is provided on tbe PPI, approximate range may be readily determined.

4· Piloting through a channel isextremely easy with the SU radar. The discrimination is such that the exact course to pass buoys is readily determined. and the instant of passing buoys can in most cases be accurately determined.

44 CONFIDENT1AL CONFIDENTIAL

--~--~~--~-~--------------------------------~--------------~---------~----------------------------------------------------~--------

6b arne as No.6 (a) except ships execute simultaneous turn away. Re ults: Only one pip throughout maneuver.

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45

'DETECT.IO.N of a 4"foot-wid.e object at a range of 29 miles by ANjAPS-2 (ASG) airborne radar has been officially recorded. This seemingly unu ual performance was by no means a freak nor the result of guided propagation. The object detected was an MX-138j A life raft corner reflector. undergoing range tests at NAS Patuxent River, Md. The ability of small corner reflectors to produce good radar ranges offers many possibilities and all hands are invited to turn on the imagination.

Already corner reflectors to aid in detection of life rafts have been fully developed and will go into production sufficient for all rafts. A droppable corner reflector is also being developed £01' aircraft use.

In addition, some of the suggested uses for corner reflectors are:

a. Determining aircraft drift by use of a mappable reflector.

b. A navigational marker for buoys and channels. c .. Obtaining meteorological data.

d. As bombing and gunlaying targets:

(I) On target rafts or sleds fOf main battery gunne'ry practice (radar control). In this connection it is noted that two 10' corner reflectors on a small ship, converted fOT use as a radar target, gave excellent signals on Mark 8 and Mark 1.2 radars at ,a range of go,ooo yards. The altitude of the reflectors was about: 60' 'to 70'.

(2) In target; sleeves tor anti-aircrait gunnery practice (1'adar control). Bulletin of Ordnance Information o. 2"44, paragraphs 142-143, contains results of tests with anti-aircraft target Mark 22. This target is excellent. It is noted that 2.5 reflectors suspended from a balloon were tracked recently to 26,000 yards by radar Mark 12 and to more than 20,000 yards by radar Mark 22.

(3) In alignment (or boresighting} of fire control radars.

e. Marking subsurface objects,

f. As radar exercise targets.

g. As aids to landing parties.

h. Marking submarine sanctuaries.

i, 'With life jackets to locate men in the water.

Because many of the suggested uses are highly pecialized and limited in application and because of lack of facilities, initiation of bureau-sponsored development programs is not warranted except in a few cases. However, the devices are so simple and 0 easy to construct that fleet activities will be able to build their own. To help in their improvisations, the following information on corner reflectors. is provided, Descriptions of successful applications should be sent to the appropriate bureau.

A corner eflector i an assembly of three reflecting planes intersecting at right anzles just as at the corner of a box. The planes can be triangular or square. Such a configuration of re-

. fleering planes,. if properly constructed and within certain limits, has the property of returning toward the source a large portion of the radar energy it intercepts. How the reflection occur is shown below.

Although energy will be reflected back to the source regardLess of the angle at which it strikes the reflector, the amount returned depends on the angle at which the radar beam "sees" the corner, The maximum amount of energy will be intercepted and reflected when the beam striking it forms a 45 ° angle with this

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41:1

CONFIDENTIAL

, , ,

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and corner reflectors

=

~.

page and is from the direction "X," shown in the drawing. Because of this directional property, clusters of corners are used so that a radar beam will see some portion of one or more corners regardless of the angle at which it strikes the reflector.

If an activity wishes to make a corner reflector, the planes Can be made of any material which gives good radar reflection, Any sheet metal is satisfactory, and even wire screens and meshes may be used provided the spacing between wires is no more than about

ne-sixth of the wa elength of the radar set with which the reHector is to be used. 1£ screens or meshes are used, good contact at the crossover points of the wires is essential. If they have been exposed to salt atmosphere, the contact may not be satisfactory.

~ or good results, the planes of corner reflectors should intersect at right angles, and only slight deviation from goO is permissible. The angular accuracy required is proportional to the length of the sides and the frequency. For a corner reflector with sides two Eeet]ong for use with S-band radar equipment" the deviation from 90° should not be more than 1.7°. If a #amework is made of wood it should be dry and weather-proofed.

Since reflectors are directional, orientation is important and corners should be mounted as illustrated.

The range at which a corner reflector may be observed from the air at altitudes over 1,000 feet is proportional to the length of the sides of the cluster. A reflector with sides two feet long can he seen from aircraft twice as far as one with sides one foot long.

From shipboard) however, a four-foot reflector can be seen only twice as far as a, one-foot reflector. Further, the maximum range at which a reflector can be observed with shipboard radar depends on the height of the radar antenna and the height of the reflector above water. The reflector should be placed as high as pos ible above the water if it is to be "seen" with shipboard radar.

All other condi tions being eq u ival en t, a corner l'eRector is more effecti e at ShOTt wavelengths. However, the possible increase in range is somewhat off et by the fact that longer wa elength sets often have a higher performance level than microwave sets.

The tables below indicate roughly what may be expected from triangular comer reflectors which are properly constructed and properly oriented. If square planes are used, the range will be increa ed by 1.7 for air search and by 1.3 for ea earch,

AIR EARCH

Radar Set AS]) ASG ASB

Length Side Reflector (feet) A pproxlmare Range (naut. mi.)

2 8

2 .2

2 4

For air search. range is proportional [0 length of side of reflector.

SEA SEARCH

Radar At. of Antenna Ht. of Comer Length SIde Approx, Range

Set Above Water (feel) Above Water ([eel) Reflector (feet) (nnul. mi.)

SG 75 5 2 4~

5G 75 5 3 5·5

G uS 20 2 .8

5L 75 [) 2 5-3

SO-5 20 10 2 lHI

SU 75 5 2 8,8

SF 30 )0 2 4,,1

SK 125 S 4- 2.2

SK 125 20 8 7,5

Supernormal weather conditions can make much greater ranges possible. tandard radar performance level is assumed.

CON FIDENTIAl

47

Q! W cc

12

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U

I ucite and Plexiglass plotting surfaces unforL tunately are quite oft. Even with careful use

they develop myriad faint scratches which eventually produce a Christmas tree effect that, to say the least, is most confusing. Deep nicks and gouges will frequently appear but these can be reduced without much difficulty and fine scratches can be completely eradicated.

The first rule in the care of plastic is to protect all plot surfaces when not in u e. Provide covers for the vertical and horizontal plots and all plastic tams boards. These can be made of heavy duck by the ship's company.

Second, indoctrinate all hands in the care of plotting surfaces. Don't use them as work or park benches, or stowage shelves for old soldering irons, tired feet, coffee cups, etc. They just weren't built for it.

Plastics soften under heat. Contact with high candlepower light bulbs, soldering irons, welding torches, and even coffee pots may wilt or ruin any plastic surface.

Use soft wax pencils only. Chalk, pencils, and pens won't work anyv ... ay and may scratch the surface. Use oft polishing cloths for era ing. ever use a rubber ink eraser unless you want a frosted surface.

Third, lay in a stock of Simonize wax and use it. Put the watch to work and rub in a good coat f wax on all expo ed surface. Not only will this covel" up faint scratches but it will protect the

urface from further scratching. Mo t important, erasure of wax pen il plots from a imonized surface is quickly done with a soft cloth. No solvents or cleaners will ever be necessary. Rewax thel surfaces frequently (every other day 'with

<3

48 CON,FIDENTIAl

the care an cleaning of plastic plots

"C.l.C.' is distributed by registered mail (md registered air. mail to aviation fleet, and shore commands, offices, and (lctivitie,s oj the U. S. Navy Marille Corps, tmd Coast Gll(lrd. "C.l.C." is also distributed to other specific comm(Oltls and activities 0./ lite Allied Forces, afler receip-t and approval oj official requests.

Requesl.s [or back issues and subsequent issues 0./ "C.l.C." SllOldd be addressed: The Chief of Naval Operations, Editor 0/ "C.l.C.", Washington 25, D. C.

U. S. Army commands and activiae! (lesiring to receive issues of "C.l.C." should direct fheir requests to: Adjutant General's Office, Operations Branch, Room 2B939, Pentagon Building, Washington 25, D. C.





DISTRIBUTION OF C.I.C.

_.

twenty-four 0 hour use). Use a small quanti

of wax and TUb it in with a felt pad.

FOU1·th, r e m o ve existing nicks and

scratches now.

Heavy nicks and gouges can be reduced and made practically unnoticeable. With light strokes of a sharp knife scrape away the edges, to the bottom of the cut, forming a rounded depression with no sharp rises. Complete by polishing as scratches. This is more saris- - fa tory than attempting to grind down the c::::;., cut 11.1' i t h coarse abrasive' and require . less polishing.

Surface scratches are removed by polishing with a sott abrasioe. The Norton Company's "levigated alumina" is satisfactory for this work. It is obtainable in one-pound cans. Polishing is accomplis by vigorous rubbing with a soft felt pad in a mixture of abrasive and water. Other suggested abrasive are Pepsodent 01' Squibb' tooth powder. After polishing apply a good (Oat of simonize wax.

Fifth, lighting is oEten excessively brilliant on edge-lighted plots. Sixty inch vertical plots with thirty-two bulb arranged around the rim can be adequately illuminated with 2 to 4 candlepower bulbs. Some shi ps have used as much as 32 c.p., which is not only too bright but is likely to overheat the plastic.

As a guide for other plots or status boards six 2 candlepower bulbs (MC box type) will adequately light a 30 inch diameter 1;4. inch thick lucite plot when the bulb are inserted in holes Dear the edge of the board.

With underneath lighted urfaces, provide lation to reduce the heating effect on the plastic.

• •

You, do,,'t have to be e professional uiriter 1,0 turn out a valuable article for C.I.C.

Yo.ur experience may Iume tllU,' .. 1I,t YOlL something importun.t about the UliC and operation of radar

which others do not knOtf}-Or about

radio sonar or other eq1J,;'pm.ent. TAnl information should g~ in C.I.C. to. be reed. b:), the Lhous(tn.cZs of o.fficers and men in the Navy who. are vitally interested

in yonr experience, or yo.ur shi/J's experience.

For exam.ple, lV/Utt usejul Ieseon» were learned during your las I. raid on enemy territory or in

that attack on a Japanese co.nvo.y? What happened in your C.I.C. when. you shot clown (m, unusual

number 01 Jeep pllrnei? Hou: dill yo.ll,

get that exceptionally accurate poitu. of aim lor the shore bhmbardment arId wlwt clid the scope look like?

Look oeer the articles i.n this issue amI see if you do. not 'notice important. topics lohi h ar

Dot co.'vered - and on which your e:t/)crience gives yOll something to say that neede saying

1101V. Wrile it UfJ and send it (with 011.6

copy to your im.m.ediccte commosuling officer) to

* THE CHIEF OF NAVAL OPERATIONS EDITOR OF c.i.c.

WASHINGTON 25, D. c.

This Publication IS CONFIDENTIAL