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Eight dimensions of product quality management can be used at a strategic level to

analyze quality characteristics. The concept was defined by David Garvin. Some of the dimensions
are mutually reinforcing, whereas others are notimprovement in one may be at the expense of
others. Understanding the trade-offsdesired by customers among these dimensions can help build a
competitive advantage. Garvin's eight dimensions can be summarized as follows: [1]
1. Performance: Performance refers to a product's primary operating characteristics. This
dimension of quality involves measurable attributes; brands can usually be ranked
objectively on individual aspects of performance.
2. Features: Features are additional characteristics that enhance the appeal of the product or
service to the user.
3. Reliability: Reliability is the likelihood that a product will not fail within a specific time period.
This is a key element for users who need the product to work without fail.
4. Conformance: Conformance is the precision with which the product or service meets the
specified standards.
5. Durability: Durability measures the length of a products life. When the product can be
repaired, estimating durability is more complicated. The item will be used until it is no longer
economical to operate it. This happens when the repair rate and the associated costs
increase significantly.
6. Serviceability: Serviceability is the speed with which the product can be put into service
when it breaks down, as well as the competence and the behavior of the serviceperson.
7. Aesthetics: Aesthetics is the subjective dimension indicating the kind of response a user has
to a product. It represents the individuals personal preference.
8. Perceived Quality: Perceived Quality is the quality attributed to a good or service based on
indirect measures.

Understanding of Perceived Product Quality: Reviews and Recommendations

Somphol Vantamay

Consumers perception of overall components of the product -- both the

tangible and intangible characteristics
It can powerfully affect the profit margins, brand power and market share,
brand equity, perceived value, returns on investment (ROI) and profitability.
Factors affecting perceived product quality have two cues the intrinsic cues
and the extrinsic cues
Perceived product quality also has various dimensions such as performance,
features, conformance, reliability, durability, serviceability, and fit and
Concept of perceived product quality not only affects the purchase intention
of the consumer but also affects the market share, brand profitability, brand
power, and brand equity
Perceived quality is a special type of association, partly because it influences
brand associations in many contexts and partly because it has been
empirically shown to affect profitability.
Aaker and Joachimsthaler (2000)
Perceived quality is the consumers judgment about a products overall
excellence or superiority.
(1) Different from objective or actual quality,
(2) A higher level abstraction rather that a specific attribute of a product,
(3) A global assessment that in some cases resembles attitude,
(4) A judgment usually made within a consumers evoked set
Zeithaml (1988)
The customers perception of the overall quality or superiority of the product
or service with respect to its intended purpose, relative to alternatives

It can be viewed as the difference between overall quality and undetected

Aaker (1991)
Perceived quality may lead to consumer satisfaction, which is determined by
perceived performance and expectation
(Chaudhuri, 2002)
Perceived product quality is the consumers perception of overall components
of product--both tangible and intangible characteristics. It may also include
performance, features, reliability, conformance, durability, serviceability, and
aesthetics etc.
Impacts of Perceived Product Quality
Studies on the PIMS database dramatically confirm that market-perceived
quality has the relationship with return on sales positively as shown in figure
(Stobart, 1994)

Perceived product quality can result in brand power and dominant market
(Stobart, 1994)
Perceived product quality is one of the key dimensions of brand equity
Aaker (1991)
Perceived quality will directly influence purchase decisions and brand loyalty,
especially when a buyer is not motivated or able to conduct a detailed
Can also support a premium price which, in turn, can create a gross margin
that can be reinvested in brand equity
Perceived product quality affects perceived value because it provides value in
several ways
Perceived quality of a brand provides a pivotal reason-to-buy, influencing
which brands are included and excluded from consideration, and the brand
that is to be selected
Perceived product quality can be used as a positioning strategy of various
products, whether a car, a computer, or a shirt
Perceived product quality advantage provides the option of charging a
premium price
Fourth, perceived product quality can also be meaningful to retailers,
distributors, and other channel members and thus aids in gaining distribution.
In the long run, the most important single factor affecting a business units
performance is the quality of its products and service, relative to those of
Buzzle and Gale (1987)
Perceived product quality affects market share. After controlling for other
factors, products of higher quality are favored and will receive a higher share
of the market

Perceived product quality affects price. Higher perceived product quality

allows a business to charge a higher price
Jacobson and Aaker (1987)



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A high-quality type aims to signal itself to consumers

but can be imitated by a low-quality type with either a low or a high cost

An experience quality good or experience good is such that

(most of the) consumers cannot directly assess its quality before consumption.
( Nelson, 1970)
Nelson argues that advertising is a quality signal because only
a high-quality firm finds it profitable to spend a large amount on advertising.
In the short run advertising attracts consumers whether quality is high or low
but its cost, if large enough, cannot be recouped immediately. Only through
repeat purchases can a high-quality firm cash in on advertising while repeat
purchases are not accessible to a fly-by-night low-quality firm.