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List 5 functions of elements of a sentence: subject, verbs, objects, adverbials, and complements.

Explain the distinction between function and form: The same formal unit may have one function in
one sentence and quite another in another sentence. Equally, the same function can obviously be
performed by units that are very different in form-V:verb,verb phrase; S:noun phrase; O:noun phrase;
C:noun phrase, adjective phrase; A: noun phrase, adverb phrase (adverbs), prepositional phrase.
What is a clause? Explain the distinction between coordination and subordination? The unit
with the internal structure that we have been attributing to a sentence is called clause. If two clauses
are on an equal footing, they are coordinated to form the sentence and clause may be subordinated
within another clause as one of its elements.
What are possible functions of a clause in a sentence? Ex? Functions of a clause in a sentence:
subject, direct object, subject predicate or adverbial.
(1) I should have noticed that Zelda doesn't
like Zelman. (Direct object). (2) That she left, was nice. (subject) (3)The problem is that she reads
junk.(subject predikate) (4)He read books because it was required.(adverbial)
What is an operator and what is a prediction? Ex? The operator is the first or only auxiliary in the
verb of the sentence. (You could have been imaging it). Predication is constituent of a predicate,
together with operator.
Which verbs function as operators or can function as operators? Operators: can, will, have, must,
be, do (dummy operator).
How are negative sentences and questions formed in English? Negative sentences are formed by
inserting NOT (n't) after the operator. E.g. They o: should have bought a new house They o: should
not have bought a new house. Questions are formed by placing the subject of the sentence after the
operator. E.g. Should they have bought a new house?
What is a simple sentence? List patterns of simple sentence. Simple sentence is a language unit
which we must regard as primary, in comprising a minimum sense of completeness and unity. It
consists of a single independent clause, which may be one of seven types. Patterns: SV, SVO, SVC,
What is a multiple clause membership of verbs? Ex of ambiguities. A given verb can belong, in its
various senses, to more than one class, and hence can enter into more than one clause type. The verb
getis particularly versatile, being excluded only from type SV. Ambiguities: e.g. she made a good
model (SVO or SVC), I found her an entertaining partner (SVOC or SVOO), He is cooking his family
dinner (SVO or SVOO).
List types of verbs, and specify the patterns in in which they occur. Intransitive (SV),
Monotransitive (SVO),Ditransitive (SVOO), Complex-transitive(SVOC, SVOA),Transitive (SVO,
SVOO, SVOC and SVOA),Copular (SVC and SVA).
Some verbs can be either transitive or intransitive. Ex? Transitive and intransitive verbs: eat, elect,
and teach.
Which types of objects are distinguished? What are their characteristics? Types of objects: direct
object, indirect object and object compliment. Direct object is required to complete the meaning of the
verb, answers the question what? or who?, indirect object is followed by the direct, it is more
likely to be optional and can be paraphrased by a prepositional phrase functioning as an adverbial and
object compliment describes an attribute of the direct object.
Which types of compliments are distinguished? What are their forms? Compliment is usually a
noun or an adjective phrase; forms: the complements in finite causes require the subjective form of
pronouns in formal use (American English), but otherwise the objective form.
What are sentence patterns of obligatory adverbials? Ex? They refer to space; patterns: SVA
(location is attributed to the referent of the subject) and SVOA (location is attributed to the referent of
the direct object). E.g. Daniel stayed very quiet. AND Linda kept Daniel very quiet.
What are syntactic characteristics of verbs, subjects, objects, complements, adverbials? Verbalways realized by a verb phrase, normally present in all sentences (including imperative clauses,
where the subject is typically absent), determines what other elements (apart from the subject) may or
must occur in the clause. Subject- is typically a noun phrase, normally occurs before the verb in a
declarative clauses and after the operator in yes-no interrogative clauses. It determines number and
person, where relevant, of the verb. In finite clauses require the subjective form for pronouns that have
distinctive case forms. Object-is typically a noun phrase. It normally follows subject and verb, and if
both objects are present, the indirect object normally comes before the direct object. It may become

the subject of the corresponding passive clause. And in the finite clause it requires the objective form
for pronouns that have distinctive case forms. Complement- complement is typically a noun phrase or
an adjective phrase normally follows the subject and verb if the subject compliment and the DO if the
object compliment. It relates to subject if subject compl., or to the DO if object compliment.
Adverbial- normally an adverb phrase, prepP or clause, but it can also be a NP, capable of occurring in
more than one position in the clause and its mobility depends on the type and form of the adverbial. It
is optional, except for adverbials in the SVA and SVOA clause types.
Explain the distinction between prescriptive and descriptive rules. Prescriptive rules tell people
how they should speak according to some standard: ex. dont split the infinitives; never end a
sentence with a preposition etc. These rules tell us how we are supposed to use our language. The
other approach is to write rules that describe how people actually speak, whether or not they are
speaking correctly. These are called descriptive rules.
Explain ungrammaticality of: Has been ill John. John have been ill. John has being ill. 1. Subject
John should be placed before the verb; 2. Subject-verb agreement= John has, not John have; 3.verb
forms-been, not being.
What is the order of grammatical units according to the grammatical hierarchy? SENTENCESconsist of one or more CLAUSES-consist of one or more PHRASES-consist of one or more WORDS.
Describe the underlined constituent in terms of their function and form: The man fed his dog.
(1) The man has the form of a noun phrase because its main word, man, is a noun; it has a function
of a subject. (2) His dog has the form of a noun phrase and function of direct object.
Explain the distinction between compound and complex sentences. Ex? A combination, such as
Paul plays football but/and Amy prefers tennis, which consists of two or more simple sentences, is
called a compound sentence. A complex sentence contains another sentence-likeconstruction
within it:When the plane landed, the ground crew removed the cargo.
What is a predicate? Ex? Which tests can be used to identify the subject? The Subject is usually
the first element in the sentence, while the rest of the sentence, which includes the verb, is the
Predicate (e.g. Amy laughed). The subject of a sentence can often be identified by asking a question
beginning with WHO or WHAT.
What is Subject-verb agreement and when does it apply? The agreement test-the subject of a
sentence agrees in number (singular or plural) with the verb that follows it.
What is an intransitive verb and in which pattern does it occur? Ex? An intransitive verb can
occur alone in the Predicate of a sentence, because it requires no other sentence element to complete
its meaning. SV pattern: Amy laughed.
What are linking verbs and in which patterns do they occur? List five linking verbs. The verb
that simply links two elements is called linking verb. 5 linking verbs: seem, appear, look, become and
go. Pattern: SVSc
What is a transitive verb and in which pattern does it occur? Ex? A transitive verb is a verb that
cannot stand alone in the Predicate of a sentence. Instead, it requires another sentence element to
complete its meaning. Sentence pattern: SVDOThe soldiers destroyed the village.
What is a subject compliment and what does it denote? Ex? When the verb in a sentence is a
linking verb, such as be, seem, and appear, the element following the verb is called the Subject
Compliment. The Subject Compliment typically denotes an attribute or property of the Subject. E.g.
My tea is cold.
What is a direct object? Ex? The DO is typically that part of a sentence which is affected by the
action of the verb. It can often be identified by asking a question beginning with what or whom,
e.g. The soldiers destroyed the village.
What is an indirect object and in which sentence pattern does it occur? Ex? When two objects
are present in a sentence, the Indirect Object comes first, followed by the Direct Object, pattern:
SVIODO We gave David the prize.
What is an object compliment and in which pattern does it occur. Ex? An object compliment (OC)
describes an attribute of the Direct Object. Pattern: SVDOOC- The dye turned the water blue.
What is an adverbial compliment and in which pattern does it occur?Ex?Some intransitive verbs
co-occur with a sentence element that expresses location, direction or time, and that is obligatory in
the sentence structure. Intransitive verbs are followed by followed by element which is required to
complete the meaning-Adverbial Compliment (AC).

Describe the process of forming a passive from an active sentence. Ex? Active sentence pattern:
S+V+DO. The DO becomes the subject of the passive version, while the subject of the active version,
moves to the end of the passive version. Passive sentences are formed by adding the passive auxiliary
be and using a different form of the verb. E.g. Shakespeare wrote King Lear King Lear was written
by Shakespeare.
Only one category of verbs can have a passive version. Which? List 3 verbs that cannot. Only
transitive can have a passive version; have, resemble and suit cannot.
What are adjuncts, what is their position in the sentence, and can they co-occur? Ex? Adjuncts
(A) contribute optional, additional information to a sentence. Sentence may be extended by adding
adjunct, they can appear at the beginning of the sentence (Suddenly, the sky darkened) and the can cooccur Unfortunately, my tea is cold as usual.
List four meanings of adjunct and give examples of each meaning. Time (when something
happens: yesterday), Place (where something happens: at the restaurant), Manner (how something
happens: gradually).
What are vocatives? Ex? A vocative is used to identify the person or persons to whom a sentence is
addressed: Come inside, children.
What are declarative sentences? Ex?
Declarative sentences are sentences in which it is normal for subject to be present and to
precede the verb, regardless of any other sentence elements : ex. Emma gave Jenny a watch forher
What are interrogative sentences? Ex?
Interrogative sentences are used to chiefly to request information: ex. Are you hungry?
What are yes-no interrogatives? Ex?
Yes-no interrogatives: an operator (verb) is placed in front of the subject: ex. Did Emma give
Jenny a watch for her birthday?
What are alternative interrogatives? Ex?
Alternative interrogatives present two or more choices, and the hearer is expected to reply withone of
them. One type of alternative interrogatives resembles the form of yes-no interrogative: ex. Should I
wear the black sweater or the blue one?
The other type resembles wh-interrogatives: ex. Which one do you want, coffee or tea?
What are wh-interrogatives? Ex?
Wh-interrogatives: an interrogative wh-element is positioned initially and there is general
subject-operator inversion: ex. What did Emma give to Jenny for her birthday?
What are imperative sentences? Ex?
Imperative sentences are sentences which normally have a subject, and whose verb has the base form:
ex. Give Jenny a watch for her birthday.
What are exclamative sentences? Ex?
Exsclamative sentences are sentences which have an initial phrase introduced by what or how, usually
with subject-verb order: ex. What a beautiful watch she received for her birthday!
What are rhetorical questions? Ex?
Rhetorical questions are interrogatives in structure, but have the force of a strong assertion.
The speaker does not expect an answer. They can be divided into: a positive rhetorical yesno
questions which have negative force (ex. Is that a reason for despair? Surely that is not the
reason...), negative rhetorical yes-no questions which have positive force (ex. Isnt the answer
obvious? Surely the answer is obvious.) and rhetorical wh-questions (ex. Who cares? Nobody cares. )
What are fragments, and what are non-sentences? Ex?
Most irregular sentences are fragmentary sentences. These leave out words that we can easily supply
usually from the preceding context: ex. Where did you put my pen? I put it in the top drawer.
Non-sentences cannot be analysed grammatically as sentences. Most non-sentences can be
analyzed not in terms of sentence structure, but in terms of phrase structure. They occur very
commonly in newspaper headlines, book headings, titles, advertisements and notices: ex. No
smoking!; Traffic chaos!; etc.
What are two main constituents of a sentence? Ex?
The two main constituents of a sentence are the subject and the predicate: ex. I run. (the subject, the
operator and the rest of the predicate)

What does a predicate consist of?

A predicate consists of at least one verb (simple verb) or a verb with its complement or object.
The word verb is used in two distinct senses. Which?
-The verb is one of the elements in clause structure, like the subject and the object. The verb
phrase operates as the verb.
-A verb is a member of a word class, like a noun and adjective. A verb phrase consists of one or more
How do we call the elements in the following verb phrase: has been working?
Has been- the auxiliaries
Working- the main verb
List four sentence structures where the operator plays an essential role.
-In the subject-operator inversion (by inverting the positions of the subject and operator
-When we form negative sentences by putting not after the operator. In informal style not is
often contracted to nt , and in writing nt is attached to the operator.
-Operators can carry the stress in speech to convey certain kind of emphasis.
Operators are used in various kinds of reduced clauses to substitute for the predicate.
How are most types of questions formed? Ex?
We form most types of questions by inverting the positions of the subject and operator: ex. You could
have been imagining it. / Could you have been imagining it?
How are negative sentences formed? Ex?
Negative sentences are formed by inserting NOT(n't) after the operator. They should NOT have bought
a new house
How are certain kinds of emphasis aschieved in speech? Ex?
What can be used in reduced clauses to substitute for the predicate? Ex?
How are interrogative, negative and emphatic structures formed in sentences without auxilliary?
Which main verbs are used as operators? Ex?
There are two operators that are not auxiliaries: be and have and examples: It was an anwful system.
Amy has just one daughter. But with the verb have there is a choice, it is optional, we can introduce
the dummy operator or substitute get as the main verb.
List six grammatical rules that refer to the subject.
The subject normally comes before the verb in declaratives, but in questions it comes after the
The subject is normally absent in imperatives.
3.Most verbs in the present tense have a distinctive form ending in s when the subject is singular and
refers to something or someone other than the speaker or the person or persons being adressed.
Some pronouns ( I,you, she, he, they) have a distinctive form when they function as subject of the
sentence, or of clauses in the sentence.
The subject determines the form of reflexive pronouns that appear in the same clause.
When we turn an active sentence into a passive we change the subjects.
List four grammatical rules that refer to the direct object.
The dO normally comes after the verb.
2.Some pronouns have a distinctive form when they function as the dO.
If the subject and dO refer to the same person or thing, the dO is reflexive pronoun.
4.When we turn an active sentence into a passive sentence, the dO of active sentence becomes the
subject of the passive sentence.
What are adverbials? Ex?
Optional elements that we can add to basic structures are adverbials, and they convey a range of
information about the situation depicted in the basic structure. I entirely (A) agree. Unfortunately (A),
no cure exists.
Explain the distinction between adverbials and adverbial complements? Ex?
Adverbials are optional elements, but aC convey the same information as adverbials but they are
obligatory because the main verb is not complete without them. The protestors were outside the White
House (aC).
List four grammatical rules that refer to the indirect object.
1.The iO comes after the verb: Ruth gave my son (iO) a birthday presend (dO).

2.Some pronous have a distinctive form when they function as the indirect object: I paid her (iO) the
full amount.
3.if the subject and iO refer to the same person, the iO is generally a reflexive pronoun: The managing
director paid herself (iO) a huge salary.
4.When we turn an active sentence into a passive sentence, the iO of the active sentence can become
the subject of the passive sentence. The principal granted Tony (iO) an interview. Tony (S) was
granted an interview.
What is the pattern of the sentence with an adverbial complement following dO? Ex?
SVOA: subject+transitive verb+dO+adverbial complement ... You should put (V)the chicken(dO)in the
freezer(aC)...I keep (V)my car(dO)outside the house(aC).
What does the sentence structure depend on?
They depend on the choice of the main verbs, regardless of any auxilliaries that may be present.
List seven verbs that may enter into different sentence structures.Ex with one ?
eaten,smells, felt, made, named, growing, caught ... It smells. It smells sweet; The children are
growing. The children are growing carrots.The childern are growing hungry.
List five possible meanings (roles) of Subject.
agentive, identified, characterised, affected, 'it'
What is the most frequent subject role? Ex?
Affected-the person or thing directly affected by the action,but not intentionally performing the action:
They are drowning. The water has boiled.
Explain the distinction between stative and dynamic verbs. Ex?
Stative V introduce a quality attributed to the subject or a state of affairs : I am French citizen. Their
children are noisy.
Dynamic V introduce events. They refer to something that happens: Her books sell well. The children
play in the yard.
List three possible meanings(roles) of dO?
Affected, resultant, eventive
What is the most frequent role of dO? Ex?
Affected: She shook her hand. I threw the note on the floor.
What is the typical role of iO? Ex?
Recipient role:the person that is indirectly involved in the action, generally the person receiving
something or intended to receive something, or benefit in some way. The paid me the full amount. He
bought sandra a bunch of flowers.
What is a typical role of complements (S and O)? Ex?
The role of attribute. it attributes an identification or characterisation to the subject-if it is a subject
complement, or the dO- if it is an object complement: sC- Susan is my accountant. oC- I have made
david my assistant.
List eight possible meanings of adverbials.
Space, time, manner, degree, cause, comment on truth-value( degree of certainty or doubt), evaluation
of what the sentence refers to, providing a connection between units.
List three types of time adverbials. Ex?
Duration: They're staying with us for a few weeks.
Frequency: We come here quite often.
Position in time: Your next appointment is on the last day of the month.
Give a notional definition of a sentence and explain its inadequacy.
It defines a term by the notion or idea it conveys.There are notices that seem to be complete in
themselves but are not generally regarded as sentences: Exit, Danger...on the other hand, there are
sentences that clearly consist of more than one thought introduced by the comma.
Give a formal definition of a sentence and explain its inadequacy.
It defines a term by the form or shape of what the term refers to.It's inadequate since many sentences
end with a question mark or an exclamation mark; and capital letters are used for names, and full stops
are often used in abbreviations.
What are irregular (fragmentary)sentences? Ex?
That do not conform to the major patterns. They leave out words that we easily supply, usually from
the preceding context.

A: Where did you put the letter?

B: In the top drawer.
What are non-sentences? Ex?
We often say or write things that are not grammatical sentences: Hello!; Yes!; Thanks!; No!; They
occur commonly in news-paper headlines, book headings, titles, advertisments, notices.
What is a clause? Ex?
A clause is a sentence-like construction contained within a sentence. Tom married Amy when he was
While I was Waiting, I read a chapter of my book.
List four major types of sentences and four major uses of sentences.
Four major uses: 1. declaratives correspond to statements: used chiefly to convay information
2. interrogatives correspond to questions: used chiefly to request information
3.imperatives correspond to directives: used chiefly to request action
.exclamatives correspond to exclamations: used chiefly to express strong feelings.
What are declaratives? Ex?
They are the basic sentence type. They have basic subjec-verb structure, other elements may be
present. The sky (S) darkened(V).
What are two main types of questions?What are their properties? Ex?
Yes-no questions. Begin with a verb.They require a reversal of the order of subject and verb. Does
(op) this shop (S)opet 24. hours a day? They expect the answer yes or no, but they can be answered in
other ways: Perhaps. I don't know.
Wh- questions.begin with an interrogative word or phrase. Why should the government cut income
taxes? Most of the interrogative words begin with wh-.
What are other types of questions? What are their properties? Ex?
Declarative- have the form of a declarative sentence but the force of a question. They have the
declarative subject-verb order, but their interrogative force is signalled by rising intonation in speech
and by a question mark in writing. You know my name?
2.Alternative- present two or more choices, and the heareris expected to reply with one of them. One
type resembles yes-no question: Sould the goverment reduce its deficit by raising income taxes or by
cutting expenditure? The other resembles wh- questions: Which do you want, coffee or tea?
Tag- are attached to sentences that are not interrogative. They invite the hearer to respond in
agreement with the speaker: You haven't said anything yet, have you? They have the form of yes-no
questions. The tag question is negative if the sentence is positive, and positive if the sentence is
negative. Generally the subject is you and the operator is will: Don't tell him, will you?
Rhetorical- do not expect a reply since they are the equivalent of forceful statements. Who could
defend such a view?
What are imperatives? Ex?
They usually do not have a subject. If there is no auxiliary, the verb has the base form: Take a seat.
Pass me the bottle.
What are exclamatives? Ex?
They begin with what( introduces a noun phrase) or how( for all other pirposes). They express strong
feeling, the extent to which the speaker is impressed by something. What a good show it was!, What
mess you've made!
What is speech act? What may be the communicative purpose of a speech act? Ex?
When we say or write something, we are performing an action- speech act. The intended effect in a
speech act is the comminicative purpose of the spech act. It's getting late. ( request for someone to
leave with the speaker)Do you want a seat? (offer) Enjoy yourself (wish)
How are passive sentences formed? Ex ?
A: Charles Dickens wrote many novels
P: many novels were written by Charles Dickens.
How are negative sentences formed? What are their properties? Ex?
We can usually change a positive sentence into a negative by inserting not or n't after the auxiliary. I
can't tell the difference. A sentence may be negative because of some negative word, apart from not:

She never had a secretary. Nobody talked to us. It will generally take a positive tag question: Tom is
not shy, is he?
What is the subject-verb agreement and when does it apply? Ex?
When the werb agrees with its subject in number and person. The agreement applies whenever the
verb displays distinctions in person and number.
Give an example of person agreement and an example of number agreement.
1st person
2nd person
3rd person
What is the number of the subject if it consists of two phrases linked by and? Ex?
1.The subject is plural even if each is singular: Your kitchen, your living- room and your dining-room
are too small. It is also plural if and is implied though not actually present. It is plural when one of the
mail nouns is implied but not actually present: British and American English are dialects of one
What is the number of the subject if the phrases linked by and refer to the same thing. Ex.
If the linked units refer to the same thing the subject is singular:A conscientious and honest politician
has nothing to fear.
What is the number of the subject if the phrases linked by and are introduced by each? Ex?
If the noun phrases are introduced by each or every, the subject is singular: Every band and store was
closed that day.
What is the number of the subject if it consists of two phrases linked by or or nor? Ex?
Then both phrases are singular the verb is singular:No food or drink was provided.When both phrases
are plural, the verb is plural: Either the Unionists or the Nationalists have to make concessions. When
one is singular and other is plural, the verb agrees in number with the phrase closest to it: Neither
your brother or you sisters are responsible.
What is the number of the subject if it consists of two phrases linked by with? Ex?
When a singular noun phrase is linked to a following noun phrase by a preposition such as with, the
subject is singular even though the preposition is similar in meaning to and: His sister, together with
her two youngest children, is staying with them.
What are collective nouns? Give two examples of agreement( and explain differ.
A collective nouns refer to a group of people or things. When members of the group are viewed as
unit, singular verbs and singular pronouns are usual: The audience was very noisy. The public has the
right to know. When the members of the group are viewed as individuals, plural verbs and pronouns
are used:The government are confused about what to do next.
What is the agreement from the verb when the subject is an indefinite pronoun? Ex?
Most indefinite pronouns take singular verbs: Everybody is now here. Someone has borrowed my
Which indefinite pronouns may be either singular or plural? Ex?
none, all, some, any
If they refer to one thing, they take a singular verb: Half(the country) is under water.
If they refer to more than one person or thing, they take a plural verb: Some(of the pages) are missing
Which pronouns are used as gender- neutral pronouns with indef. pron. as antec.?Ex?
Their, they: Everybody wanted a room of their own. Does anyone think they can solve this problem?
Give examples of agrement with quantifier phrases and explain the difference.
Plural phrases of quantity or extent take singular verbs when the quantity or extent is viewed as a unit:
Ten punds is enough. Two years seem too long to wait.
Otherwise a plural is used: Twenty years have passed since I last saw Helen.
Give three examples of agreement with singular nouns ending in s. Explain
Nouns ending in ics are singular when they refer to a field of study-economics, linguistics, statistics:
Economics was my favourite subject at school.
Names of deseases that end in s are generally treated as singular- AIDS,mumps, measles: AIDS is
caused by the HIV virus.
Names of games that end in s are singular: billiards, darts, dominoes: Dominoes is the only game I
play at home.

What is the number of relative pronouns who, which and that? Ex?
They have the same number as the nouns they refer to: I have written a letter for the student who is
applying for a job in pur department. She reported on the decisions that are made at the meeting.