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G.D. Marques

SecqBo de Miquinas ElCctricas e Electrdnica de Potzncia

IST, AV. Rovisco Pais, 1096 Lisboa, Portugal

gmarques @alfa.ist.utl.pt

Abstract - Active power filters are used to eliminate current

harmonics near nonlinear loads. This paper evaluates four

different methods of determining the compensating current

for a shunt active filter that is working under nonsymmetrical conditions. The methods compared are the

Instantaneous Reactive Power Theory, the Modified

Instantaneous Reactive Power Theory, the Synchronous

Reference Frame Theory and the Modified Synchronous

Reference Frame Theory. The comparison is based on

simulation results. In balanced sinusoidal source voltages, the

difference between the results obtained by the four methods

are of minimum importance. For unbalanced and nonsinusoidal source voltage Conditions, the results obtained by

the methods referenced are quite different. The synchronous

reference frame method had shown the best choice for all

situations studied in this paper.

compensating

current under

non-sinusoidal

and

asymmetric conditions.

This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes

succinctly the four methods that will be compared in this

paper. The comparison is presented in section 3 with the

help of a simulation program. The results obtained with the

four above mentioned methods will be compared in

symmetrical and in non-symmetrical conditions. The

nonlinear load to be compensated is a three-phase diode

bridge. Non-symmetrical conditions are studied in two

different cases. In the first situation, the load is asymmetric

and the voltage remains symmetric. In the second situation

the non-symmetrical conditions are obtained when the

three-phase voltage system has a direct and an inverse

component. The conclusion is presented in section 4.

I. INTRODUCTION

11. ACTIVE POWER FILTER CONTROL METHODS

The majority of power consumption has been drawn by

linear loads. Modern loads typically contain power

electronic devices. The current drawn by these modern

devices is non-sinusoidal and therefore contains

harmonics.

Shunt active filters were proposed as a means of

removing current harmonics. In an active power filter, a

controller determines the harmonics that are to be

eliminated. The output of this controller is the reference of

a three-phase current controlled inverter. Fig. 1 illustrates

the principle of a shunt active filter. The nonlinear load is

connected to the power system and is supplied by the nonsinusoidal current .,i The active power filter is connected

in parallel to the mains, on the point of common coupling

PCC, and supplies the current harmonics needed to

maintain the source current sinusoidal.

Traditionally active power filters are studied under

sinusoidal and symmetrically voltage conditions. This

Power

System

Active

Power

Filter

A. PqMethod

The p q theory [l], also known as the instantaneous

reactive power theory, defines the active and reactive

power as:

Non-Linear

Load

Where x denotes currents or voltages. When there is no

neutral point i,=O, then:

0-7803-4503-7/98/$10.00

network. An outer controller determines the reference ac

currents that should be injected and thus compensated. A

three-phase voltage inverter with current regulation is then

used to inject the compensating current into the power line.

There are some different methods for implementing the

detection of harmonic currents. These methods were

studied in symmetrical conditions in the literature. The aim

of this paper is to qualitatively determine the differences

between four of those methods for a three-phase system

with unbalanced system of voltages and loads.

1998 IEEE

444

Authorized licensed use limited to: INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DELHI. Downloaded on May 28,2010 at 11:18:41 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

pjld]

[y]=[e.-ec

e; -e;

(4)

%-ec][]

e;,-e;.

where

A=e:+ei

calculated using the same criteria as on the p q method.

be decomposed into an average and an oscillating

component.

P = Pav

+ Pos

(7)

9 = 4av + 40s

i,*= -(i,

*

+ ih)

compensate the instantaneous reactive power and the

oscillating component of the instantaneous active power.

transformation.

so:

Pc = Pos

(8)

4c 4 L

current is transformed into the conventional rotating frame

dq. If 8 is the transformation angle, the transformation is

defined by:

component of the active power. Whence

Ps = PLav

4s

=o

(9)

.*

.*

(19)

Where i,ymisp are ideal source currents, and iLa, iLp are the

measured values of the load currents.

B. Modified pq method

The modified pq method is presented in [ 2 ] .The active

power p and reactive power q are defined respectively as:

p = e,i,

+ e$,, + e,i,

(13)

degrees. For a three wire system,

i,

+ ih + ic = 0

(14)

0-7803-4503-7/98/$10.00

1998 IEEE

In the synchronous reference frame, 0 is a time variant

angle that represents the angular position of the reference

frame. This reference franne is rotating at constant speed in

synchronism with the three-phase ac voltages.

To implement the synchronous reference frame method

some kind of synchronizing system should be used. In [4]

and [SI a phase-locked loop (PLL) is used for the

implementation of the this method.

The fundamental current of the dq components is now a

dc value. The harmonicis appear like ripple. Harmonic

isolation of the dq transformed signal is achieved by

removing the dc offset. T,his is accomplished using a high

pass filter (HPF). The reference currents are obtained with

an inverse transformation. Fig. 2 illustrates a block

diagram of the dq synchronous reference frame method.

Three is no need to supply voltage information for a

SRF based controller. However the phase position angle

must be determined in some way.

445

Authorized licensed use limited to: INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DELHI. Downloaded on May 28,2010 at 11:18:41 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

pq Method

IL2

-4

e

/ I .

I / I-"

"r"

"r"

The modified synchronous reference frame, is presented

in [6], [7]. It is presented and named the instantaneous idiq method. This method is similar to the synchronous

reference frame method, Fig.2. The transformation angle is

now obtained with the voltages. The major difference is

that the speed of the referential is no longer constant. It

varies instantaneously depending of the waveform of the

three-phase voltage system.

Let 0 be the transformation angle (variable in time).

This angle is computed using the ac voltages using (20)

and (21).

2-20

0

- - - ..

_ I _

0.005

0.01

Time

[SI

- -

- 8 -

0.015

0.02

diodes, where some imprecision occur. That is due to the

influence of the commutation on the voltage waveform.

To evaluate the performances of the various methods,

several simulations were performed. The load used is a

three-phase diode rectifier. In the first situation, a

sinusoidal and symmetrical ac voltage system is studied. In

the second case, a non-symmetrical load and a symmetrical

voltage was used. In the third situation, unsymmetrical

voltage and load conditions were considered. A 220V

direct sequence voltage, and a 50V inverse sequence

voltage and a null zero-sequence voltage were used.

A. Symmetrical load and source

The results obtained in this case are presented in fig. 3.

The ac line currents presented are the reference source

currents obtained by the methods referenced. The

influence of the APP on the PCC voltage was not

considered.

It is possible to conclude that the differences between

the four methods in symmetrical conditions under

sinusoidal voltage waveforms are of minor importance.

The best method is the synchronous reference frame

method that exhibits practically sinusoidal currents. The

source currents in the other methods are almost sinusoidal

0-7803-4503-7/98/$10.00

1998 IEEE

dependent on the voltage waveform. It was verified in

several situations that those results are still valid when the

load is unbalanced.

the voltage is the one shown on fig. 4. The a

voltage component is considerably higher than the

component. The influence of the commutation of

the diodes is clearly visible.

The currents on the load are presented in fig. 5. These

waveforms are common to all methods studied.

obtained with the pq method are presented in fig. 6, 7, 8

and 9. Fig. 6 shows the APF compensating currents while

fig. 7 shows the source currents obtained. The source

current spectra for both methods are presented in Fig. 8

and 9.

446

Authorized licensed use limited to: INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DELHI. Downloaded on May 28,2010 at 11:18:41 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

pq Method

PCC Voltages

6001

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

Modified pq Method

-600:

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

Time Is]

Load currents

25

-25l

0

I

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

T" [s]

D q Method

Harm. order

Harm. order

18.7

16- .

14. .

12. .

g10. .

m

8-.

6 -.

0

0.005

0.01

Time [SI

0.01 5

0.02

4-

2-

Modified pq Method

5

10

00

Harm. order

Fig. 9. Spectra of the source currents (modified p q method).

harmonics point of view. The source currents are not

sinusoidal. However, Fiig. 8, the amplitude of each

harmonic is practically the same in a and in p components.

The behavior of the modified p q method is different.

The a and p components are very different, Fig. 9. To the

voltage a component, the higher component, corresponds

a lower CL current component, and conversely.

The better characteristic, from the point of view of

harmonics, obtained with the modified p q method is due to

the waveform of the determinant (6) and (17) under

0-7803-4503-7/98/$10.00

1998 IEEE

447

performance in respect to the unbalance.

pq Method

x105

Z2o _ _ _ _ _ _ : . . . . . . ; . . . . . . ; . . . . .

0.005

0.01

Time [SI

0.015

0.02

_ _ _ _ - _ _ - - . _ - -

-2-

- - .

_ I _

~.

_ I . .

. .

. I _ .

.-

- -

-3

0

0.005

0.01

Time [SI

0.015

LL

q-20

0.02

_ _ .. '_

......1..

waveform of both determinants for this case.

frame Methods: Fig. 12, 13, 14 and 15 present the results

obtained with the synchronous reference frame methods.

As the a0 active power filter currents are different, the

source currents are also different. The best results, even

when compared with the presented on the previous

subsection, are obtained with the synchronous reference

frame method. In this case the source currents are

practically sinusoidal and balanced. The method is also

insensitive to the perturbations on the voltage due to the

nonlinear load, as the commutations of the diodes.

The modified synchronous reference frame method has

a good performance in respect to the peak value of the

source currents but it is poor in respect to harmonics and

unbalance. The source currents are far from the sinusoidal

waveform. When compared with the modified p q method,

the synchronous reference frame method has a lower

0-7803-4503-7/98/$10.00

1998 IEEE

_ - - __ _ - - _

8

0.01

Time [SI

0.005

0.015

0.02

frame methods

- -

3-20

0

- -

_ I _

- - -

~ - - ~ - _ , _-

2-20

- -

- 8 -

- - - .

0.02

0.005

0.01

0.015

Modified Synchronous Reference Frame Method

0.005

0.01

Time [SI

- -

_ a _

- -

0.015

- 0.02

448

Appendix

Parameters used: R,,=lO Q, Ldc=.OIH, L,=.OOlH, R,=l!2

u,,=220v u@=5

ov

V. ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Part of the costs related with the publication of this

paper was supported by CAUTL,.

VI. REFERENCES

5

Harm. order

10

Reactive Power Cornpensators Comprising Switching

Devices Without Energy Storage Components, IEEE

Trans. on Ind. Appl., vol. IA-20, no.3, MayIJune

1984, pp 625-630.

10

Harm. order

[2] Komatsu,

Y.;Kawabata,

T.

Experimental

Comparison o f pq and Extension pq method for Active

Power Filter European Power Electronics Conference

EPE97 pp2.729-2.734, Trondheim, Norway

14-

Synchronous Frame Harmonics Isolator using Active

Series Filter, European Power Electronics Conference

EPE91 pp 3-030,3.035. Firenzi, Italy

-12.

s

2a 10.

86.

4.

and Unbalanced Current Compensator IEEE

Transactions on Industrial Electronics vol. 44, NO3

June 1997, pp 321-328.

200

Harm. order

Harm. order

Control Circuit with Phase Locked Loop Phase Angle

Determination PEMC98, Sep. 8-10, 1998 Praha.

IV. CONCLUSION

The comparison of four active power filter control

methods was investigated in this paper. It is clear that

under balanced and sinusoidal voltages these four methods

gives similar results. The differences arrive when the

voltage is perturbed by the load, i.e. when there are

harmonics on the load. In this case the methods gives

similar results but the synchronous reference frame method

gives the best results. Under non-sinusoidal and

unbalanced conditions, all methods give different results.

The synchronous reference frame method is the best. It

drives sinusoidal and balanced currents on the source and

is insensitive to voltage perturbations.

The modified reference frame method gives equal peak

currents on the source but its waveform is far from the

sinusoidal waveform.

The modified pq method gives acceptable waveforms in

respect to harmonics but is poor in respect to the voltage

unbalance.

The p q method gives good results in sinusoidal and

balanced voltages but its performance is poor in respect to

voltage unbalance. The source currents resulted are not

sinusoidal but are balanced.

0-7803-4503-7/98/$10.00

1998 IEEE

method for active power filters under unbalanced nonsinusoidal conditions Power Electronics and Variable

speed drives PEVD96 Se,ptember, 23-25, pp120-124.

[7] V. Soares, P. Verdelho, G. D. Marques, Active

Power Filter Control Circuit Based on the Instantaneous

Active and reactive Current id-iq Method Power

Electronics Specialists Conference, Pesc97 St. Louis,

Missouri, June 22-27, 1997, pp- 1096-1101.

[8] S. D. Rourd, D.M.E. Ingram, An Evaluation of

Techniques for Determining Active Filter Compensating

Currents in Unbalanced Systems European Power

Electronics Conference EPE97, pp 4.767, 4.772,

Trondheim, Norway.

[9] Leonard0 Pittrorino, Jacques du Toit, Johan Enslin,

Evaluation of Converter Topologies and Controllers for

Power Quality Compensators Under Unbalanced

Conditions Power Electronics Specialists Conference

PESC97 St. Louis, Missouri, June 22-27, 1997, pp- 11271133.

449

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