Sunteți pe pagina 1din 18

6.0

PNEUMATIC TRANSPORT

6.1

Introduction

For many years, gases have been used in industry to transport particulate solids.

Dense phase pneumatic transport vs. dilute suspension.

 

o

Solids are not fully suspended.

o

Low air requirement.

o

Lower energy requirement

o

Product degradation due to attrition and pipeline erosion not major problems anymore.

Pneumatic transport of solids:

 

o

Dilute (lean) phase flow

o

Dense phase flow

6.2

Dilute phase flow

o

High gas velocity - > 20 m/s.

o

Low solid concentration - < 1% by volume.

o

Low P/L - < 5mbar/m

86

o

Limited to short route.

o

Continuous transport of solid at rates less than 10 tones/hour.

o

Operating under negative pressure.

o

Fully suspended in the gas.

o

Solids behave as individuals.

o

Fluid-particle forces dominate.

6.3 Dense phase flow

o

Low gas velocity (1 – 5 m/s)

o

High solid concentration – more than 30% by volume.

o

High P/L - > 20 mbar/m.

o

Particles are not full suspended.

o

A lot of interactions between particles.

No clear-cut boundary between dense phase and dilute phase.

Generally, ‘choking velocity’ and ‘saltation velocity’ are used to mark the boundary between dense phase and dilute phase flow.

87

6.4

Dilute-phase horizontal pneumatic transport

6.4 Dilute-phase horizontal pneumatic transport • AB – curve obtained for gas only. • CDEF –

AB – curve obtained for gas only.

CDEF – for solid flux G 1 .

Curve GH – for higher solid rate, G 2 .

Point C – the gas velocity is sufficiently high to carry all the solids in very dilute suspension.

88

As gas velocity reduces (at the same solid feed rate), the frictional resistance and P/L decrease.

At point D – solids begin to settle out in the bottom pipe – saltation velocity, U salt .

Further decease in gas velocity cause rapid salting out and rapid increase in P/L as the area available for flow of gas is restricted by settled solids.

Region E to F – some solids move in dense phase and some in dilute phase.

Saltating velocity – marks the boundary between dilute phase flow and dense phase flow.

6.5 Dilute phase vertical pneumatic transport

At point C, the gas velocity is high, the concentration is low, and the frictional resistance between gas and pipe wall predominates.

89

• As the gas velocity is decreased, the frictional resistance decreases • The concentration of

As the gas velocity is decreased, the frictional resistance decreases

The

concentration of suspension

decrease, thus static head required to support the solid increases.

90

If the gas velocity is decreased below point D, then the increase in static head

in

resistance and P/L rises again.

outweighs the

decrease

fiction

If the gas velocity is decreased below point D, then the decrease in static head outweighs the decrease in frictional resistance and P/L rises again.

In

DE, the decreasing velocity

causes a rapid increase in solid concentration and a point is reached when the gas can no longer entrain all the solids.

region

At this point, slugging fluidized bed is formed in the vertical line.

6.6 Choking Velocity in Vertical Transport.

• ∆P across a length of transport line has 6 components

• ∆P due to acceleration of gas.

• ∆P due to particle acceleration.

• ∆P due to gas to pipe friction.

91

• ∆P due to solid to pipe friction.

• ∆P due to static head of the solids.

• ∆P due to static head of the gas.

Choking can be reached by decreasing the gas velocity at a constant solid flow rate, or by increasing the solid flow rate at a constant gas velocity.

Punwani correlation;

U

CH

V

=

G s

 

ε CH

t

 

ρ

s

(

1

ε

CH

4.7

)

ρ

0.77

=

2250

D

T

(

ε

CH

 

1

)

g

2

 

U

CH

ε

CH

 

V

t

G s =

M

s

where

 

A

M s =

mass of solid

(6.1)

(6.2)

A = cross – sectional area of the pipe.

Assumption : U SLIP = V t

92

Equation (6.1) and (6.2) must be solved simultaneously to give ε CH and U CH by using trial and error method.

6.7 The

saltation

transport

velocity

in

horizontal

Rizk correlation (1973):

(1100 d + 2.5) M    1  U  s SALT =
(1100
d +
2.5)
M
1
 U
s
SALT
=
(
1440
d +
1.96
)
U
A
ρ g
10
 
gD 
SALT
M
s
where
is the solid loading’
U
A
ρ g
SALT

mass of flowrate of solids

and

mass flowrate of gas

U SALT

gD
gD

= Froude Number at saltation

Rearranging above equation;

93

U

SALT

=

4

M

s

10

δ

g

χ

2

D

χ

2

2

 

ρ π

g

 
 

  

where

δ

χ

=

=

1440

d

1100

d

+

+

1.95

2.5

1

χ + 1

(6.3)

6.8 Gas and particles velocities

There are four types of velocities:

Superficial gas velocity, U o Actual gas velocity, U g Solid velocity, V s Slip velocity, U SLIP

(i) Superficial gas velocity, U o

Operating gas velocity;

U o =

volume flow of gas

X-sectional area of pipe

94

(ii)

(iii)

or

(iv)

U o =

Q

A

Actual gas velocity, U g

U

=

U

o

g ε

Solid velocity, V s

U s =

Volume flow of solid

X-sectional area of pipe

 

U

V

s

V

s

= U

o

S

=

Q

s

A

U

s

= 1

ε

(

1

0.0638 d

0.3

0.5

ρ

s

)

(6.4)

- Hinkle correlation.

Slip velocity, U SLIP

U SLIP = U rel

95

U rel = relative velocity between solid and gas

U rel = U g – V s

It is often assumed that in vertical dilute phase flow, U SLIP = U rel = V t

6.9 Continuity Equations

For the particle:

M

s

= Av

s

(

1 ε

)

ρ

s

For the gas:

M

g

= AU ερ

g

g

(6.5)

(6.6)

Ratio of mass flowrates = solid loading

Solid loading =

M

s

M

g

96

=

v

s

(

1

ε

)

ρ

s

U

g

ερ

g

6.10

Pressure drop along the pipeline

P

=

ρ

s

L

(

1

P

1

ε)

P

g

2

=

sin

ρ ε

g

U

2

g

2

+

s

(

1

ε

)

v

2

s

ρ

F

+

2 gw

θ

+

ρ

g

L

ε

g

sin

θ

L

+

F

sw

L

+

(1) - P due to gas acceleration

(2) - P due to particle acceleration

(3) - P due to gas-to-wall friction

(4) - P due to solid-to-wall friction

(5) - P due to static head of the solids

(6) - P due to static head of the gas

F gw

. L =

 

2 f

g

ρ g

U

2 L

 
 

D

 

and

 
 

2

f

s

ρ

s

(

1ε

)

v

2

s

L

F sw .

L =

 

- for horizontal flow

 

D

   

2

 

ρ

ρ

 

U

 

 

where

f

s

=

3

8

g

s

C

D

D

d

g

v

s

v

s

 

97

F

sw

.

L

= 0.057

G L

s

g D
g
D

- for vertical flow

Konno and Saito (1969)

6.11

Design for dilute phase transport

6.11.1

Gas velocity

Generally, for systems that have two types of transport, i.e. horizontal and vertical pipes, saltation velocity > choking velocity.

If the transportation consists of both types, then gas velocity, U o must be more than U SALT and thus, choking is avoided.

Ideally, U o from the system is slightly more than point D (on the diagram of horizontal pipe).

Point near D

– cause saltation.

a bit unstable and could

98

For

lift

line

(vertical

becomes critical.

pipe)

system,

U CH

If a small perturbation occurs in the line, it gives rise to an increase in solids feed rate, then pressure gradient in vertical line increases.

pressure to the

blowers, and reduce volume flow of

gas. o Less gas means higher pressure gradient and the system reach choking condition.

o Resulting in back

Line that is filled with solid can be restarted by draining of the solid from line.

Thus, uncertainty in predicting choking and saltation velocity allow 50% for safety margin.

Thus, for operating gas velocity,

U O = 1.5 × U SALT

99

6.11.2

Bends

Bends complicate the design.

o

Advisable

to

use

as

less

bends

as

possible.

o

Increases P in line and points to create serious erosion and particle attrition.

Solids form salt at bends –

o

Due to centrifugal forces during traveling.

o

Particles slow down, re-entrained and reaccelerated at bends.

Down flowing vertical to horizontal:

o

More tendency of saltation

o

Solid remain at the bottom of pipe for a long distance before they disperse.

o

Try to avoid down flowing vertical to horizontal bends at all possible in dilute pneumatic transport systems.

Zenz (1964) recommended blind tees to be used instead of sloping elbows:

o Particles form cushion at the dead branch conveying particles impinge upon stagnant ‘cushion’ instead of material walls.

100

Bodner (1982) found that:

o Service life of blind tee is higher than radius bends or elbow (15 times higher) because of the cushion.

o P and particle attrition rates for the blind tee is almost the same as radius bends.

Practically for bends:

P for bends = 7.5 m × ∆P of vertical lines.

Dilute-phase transport systems i.e. positive pressure and negative pressure – refer Figure 6.5 and 6.6 on page 151.

6.12 Dense Phase Transport

For horizontal transport, there are five different flow patterns i.e. continuous dense flow, plug flow, discrete plug flow, dune flow and dune flow.

Continuous dense flow: solids occupy the entire pipe is virtually extrusion. Transport in this form requires very high pressures and is

101

limited to a short straight pipe lengths and granular materials.

Discontinuous dense phase flow can be divided into three flow patterns: discrete plug flow, dune flow and plug flow.

flow patterns: discrete plug flow, dune flow and plug flow. • Discrete plug flow: discrete plugs

Discrete plug flow: discrete plugs of solids occupy the full pipe cross section.

Dune flow: layer of solids settled at the bottom of the pipe move along in the form of rolling dunes

102

Plug flow: A hybrid of discrete plug flow and dune flow in which the rolling dunes completely fill the pipe cross-section but in which there are no discrete plug.

Saltating flow: is encountered at gas velocities just below the saltation velocity. Particles are conveyed in suspension above a layer of settled solids. Particles may be deposited or re-entrained from this layer.

103