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Design of Offshore Wind Turbine

Ratnakar Gadi
March 7, 2016

Contents
1 Introduction

2 Environmental and Soil Conditions at North Sea

3 Assumptions used in the Design

4 Computation of Loads
4.1 Wind Loads . . . . . . .
4.2 Wave and Current Loads
4.3 Structural Load . . . . .
4.4 Added Mass Loads . . .
4.5 Top Mass Loads . . . . .
4.6 Buoyancy Loads . . . . .

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5 Load Resistance Factor Design


6 Static Analysis
6.1 Concentrated loads for Bending Moment . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.1 Calculation of Diameter of Main Chord . . . . . . . .
6.1.2 Calculation of Dimensions of Horizontal and Diagonal
6.2 Bending Moment Diagram using Load distribution . . . . .
6.3 Analysis in Ansys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4 Critical Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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7 References

18

8 Appendix
8.1 Appendix-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2 Appendix-B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3 AppendiX-C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19
19
28
30

Introduction

Wind Power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity. Wind Power, as an alternative to the burning fossil fuels, is plentiful,renewable,widely distributed,clean and produces no greenhouse gases during operation.
The net land effects on the environment are far less than those of non-renewable power
resources.
Wind Power can be generated on-shore as well as offshore. But the main advantages of
using offshore wind power is that we generally have a higher wind speed.
This report provides with some fundamental steps taken in the design of such an offshore
wind turbine in the North Sea(54 deg N latitude and water depth of 40m).The first and most
important thing in the design of any structure is finding the loads the structure would face
during its lifetime.In order to define loads on the structure, one needs to get a good thorough
knowledge of the environmental conditions and soil conditions over there. This is dealt is
section 2.The assumptions used in the design are mentioned in Section 3.After finding the
worst environmental conditions, these are used in determining the loads on the structure.The
procedure associated with calculating the loads has been explained in the section 4.The Load
and Resistance Factors used are mentioned in Section 5.Once, the loads have been established, we need to perform a static analysis of the structure.The static analysis performed
in three different ways is explained in section 6. Section 7 deals with the references,followed
by Appendix in Section 8.

Environmental and Soil Conditions at North Sea

Wind, Waves and Current constitute the main environmental conditions for any offshore
structure. Determining them is very difficult because they vary spatially and temporally.Since
the structure is designed by Ultimate Limit State method, the highest possible environmental
conditions are considered.
A wind speed of 50m/s has been chosen to the highest possible wind speed according to
Ref(1).It has been already mentioned in the Ref(1) that the highest significant wave height
occurring is 12m. But Ref(1) suggested certain factor to be deducted to take into account
depth induced breaking. This gives an significant wave height of 9m and mean wave period of
11s.This is the not the maximum possible wave height that occurs.A calculation is performed
to find the maximum wave height.
Using the corrected significant wave height, the variance of the Energy density spectra
of the Waves is calculated.
Hs = 4(m0 )1/2
m0 =

(Hs )2
16

(1)
(2)

We assume that wave amplitude is guassian distribution.Then we have the following


probability of finding a wave amplitude greater than a:
2

P (a) =

a
exp( 2m
)
o

2 pi (m0 )1/2

(3)

To find the maximum wave amplitude,we take the probability of exceedance of 0.001.Then,we
get an maximum wave amplitude of 8m.
We have a maximum current velocity of 115cm/s.
Coming to the soil conditions,the soil is clay or dense Fine Sand as we can see from the
figure below:

This is taken from Ref(3).

Assumptions used in the Design


The Wind profile assumed is a power law.The variations in the wind profile with respect
to time are neglected.
The wind Force is calculated by an approximate formula.
The main chord of the Offshore Wind Turbine is considered to be fixed at the intersection of main chord,horizontal braces and diagonal braces.
All the Bending Moment and Shear Force Calculations are performed by assuming the
main chord to be cantilever beam.
the main chord,pair of diagonal braces and horizontal braces are taken into consideration in the various analysis.
A direct consequence of the above assumption is that the wave and wind loads have
no directional spreading involved.This means that all the environmental loads act in
the same direction.
The diagonal braces are dealt as pinned connections in the Truss Analysis
The horizontal Braces just touch the ground,but are mechanically unconstrained.
The material chosen is NV-60 with a yield stress of 390MPa.
The wave forces are calculated without taking time dependence into consideration
for the analysis.Thus the total wave force that acts on the structure is low than the
computed load.This would just make the design conservative.Also,if we use the exact
time load history of the wave forces,the maximum of the combination is 0.6-1 times of
the computed load.More in section 3.2.
The top mass load of 80,000 tonnes is considered as a lumped mass.
The diagonal and horizontal braces are so small that they do not fail by bending,but
fail from compression or tensile stresses.

4
4.1

Computation of Loads
Wind Loads

A parabolic wind profile is assumed.If the velocity at 10m high above the water is V, then
the velocity at any other z is given by:
Vz = V (

z 1/8
)
10

(4)

z is the height at which velocity is calculated.


After the velocity is computed, the drag force is calculated by:
FD = 0.6 Vz 2

4.2

(5)

Wave and Current Loads

The deep water wave length is calculated using the deep water dispersion relation given by:
L=

g(T )2
2 pi

(6)

Based on depth to deep wavelength ratio,classification into deep water,intermediate water


and shallow water is made.
ds =

d
(L0 )

(7)

Based on this ratio, if it is less than 0.05,it is shallow waters.If the ratio is greater than 0.5,it
is deep waters.In between the ratios,it is intermediate waters. In this case:
ds = 0.1781

(8)

Thus,it is intermediate waters.To find the wave-number,we use the Eckhart approximate
formula,given by:
alpha tanh(alpha)1/2
k=
d

alpha =

(w)2 d
g

(9)

(10)

d is the depth of the water.


k = 0.0311

(11)

L = 201m

(12)

The horizontal water particle velocity and horizontal water particle acceleration are computed using the following formula:
w a cosh(k(d + z)) sin(w t)
sin(h(k d))

(13)

a cosh(k(d + z)) cos(w t) (w)2


sinh(k d)

(14)

ux =
ud =

where d is the depth of the water


w is the angular frequency
a is the amplitude of the water
z is the co-ordinate in the Z-direction
ux is the horizontal velocity of the water particle
ud is the horizontal acceleration of the water particle
Then Morrison equation is used to calculate the total wave forces on the structure.The
Drag force is given by:
(Cd ) rho (ux + uc )2 D
(15)
Fd =
2

where Cd is the drag co-efficient


rho is the density of the water
ux is the horizontal water particle velocity
uc is the velocity of water
D is the diameter of the monopile
Fd is the drag force per unit length on the monopile
The drag co-efficient used in the analysis is 1.05 as stated in Ref(2).
The inertia force on the structure is given by:
FI =

(Cm ) rho pi (D)2 (ud )


8

where Cm is the inertia co-efficient


rho is the density of water
D is the diameter of the monopile
ud is the horizontal acceleration of the water particle
FI is the inertia force per unit length
5

(16)

The inertia co-efficient used in the analysis is 1.6 as stated in Ref(2).


The total wave force on the structure is given by:
F = Fd + FI

(17)

The Time Dependent Wave and Wind Drag Force and Wave Inertia Force are Shown in
the figure below for z=30m below Mean Sea Level:

The Time Dependent Total Force is shown in the Below Figure:

If we define:
v=

T imeDependentW aveandCurrentF orce


Amplitudeof theW aveandCurrentF orce

(18)

Then a graph is plotted to show the variation of this parameter at z=0m and z=30m respectively from Mean Sea Level.

These graphs show that the minimum v of 0.6 and max v of 0.8.But in the analysis we
take v as 1.Thus the wave forces which are predicted are over conservative.So,we are on a
safer side.

4.3

Structural Load

The structural mass is given by:


(Md ) = rho2 pi ((R)2 (R t)2 ) L

(19)

where L is the Length of the monopile


R is the radius of the monopile
rho2 is the density of the steel

4.4

Added Mass Loads

The added mass force is given by:


(Am ) = rho2 pi (R)2 L

(20)

(An ) = rho2 pi (R)2 L

(21)

Here Am refers to the Added Mass in the X-Direction and An refers to the Added Mass in
Y-Direction.

4.5

Top Mass Loads

The mass of the turbine is 80000 tonnes.This is the Top mass load.

4.6

Buoyancy Loads

The buoyancy loads are given by the volume of water displayed by the cylinder.
(Vb ) = rho2 pi (R)2 L
All the Values Calculated are displayed in Appendix-B

Load Resistance Factor Design

As per Ref(2),the following load factors are taken:


Type of Load
Load factor
Dead Loads
1.1
Live Loads
1.1
environmental load
1.35
9

(22)

The dead loads include the mass of structure and any weight of the equipment on the
structure.The Live Loads include the weight of any component which changes during the life
time(e.g. Water tanks).The environmental loads include the wave,wind and current loads
on the structure.
As per Ref(2),the Resistance Factors are taken:
Loading Type
Resistance Factor
Axial Tension
0.95
Axial Compression
0.85
Bending
0.95
Shear
0.95
Hoop Buckling
0.8
Connections
0.9-0.95

Static Analysis

A MATLAB program is coded which calculates the approximate Bending Moment as in


Appendix-A.This code calculates the loads as concentrated loads acting at the respective
centroids.There is second code which uses the load distribution calculated as a function of
length,integrates it to find the shear force and integrates it again to find Bending Moment.An
analysis is done in ANSYS to find the maximum bending stress taking the 2D structure into
consideration.
Here,a summary of each of the three is given:

6.1
6.1.1

Concentrated loads for Bending Moment


Calculation of Diameter of Main Chord

The forces are calculated per unit length of the structure.Then Simpsons Method is used to
calculate the total force,total moments and the respective centroids of the Loads.Using these
as an approximation,the bending moment and shear force are calculated.Then,the bending
stress and shear stress are calculated using the following formula:
Ma
S
2Va
sigv =
A
sigb =

(23)
(24)

Here sigb is the maximum bending stress on the structure


sigv is the maximum shear stress on the structure
Ma is the maximum bending moment on the structure
Va is the maximum shear force on the structure
S is the elastic section modulus of the section,given by:
S=
10

I
y

(25)

where I refers to the moment of inertia given by:


I=

pi((D)2 (D 2t)2 )
64

(26)

y refers to the maximum distance from the nuetral axis which in the Circular hollow
section is given by:
D
(27)
2
Apart from these stress on the structure,we also get hoop stress on the structure due to
external pressure on the cylinder,given by:
y=

fh =

pD
2t

(28)

where fh is the hoop stress at any depth z


p is the pressure acting at that depth,given by:
p = rho g z + rho g(

Hw cosh(k(d + z))
)(
)
2
cosh(kd)

(29)

a
2

(30)

where rho,g have their respective meanings


Hw =
k refers to wave-number
d is the depth of the water
z is the vertical Z co-ordinate
Also,the member is held in compression due to the combination of lumped mass and self
weight of the structure.
sign =

F
A

(31)

where:
F = topmass + Md

(32)

A refers to the area of the structure


The Von-Misses stress criteria is checked.The Von-Misses stresses are given by:
sigm =

((sigb + sign )2 ) + (fh )2 + (sigb + sign fh )2 ) + 6 (sigv )2


2
11

1/2

(33)

where sigb is the bending stress,sign is the normal compression stress,fh is the hoop stress,sigv
is the shear stress.
The Factor of Safety is expressed as:
FS =

sigm
Fy

(34)

where sigm is the Von-Misses Stress,Fy is the Yeild Stress.


Assuming a Factor of Safety of 0.8,the diameter and thickness of the structure are calculated.This Factor of Safety is suggested by standards for Ultimate Limit state.
All the calculations are performed by MATLAB.When checking for different criteria,correction
for Bending Moment and shear force are provided,to take into account the Shear force and
Bending Moment calculated using Load distribution discussed in Section 6.2.Then,the different standards as given by Ref(2),are checked for these diameters and thickness. The
Correction Factors are defined as:
BM
(35)
C1 =
Ma

where BM refers to maximum bending Moment obtained using load distributions and
Ma refers to the maximum Bending Moment obtained using Concentrated Loads.
C2 =

SF
Va

(36)

where SF refers to maximum bending Moment obtained using load distributions and Va
refers to the maximum Bending Moment obtained using Concentrated Loads.
The final diameter and thickness of the main chord obtained for this Factor of Safety are:
D = 5.7m

(37)

t = 140mm

(38)

For this simplified Method we have the following Shear Force,Bending Moment and Normal
Load distribution

12

13

6.1.2

Calculation of Dimensions of Horizontal and Diagonal braces

They fail by compression or tension.The same factor of safety is used as mentioned above.A
effective truss analysis is performed by using Method of Joints to find the forces on the
structure as shown in Appendix-C.
We arrive at the following diameter and scantlings for the braces as shown in the table:
Member
Diameter
Diagonal Brace
1.2m
Horizontal Brace
0.17m

6.2

Member
thickness
Diagonal Brace
30mm
Horizontal Brace
30mm

Bending Moment Diagram using Load distribution

The load distribution functions are fit using Excel and MATLAB.The load distribution curves
used are:
q = (0.004 x5 0.223 x4 + 6.37 x3 100.8 x2 + 1016 x 840.6) 1.35f orx < 40 (39)
q = (85.06 x2 12290 x + 522200) 1.35f orx >= 40
where x refers to the distance from the free end of the cylinder.

14

(40)

Integration of the load curve gives the Shear Force.The equations for Shear Force Distribution are:
SF = (9x6 )/10000(6021x5 )/100000+(17199x4 )/8000(1134x3 )/25+(3429x2 )/5(113481x)/100
(41)
2
SF = SF (39) + (9 x (4253 x 921750 x + 78330000))/1000f orx > 40
(42)
Here SF(39) refers to the shear force at x=39m.
Integration of the Shear Force gives the Bending Moment.The equations for the Bending
Moment are given by:

BM = (9x7 )/70000(2007x6 )/200000+(17199x5 )/40000(567x4 )/50+(1143x3 )/5(113481x2 )/200


(43)
BM = BM (39) + x2 ((38277 x2 )/4000 (11061 x)/4 + 352485)f orx >= 40
(44)
Below we can find graph for Normal Load distribution on the main chord.

Below we can find Shear Force distribution on the main chord.

15

Below we can find the Bending Moment Distribution on the Main chord.

16

6.3

Analysis in Ansys

An analysis is done to take the 3D effects of the structure and as expected gave low stress
levels when loaded with a uni-directional wave,wind and current loads due to the influence
of bending in one direction by the bending in the other direction.
An 2-d stress countour from Ansys is depicted in the figure below:

The maximum stress in the figure is without load factor,but if the load factor is taken
into account,the maximum stress is 230Mpa.The analysis is done with remote loads at every
1m.It is done to compare whether the stress in the monopile to the calculated stress using
MATLAB.

6.4

Critical Locations

The Bending Moment is maximum at the connection of the main chord with the
diagonal and horizontal braces.This is critical location.
The interface between the water and wind is critical because the region is subjected
to sudden changes in shear force.So there may be a possibility of local bending and
buckling.It is shown in deflection curve below:

17

The sudden change in deflection can be clearly noted at a length of 30m.

References
Ref(1)-The Maximum Significant Wave Height in Southern North Sea,Final Report,Report
No 14-94,February 1995.
Ref(2)-Recommended Practices for Planing,Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms-Load and Resistance Factor Design,API Recommended practice 2ALRFD,First Edition,July 1,1993.
Ref(3)-Design of the Piles in the UK sector of North Sea Prepared by Geo-Technical
Consulting Group for the Health and Safety Executive.
Ref(4)-Design Methods for Offshore Wind Turbines at Exposed Sites,Final Report of
OWTES project,EU JOULE III project JOR3-CT98-0284.

18

8
8.1

Appendix
Appendix-A

The code in MATLAB which computes the approximate Bending Moments and checks the
criteria as specified by API is presented here.
D= 5 . 7 ;
t =0.137;
%t =0.175
z =1:40;
v=D/ t ;
i f ( ( v<=300)&&(t > 0 . 0 0 6 1 ) )
Fw= 0 . 6 ( ( 5 0 ( z / 1 0 ) . ( 1 / 8 ) ) . ( 2 ) ) D;
f o r i =1:40
i f ( ( mod( i ,2)==0)&&( i <40))
c ( i )=4;
e l s e i f ( ( i ==1)||( i ==40))
c ( i )=1;
else
c ( i )=2;
end
end
FW=sum (Fw. c ) / 3 ;
c1=sum (Fw. z . c ) / ( 3 FW) ;
%c1 i s t h e c e n t r o i d from t he MSL
% dont f o r g e t UX(31)= v e l o c i t y a t MSL
C1=c1 +30;
%C1 i s t h e c e n t r o i d from t he z=10 where we assume t he s t r u c t u r e t o be
%clamped
Cd= 1 . 0 5 ;
Cm= 1 . 6 ;
uc = 1 . 1 5 ;
U=Ux+uc ;
rho =1025;
U=U ;
Uxd=Uxd ;
mko=l e n g t h (U ) ;
f o r i =1:mko
U1( i )=U(mkoi +1);
Uxd1 ( i )=Uxd(mkoi +1);
end
Fd=0.5Cd rho (U1 . 2 ) D;
Fi =0.5Cm rho ( p i ( ) (D/ 2 ) 2 ) . Uxd1 ;
p=l e n g t h ( Fd ) ;
19

f o r i =1:31
i f ( ( mod( i ,2)==0)&&( i <31))
d ( i )=4;
e l s e i f ( ( i ==1)||( i ==31))
d ( i )=1;
else
d ( i )=2;
end
end
FD=sum ( Fd . d ) / 3 ;
FI=sum ( Fi . d ) / 3 ;
z1 = 0 : 3 0 ;
C2=sum ( Fd . z1 . d ) / ( 3 FD ) ;
C3=sum ( Fi . z1 . d ) / ( 3 FI ) ;
% s t r u c t u r a l load
MT=80000;
g =9.81;
rho1 =7850;
m1=p i ( ) rho1 ( (D/2)2 ((D2 t ) / 2 ) 2 ) 7 0 ;
v o l=p i ( ) ( (D/2)2 ((D2 t ) / 2 ) 2 ) 7 0 ;
mass=(m1+MT) g ;
C4=(MT70)+m1 ( 3 5 ) / mass ;
%Added mass l o a d s assuming almost c y l i n d e r , but they may not be used
%b e c a u s e t he m o r r i s o n e q u a t i o n a l r e a d y has t h e s e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t a k i n g
%r o u g h n e s s i n t o account
Ax=p i ( ) rho Uxd(D/ 2 ) 2 ;
Ay=p i ( ) rho Uxd(D/ 2 ) 2 ;
AX=sum (Ax . d ) / 3 ;
AY=sum (Ay . d ) / 3 ;
C5=sum (Ax . d . z1 ) / ( 3 AX) ;
C6=sum (Ay . d . z1 ) / ( 3 AY) ;
% Buoyancy l o a d s
V1=rho p i ( ) ( (D/ 2 ) 2 ) 3 0 ;
C7=15;
wd1=V1/ mass ;
d i s p ( wd1 )
% Hydrostatic Pressure
z2=max( z1 ) ;
P=0.5 rho g ( z2 2) p i ( ) ( (D/ 2 ) 2 ) ;
20

C8=z2 / 3 ;
%s h e a r f o r c e a t th e s u p p o r t
Va=FW+FD+FI+P ;
%a x i a l f o r c e on t he s t r u c t u r e
Ha=mass ;
%bending moment a t th e s u p p o r t
Ma=FWC1+FDC2+FI C3+PC8 ;
L=70;
x =0:(L1);
M(1)=Ma;
KL=[C1 C2 C3 C8 ] ;
g=s o r t (KL ) ;
k1=g ( 1 ) ; k2=g ( 2 ) ; k3=g ( 3 ) ; k4=g ( 4 ) ;
i f ( k1==C1)
F1=FW;
e l s e i f ( k1==C2)
F1=FD;
e l s e i f ( k1==C3)
F1=FI ;
else
F1=P ;
end
i f ( k2==C1)
F2=FW;
e l s e i f ( k2==C2)
F2=FD;
e l s e i f ( k2==C3)
F2=FI ;
else
F2=P ;
end
i f ( k3==C1)
F3=FW;
e l s e i f ( k3==C2)
F3=FD;
e l s e i f ( k3==C3)
F3=FI ;
else
F3=P ;
end

21

i f ( k4==C1)
F4=FW;
e l s e i f ( k4==C2)
F4=FD;
e l s e i f ( k4==C3)
F4=FI ;
else
F4=P ;
end
% Bending Moment C a l c u l a t i o n
f o r i =2:70
i f ( i<=k1 )
M( i )=MaVa i ;
e l s e i f ( ( i >k1)&&( i<=k2 ) )
M( i )=MaVa i+F1 ( i k1 ) ;
e l s e i f ( ( i >k2)&&( i<=k3 ) )
M( i )=MaVa i+F1 ( i k1)+F2 ( i k2 ) ;
e l s e i f ( ( i >k3)&&( i<=k4 ) )
M( i )=MaVa i+F1 ( i k1)+F2 ( i k2)+F3 ( i k3 ) ;
else
M( i )=MaVa i+F1 ( i k1)+F2 ( i k2)+F3 ( i k3)+F4 ( i k4 ) ;
end
end
V(1)=Va ;
% Shear Force C a l c u l a t i o n
f o r i =2:70
i f ( i<=k1 )
V( i )=Va ;
e l s e i f ( ( i >k1)&&( i<=k2 ) )
V( i )=VaF1 ;
e l s e i f ( ( i >k2)&&( i<=k3 ) )
V( i )=VaF1F2 ;
e l s e i f ( ( i >k3)&&( i<=k4 ) )
V( i )=VaF1F2F3 ;
else
V( i )=VaF1F2F3F4 ;
end
end
H(1)=Ha ;
k5=C4 ;
% normal f o r c e l o c a t i o n
f o r i =2:L
i f ( i<=k5 )
H( i )=Ha ;
22

else
H( i )=0;
end
end
subplot (1 ,3 ,1)
p l o t ( x ,M) ;
x l a b e l ( length ) ;
y l a b e l ( bending Moment ) ;
subplot (1 ,3 ,2)
p l o t ( x ,V) ;
x l a b e l ( length ) ;
ylabel ( shear force ) ;
subplot (1 ,3 ,3)
p l o t ( x ,H) ;
x l a b e l ( length ) ;
ylabel ( axial force ) ;
% c h o o s i n g NV60 with a y i e l d s t r e s s o f 390MPa and Zeta =0.78
%tmin =5.1mm
%f o r t h i s t h i c k n e s s th e maximum D=0.46m
%D/ t <=54.75
Fy=390106;
E=2101000106;
% c r i t e r i a f o r normal c o m p r e s s i o n s t r e n g t h
lmd=270(Fy/E ) ( 0 . 5 ) / ( p i ( ) D/ 4 ) ;
Fxe =20.3E( t /D) ;
i f ( v<=60)
Fxc=Fy ;
else
Fxc =(1.64 0.23 v ( 0 . 2 5 ) ) Fy ;
end
Fy1=min ( Fxe , Fxc ) ;
i f ( lmd < ( 2 0 . 5 ) )
Fcn=Fy1 (1 0.25( lmd 2 ) ) ;
else
Fcn=Fy1 / ( lmd 2 ) ;
end
Q2=1.1 mass ;
A1=p i ( ) ( (D/2)2 ((D2 t ) / 2 ) 2 ) ;
f c =(Q2/A1 ) ;
phi1 =0.85;
23

d1=abs ( f c ) phi1 Fcn ;


i f ( d1<=0)
d i s p l a y ( nominal c o m p r e s s i o n c r i t e r i a s a t i s f i e d ) ;
else
d i s p l a y ( nominal c o m p r e s s i o n c r i t e r i a not s a t i s f i e d ) ;
end
% bending c r i t e r i a
sd1=D 4 ;
sd2=(D2 t ) 4 ;
I =( p i ( ) / 6 4 ) ( sd1sd2 ) ;
y3=D/ 2 ;
S=I / y3 ;
M1=1.27FyS ;
i f (Ma>M1)
f b = ( 0 . 8 5 1 . 3 Ma/S ) ;
else
f b = 0 . 8 5 1 . 3 Ma/S ;
end
m1=10340/Fy ;
m2=20680/Fy ;
i f ( v<=m1)
Fbn=1.27Fy ;
e l s e i f ( ( v>m1)&&(v<=m2) )
Fbn=(1.13 2.58(FyD) / (E t ) ) 1 . 2 7 Fy ;
else
Fbn=(0.94 0.76(FyD) / (E t ) ) 1 . 2 7 Fy ;
end
phi2 =0.95;
e2=fbphi2 Fbn ;
i f ( e2 <=0)
d i s p l a y ( bending c r i t e r i a s a t i s f i e d ) ;
else
d i s p l a y ( bending c r i t e r i a not s a t i s f i e d ) ;
end
% shear force c r i t e r i a
A=p i ( ) (D/ 2 ) 2 ;
f v =(2Va/A ) ;
Fvn=Fy / ( 3 ( 0 . 5 ) ) ;
phi3 =0.95;
d3=fvphi3 Fvn ;
24

i f ( d3<=0)
display ( shear c r i t e r i a s a t i s f i e d ) ;
else
d i s p l a y ( s h e a r c r i t e r i a not s a t i s f i e d ) ;
end
%p r e s s u r e check f o r Hoop s t r e s s b u c k l i n g
z4 = 0 : 3 0 ;
Hw=16;
k =0.0311;
d=30;
Hz=z4+(Hw/ 2 ) ( cosh ( k ( dz4 ) ) / cosh ( kd ) ) ;
gh = 1 . 1 ;
g =9.8;
p=gh rho gHz ;
f h =(pD/(2 t ) ) ;
phi4 =0.8;
G=(L/D) ( 2 v ) ( 0 . 5 ) ;
ml1 =(1.6 v ) ;
ml2 =(0.825 v ) ;
i f (G>=ml1 )
cn =0.44/ v ;
e l s e i f ( (G<ml1)&&(G>=ml2 ) )
cn =0.44/ v +0.21( v 3 ) / (G 4 ) ;
e l s e i f ( (G<(ml2))&&(G>=1.5))
cn =0.737/(G 0 . 5 7 9 ) ;
else
cn = 0 . 8 ;
end
Fhe=2cn E t /D;
i f ( Fhe <=(0.55Fy ) )
Fnc=Fhe ;
else
Fnc =0.7Fy ( Fhe/Fy ) ( 0 . 4 ) ;
end
d4=fhphi4 Fnc ;
i f ( d4<=0)
d i s p l a y ( hoop s t r e s s b u c k l i n g c r i t e r i a s a t i s f i e d ) ;
else
d i s p l a y ( hoop s t r e s s b u c k l i n g c r i t e r i a not s a t i s f i e d ) ;
end
% combined bending and c o m p r e s s i o n
25

Fey=Fy / ( lmd 2 ) ;
l o p =1 0.4( f c / ( phi1 Fcn ) ) ;
Cmy=min ( lop , 0 . 8 5 ) ;
d5 =0.8 f c / ( ph i1 Fcn ) + ( 0 . 7 5 / ( ph i2 Fbn ) ) (Cmy f b )/(1 f c / ( ph i1 Fey ) ) ;
d6=1c o s ( p i ( ) abs ( f c ) / ( 2 phi1 Fxc ))+ f b / ( phi 2 Fbn ) ;
d7=f c phi1 Fxc ;
i f ( ( d5<=1)&&(d6<=1)&&(d7 <0))
d i s p l a y ( th e member i s good under combined bending and compression ) ;
else
d i s p l a y ( member f a i l s under bending and compression ) ;
end
%combined a x i a l compression , bending and h y d r o s t a t i c r e q u i r e m e n t
f x=f c+f b + ( 0 . 5 . f h ) ;
d8=fx 0.5 phi3 Fhe ;
d9 =(( fx 0.5 phi3 Fhe ) / ( phi1 Fxe 0.5 phi3 Fhe ))+( f h / phi3 Fhe ) . 2 ;
%check d8>0 and d9<=1 manually a t a l l z
cd1 =0; cd2 =0;
mkl=l e n g t h ( d8 ) ;
mkl2=l e n g t h ( d9 ) ;
f o r i =1:mkl
i f ( d8 ( i ) >0)
cd1=cd1 +1;
else
f vb =0;
end
end
f o r i =1: mkl2
i f ( d9 ( i )>=1)
cd2=cd2 +1;
else
fvb1 =0;
end
end

i f ( ( ( cd1 ==0)||( cd2==0))&&(d5<=1)&&(d6<=1)&&(d7 <0))


d i s p l a y ( th e member does not f a i l under a l l l o a d s ) ;
else
d i s p l a y ( th e member f a i l s ) ;
end
else
d i s p l a y ( c h o o s e d i f f e r e n t s e t o f parameters ) ;
26

end
F=s q r t ( 0 . 5 ( ( f b+f c ) 2 ) + 0 . 5 (max( f h )2)+3( f v 2 ) ) ;
FS=F/Fy ;

Z1=[ c o s ( 0 . 8 7 2 7 ) c o s ( 0 . 8 7 2 7 ) 0 ; s i n ( 0 . 8 7 2 7 ) s i n ( 0 . 8 7 2 7 ) 1 ; 1 0 c o s (0.8727) 10 c o
Q1=[Va ; Ha ;Ma ] ;
F1=pinv ( Z1 )Q1 ;
d i s p l a y ( F1 )
%from t h e answer obtai ned , one can c l e a r l y d e s i g n th e d i a g o n a l b r a c e s f o r
%c o m p r e s s i o n and not bending b e c a u s e t h e l e n g t h o f th e column i s s m a l l
%t h e i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t i s t h a t t he middle h o r i z o n t a l member i s s u b j e c t e d t o
%t e n s i o n and s h o u l d o n l y comply with t he t e n s i l e f o r c e r e s t r i c t i o n
F11=F1 ( 1 ) ;
F12=F1 ( 2 ) ;
F3=F1 ( 3 ) ;
w2=max(BM) ;
w3=max( SF ) ;
we1=w2/S ;
we2=2w3/A;
XCV1=(( abs ( we1)+abs ( f c ) ) 2 ) ;
XCV3=(abs ( we1)+abs ( f c )max( f h ) ) 2 ;
F=(0.5XCV1+ 0 . 5 ( (max( f h ) ) 2 ) + 0 . 5 XCV3+3(we2 2 ) ) ( 0 . 5 ) ;
FS2=F/Fy ;
MLJ= 0 . 8 ;
D21=(4 abs ( F1 ( 1 ) ) / ( p i ( ) 3 9 0 1 0 6 MLJ ) ) ( 0 . 5 ) ;
D31=(4 abs ( F1 ( 2 ) ) / ( p i ( ) 3 9 0 1 0 6 MLJ ) ) ( 0 . 5 ) ;
D4=(4 abs ( F1 ( 3 ) ) / ( p i ( ) 3 9 0 1 0 6 MLJ ) ) ( 0 . 5 ) ;
DE=[D21 D31 D4 ] ;
TE=DE/v ;
This code is executed until we get the diameter and thickness which satisfy the condition
that the Factor of Safety equals 0.8.
Then a code is used to calculate the actual Bending Moment and Shear Force using the
load distributions is expressed by the following MATLAB code:
syms x ;
q1 =(0.004 x 5 0.223 x 4+6.37 x 3 100.8 x2+1016x 8 4 0 . 6 ) 1 . 3 5 ;
%t h i s i s o n l y v a l i d f o r x<40
q2 =(85.06 x2 12290x + 5 2 2 2 0 0 ) 1 . 3 5 ;
%t h i s i s v a l i d f o r x>=40
B1=i n t ( q1 , x ) ;
B2=i n t ( q2 , x ) ;
27

%B1 , B2 r e f e r s t o Shear Force d i s t r i b u t i o n s from th e r e s p e c t i v e Load D i s t r i b u t


S1=i n t ( B1 , x ) ;
S2=i n t ( B2 , x ) ;
%S1 , S2 r e f e r s t o t h e Bending Moment d i s t r i b u t i o n s from t he r e s s p e c t i v e Shear

f o r x =1:70
i f ( x<40)
SF ( x )=(9 x 6)/10000 (6021 x 5)/100000 + (17199 x 4)/8000 (1134 x
else
SF ( x)=SF(39)+(9 x (4253 x 2 921750 x + 7 8 3 3 0 0 0 0 ) ) / 1 0 0 0 ;
end
end
f o r i =1:70
k ( i )=71 i ;
k1 ( i )= i ;
end

p l o t ( k , SF ) ;
x l a b e l ( length ) ;
y l a b e l ( Shear Force ) ;
f o r x =1:70
i f ( x<40)
BM( x )=(9 x 7)/70000 (2007 x 6)/200000 + (17199 x 5)/40000 (567 x
else
BM( x)=BM(39)+ x 2 ( ( 3 8 2 7 7 x 2)/4000 (11061 x ) /4 + 3 5 2 4 8 5 ) ;
end
end
f o r i =1:70
k ( i )=71 i ;
k1 ( i )= i ;
end
p l o t ( k ,BM) ;
x l a b e l ( length ) ;
y l a b e l ( Bending Moment ) ;

8.2

Appendix-B

The wind Force is given by:


Fw = 379.059KN

(45)

The Wave and Current Drag Force is given by:


FD = 2110KN
28

(46)

The Wave Inertia load is given by:


FI = 1182.45KN

(47)

Md = 1360.67373tons

(48)

The Structural Mass is given by:

The Added Mass Loads on the Structure are:


Ax = 1480.03tons

(49)

Ay = 1480.03tons

(50)

V = 804.06tons

(51)

The Buoyancy Load is given by:

29

8.3

AppendiX-C

The Free body diagram of the whole structure:

30

The free body diagram of the lower horizontal chord with two diagonal braces is shown
in the below figure:

The forces are calculated in the MATLAB code provided in Appendix-A.


The value of the forces are mentioned here:
F21 = 332740KN
F4 = 6300KN
F31 = 323090KN
So the horizontal and the left diagonal brace are in tension and the right diagonal brace in
compression.

31