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Numerical Uncertainity prediction

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procedure for estimating the discretisation error in the discretisation scheme

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Numerical Uncertainity prediction

procedure for estimating the discretisation error in the discretisation scheme

© All Rights Reserved

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Sunteți pe pagina 1din 33

Ratnakar Gadi

March 7, 2016

Contents

1 Introduction

4 Computation of Loads

4.1 Wind Loads . . . . . . .

4.2 Wave and Current Loads

4.3 Structural Load . . . . .

4.4 Added Mass Loads . . .

4.5 Top Mass Loads . . . . .

4.6 Buoyancy Loads . . . . .

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6 Static Analysis

6.1 Concentrated loads for Bending Moment . . . . . . . . . . .

6.1.1 Calculation of Diameter of Main Chord . . . . . . . .

6.1.2 Calculation of Dimensions of Horizontal and Diagonal

6.2 Bending Moment Diagram using Load distribution . . . . .

6.3 Analysis in Ansys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.4 Critical Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

4

4

9

9

9

9

9

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braces

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10

10

10

14

14

17

17

7 References

18

8 Appendix

8.1 Appendix-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8.2 Appendix-B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8.3 AppendiX-C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

19

28

30

Introduction

Wind Power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity. Wind Power, as an alternative to the burning fossil fuels, is plentiful,renewable,widely distributed,clean and produces no greenhouse gases during operation.

The net land effects on the environment are far less than those of non-renewable power

resources.

Wind Power can be generated on-shore as well as offshore. But the main advantages of

using offshore wind power is that we generally have a higher wind speed.

This report provides with some fundamental steps taken in the design of such an offshore

wind turbine in the North Sea(54 deg N latitude and water depth of 40m).The first and most

important thing in the design of any structure is finding the loads the structure would face

during its lifetime.In order to define loads on the structure, one needs to get a good thorough

knowledge of the environmental conditions and soil conditions over there. This is dealt is

section 2.The assumptions used in the design are mentioned in Section 3.After finding the

worst environmental conditions, these are used in determining the loads on the structure.The

procedure associated with calculating the loads has been explained in the section 4.The Load

and Resistance Factors used are mentioned in Section 5.Once, the loads have been established, we need to perform a static analysis of the structure.The static analysis performed

in three different ways is explained in section 6. Section 7 deals with the references,followed

by Appendix in Section 8.

Wind, Waves and Current constitute the main environmental conditions for any offshore

structure. Determining them is very difficult because they vary spatially and temporally.Since

the structure is designed by Ultimate Limit State method, the highest possible environmental

conditions are considered.

A wind speed of 50m/s has been chosen to the highest possible wind speed according to

Ref(1).It has been already mentioned in the Ref(1) that the highest significant wave height

occurring is 12m. But Ref(1) suggested certain factor to be deducted to take into account

depth induced breaking. This gives an significant wave height of 9m and mean wave period of

11s.This is the not the maximum possible wave height that occurs.A calculation is performed

to find the maximum wave height.

Using the corrected significant wave height, the variance of the Energy density spectra

of the Waves is calculated.

Hs = 4(m0 )1/2

m0 =

(Hs )2

16

(1)

(2)

probability of finding a wave amplitude greater than a:

2

P (a) =

a

exp( 2m

)

o

2 pi (m0 )1/2

(3)

To find the maximum wave amplitude,we take the probability of exceedance of 0.001.Then,we

get an maximum wave amplitude of 8m.

We have a maximum current velocity of 115cm/s.

Coming to the soil conditions,the soil is clay or dense Fine Sand as we can see from the

figure below:

The Wind profile assumed is a power law.The variations in the wind profile with respect

to time are neglected.

The wind Force is calculated by an approximate formula.

The main chord of the Offshore Wind Turbine is considered to be fixed at the intersection of main chord,horizontal braces and diagonal braces.

All the Bending Moment and Shear Force Calculations are performed by assuming the

main chord to be cantilever beam.

the main chord,pair of diagonal braces and horizontal braces are taken into consideration in the various analysis.

A direct consequence of the above assumption is that the wave and wind loads have

no directional spreading involved.This means that all the environmental loads act in

the same direction.

The diagonal braces are dealt as pinned connections in the Truss Analysis

The horizontal Braces just touch the ground,but are mechanically unconstrained.

The material chosen is NV-60 with a yield stress of 390MPa.

The wave forces are calculated without taking time dependence into consideration

for the analysis.Thus the total wave force that acts on the structure is low than the

computed load.This would just make the design conservative.Also,if we use the exact

time load history of the wave forces,the maximum of the combination is 0.6-1 times of

the computed load.More in section 3.2.

The top mass load of 80,000 tonnes is considered as a lumped mass.

The diagonal and horizontal braces are so small that they do not fail by bending,but

fail from compression or tensile stresses.

4

4.1

Computation of Loads

Wind Loads

A parabolic wind profile is assumed.If the velocity at 10m high above the water is V, then

the velocity at any other z is given by:

Vz = V (

z 1/8

)

10

(4)

After the velocity is computed, the drag force is calculated by:

FD = 0.6 Vz 2

4.2

(5)

The deep water wave length is calculated using the deep water dispersion relation given by:

L=

g(T )2

2 pi

(6)

and shallow water is made.

ds =

d

(L0 )

(7)

Based on this ratio, if it is less than 0.05,it is shallow waters.If the ratio is greater than 0.5,it

is deep waters.In between the ratios,it is intermediate waters. In this case:

ds = 0.1781

(8)

Thus,it is intermediate waters.To find the wave-number,we use the Eckhart approximate

formula,given by:

alpha tanh(alpha)1/2

k=

d

alpha =

(w)2 d

g

(9)

(10)

k = 0.0311

(11)

L = 201m

(12)

The horizontal water particle velocity and horizontal water particle acceleration are computed using the following formula:

w a cosh(k(d + z)) sin(w t)

sin(h(k d))

(13)

sinh(k d)

(14)

ux =

ud =

w is the angular frequency

a is the amplitude of the water

z is the co-ordinate in the Z-direction

ux is the horizontal velocity of the water particle

ud is the horizontal acceleration of the water particle

Then Morrison equation is used to calculate the total wave forces on the structure.The

Drag force is given by:

(Cd ) rho (ux + uc )2 D

(15)

Fd =

2

rho is the density of the water

ux is the horizontal water particle velocity

uc is the velocity of water

D is the diameter of the monopile

Fd is the drag force per unit length on the monopile

The drag co-efficient used in the analysis is 1.05 as stated in Ref(2).

The inertia force on the structure is given by:

FI =

8

rho is the density of water

D is the diameter of the monopile

ud is the horizontal acceleration of the water particle

FI is the inertia force per unit length

5

(16)

The total wave force on the structure is given by:

F = Fd + FI

(17)

The Time Dependent Wave and Wind Drag Force and Wave Inertia Force are Shown in

the figure below for z=30m below Mean Sea Level:

If we define:

v=

Amplitudeof theW aveandCurrentF orce

(18)

Then a graph is plotted to show the variation of this parameter at z=0m and z=30m respectively from Mean Sea Level.

These graphs show that the minimum v of 0.6 and max v of 0.8.But in the analysis we

take v as 1.Thus the wave forces which are predicted are over conservative.So,we are on a

safer side.

4.3

Structural Load

(Md ) = rho2 pi ((R)2 (R t)2 ) L

(19)

R is the radius of the monopile

rho2 is the density of the steel

4.4

(Am ) = rho2 pi (R)2 L

(20)

(21)

Here Am refers to the Added Mass in the X-Direction and An refers to the Added Mass in

Y-Direction.

4.5

The mass of the turbine is 80000 tonnes.This is the Top mass load.

4.6

Buoyancy Loads

The buoyancy loads are given by the volume of water displayed by the cylinder.

(Vb ) = rho2 pi (R)2 L

All the Values Calculated are displayed in Appendix-B

Type of Load

Load factor

Dead Loads

1.1

Live Loads

1.1

environmental load

1.35

9

(22)

The dead loads include the mass of structure and any weight of the equipment on the

structure.The Live Loads include the weight of any component which changes during the life

time(e.g. Water tanks).The environmental loads include the wave,wind and current loads

on the structure.

As per Ref(2),the Resistance Factors are taken:

Loading Type

Resistance Factor

Axial Tension

0.95

Axial Compression

0.85

Bending

0.95

Shear

0.95

Hoop Buckling

0.8

Connections

0.9-0.95

Static Analysis

Appendix-A.This code calculates the loads as concentrated loads acting at the respective

centroids.There is second code which uses the load distribution calculated as a function of

length,integrates it to find the shear force and integrates it again to find Bending Moment.An

analysis is done in ANSYS to find the maximum bending stress taking the 2D structure into

consideration.

Here,a summary of each of the three is given:

6.1

6.1.1

Calculation of Diameter of Main Chord

The forces are calculated per unit length of the structure.Then Simpsons Method is used to

calculate the total force,total moments and the respective centroids of the Loads.Using these

as an approximation,the bending moment and shear force are calculated.Then,the bending

stress and shear stress are calculated using the following formula:

Ma

S

2Va

sigv =

A

sigb =

(23)

(24)

sigv is the maximum shear stress on the structure

Ma is the maximum bending moment on the structure

Va is the maximum shear force on the structure

S is the elastic section modulus of the section,given by:

S=

10

I

y

(25)

I=

pi((D)2 (D 2t)2 )

64

(26)

y refers to the maximum distance from the nuetral axis which in the Circular hollow

section is given by:

D

(27)

2

Apart from these stress on the structure,we also get hoop stress on the structure due to

external pressure on the cylinder,given by:

y=

fh =

pD

2t

(28)

p is the pressure acting at that depth,given by:

p = rho g z + rho g(

Hw cosh(k(d + z))

)(

)

2

cosh(kd)

(29)

a

2

(30)

Hw =

k refers to wave-number

d is the depth of the water

z is the vertical Z co-ordinate

Also,the member is held in compression due to the combination of lumped mass and self

weight of the structure.

sign =

F

A

(31)

where:

F = topmass + Md

(32)

The Von-Misses stress criteria is checked.The Von-Misses stresses are given by:

sigm =

2

11

1/2

(33)

where sigb is the bending stress,sign is the normal compression stress,fh is the hoop stress,sigv

is the shear stress.

The Factor of Safety is expressed as:

FS =

sigm

Fy

(34)

Assuming a Factor of Safety of 0.8,the diameter and thickness of the structure are calculated.This Factor of Safety is suggested by standards for Ultimate Limit state.

All the calculations are performed by MATLAB.When checking for different criteria,correction

for Bending Moment and shear force are provided,to take into account the Shear force and

Bending Moment calculated using Load distribution discussed in Section 6.2.Then,the different standards as given by Ref(2),are checked for these diameters and thickness. The

Correction Factors are defined as:

BM

(35)

C1 =

Ma

where BM refers to maximum bending Moment obtained using load distributions and

Ma refers to the maximum Bending Moment obtained using Concentrated Loads.

C2 =

SF

Va

(36)

where SF refers to maximum bending Moment obtained using load distributions and Va

refers to the maximum Bending Moment obtained using Concentrated Loads.

The final diameter and thickness of the main chord obtained for this Factor of Safety are:

D = 5.7m

(37)

t = 140mm

(38)

For this simplified Method we have the following Shear Force,Bending Moment and Normal

Load distribution

12

13

6.1.2

They fail by compression or tension.The same factor of safety is used as mentioned above.A

effective truss analysis is performed by using Method of Joints to find the forces on the

structure as shown in Appendix-C.

We arrive at the following diameter and scantlings for the braces as shown in the table:

Member

Diameter

Diagonal Brace

1.2m

Horizontal Brace

0.17m

6.2

Member

thickness

Diagonal Brace

30mm

Horizontal Brace

30mm

The load distribution functions are fit using Excel and MATLAB.The load distribution curves

used are:

q = (0.004 x5 0.223 x4 + 6.37 x3 100.8 x2 + 1016 x 840.6) 1.35f orx < 40 (39)

q = (85.06 x2 12290 x + 522200) 1.35f orx >= 40

where x refers to the distance from the free end of the cylinder.

14

(40)

Integration of the load curve gives the Shear Force.The equations for Shear Force Distribution are:

SF = (9x6 )/10000(6021x5 )/100000+(17199x4 )/8000(1134x3 )/25+(3429x2 )/5(113481x)/100

(41)

2

SF = SF (39) + (9 x (4253 x 921750 x + 78330000))/1000f orx > 40

(42)

Here SF(39) refers to the shear force at x=39m.

Integration of the Shear Force gives the Bending Moment.The equations for the Bending

Moment are given by:

(43)

BM = BM (39) + x2 ((38277 x2 )/4000 (11061 x)/4 + 352485)f orx >= 40

(44)

Below we can find graph for Normal Load distribution on the main chord.

15

Below we can find the Bending Moment Distribution on the Main chord.

16

6.3

Analysis in Ansys

An analysis is done to take the 3D effects of the structure and as expected gave low stress

levels when loaded with a uni-directional wave,wind and current loads due to the influence

of bending in one direction by the bending in the other direction.

An 2-d stress countour from Ansys is depicted in the figure below:

The maximum stress in the figure is without load factor,but if the load factor is taken

into account,the maximum stress is 230Mpa.The analysis is done with remote loads at every

1m.It is done to compare whether the stress in the monopile to the calculated stress using

MATLAB.

6.4

Critical Locations

The Bending Moment is maximum at the connection of the main chord with the

diagonal and horizontal braces.This is critical location.

The interface between the water and wind is critical because the region is subjected

to sudden changes in shear force.So there may be a possibility of local bending and

buckling.It is shown in deflection curve below:

17

References

Ref(1)-The Maximum Significant Wave Height in Southern North Sea,Final Report,Report

No 14-94,February 1995.

Ref(2)-Recommended Practices for Planing,Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms-Load and Resistance Factor Design,API Recommended practice 2ALRFD,First Edition,July 1,1993.

Ref(3)-Design of the Piles in the UK sector of North Sea Prepared by Geo-Technical

Consulting Group for the Health and Safety Executive.

Ref(4)-Design Methods for Offshore Wind Turbines at Exposed Sites,Final Report of

OWTES project,EU JOULE III project JOR3-CT98-0284.

18

8

8.1

Appendix

Appendix-A

The code in MATLAB which computes the approximate Bending Moments and checks the

criteria as specified by API is presented here.

D= 5 . 7 ;

t =0.137;

%t =0.175

z =1:40;

v=D/ t ;

i f ( ( v<=300)&&(t > 0 . 0 0 6 1 ) )

Fw= 0 . 6 ( ( 5 0 ( z / 1 0 ) . ( 1 / 8 ) ) . ( 2 ) ) D;

f o r i =1:40

i f ( ( mod( i ,2)==0)&&( i <40))

c ( i )=4;

e l s e i f ( ( i ==1)||( i ==40))

c ( i )=1;

else

c ( i )=2;

end

end

FW=sum (Fw. c ) / 3 ;

c1=sum (Fw. z . c ) / ( 3 FW) ;

%c1 i s t h e c e n t r o i d from t he MSL

% dont f o r g e t UX(31)= v e l o c i t y a t MSL

C1=c1 +30;

%C1 i s t h e c e n t r o i d from t he z=10 where we assume t he s t r u c t u r e t o be

%clamped

Cd= 1 . 0 5 ;

Cm= 1 . 6 ;

uc = 1 . 1 5 ;

U=Ux+uc ;

rho =1025;

U=U ;

Uxd=Uxd ;

mko=l e n g t h (U ) ;

f o r i =1:mko

U1( i )=U(mkoi +1);

Uxd1 ( i )=Uxd(mkoi +1);

end

Fd=0.5Cd rho (U1 . 2 ) D;

Fi =0.5Cm rho ( p i ( ) (D/ 2 ) 2 ) . Uxd1 ;

p=l e n g t h ( Fd ) ;

19

f o r i =1:31

i f ( ( mod( i ,2)==0)&&( i <31))

d ( i )=4;

e l s e i f ( ( i ==1)||( i ==31))

d ( i )=1;

else

d ( i )=2;

end

end

FD=sum ( Fd . d ) / 3 ;

FI=sum ( Fi . d ) / 3 ;

z1 = 0 : 3 0 ;

C2=sum ( Fd . z1 . d ) / ( 3 FD ) ;

C3=sum ( Fi . z1 . d ) / ( 3 FI ) ;

% s t r u c t u r a l load

MT=80000;

g =9.81;

rho1 =7850;

m1=p i ( ) rho1 ( (D/2)2 ((D2 t ) / 2 ) 2 ) 7 0 ;

v o l=p i ( ) ( (D/2)2 ((D2 t ) / 2 ) 2 ) 7 0 ;

mass=(m1+MT) g ;

C4=(MT70)+m1 ( 3 5 ) / mass ;

%Added mass l o a d s assuming almost c y l i n d e r , but they may not be used

%b e c a u s e t he m o r r i s o n e q u a t i o n a l r e a d y has t h e s e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t a k i n g

%r o u g h n e s s i n t o account

Ax=p i ( ) rho Uxd(D/ 2 ) 2 ;

Ay=p i ( ) rho Uxd(D/ 2 ) 2 ;

AX=sum (Ax . d ) / 3 ;

AY=sum (Ay . d ) / 3 ;

C5=sum (Ax . d . z1 ) / ( 3 AX) ;

C6=sum (Ay . d . z1 ) / ( 3 AY) ;

% Buoyancy l o a d s

V1=rho p i ( ) ( (D/ 2 ) 2 ) 3 0 ;

C7=15;

wd1=V1/ mass ;

d i s p ( wd1 )

% Hydrostatic Pressure

z2=max( z1 ) ;

P=0.5 rho g ( z2 2) p i ( ) ( (D/ 2 ) 2 ) ;

20

C8=z2 / 3 ;

%s h e a r f o r c e a t th e s u p p o r t

Va=FW+FD+FI+P ;

%a x i a l f o r c e on t he s t r u c t u r e

Ha=mass ;

%bending moment a t th e s u p p o r t

Ma=FWC1+FDC2+FI C3+PC8 ;

L=70;

x =0:(L1);

M(1)=Ma;

KL=[C1 C2 C3 C8 ] ;

g=s o r t (KL ) ;

k1=g ( 1 ) ; k2=g ( 2 ) ; k3=g ( 3 ) ; k4=g ( 4 ) ;

i f ( k1==C1)

F1=FW;

e l s e i f ( k1==C2)

F1=FD;

e l s e i f ( k1==C3)

F1=FI ;

else

F1=P ;

end

i f ( k2==C1)

F2=FW;

e l s e i f ( k2==C2)

F2=FD;

e l s e i f ( k2==C3)

F2=FI ;

else

F2=P ;

end

i f ( k3==C1)

F3=FW;

e l s e i f ( k3==C2)

F3=FD;

e l s e i f ( k3==C3)

F3=FI ;

else

F3=P ;

end

21

i f ( k4==C1)

F4=FW;

e l s e i f ( k4==C2)

F4=FD;

e l s e i f ( k4==C3)

F4=FI ;

else

F4=P ;

end

% Bending Moment C a l c u l a t i o n

f o r i =2:70

i f ( i<=k1 )

M( i )=MaVa i ;

e l s e i f ( ( i >k1)&&( i<=k2 ) )

M( i )=MaVa i+F1 ( i k1 ) ;

e l s e i f ( ( i >k2)&&( i<=k3 ) )

M( i )=MaVa i+F1 ( i k1)+F2 ( i k2 ) ;

e l s e i f ( ( i >k3)&&( i<=k4 ) )

M( i )=MaVa i+F1 ( i k1)+F2 ( i k2)+F3 ( i k3 ) ;

else

M( i )=MaVa i+F1 ( i k1)+F2 ( i k2)+F3 ( i k3)+F4 ( i k4 ) ;

end

end

V(1)=Va ;

% Shear Force C a l c u l a t i o n

f o r i =2:70

i f ( i<=k1 )

V( i )=Va ;

e l s e i f ( ( i >k1)&&( i<=k2 ) )

V( i )=VaF1 ;

e l s e i f ( ( i >k2)&&( i<=k3 ) )

V( i )=VaF1F2 ;

e l s e i f ( ( i >k3)&&( i<=k4 ) )

V( i )=VaF1F2F3 ;

else

V( i )=VaF1F2F3F4 ;

end

end

H(1)=Ha ;

k5=C4 ;

% normal f o r c e l o c a t i o n

f o r i =2:L

i f ( i<=k5 )

H( i )=Ha ;

22

else

H( i )=0;

end

end

subplot (1 ,3 ,1)

p l o t ( x ,M) ;

x l a b e l ( length ) ;

y l a b e l ( bending Moment ) ;

subplot (1 ,3 ,2)

p l o t ( x ,V) ;

x l a b e l ( length ) ;

ylabel ( shear force ) ;

subplot (1 ,3 ,3)

p l o t ( x ,H) ;

x l a b e l ( length ) ;

ylabel ( axial force ) ;

% c h o o s i n g NV60 with a y i e l d s t r e s s o f 390MPa and Zeta =0.78

%tmin =5.1mm

%f o r t h i s t h i c k n e s s th e maximum D=0.46m

%D/ t <=54.75

Fy=390106;

E=2101000106;

% c r i t e r i a f o r normal c o m p r e s s i o n s t r e n g t h

lmd=270(Fy/E ) ( 0 . 5 ) / ( p i ( ) D/ 4 ) ;

Fxe =20.3E( t /D) ;

i f ( v<=60)

Fxc=Fy ;

else

Fxc =(1.64 0.23 v ( 0 . 2 5 ) ) Fy ;

end

Fy1=min ( Fxe , Fxc ) ;

i f ( lmd < ( 2 0 . 5 ) )

Fcn=Fy1 (1 0.25( lmd 2 ) ) ;

else

Fcn=Fy1 / ( lmd 2 ) ;

end

Q2=1.1 mass ;

A1=p i ( ) ( (D/2)2 ((D2 t ) / 2 ) 2 ) ;

f c =(Q2/A1 ) ;

phi1 =0.85;

23

i f ( d1<=0)

d i s p l a y ( nominal c o m p r e s s i o n c r i t e r i a s a t i s f i e d ) ;

else

d i s p l a y ( nominal c o m p r e s s i o n c r i t e r i a not s a t i s f i e d ) ;

end

% bending c r i t e r i a

sd1=D 4 ;

sd2=(D2 t ) 4 ;

I =( p i ( ) / 6 4 ) ( sd1sd2 ) ;

y3=D/ 2 ;

S=I / y3 ;

M1=1.27FyS ;

i f (Ma>M1)

f b = ( 0 . 8 5 1 . 3 Ma/S ) ;

else

f b = 0 . 8 5 1 . 3 Ma/S ;

end

m1=10340/Fy ;

m2=20680/Fy ;

i f ( v<=m1)

Fbn=1.27Fy ;

e l s e i f ( ( v>m1)&&(v<=m2) )

Fbn=(1.13 2.58(FyD) / (E t ) ) 1 . 2 7 Fy ;

else

Fbn=(0.94 0.76(FyD) / (E t ) ) 1 . 2 7 Fy ;

end

phi2 =0.95;

e2=fbphi2 Fbn ;

i f ( e2 <=0)

d i s p l a y ( bending c r i t e r i a s a t i s f i e d ) ;

else

d i s p l a y ( bending c r i t e r i a not s a t i s f i e d ) ;

end

% shear force c r i t e r i a

A=p i ( ) (D/ 2 ) 2 ;

f v =(2Va/A ) ;

Fvn=Fy / ( 3 ( 0 . 5 ) ) ;

phi3 =0.95;

d3=fvphi3 Fvn ;

24

i f ( d3<=0)

display ( shear c r i t e r i a s a t i s f i e d ) ;

else

d i s p l a y ( s h e a r c r i t e r i a not s a t i s f i e d ) ;

end

%p r e s s u r e check f o r Hoop s t r e s s b u c k l i n g

z4 = 0 : 3 0 ;

Hw=16;

k =0.0311;

d=30;

Hz=z4+(Hw/ 2 ) ( cosh ( k ( dz4 ) ) / cosh ( kd ) ) ;

gh = 1 . 1 ;

g =9.8;

p=gh rho gHz ;

f h =(pD/(2 t ) ) ;

phi4 =0.8;

G=(L/D) ( 2 v ) ( 0 . 5 ) ;

ml1 =(1.6 v ) ;

ml2 =(0.825 v ) ;

i f (G>=ml1 )

cn =0.44/ v ;

e l s e i f ( (G<ml1)&&(G>=ml2 ) )

cn =0.44/ v +0.21( v 3 ) / (G 4 ) ;

e l s e i f ( (G<(ml2))&&(G>=1.5))

cn =0.737/(G 0 . 5 7 9 ) ;

else

cn = 0 . 8 ;

end

Fhe=2cn E t /D;

i f ( Fhe <=(0.55Fy ) )

Fnc=Fhe ;

else

Fnc =0.7Fy ( Fhe/Fy ) ( 0 . 4 ) ;

end

d4=fhphi4 Fnc ;

i f ( d4<=0)

d i s p l a y ( hoop s t r e s s b u c k l i n g c r i t e r i a s a t i s f i e d ) ;

else

d i s p l a y ( hoop s t r e s s b u c k l i n g c r i t e r i a not s a t i s f i e d ) ;

end

% combined bending and c o m p r e s s i o n

25

Fey=Fy / ( lmd 2 ) ;

l o p =1 0.4( f c / ( phi1 Fcn ) ) ;

Cmy=min ( lop , 0 . 8 5 ) ;

d5 =0.8 f c / ( ph i1 Fcn ) + ( 0 . 7 5 / ( ph i2 Fbn ) ) (Cmy f b )/(1 f c / ( ph i1 Fey ) ) ;

d6=1c o s ( p i ( ) abs ( f c ) / ( 2 phi1 Fxc ))+ f b / ( phi 2 Fbn ) ;

d7=f c phi1 Fxc ;

i f ( ( d5<=1)&&(d6<=1)&&(d7 <0))

d i s p l a y ( th e member i s good under combined bending and compression ) ;

else

d i s p l a y ( member f a i l s under bending and compression ) ;

end

%combined a x i a l compression , bending and h y d r o s t a t i c r e q u i r e m e n t

f x=f c+f b + ( 0 . 5 . f h ) ;

d8=fx 0.5 phi3 Fhe ;

d9 =(( fx 0.5 phi3 Fhe ) / ( phi1 Fxe 0.5 phi3 Fhe ))+( f h / phi3 Fhe ) . 2 ;

%check d8>0 and d9<=1 manually a t a l l z

cd1 =0; cd2 =0;

mkl=l e n g t h ( d8 ) ;

mkl2=l e n g t h ( d9 ) ;

f o r i =1:mkl

i f ( d8 ( i ) >0)

cd1=cd1 +1;

else

f vb =0;

end

end

f o r i =1: mkl2

i f ( d9 ( i )>=1)

cd2=cd2 +1;

else

fvb1 =0;

end

end

d i s p l a y ( th e member does not f a i l under a l l l o a d s ) ;

else

d i s p l a y ( th e member f a i l s ) ;

end

else

d i s p l a y ( c h o o s e d i f f e r e n t s e t o f parameters ) ;

26

end

F=s q r t ( 0 . 5 ( ( f b+f c ) 2 ) + 0 . 5 (max( f h )2)+3( f v 2 ) ) ;

FS=F/Fy ;

Z1=[ c o s ( 0 . 8 7 2 7 ) c o s ( 0 . 8 7 2 7 ) 0 ; s i n ( 0 . 8 7 2 7 ) s i n ( 0 . 8 7 2 7 ) 1 ; 1 0 c o s (0.8727) 10 c o

Q1=[Va ; Ha ;Ma ] ;

F1=pinv ( Z1 )Q1 ;

d i s p l a y ( F1 )

%from t h e answer obtai ned , one can c l e a r l y d e s i g n th e d i a g o n a l b r a c e s f o r

%c o m p r e s s i o n and not bending b e c a u s e t h e l e n g t h o f th e column i s s m a l l

%t h e i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t i s t h a t t he middle h o r i z o n t a l member i s s u b j e c t e d t o

%t e n s i o n and s h o u l d o n l y comply with t he t e n s i l e f o r c e r e s t r i c t i o n

F11=F1 ( 1 ) ;

F12=F1 ( 2 ) ;

F3=F1 ( 3 ) ;

w2=max(BM) ;

w3=max( SF ) ;

we1=w2/S ;

we2=2w3/A;

XCV1=(( abs ( we1)+abs ( f c ) ) 2 ) ;

XCV3=(abs ( we1)+abs ( f c )max( f h ) ) 2 ;

F=(0.5XCV1+ 0 . 5 ( (max( f h ) ) 2 ) + 0 . 5 XCV3+3(we2 2 ) ) ( 0 . 5 ) ;

FS2=F/Fy ;

MLJ= 0 . 8 ;

D21=(4 abs ( F1 ( 1 ) ) / ( p i ( ) 3 9 0 1 0 6 MLJ ) ) ( 0 . 5 ) ;

D31=(4 abs ( F1 ( 2 ) ) / ( p i ( ) 3 9 0 1 0 6 MLJ ) ) ( 0 . 5 ) ;

D4=(4 abs ( F1 ( 3 ) ) / ( p i ( ) 3 9 0 1 0 6 MLJ ) ) ( 0 . 5 ) ;

DE=[D21 D31 D4 ] ;

TE=DE/v ;

This code is executed until we get the diameter and thickness which satisfy the condition

that the Factor of Safety equals 0.8.

Then a code is used to calculate the actual Bending Moment and Shear Force using the

load distributions is expressed by the following MATLAB code:

syms x ;

q1 =(0.004 x 5 0.223 x 4+6.37 x 3 100.8 x2+1016x 8 4 0 . 6 ) 1 . 3 5 ;

%t h i s i s o n l y v a l i d f o r x<40

q2 =(85.06 x2 12290x + 5 2 2 2 0 0 ) 1 . 3 5 ;

%t h i s i s v a l i d f o r x>=40

B1=i n t ( q1 , x ) ;

B2=i n t ( q2 , x ) ;

27

S1=i n t ( B1 , x ) ;

S2=i n t ( B2 , x ) ;

%S1 , S2 r e f e r s t o t h e Bending Moment d i s t r i b u t i o n s from t he r e s s p e c t i v e Shear

f o r x =1:70

i f ( x<40)

SF ( x )=(9 x 6)/10000 (6021 x 5)/100000 + (17199 x 4)/8000 (1134 x

else

SF ( x)=SF(39)+(9 x (4253 x 2 921750 x + 7 8 3 3 0 0 0 0 ) ) / 1 0 0 0 ;

end

end

f o r i =1:70

k ( i )=71 i ;

k1 ( i )= i ;

end

p l o t ( k , SF ) ;

x l a b e l ( length ) ;

y l a b e l ( Shear Force ) ;

f o r x =1:70

i f ( x<40)

BM( x )=(9 x 7)/70000 (2007 x 6)/200000 + (17199 x 5)/40000 (567 x

else

BM( x)=BM(39)+ x 2 ( ( 3 8 2 7 7 x 2)/4000 (11061 x ) /4 + 3 5 2 4 8 5 ) ;

end

end

f o r i =1:70

k ( i )=71 i ;

k1 ( i )= i ;

end

p l o t ( k ,BM) ;

x l a b e l ( length ) ;

y l a b e l ( Bending Moment ) ;

8.2

Appendix-B

Fw = 379.059KN

(45)

FD = 2110KN

28

(46)

FI = 1182.45KN

(47)

Md = 1360.67373tons

(48)

Ax = 1480.03tons

(49)

Ay = 1480.03tons

(50)

V = 804.06tons

(51)

29

8.3

AppendiX-C

30

The free body diagram of the lower horizontal chord with two diagonal braces is shown

in the below figure:

The value of the forces are mentioned here:

F21 = 332740KN

F4 = 6300KN

F31 = 323090KN

So the horizontal and the left diagonal brace are in tension and the right diagonal brace in

compression.

31

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