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Taber Abraser (Abrader)

The TABER Rotary Platform Abrasion


Tester - Model 5135 or 5155 is commonly
referred to as the Taber Abraser (Abrader) or
Rotary Platform Dual (Double) Head Tester.
First introduced in the 1930's, this precision
built instrument was developed to perform
accelerated wear testing. Capable of
providing reliable data in a matter of minutes
compared to the years that may be required by
in-use testing, the Taber Abraser (Abrader) rapidly became the world standard for evaluating
abrasion resistance.
Since its inception, the Taber Abraser has been used for quality & process control, research &
development and material evaluation. Used to test a wide spectrum of materials, the instrument
has been referenced in numerous standards and specifications (including plastics, coatings,
laminates, leather, paper, ceramics, carpeting, safety glazing, etc.).

Description
Taber tests involve mounting a flat specimen approximately 100mm square or round to a
turntable platform that rotates on a vertical axis at a fixed speed. The standard material thickness
that can be evaluated with the Taber Rotary Abraser is 6.35 mm (materials greater than 6.35 mm
but less than 40 mm can be tested with optional accessories). Two genuine Taber abrasive
wheels, which are applied at a specific pressure, are lowered onto the specimen surface.
Characteristic rub-wear action is produced by contact of the
test specimen against the sliding rotation of the two abrading
wheels. As the turntable rotates, the wheels are driven by the
sample in opposite directions about a horizontal axis
displaced tangentially from the axis of the sample. One
abrading wheel rubs the specimen outward toward the
periphery and the other, inward toward the center while a
vacuum system removes loose debris during the test. The
wheels traverse a complete circle on the specimen surface,
revealing abrasion resistance at all angles relative to the weave or grain of the material. The
resulting abrasion marks form a pattern of crossed arcs in a circular band that cover an area
approximately 30 cm2.

Each turntable has dual abrading arms that are precision balanced. Independently operated, the
abrading arms can be raised (or lowered) to mount or inspect specimens. Each arm is loaded for
250 gram pressure against the specimen, exclusive of the weight of the wheel. To increase the
load to 500 or 1000 grams, a mount for auxiliary weights is located on the outside of the
abrading wheel bearing assembly. This location ensures that weights are concentric with the
abrading wheel. A stud on the rear end of the abrading arm is used to carry an optional
counterweight (used to reduce the load by 50, 125 or 175 grams).
Taber Abrasers Model 5135 or 5155 offer the following standard features:

Specimen turntable speed control options of both 60 rpm and 72 rpm.


Easy-to-use operator interface that includes tactile feel buttons and a four line digital
display. Simple on-screen instructions allow the operator to change the test parameters
via the MENU button. An internal memory stores the settings.
A vacuum system is included and is critical for the proper operation of the instrument.
The vacuum nozzle(s) is hinged to an adjustable mounting at the rear of the housing. A
precision vacuum nozzle adjustment control allows the height to be modified for
accommodating varying specimen thickness.
Precision stainless steel weights of 250 grams and 750 grams are furnished to provide
standard wheel loads of 500 and 1000 grams. Weights are marked to show total load on
each wheel. This marking includes the weight of the abrading arm (250 grams).
A Quick Release Mounting Hub permits quick wheel mounting without the need of a
locking nut, increased clearance for the vacuum pick-up nozzle and a larger viewing area
for the test specimen. A beveled retaining nut provides a positive locking force on the
wheel hub retaining lip making certain that the wheels remain securely fastened until
disengaged.
Assembled in a sturdy, sealed aluminum housing.

Models
The TABER Abraser (Abrader) is available in two models - single or dual specimen tables.
Both offer the same durable design and can be used interchangeably.
TABER Abraser (Abrader) - Model 5135 (115/230V; 60/50Hz)
Model 5135 features a single specimen turntable.
TABER Abraser (Abrader) - Model 5155 (115/230V; 60/50Hz)
Model 5155 features two specimen turntables, allowing you to perform two tests simultaneously
(test two different or identical specimens for comparison or contrast). Separate function keys
operate the turntables independent of each other.

Abradants
For information on Genuine Taber wheels, click here.

Evaluation
There are various techniques used to interpret results generated with the TABER Rotary Platform
Abraser (Abrader). The method of evaluation that you select should reflect the type of material
that is being tested. If you are following a specification - the method for interpreting test results
will be listed.
The most common methods of evaluating results from the Taber Abraser (Abrader) include:
Cycles to a Specific End-Point - The number of cycles required to reach a predetermined end
point, or the appearance or condition of the specimen after a fixed number of cycles. The
evaluation criteria may include: loss in breaking strength, yarn breakage, loss in coating, change
in gloss, color loss, or other changes in appearance. In these cases, the abraded sample is usually
compared to a known standard of the material tested. When visually inspecting changes in
specimen appearance, evaluations should be made using an agreed upon rating system such as a
visual grading scale (e.g. five-step) or pass/fail criteria.

Weight (Mass) Loss - This technique measures how much material has been removed by
abrasion, and is usually reported in milligrams.
L= A- B
where L = weight loss
A = weight (mass) of specimen before abrasion
B = weight (mass) of specimen after abrasion

When performing the weight loss method, loose particulate may adhere to specimens during
testing. It is critical that you clean off the test specimens as best as possible prior to weighing.

Taber Wear Index - Indicates rate of wear, and is calculated by measuring the loss in weight (in
milligrams) per thousand cycles of abrasion. The lower the wear index, the better the abrasion
resistance.

I = [(A - B) * 1000] / C
where I = wear index
A = weight (mass) of specimen before abrasion
B = weight (mass) of specimen after abrasion
C = number of test cycles

Volume Loss - When comparing the wear resistance of materials that have different specific
gravities, a correction for the specific gravity of each material should be applied to give a true
measure of the comparative wear resistance. Calculate the wear index as shown above, and
divide the result by the material's specific gravity. The use of this correction factor provides a
wear index related to the loss in volume of the material to which it is applied. When comparing
materials of different specific gravities, test parameters must be the same including wheel
selection and load.

Wear Cycles Per Mil (0.001 inch) - Used to express abrasion cycles required to wear through a
coating of a known thickness.
W=D/T
Where W = Wear Cycles Per Mil
D = number of cycles required to wear coating through to substrate
T = coating thickness, mils

Depth of Wear - To determine the depth of wear, use a thickness gauge or other appropriate
device to measure the specimen thickness on four points along the path to be abraded,
approximately 38 mm from the center hole and 90 apart. Calculate the average of the readings.
After subjecting the specimen to abrasion, repeat the measurements and average the readings.
Calculate the difference. Alternatively, the depth of the wear can be measured with an
instrument such as an Optical Micrometer.

Residual Breaking Force (textile fabrics) - This technique measures the effective strength of
the fabric, or force required to break a specific width of fabric. To determine the individual
breaking force of the abraded specimen use the procedure described in the ASTM D5034 and

D5035 Standard Test Method for Breaking Strength and Elongation of Textile Fabrics. [Note,
you must change the referenced distance between clamps to 25mm and horizontally place the
path of abrasion on the abraded specimen midway between the clamps.] Report the breaking
load to the nearest 0.5kg.

Average Breaking Strength (textile fabrics) - Calculated by averaging the breaking strength of
the abraded specimens and the unabraded specimens, as determined by the Residual Breaking
Force.

Percentage Loss in Breaking Strength (textile fabrics) - To determine the breaking load of the
original fabric and the abraded specimen, use the procedure noted above (ASTM D5034 and
D5035). Calculate the percentage loss in breaking strength to the nearest 1% for each lengthwise
and widthwise directions.
AR% = 100 * (X - Y) / X
where AR% = abrasion resistance, %
X = breaking force before abrasion, g (lb)
Y = breaking force after abrasion, g (lb)