Sunteți pe pagina 1din 436

ΠΑΝΑΓΙΩΤΗΣ ΛΙΑΠΗΣ

ΦΩΤΟΒΟΛΤΑΙΚΗ ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ

ΒΑΣΙΚΕΣ ΑΡΧΕΣ KATANOHΣΗΣ

Copyright 2010

1
Novel of NON DEEP REALITY – FANTASY PRODUCT

With lots of love dedicated, to my parents, to EL_lines in Natalia, Olga, Onder,


and of course to my colleagues
By Price
LIAPIS Panagiotis

With lots of love dedicated, to my parents, to EL_lines in Natalia, Olga, Onder,


and of course to my partners
By Price
LIAPIS Panagiotis

При большом количестве посвященный, любви мои родители


Греки, В Наталья, Οльга, и Ондер, к моим коллегам

По цене
LIAPIS Panagiotis

Συγγραφέας ΛΙΑΠΗΣ ΠΑΝΑΓΙΩΤΗΣ


Τίτλος
Δ/νση Κ.Βάρναλη 12, 15121 Πεύκη, Αθήνα
Τηλ. 210-6149149
Κιν. 6937097443
Ε-mail real_estate_liapis@yahoo.gr
ΔΙΑΘΕΣΗ 210.8065618 6937097443

2
Author LIAPIS Panagiotis
Title
Addr K. Varnali 12 15121 Pine Athens
Tel 210-6149149
Mob. 6937097443
E-mail real_estate_liapis@yahoo.gr
SUPPLY 210.8065618 6937097443

A few words from the author


My Friends in this textbook, take the
knowledge that until now store it in
dusty Greek manuscripts of Plato,
Aristotle and other ancient fotodoton
in damp basements monasteries and
private libraries disekatomyriouchon. We revealed through
masterfully blended events of economy, religion, Greek history
and mythology, the confirmations of Medicine and the
multidimensional social structures, the Greek discovery of
ether for which spoke Platonas and Aristotle, the mineral
krystalyka and electrical properties, their initiatory secret
caves, history, radiation and their effects on human health,
MIND CONTROL is the technical control of the mind legends
and myths, travel guides, the history of Russia and Mongolia,
Dynasty RURIC, the Greek supremacy, The Secret of the
Living Water, forecasts in recent days, the establishment of the
4th Reich, well read, and its organization, methods of
prevalence of the 4th Reich, Geostrategic, The Secrets of the
Parthenon, The stolen works of art, naturally leads business
survival in difficult times. There are missing from my literary
work of literature, prayer and research on photovoltaic
technology in whose threshold of energy is free. Also
presented a series of investigations on a series of error events
for the signs, and possible manipulation of cosmogony,
incidents involving the Nazis and the possible bases in space,
President Obama, and the new doctrine Panthriskeias
launched in conjunction with the Worship infernal beings are a
new mirror through which can be seen the current scene of the
enormous progress in the areas of MIND CONTROL, the chip
EMV of Bill Gates on bank credit cards, the emerging banking
system in relation to economic crashes of America The
SIONISMOS and the New World Order of the 4th Reich, and
PEOPLE CLONES - Men in Black, and the CIA in connection
with the anti-government slogans and reactive walls define a new reality, which leads to
control police forces in Use of Sound for centuries hidden weapons ancient Greeks

3
developed from the Greek National Nuclear epistimoina C. Gkiolva. The creations of
the Plan "Arrow" (sound rule) and the sound "Artemis", as are sources on the web are
presented in detail below in relation to biological warfare aircraft from the US-spray
from chemical and microbial air over cities. Trying to minimize the harmful effects that
using genetics Industry, extensive fires, building new towns in the concentration camps
of D Reich, apply geostrategic implementation plan new war in the Balkans because of
Kosovo, where the project "Blue Ray" at the upcoming mayhem by the end of 01/2010
will chrisimopoiithoun new weapons bass Police with physical effects of radiation on the
human organism KARKINOUS
By Price
LIAPIS Panagiotis

4
CAUTION - SIGNIFICANT MARKINGS TO READER

1. This project is a bottomless MYTHISTORIMA Reality


2. Clarifies Developed Fiction
3. Any resemblance to actual persons, locations and events are imaginary,
purely accidental, not existing in the present reality and past it.
4. Copyrights on works protected by the current constitution, laws and
jurisprudence
5. Prohibited the reproduction and distribution of all or part of the document
without the prior written permission of the author and an award identifying
figures and in words of the author's remuneration, rights and remuneration of
the Greek state, the duration of the contract and the parties.
6. The document bears a registered trademark
7. The project is only available for private use, prohibited the reading public all
or part of it.
8. The work donate to the library of the Greek state request and complied with
the legislation providing for the process.
9. For Greek citizens: To book not sold through bookstores and other retail
outlets. KNOWLEDGE donors.
10. The book takes seeker typing costs and expenses of this mission.
11. The Writer LIAPIS Panagiotis receive no remuneration (money) making a
work available
12. The book has no subversive of the system concept, but instead Net
conglomerate of all the Greeks of Planet Earth, 120,000,000 Greeks to create
well-governed society as defined by the democratic, elected Parliamentary
Antiptosopous People (primary form of power)
13. The GREECE Fri all the problems exist because of the scandalous
EVNNOIA OF MARY. The Greeks GYIOS DEFKALIONOS OF, THE LIGHT,
AS NO ONE GREEK even no hope, no justice. Amen.

Copyright by Panagioti Liapi

THE BOOK IS NOT FOR SALE

I GIVE THE KNOWLEDGE FREE – NO COST

AT THE BEGINNING ON EARTH FROM TITHIS WAS ONLY TWO


AUTHENTIC RACES, GREEKS and DRACONIANS.
GREEKS HAVE THE MARK OF SUNNY SOUL IN THE EYES
DRACONIANS HAVE THE MARK OF KNIFE IN THE BACK BUT
ONLY THE MEMBERS OF THE CIRCLE KNOWS THAT.

(From Dialogues of Diomidis with Alexander the Great )

5
6
Photovoltaic technology is the direct conversion of sunlight into electrical
voltage, which guarantee the generation of electricity.
Photovoltaics convert sunlight directly into electricity, ie not mediate
mechanical, thermal or chemical conversion steps. This occurs in
semiconductors with specific contaminants or coatings, which are processed
to become solar cells.
A photovoltaic system consists essentially of solar modules and an inverter in
the event of a grid system or a battery charge regulator in the case of
autonomous systems.
Use standard mainly cells from crystalline silicon. Within the slices are cut from
a crystal (monocrystalline) or from a solid piece, consisting of many crystals
(polycrystalline). Then follow various stages of production until they reach the
solar cell. The solar cell thin film coated onto glass in a vacuum, achieving this
way the cell has one-thirtieth the thickness of the crystalline solar cell
The solar cells are electrically connected and placed permanently in solar
modules, which protect the solar cells on the weather. Solar modules are
offered in a variety of shapes, sizes and amount of power for every application.
The photovoltaic modules are provided with or without aluminum frame and
are usually on the front side with a special solar glass and rear synthetic
membrane, however, made on both sides with glass. Specific modules opens
new avenues for interesting architectural approaches
The inverters convert the direct current produced in the solar system
compatible with the AC. The inverter is analyzing the electric grid and feeds
electricity to the proper frequency of the network. In this way, help to stabilize
the electricity grid. These inverters usually have interfaces (communication
interfaces) for remote control and on-aposaseos control facility
Charge controllers set up to use the electricity produced in solar TENA
autonomous system for charging batteries or to supply directly to consumers.
When there is sunshine, the regulator takes power from the battery
The photovoltaic (PV) components convert the energy of the visible spectrum
of sunlight into electricity. This transformation is directly inside the solar cell
with only consumable item sunlight and produce direct current (DC) able to
power any device AL. The first part of the word photovoltaic comes from the
word light, while the second is in honor of the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta
(1745-1827), a pioneer in the study of electricity and known to the public from
the development of electric batteries zinc - copper ( Zn - Cu) with an
electrolyte of sulfuric acid (H2SO4).

The simplest photovoltaic cells made of semiconductor materials currently two


layers, with a preponderance of the silicon (Si). With the incidence of solar
radiation shows a potential difference (voltage) between the two layers. The
currently commercially available silicon solar cells can convert into electricity in
18-19% of the visible solar spectrum. The silicon solar cells are divided into

7
three categories. Depending on the process open to the material from their
cells made of amorphous, monocrystalline and polycrystalline silicon.
The monocrystalline silicon cells require very high raw material purity and the
highest conversion efficiency of solar radiation to electricity, but have the
highest market price. The monocrystalline cells produced chopping a single
crystal (thickness cell 1 / 3 to 1 / 2 mm), a large single crystal ingots, which
has developed at temperatures around 1400 ° C, which is a very expensive
process. The silicon must be very high purity and has a perfect crystal
structure. Such solar cells have the highest efficiency, ie higher percentage of
converting solar energy into electricity. The yield of around 18% -23%,
meaning that solar radiation is 700 Wh / m ² on the day it will produce for the
specific day 120 Wh / m ² to 160 Wh / m ²
The polycrystalline cells are cheaper because they are based on a simple
production method, but with less efficiency compared to monocrystalline. The
polycrystalline cells are made with a casting process where molten silicon is
poured into an industrial to a form where it is formatted. Then cut the
gkofretes.Dedomenou that polycrystalline cells are made by casting is
considerably cheaper to produce, but not both profitable and monocrystalline.
This lower efficiency, ranging between 13% and 15%, due to defects in the
crystal structure as a result of casting process. Just as the ancient Egyptians
and Sumerians in the pyramids, only this the "casting" was called "plastering"
the you caught; Understand why the pyramids outside plaster; FOR YOU TO
DO ENERGEIAKOUS collectors
Amorphous silicon (a-Si)
The amorphous silica used in the manufacturing cell in the form of thin film.
These cells have the lowest efficiency, but of particular interest in specialized
applications, as indicated below.

8
Cells in the form of thin film made from other materials such as copper
diseliniouchos Indian (CuInSe2), the cadmium telluride (CdTe) and arsenious
gallium (GaAs). This technology allows the application of solar cells on
inexpensive substrates such as plastics and glass and used to replace key
components of existing or new construction. The amorphous silicon, one of the
thin-film technologies (thin film technology), is made by depositing silicon onto
a glass substrate by a reactive gas such as silane (SiH4). It has a crystalline
structure and thickness (2-3 mm) is particularly smaller than the crystalline
form of silicon (200-500 mm). From manufacturing point of view is simpler and
therefore cheaper, but its performance is comparatively smaller ranges
between 4% and 11%. However, it is good even in absence of sunlight. The
amorphous silicon solar cells are a reddish-brown hue, almost black, and a
surface composed of narrow, long strips. The efficiency of amorphous silicon
photovoltaic between 4% and 11%, depending on the technology and
materials used in the solar cell is a key component of the generation of energy
from the sun and deliver, in optimum conditions, power 1,5 W to 0,5 V. The
performance of the cell decreases with increasing temperature and increasing
the angle of incident solar radiation. The cells combined electrically, forming
the smallest commercially usable standalone unit, the photovoltaic panel. The
cells, which form the framework installed and encapsulated in a suitable
material, usually plastic polymer, to ensure good electrical insulation and to
provide the necessary protection against the weather (rain, hail, frost, low
temperatures). The modules are based on appropriate databases
differentiated according to application. Thus constructed from simple building

9
to contain a frame on a roof, complex monitoring devices to track the sun two
axes.
The most common one photovoltaic voltage is 12 V, which is sufficient for
charging common battery. The modules are joined together either in series or
parallel, as if designed to increase the voltage or current, forming the
photovoltaic arrays. Combining the two links found in large production
systems. For the protection of cells and frames, and the flow of electricity in
the circuit be installed blocking diodes and bypass diodes.

The systems producing electricity from the sun can


Τα συστήματα παραγωγής ηλεκτρικής ενέργειας από τον ήλιο μπορούν να
λειτουργήσουν είτε αυτόνομα, είτε συνδεδεμένα με το ηλεκτρικό δίκτυο, είτε
συνεργαζόμενα με κάποιο άλλο σύστημα παραγωγής ηλεκτρικής ενέργειας
(από άλλη ΑΠΕ ή συμβατικό). Στη συνέχεια παρουσιάζονται συνοπτικά μερικοί

συνδυασμοί των παραπάνω.

The compact solar power systems are a useful and easy solution for the needs
of remote settlements in the network or housing. Necessarily accompanied by
an energy storage medium (usually battery). The compact combination of solar
and wind systems have the advantage of producing energy from wind in the
dark hours of 24 hours. And are accompanied by a means of storing energy.
The compact hybrid systems usually do not require storage (batteries),
producing energy from ntizelogennitria installed during the hours the sun is
absent and / or air exorthologikopoioun installed capacity of solar and / or wind

10
farms.
In the interconnected power grid systems can save the cost of alternative
production while, as long as there is excess power, the system administrator
(DESMIE or PPC) buys the excess energy Since the production of renewable
energy varies considerably hourly, daily and seasonal fluctuations, the storage
in interconnected systems facilitate a better correlation between supply and
demand.
The need for conversion produced by photovoltaic cells HVDC (DC) to
Alternating Current (AC) specified voltage and frequency or the AC power
supply devices, or interconnection with the grid, makes it imperative to
interference power electronics for above conversion and check the parameters
of the produced electricity. The most common equipment consists of inverters
DC / AC controllers charging batteries, devices to prevent overload and short
circuits and electronic units continuous monitoring and control station and data
at remote locations.
Apart from the above three types of solar cells from silicon available in the
global market, and efforts are conducted on the use and other factors (either
alone or in combination) such as gallium arsenide (GaAs), cadmium sulphide
(CdS), indium phosphide ( InP). Also of great interest are the solar cells very
thin-film copper-indium-gallium-diselenide, which have higher efficiency (8-
13%) than that of amorphous silicon. Finally, a completely new technology is
an innovative product spheral solar, based on material that is expected to start
being built in 2004. Unlike conventional solar cells, the new material is not
deposited on a rigid silicon base, but made thousands of dirt cheap silicon
beads (made of silicon residues resulting from the industry of computer chips),
trapped between two sheets of aluminum

Each bead acts as an independent tiny solar cell, absorbing sunlight and
converting it into electricity. The aluminum sheets give the material physical
strength necessary to enable it to be flexible and lightweight, while playing the
role of electrical contact. The area filled bubbles that create the beads allows
much greater absorption of sunlight, giving the material efficiency of 11%. The
inventors of support that can cover any shaped surface, greatly increasing the
places where they can produce electricity and giving architects the opportunity
11
to design buildings with curves can be fitted with solar panels needed without
even closer to construction support them as the picture above.
One characteristic of photovoltaic cells is that their performance is affected by
the temperature developed in the available solar radiation. This effect varies
with the type of PV. Overall efficiency is changed in relation to the temperature
of solar as the figure below

Blister monocrystalline silicon 170 W, 175 W, 180 W,


185 W's Sharp guy NUE0607.
Brochure technical specifications in pdf.
NU series
185 W | 180 W
175 W | 170 W
Monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic modules
Product features
_ High performance photovoltaic modules made of
monocrystalline
(155.55 mm2) silicon solar cells with module efficiency
of up to 14.1%.
_ Bypass diodes to minimise power loss with shading.
_ Textured cell surface for especially high current yields.
_ BSF structure (Black Surface Field) for optimising cell efficiency.
_ Use of annealed glass, EVA plastic and weather-protection foil, as
well as an anodised aluminium frame with water drainage holes for

12
prolonged use.
_ Output: connection cable with water-protected plug connector.

Cells thin-film
Technical Information Duennschicht-UGR084720 2.0 1 / 7

Technology Units
The SMA inverters offer an appropriate solution for each unit
Along with conventional photovoltaic units marketed recently in the market
more often cell technologies, and advanced versions of common units. At the
same time, innovative technologies such as thin-film units and cell contact in
the rear
offer benefits over time, for example, reduced production costs, shorter times
return energy or very high efficiency. We must always observe that certain
technologies should be operated only under certain conditions. For this
reason, in the use of photovoltaic units should be observed by the
manufacturer's installation instructions. Due to the large supply of different
topologies, handling conversions SMA (in conjunction with the corresponding
set of earth) is highly flexible and available to each unit a
optimal device. In addition, we maintain close contact with manufacturers
units, so we can easily adapt to current installation instructions.
Technical Information Optimal operation of photovoltaic generators of new
technology SMA Solar Technology AG 2 / 7

Optimal operation of photovoltaic generators

Polarization: Avoiding the positive pole of the photovoltaic generator


During operation of the units together at the back, for example the type of cell
SunPower A-300, there is an increasing reduction in the rate of return on
monadas.Aities
Along with the photons of light, the solar phenomenon requires an electric field
that separates negative from positive charge carriers and prevents their
immediate reconnection. If one side there are two solar cell connections (like
cell contacts at the back) the removal of these electric fields is more complex
than a basic cell. When operating at higher voltages (> 20 V) can occur static
charge on the surface of the cell. Thereby increasing the rate of reconnection
charge carriers, which leads to a significant reduction in the rate of return.
The so-called phenomenon of polarization is reversible. Once the negative
charges on the membrane EVA removed again, increasing the rate of return
[1].
Remedies
• The use of galvanic isolated converters and grounding the positive
association with the generator set grounding SMA (order number: ESHV-P-

13
NR), the phenomenon of polarization prevented from the outset.
• If the generator is grounded or has been, likely due to the provisional
application of high negative voltage on the defective unit back to its original
state and / or return of the cells. The exact process of regeneration will be
conducted in consultation with the manufacturer of the units. However, the
revitalization of the units does not prevent the recurrence of the phenomenon.
In this case serves only to positive ground

Παθητικοποίηση Κρυσταλλικό πυρίτιο υπόστρωμα (substrat) Επιμετάλλωση


Στρωματώδης μεμβράνη Πλαίσιο
Technical Information Optimal operation of photovoltaic generators of new
technology SMA Solar Technology AG 3 / 7

1.2 Erosion TCO: Avoiding the negative pole of


photovoltaic generator
Even after a relatively short running time, some units there was a thin
membrane called membrane damage to the TCO (TCO: Transparent
Conductiv Oxide). The failure of this electrically conductive film on the inside of
the protective glass is not fixable and make substantial losses in efficiency.
Causes
The causes of erosion TCO explored since 2000 by the Center for Solar
Energy in Florida (Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC)). While research has
shown that it is mainly units cell of amorphous silicon and
cadmium telluride, which are manufactured with technology superstrat. In this
process of construction was originally placed individual film unit with protective
glass. TCO erosion resulting from the reaction of sodium, which is the
protective glass at a rate approx 15% with moisture. Within the unit is mainly
caused cracks, which can spread throughout the cells' structure and the unit
suffered permanent damage.
Remedies
• The use of galvanic isolated converters and the negative pole of the
photovoltaic generator with the set of ground SMA (order number: ESHV-N-
NR) shows an electric field that attracts sodium ions with positive charge
towards the negative pole and thus away from the membrane TCO. Therefore,

14
preventing erosion doubt. This measure should be a priority.
• An alternative measure is to seal the edges of the unit. Thereby preventing
the ingress of moisture and the process of erosion is moving to the second
level.
• Favourable effect also has the potential to reduce leakage by increasing the
distance between the units and earthed structures (eg the unit). The two
phenomena described are directly related to the capacity of the generator, in
this case it means the voltage of the generator to the ground. Unlike the
voltage of photovoltaic units (between positive and negative association) in the
design of the facility was given little attention to the trend towards the ground.
Therefore, this trend may be different depending on the topology of the
converters (see chart "Dynamic Generator Sunny Boys").
Technical Information Optimal operation of photovoltaic generators of new
technology SMA Solar Technology AG 4 / 7
However, the choice of a particular converter topology does not in itself
prevent the problems already mentioned. Only through the (extra) a grounding
pole can determine the direction of the field throughout the photovoltaic
generator and consequently to prevent erosion TCO and / or the phenomenon
of polarization.

1.3 High leakage current: Prevention through converter topology Quiet-Rail


In operation, the capacitive leakage current may be made non-permitted levels
and cause activation of the RCD (Residual Current protective Device) or
disable the converter.
Causes
The capacity of the generator also has a rotational component, whose
frequency and amplitude depend on the topology of the converter. Thus,
between the individual and the environment is an alternating electric field,
which creates a capacitive leakage current in the conductors. The magnitude
of this leakage current also depends on the capacity of the photovoltaic
generator. Therefore applies: The greater the surface of the unit, the greater
the capacity and the higher the leakage current. Moreover, the generators of
units of thin film in this case are most affected. The metal film units can also
dramatically increase the capacity of the generator and thus achieves a
maximum leakage current converter.

Remedies
The structure of the units should be examined in detail before designing the
facility. With a maximum leakage current over 50 mA should be chosen with
an SMA inverter topology and the corresponding reduced leakage current. In
this case the ideal is a Sunny Boy inverter, because the galvanic isolation
prevents leakage current in the network. But the types of inverter series TL-HC
with the topology of the Quiet-Rail is particularly relevant, because in this
current window is needed for the operation is extremely low. When using other

15
Sunny Boy must be guaranteed from the design phase of the installation that
could deactivate a protection switch RCD / FI. Moreover, a threshold required
to activate 300 mA according to standards VDE, presents no problem.

Technical Information Grounding the generator: easy and simple to set ground
SMA SMA Solar Technology AG 5 / 7

Grounding the generator 2: Easy and simple to set ground SMA

To find the appropriate converter under the conditions described in the


photovoltaic units must know the capacity of the generator used to operate
with different topologies
converters [2]. The diagram below you can see the time evolution of the
potential positive (red) and negative (blue) connecting the generator when
operating with different converters.
The diagram of the dynamic of the generator shows that the topologies of the
converters are different. As advocated by some manufacturers, the choice of a
particular topology and was the only negative or positive polarity of the

16
photovoltaic units to the environment. The photovoltaic panels can be easily
earthed only in conjunction with grounding kit. To this end grounded one of the
connections of the generator through a security (the picture shows
schematically a positive ground) to continue to ensure the safety and
supervision of the generator insulation. This internationally recognized (and
partly required) earth can only be placed with little handles on each Sunny Boy
with a transformer.

Technical Information Further reading


SMA Solar Technology AG 6 / 7
In detail, grounding kit gives you the following advantages:
• The grounding kit is available for both the positive and the negative ground.
• The internal grounding is not necessary to change the external wiring of the
generator and save time.
• The ground secured by an internal fuse and thus provide additional security
(fire).
• Given the appropriate set of ground created by the SMA and the integration
of wireless converter, full insulation monitoring continues to work. This
important safety devices SMA recognizes inaccuracies insulation in the
generator. By grounding kit to adjust the polarity of the potential generator.
Furthermore, the effect of voltage on the network capacity of the generator
shown for each network two years (see chart) is very different. Converters
without transformer directly connected to the network and thus the potential
coincides with the voltage. The exception is transformerless inverter topology
with Quiet-Rail. The alternating component in the generator potential is as
small as the converters with galvanic isolation (transformer) between the
photovoltaic generator and the network. The magnitude of this AC component
is important for the amount of leakage current of the generator and should be
minimized in units embedded with metal foil.
bibliography
[1] SunPower Application Note: "SunPower Discovers the" Surface
Polarization "Effect in High Efficiency Solar
Cells ", www.sunpowercorp.com; 2005
[2] H. Schmidt, B. Burger, K. Kiefer: "Welcher Wechselrichter für welche
Modultechnologie?"; 21st symposium.
Photovoltaische Solarenergie, 8.-10.03.2006, Kloster Banz / Staffelstein;
Tagungsband p. 220 onwards
[3] C.R. Osterwald, T.J. MCMahon, J.A. del Cueto, J. Adelstein und J. Pruett:
"Accelerated Stress Testing of
Thin-Film Modules with SnO2: F Transpararent Conductors "; National Center
for Photovoltaics and Solar
Program Review Meeting, 24.-26.03.2003, Denver / Colorado; NREL/CP-520-
33567.
[4] N.G. Dhere, H.P. Patil, S.M. Bet, A.U. Pai, V.V. Hadagali and U.S. Avachat:

17
"Investigation of Degradation
Aspects of Field Deployed Photovoltaic Modules "; National Center for
Photovoltaics and Solar Program
Review Meeting, 24.-26.03.2003, Denver / Colorado; NREL/CD-520-33586, S.
958.

Technical Information Checklist SMA Solar Technology AG 7 / 7

To help you in choosing the right converter for each type of unit, we have
assembled here the most important instructions for you:
1. Check if the manufacturer of photovoltaic units to provide guidance for
grounding the generator or the converter topology used.
Example: The company recommends Sunpower solar panels from units with
type A-300 cells to positive ground connection. The right choice: Sunny Boy
with adapter kit and a good grounding. See Chapter 2.1 on page 2.
2. If the manufacturer of photovoltaic units provides specifications for using the
products, then we recommend that you select the converter according to the
characteristics of photovoltaic units listed here.
Example: The unit thin membrane cells from cadmium telluride and / or
amorphous silicon is usually used as a substrate (substrat) on the structure of
a cell glass plate coated with TCO. The right choice: Sunny Boy with adapter
kit and a negative ground. See Chapter 2.2 on page 3.
Example: Flexible thin film cells is commonly used as a substrate (substrat) a
carrier film of stainless steel. The right choice: Sunny Boy inverter with or
without transformer topology Quiet-Rail (Sunny Boy xxxxTL-HC). See Chapter
2.3 on page 4.

18
Φωτογραφίες φωτοβολταϊκού

PV panels by hand and cheaper solar


panels!
After collecting the materials for
the construction of a high yield
but low-cost photovoltaic panels
at a cost, here we start the
construction. The materials for
the framework found in stores like
Praktiker, but in craft wood, glass
and aluminum.
My PV remains enough (and
kalodiotainia) and if a friend is
interested can contact me here.
19
Step 1: The construction of the chassis (panel)
Stick the PV-modules (since perigafetai prepare as in step 2 below)
with a drop of silicone on a sheet of glass (or plexiglass) thickness
5mm. From top, place another sheet of glass 5mm (or Plexiglas
3mm) sticking around with the silicone. If we choose instead of
plexiglas window, you should ask to be protected UV, resistant to
permanent exposure to the sun! If you choose glass, have asked
us to deliver a ready-made holes for the cables exit the back side.
The two power output cables will leave two holes on the back (the
plexiglass we can drill or better to call us to deliver finished crafts
glass to order it).
In the next picture, showing the framework assembly, but even
without the solar data. I was glad because the building came out
very strong and inspires confidence in the strength. So we go
below the 2nd step is to glue the wires on the solar cells ...
Step 2: The bonding wires
I got 2 PV cells for testing and stuck - loose wires about 10 times
until the accustomed hand. The secrets are:
1. The soldering iron is 40 to 60 watt έως flat nose (smaller does
not). Need to warm up well before start (approx. 15 minutes). The
sides hold several clicks to the greatest possible area of the nose
on the kalodiotainia.
2. Just scrape very slight lines, leading up to the solar cell with a
straight
katsavidaki
throughout
their length, to
leave little of
the white
coating and
stick more
easily
kalodiotainia.
3. Before
gluing spend
a little liquid
flux to solder
(paste-like fat-
solnterini liquid though) on the lines guide the solar component for
easier and stronger application (sold in electronic hardware stores).
2. We keep the kalodiotainia with the index finger and thumb on the line
and start gluing from the waist down with a stable transition and only a
slight pressure for 2-3 seconds. After Turn the PV cell 180 degrees and
stick the same way the rest of the piece.

20
In the next photo, it seems a
photovoltaic element without
wires, one with wires stuck on the
front side and a PV element from the
back side (the wires are shown in
3rd PV component protruding
from the front / side of blue: the
back look no further bogged down
cables. This will be done later).
In the next photo looks all our
information ready for the
interconnection between them.
The length of each section
kalodiotainias is such that it
reaches the back of the next solar
cell to be tagged, as shown in
photos.
In the last photo with PV data below shows the way in which interlinked:

The two wires will go from the top of the 1st cell in the bottom of the
2nd. The more cables the 2nd cell on the bottom of 3. The cables on the
3rd cell in the bottom of the 4th, etc.
In the photo below I have made 3 cells in series and simply shows the
front side and once from behind. This column eat PV data turns 3 x 0,6
= 1,8 Volt. At the end of the column has 6 cells in series, and there are 6
such batteries in photovoltaic panels (a total of 36 PV-modules).
Tests and measurements
The photovoltaic panel as shown in the photo below is ready. The
construction went very well and his performance even better!
I tried (in September at 16:00 noon) and the yield was very high and the
upper limit of the specification: 21,6 Voc and 4.9 A! That is 106 Watt!
Under load the power is certainly a little lower ... The glass that we use
and this will cause some small loss, depending on the thickness and
type.
Anyone who wants to create his own happy to help, although it is not
difficult!
Anyone who has purchased the cells and preparing to begin
construction, can be opened by-step guide with detailed information
step by step how a manufactured panel.

CONSTRUCTION BHMA Step


The manufacture of photovoltaic panels step by step
This structure requires some basic knowledge of electrical engineering
and use an electric soldering iron certainly 40 or 60 Watt ... No less, no

21
more!
The guide is in two parts and requires that you have already purchased
photovoltaic cells (cells) and kalodiotainia interface and got in front of
you, ready to begin construction. Otherwise, the guide looks tricky, but it
is not!
• Part 1: Preparation of photovoltaic modules and the interface between
them (this page).
• Part 2: Integration of photovoltaic panels and possible improvements
or additions.
Watch the video here and construction of photovoltaics.
Preparation of PV CELLS
1. With a small screwdriver, very lightly just scrape the two white lines
on the front drivers-side of each photovoltaic cell on which to stick the
kalodiotainies. So do the lines (or small square boxes) on the back of all
the hives. We just scrape out much, only what you need to leave some
white paint and reveal little silver underneath.
Connect both KALODIOTAINIAS IN PHOTOVOLTAIC KYPSELES

22
1. Clean with some liquid solder (liquid flux, paste-like solder but fat liquid /
sold by stores electronic equipment) line on which to stick the kalodiotainia.
2. Align with one hand a piece kalodiotainias on the left bar. We keep the
kalodiotainia in place with fingers or a katsavidaki. Half will be at the white line
on the cell and the other half would be hanging down freely. Begin bonding
with the soldering iron to start from the middle of the cell as above and then
bogged down starting from the middle and down. We do the same in the 2nd
row right.
3. This will stick with kalodiotainies, currently only the front (blue) side of the
cell and 36 cells.
4. When stuck between 2 kalodiotainies only in front of ALL cells, we get 4 of
these cells, the Turn upside down and stick the same way two other
kalodiotainies the back side but in the opposite direction!
5. So we end cell 32 kalodiotainies only the front side and another 4 cell
kalodiotainies and front and back (see next photo, like the cell - which is itself,
in the upper-right side of photography and has kalodiotainies the front and
back side).
The next two photos seem a mold that I have made from plywood to keep
aligned cells and helps the solder. This is optional, just an idea. The small
crosses that appear are used by craftsmen who install tiles.

When you run out of solder, place the plexiglass over the back and using half
the person I'll go upside down so the cells to find their final position, as shown
in next photo.

1. INTERFACE BETWEEN THE CELLS OF


We build vertical columns 4 to 9 cells in each column. Beware of the
polarity: The back of each cell is positive and the negative side, the
front!
These cells will be interconnected in series, namely a negative one
with the other positive turn!
23
Each column will begin with a cell of the 4 have kalodiotainia and front
and rear. It continues with 8 cells have kalodiotainies only the front
side.
1. Place upside down on the glass that will be used as back, 1 cell
than those that have kalodiotainia back and forth in order to see the
back (positive) side of the cell. The wires in the back (positive) side to
go up and the wires are glued to the blue (negative) side to come
down.
2. Under the wires emerging from the blue (negative) side, place
upside down again one of the other 32 cells (of those who have only
the blue wire side). Stick the wires coming from the blue (negative)
side of 1 cell to the positive side of the 2nd.
3. Continue thus steps 1 through 3 until the column.
Carefully push the probe in the tip and start again as above the 2nd
column, 9 cells, just repeating the above steps.
On completion of the 4 columns, carefully Turn upside down to see the
blue side. Again, very carefully! Here is what some may break if not
careful in turning over. Place the 4 columns in their final position will
be on the panel.
If a friend wants to create such a panel 90W happy to help. I have
secured a few cells at a very low price.
The cost is EUR 36 145.00 2 cells, about 1.5 per Watt, when the
corresponding commercial panels can be overcome and 5.00 per
Watt.
Are 20m kalodiotainias to 20.00 euros. Anyone interested friend can
contact me here.

The integration of Photovoltaic panels


• Part 1: Preparation of photovoltaic modules and the interface
between
• Part 2: Integration of photovoltaic panels and possible improvements
or additions (this page)
Watch the video here and construction of photovoltaics.
Now it only remains to connect the 4 columns for them to continue to
connect in series (negative turn positive) cells from column to column.
This will be done using pieces from the 25 cm thick kalodiotainia as
the next two photos.
1. Stick the wires that protrude at the bottom of 1st column (leaving
the blue negative side of 9th cell) over a section length of 25 cm cut
from the thick kalodiotainia.
2. In the next column, the wires of the lower 9th cells surplus to bottom
should be removed from the positive side. Ie spin column if necessary.
You stick them in the thick cables connecting kalodiotainia 1 in the 2nd
column in the bottom panel

24
Repeat the same with a second piece of
coarse kalodiotainias length 25 cm, to
continue the circuit (negative-positive)
from 2nd to 3rd column in the top panel
(ie connect a series of negative-positive
cells on the 2nd and 3rd column).
Repeat the same third part coarse
kalodiotainias length 25 cm, to continue
the circuit (negative-positive) from the
3rd to 4th and last column at the bottom
of the panel (ie connect a series of
positive-negative cells in the lower 3rd
and 4th column). Finally, again with
pieces of coarse kalodiotainias length
of about 30 cm, we get the outputs +
and - panel.
1. Sticking cables up surplus in the first
cell of the 1st column on the thick
kalodiotainia, which continues at
outside a hole in the back of the panel.
This is the positive (+).
2. Sticking cables up surplus over the
cell column of 4 in thick kalodiotainia,
which continues after the other outside
hole on the back panel. This is the negative (-).
Raise just a few cells in the 1st and 4th column and place them underneath a
small drop of silicone and leave them to stick on the back panel. Also sticking
kalodiotainies and thicker on the back panel with an epoxy glue or strong glue
now. With care not to push the cells and break.
The insulation of Photovoltaic panels
Now finished with photovoltaic cells, we can put the front window.

25
To avoid touching the glass of weight over the cells and break down, stick to
the 4 corners of the 4 small plastic washers (or something similar) 2 mm thick
(2mm) to keep the required distance when you put the glass.
Spread transparent silicone (coat thickness of about half a centimeter) around
on the Plexiglas and place very carefully over the glass to stick. Leave it that
way for at least 6 hours without the move to stick well.
External cables
Open in a plastic waterproof electrical box two holes and pass the two thick
kalodiotainies emerging from the panel there. You stick this box back panel
with lots of silicone to prevent water from entering behind him.
Open this box and two holes down and pass the wires will go to battery. The
tie and a knot on the inside of the box that they can not be pulled out of the
holes. The link to kalodiotainies panel (positive kalodiotainia with a cable and
the other negative). We make sure that there is no case to ever touch the
panel kalodiotainies two together (short circuit)! Insulate the electrical box with
silicone wherever they could get nero.Afto was. The photovoltaic panels are
finished! Because the interior panels is trapped air, it may create under certain
weather droplets of moisture may cause long term rust-cell connections. There
are three different solutions, as follows:
1. The smaller the distance between the back and front glass, the less air, so
the better. So if we leave a minimum gap between front and rear back glass
(eg one or two millimeters), and thus minimize and blur that can occur a few
days.
2. To completely eliminate the problem of moisture, there is a liquid silicone
Sylgard 184 (sold in some specialty stores chemical species, or order from
abroad). We can place cells in the glass (and not to stick on the back panel)
and pouring the back (silver) cells with this viscous liquid after a few hours and
hardens substantially encapsulates cells and protects so the air.
3. Finally, another very professional solution is this: After placing the cells in a
Mosque, go to a mosque and ask him to shut us like double glazed windows
with aluminum perimeter. In two windows and put a special material that
absorbs moisture, so not obscure double glazed windows in homes.
Aluminium, however, is not necessary. For aesthetic reasons we can stick
around aluminum film.
For any one to charge a battery panels properly without being destroyed must,
however, a charge controller.
To operate from the battery devices that require 230V, requires an inverter
230V, which converts the 12V battery to 230V. There are expensive inverter to
produce clean sine (like current PPC) and Modified sine inverter (not as
"clean" power, but good to work correctly most devices). If a friend wants to
create such a panel 90W happy to help. I have secured a few cells at a very
low price.
The cost is EUR 36 145.00 2 cells, about 1.5 per Watt, when the
corresponding commercial panels can be overcome and 5.00 per Watt.

26
Are 20m kalodiotainias to 20.00 euros.
Panagiotis LIAPIS

PHOTOVOLTAICS

27
. Letter written in the year 2070
Some consider it excessive. We live in 2070 but to know ...
We are in year 2070. I am 50 years old but look 85. I have many problems
because I drink very little water. I think it remains for me a long time now.
Today, I am one of the most elderly in the society I live. I remember when I
was 5 years old, there were many trees in the parks, houses had beautiful
gardens could be underneath the shower about an hour. Now we use towels
with mineral oil to be washed.
• Before all women exhibit the beautiful hair. Now, should shave her head to
keep it clean without using water.
• Before, my father washed the car with the hose. Today is strictly prohibited
by law such use.
• Remember that there were many ads saying CAUTION WATER, but nobody
paid attention. People believed that water is inexhaustible.
Today, all rivers, dams, lakes and aquifers are irreversibly polluted or dried.
The surrounding landscape is no longer merely a vast desert. Gastrointestinal
infections, skin and urinary tract injuries are the leading causes of death.
The industry is paralyzed, and the unemployment rate is extremely high. The
seawater desalination plants is the main area of employment.
Give workers drinking water instead of salary. The attacks on a jerry of water
is constant through the deserted streets.
The diet is 80% synthetic.
• Before, recommended to drink 8 glasses of water a day. Today, I can only
drink half a glass.
• Because we can not wash our clothes, we throw, which increases the volume
of garbage.
• go back to using tanks as the last century because the sewers do not work
anymore because of lack of water.
People are faced with fear: their bodies are sickly, wrinkled from dehydration,
pligiasmena caused by ultraviolet radiation can no longer filter the air because
28
of the ozone hole.
Because of dry skin, a young woman 20 years is 40. Scientists are doing
research, but there is no solution in sight. We can not construct water ...
Oxygen has also been reduced due to lack of trees, which reduces the
intellectual level of the younger generations.
The morphology of spermatozoa of a large number of people has changed,
which makes many births of children affected by failure of mutations and
malformations.
The government requires us to pay for the air we breathe, 137 m3 per person
per day. Those who can not pay expelled from the "ventilated areas" that are
equipped with gigantic mechanical lungs that work with solar energy.
• The air is not very good, but at least we can breathe.
• The average age is 35 years.
• Some countries succeeded in preserving vegetation islands with clean
running water. These zones are closely supervised by the army.
• Water has become a rare species, a priceless treasure, much more than gold
or diamonds. But here, there are no trees because it hardly ever rains. And
when it starts to rain, it falls rather than acid rain.
• No longer seasons due to climate change (global warming) from human
activities in the 20th century that pollute the environment.
But we predict that they should take care of our environment, but nobody did
anything.
When my daughter asks me to narrate how it was when I was young, telling of
how the forest was beautiful.
By talking about the rain, flowers, pleasure to swim and fish in rivers and lakes
and to drink as much water as you want! And for the health of people ...
By asking:
- Dad! Because there is no more water?
So I have a lump in my throat ...
I can not stop me I feel guilty because I belong to the generation that
29
completed the destruction of the environment, not taking seriously the
numerous warnings.
I am the last generation that could change the course of things, but decided
otherwise.
Today our children are paying dearly ...
Frankly, I believe that life on that land will be from now on because of
environmental destruction has arrived at a point where no return.
How would you like to go back and somehow I did not understand the whole
human race ... At the moment we can still do something to save our planet!
-----
About this letter to those who can! You will only be the minimum for the
awakening of global consciousness and the need to save water.
This one is not a game, it is already our reality. Do it for your children. And if
you have not yet, maybe one day have.
Do not leave a legacy to hell ... Let them life!
Reproduced: www.iqsolarpower.com
By Price

LIAPIS Panagiotis

30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
Active Solar Systems
The "heart" of an active solar system is the solar collector, typically mounted
on the roof or the roof of a house. The collector captures the sun's rays to
produce heat. Then this heat is transferred to the place to be stored or
consumed. When exposed to sunlight, a black surface is heated more easily
(strongly absorb solar radiation) than a white surface (where we have reflected
much of the sun).
58
Passive Solar Systems
The man has long been understood that it can build the house in such a way
as to utilize the sun as much as possible for heating in winter, and be
protected from this kalokairi.Ta homes in the Cyclades, where Plenty of sun
and little vegetation, is white to reflect sunlight.
The buildings include the passive solar design and construction
legontaivioklimatika ktiria.As see how we can implement some of these
systems for space heating:
By placing large windows on the south side of a building permit, in winter,
solar radiation can pass into space and the thermanei.Taftochrona using
insulation and ensuring there are no cracks, preventing the heat to escape.
Using also suitable materials for the walls and floor, which absorbed tassel
and store heat from sunlight during the day, we can get back this heat at night,
that we need more!
Electricity from the Sun
Apart from the direct use or storage of solar energy as heat, it is possible to
turn and electricity. This transformation is called photovoltaic effect. This
phenomenon occurs in certain materials are more expensive, unfortunately,
which have the capacity to generate electricity when fotizontaiTaftochrona
using heat and making sure there are no cracks, preventing the heat to
escape. Using also suitable materials for the walls and floor, which absorbed
tassel and store heat from sunlight during the day, we can get back this heat at
night, that we need more!
Electricity from the Sun
Apart from the direct use or storage of solar energy as heat, it is possible to
turn and electricity. This transformation is called photovoltaic effect. This
phenomenon occurs in certain materials are more expensive, unfortunately,
which have the capacity to generate electricity when illuminated
Small pieces of these materials (solar cells) or with multiple arrays (solar
panels) can supply electrical appliances and recharging electric accumulators
(batteries) only by solar energy. Solar cells are on the calculators we use in
watches, etc.
Wind power
The wind, as long has found the man is a great source of energy, the
exploitation of which could in an economical and environmentally friendly way
to offer important solutions to meet the energy needs.
The energy of wind, wind (Aeolus was the "manager" of the winds in ancient
Greek), utilized nowadays increasingly often in areas where strong winds
blow, producing electricity
Wind energy sectorsNon wind is essentially the kinetic energy of wind, whose
primary source is the sun again. The sun warming the air masses, forces them
to move upward while the other takes place cooler. Thus the movement of air
masses creates wind.

59
Or hydraulic-hydro
Like all bodies to move, so water from melting ice and snow or rain that fell at
high altitudes, have energy and descend to lower areas. However, when the
descent is from many points and still not be easy or possible to use this.

Reservoir
Biomass
The primitive man to heat and cook, use the energy (heat) from the burning
wood. Until now, many poor rural populations, especially in Africa, India and
Latin America to keep warm, cook and lit primarily wood, crop residues (straw,
wood shavings, worthless fruit or seeds) and animal wastes (manure , fat
animals, trash fish). But the residents of developed countries (mainly in rural
areas) using wood, wood chips and residues of wood processing and
pyrinoxylo (from olive stones) in increasing quantities for energy purposes,
mainly for heating.
Biomass in a glasshouse in Crete
All these materials, directly or indirectly from the vegetable world, as part of
the waste and garbage (food scraps, paper), cities and industries, and is
known as biomass for the entire humanity a significant quantity source.
Geothermal energy
Groundwater when going through these rocks heated and the temperature can
reach up to 350 degrees. The idea of holding this energy spurt came from the
large quantity of hot water or steam, or just hot air (geothermal fluids) in many
parts of the world. In still other areas which do not have this privilege, are
drilling deeper, where there are geothermal fluids.
PROPER USE AND SAVING ENERGY
METHODS OF USE SOSTIS ENERGY TO DO AND ECONOMY IN FUEL
AND MONEY
In developed countries, as in our country, there is an incredible waste of
energy, and the "civilized" man consumes more and more goods. So do not
realize that fossil fuels (which uses more) will end soon and that the use of
incurring more and more the world (mainly carbon dioxide) with devastating
effects on the environment and ultimately our own lives.
You children are tomorrow's citizens will live in the future effects of energy
dissipation of large, need to understand and apply the following simple rules,
and so that the fuel last longer and the environment are protected.
HEAT INSULATION

Motivate your parents to put double glazing and insulate the roof and the roof
of the pilot.

If there are cracks around doors and windows close them with an insulating
material.
HEATING

60
On sunny winter days, open windows to let in sun in your home.

On cold winter nights close the shutters of the windows and curtains to keep
the heat inside your home.

On cold winter nights are best wearing a warm sweater rather than rising over
heating.
AIR CONDITIONING - DROSISMOS

When using the air conditioner in the windows and doors should be closed.

On warm summer days the shutters of the windows should be closed to avoid
the sun enters your home.

Your summer nights open doors and windows to ventilate - and-cool your
home.
LIGHTING

Always turn off the lights when there is someone in the room.

During the day open the windows and curtains to the sun illuminate your
home.

Motivate your parents to use low energy bulbs.


ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES
THERMOSIFONAS

Turn the water heater only when needed hot water and do not
afinoumesynecheia lit.

We prefer to shower rather than a bath!

Motivate your parents to buy a solar water heater, where the sun warms the
water they need.
REFRIGERATOR - FREEZER

Before you open the fridge We want to think about what parome valome or in
the refrigerator.

Anoigome the refrigerator door less often as we can, and do not ever keep it
open too long.

We put in the refrigerator hot food

61
ELECTRIC KITCHEN

Not to be paizome anoigome and kleinome the oven kitchen.


TELEVISION

Do not leave the TV turned on when not watching.

Always shut the TV button and not the remote.


ELECTRONIC CALCULATOR

Always close the screen of a computer by clicking the appropriate button and
did not leave on standby (with the little LED lit).
GAMES

We use rechargeable batteries.


CAR

Avoid traveling by car. We prefer to walk!

We use bicycle and prefer buses to transport!

When we go or we get from school by car, we invite our classmates and others
to come with us!

Motivate your parents can agree between them that each time the car takes
you or you get out of school is filled with friends and classmates.

Motivate your parents to drive correctly and avoid high speeds and braking
sharply.
is essentially the kinetic energy of wind, whose primary source is the sun
again. The sun warming the air masses, forces them to move upward while the
other takes place cooler. Thus the movement of air masses creates wind.
Or hydraulic-hydro
Like all bodies to move, so water from melting ice and snow or rain that fell at
high altitudes, have energy and descend to lower areas. However, when the
descent is from many points and still not easy or possible to use this.
Reservoir
Biomass
The primitive man to heat and cook, use the energy (heat) from the burning
wood. Until now, many poor rural populations, especially in Africa, India and
Latin America to keep warm, cook and lit primarily wood, crop residues (straw,
wood shavings, worthless fruit or seeds) and animal wastes (manure , fat
animals, trash fish). But the residents of developed countries (mainly in rural
areas) using wood, wood chips and residues of wood processing and

62
pyrinoxylo (from olive stones) in increasing quantities for energy purposes,
mainly for heating.
Biomass in a glasshouse in Crete
All these materials, directly or indirectly from the vegetable world, as part of
the waste and garbage (food scraps, paper), cities and industries, and is
known as biomass for the entire humanity a significant quantity source.
Geothermal energy
Groundwater when going through these rocks heated and the temperature can
reach up to 350 degrees. The idea of holding this energy spurt came from the
large quantity of hot water or steam, or just hot air (geothermal fluids) in many
parts of the world. In still other areas which do not have this privilege, are
drilling deeper, where there are geothermal fluids.
PROPER USE AND SAVING ENERGY
METHODS OF USE SOSTIS ENERGY TO DO AND ECONOMY IN FUEL
AND MONEY
In developed countries, as in our country, there is an incredible waste of
energy, and the "civilized" man consumes more and more goods. So do not
realize that fossil fuels (which uses more) will end soon and that the use of
incurring more and more the world (mainly carbon dioxide) with devastating
effects on the environment and ultimately our own lives.
You children are tomorrow's citizens will live in the future effects of energy
dissipation of large, need to understand and apply the following simple rules,
and so that the fuel last longer and the environment are protected.
HEAT INSULATION

Motivate your parents to put double glazing and insulate the roof and the roof
of the pilot.

If there are cracks around doors and windows close them with an insulating
material.
HEATING

On sunny winter days, open windows to let in sun in your home.

On cold winter nights close the shutters of the windows and curtains to keep
the heat inside your home.

On cold winter nights are best wearing a warm sweater rather than rising over
heating.
AIR CONDITIONING - DROSISMOS

When using the air conditioner in the windows and doors should be closed.

63
On warm summer days the shutters of the windows should be closed to avoid
the sun enters your home.

Your summer nights open doors and windows to ventilate - and-cool your
home.
LIGHTING

Always turn off the lights when there is someone in the room.

During the day open the windows and curtains to the sun illuminate your
home.

Motivate your parents to use low energy bulbs.


ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES
THERMOSIFONAS
The solar ovens!!
Solar ovens can be divided into THREE MAIN CATEGORIES AS
DESCRIBED BELOW:
CHARTOKOUTES oven with 1-4 ANAKLASTIRES
In this category belong the most common solar oven, which is made up of two
CHARTOKOUTES an external and an internal. BOTH THESE ARE
CHARTOKOUTES INSULATION BETWEEN THEIR which may consist of
TSALAKOMENIS BALLS TO NEWSPAPER folded sheet by rolling
PAPERBOARD PACKAGING. THE OPENING OF THE BASE OF THE OVEN
COVERED UP BY THE MERIA MAINLY WITH ONE PIECE Mosque, which is
either Located in a cardboard lid, or more touches on JUST UNDER forming
CHARTOKOUTES OF THE TWO WITH BETWEEN THE INSULATION. Of
course there are option OF USE Wooden box made of plywood the chipboard
instead CHARTOKOUTES SIMPLE. THE OVENS OF THIS CLASS, IF and
heated relatively slowly, have the advantage that they can bake LARGE
QUANTITIES OF FOOD slowly and evenly. Varies with the inclination IS
THEIR The facade towards the sun Depending on the number of the
reflectors, which can be from 1-4 and adjusted OR UP THE OVEN OR OVER
THE COVER OF (see table below).
OVENS WITH OPEN WITHIN RETROREFLECTING
THIS CATEGORY IS solar oven about a decade HISTORY Boasting inspired
by the French scientists ROGER BERNARD, OF THE UNIVERSITY Lyon.
PLANS ovens OF THIS CLASS MAY seem simple, BUT IS EFFECTIVE AND
HAVE ENOUGH YEARS OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT TO THE
REAR. LEVELS WITHIN RETROREFLECTING, placed vertically, Side Order,
reflecting sunlight onto a culinary SKEFOS, which is either located inside a
plastic bag PSISIMATOS FOR OVEN OR IS UNDER ONE inverted glass
bowl. THE ADVANTAGE OF THIS CLASS IS THAT solar oven can be ready
in less than an hour and with minimal effort and COST (about 3-5 million) and

64
have brilliant PRESENT AND FUTURE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, AND
NOT ONLY. Disadvantaged stability to strong winds and CONDITIONS IN
LOW ILIOFANEIAS. Fails to maintain on much the heat inside to cook
SKEFOS, WHICH IS WITHIN THE BAG OR inverted glass bowl, particularly
when the Sun disappears behind the clouds for a long time.
Parabolic and semi cylindrical OVENS
Parabolic solar oven are convex, concave Records, often resembles a large
plate, where Solar radiation is reflected and concentrated in one place, where
the cook SKEFOS FOUNDED. THE ADVANTAGE IS THAT THEIR dishes
cooked almost as fast and at SYMVATIKOUS ILEKTRIKOUS FOURNOUS.
DISADVANTAGES AS can allocate THE DIFFICULTIES IN THE
CONSTRUCTION AND THE ADJUSTMENTS TO OFTEN TO THE COURSE
OF THE SUN SO to focus properly. THERE IS ALSO the possibility of causing
burns or TRAFMATISMOUS eyes, IF NOT USED CORRECTLY, WITH
ATTENTION AND KEEPING SAFETY RULES. THE semi cylindrical solar
oven is essential Half drum with appropriate Shaped the inside, OF to have
ANAKLASTIKES PROPERTIES.

65
ΦΤΙΑΞΤΟ ΜΟΝΟΣ ΣΟΥ

66
http://el.list-of-
companies.org/Details/10178348/China/himin_solar_energy_group/

SOLAR THIN FILM PATENT

67
Abstract
A thin-film flexible solar cells built on a plastic substrate
includes a p-cadmium telluride layer of cadmium sulphide and
n-type layer sputter deposited on a plastic substrate at a
temperature low enough to avoid damaging or melting the
plastic and to minimize crystallization of cadmium telluride. A
transparent conductive oxide layer covered with a network of
bus line has been deposited over the n-type layer. A back
contact layer of conductive metal is deposited beneath the p-
type layer and above the current collection circuit. The
semiconductor layers may be amorphous or polycrystalline
structure

Other References

• Nishiwaki et al, "Development of an ultralight, flexible a-Si solar


cell submodule," Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 37, pp. 295-
306, (1995).
• McClure, J.C., et al., "Foil mounted thin-film solar cells for space
and terrestrial applications", Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells,
Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam NL, vol. 55 No. 1-2 (Jul. 23,
1998), pp. 141-148
• Abou-Elfotouh, F. A., "RF Planar Magnetron Sputtering Of
Polycrystalline CdTe Thin-Film Solar Cells," Intl. J. Solar Energy, vol.
12:223-231 (1992)
• Bonnet, Dieter, "Cadmium-telluride--Material For Thin Film Solar
Cells," ANTEC, GmbH, Industriesr. 2, D-65779 Kelkheim, Germany;
Meyers, Peter, ITN Energy Systems, 12401 West 49th Avenue,
Wheatridge, CO 80033. (Date Unknown)
• Compaan, Alvin D., "CdS/CdTe Solar Cells By RF Sputtering And
By Laser Physical Vapor Deposition," Dept. of Physics an Astronomy,
The University of Toledo, Toledo OH 43606 (1993)
• Compaan, Alvin D., "High-Efficiency Thin-Film Cadmium
Telluride Photovoltaic Cells," Annual Technical Report, Jan. 20, 1996-Jan.
19, 1997 (Aug. 1997)
• Compaan Alvin D., "RF Sputtered CdS/CdTe Solar Cells: Effects Of
Magnetic Field, RF Power, Target Morphology, And Substrate
Temperature," First WCPEC, Dec. 5-9, 1994, Hawaii

68
• Espinoza-Beltran, F. J., Influence Of The Substrate Temperature On
The Structure And Surface Roughness Of Cd0.18 Sb0.64 Te0.18 films, Journal
of Materials Science, 32:3201-3205 (1997)
• Fukuda, Mitsuo, "Optical Semiconductor Devices," John Wiley &
Sons, Inc. (1999)
• Gessert, T. A., Development Of rf Sputtered, Cu-Doped ZnTe for
Use as a Contact Interface Layer to p-CdTe, Journal of Electronic
Materials, vol. 24(10):1443-1449 (1995)
• Quirk, Michael and Serda, Julina, Semiconductor Manufacturing
Technology, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
(2001)
• Tomita, Yasuhiro, Carrier Transport Properties of Sputter-Deposited
CdS/CdTe Heterojunction, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 32:1923-1928 (1993)
• Tomita, Yasuhiro, Properties of Sputter Deposited CdS/CdTe
Heterojunction Photodiode, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 33:3383-3388 (1994)
• Tomita, Yasuhiro, X-Ray Imaging Camera Tube Using Highly
Sensitive CdTe Photoconductive Film, SPIE, vol. 2173:153-160 (1994)
• Tomita, Uasuhiro, "X-Ray Imaging Camera Tube Using Sputter-
Deposited CdTe/CdS Heterojunction," IEEE Transactions on Electron
Devices, vol. 33(2):315-319 (1993)
• Xiao, Hong, "Introduction to Semiconductor Manufacturing
Technology," Prentice-Hall Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
(2001)
• Zapata-Torres, M., "Large Grain Size CdTe Films Grown On Glass
Substrates At Low Temperature," J. Vac. Sci. Techn., A 13(6):2994-2996
(Nov./Dec. 1995)
• Zelaya, O., "Large Grain Size CdTe Films Grown On Glass
Substrates," J. Appl. Phys., 63(2):410-413 (Jan. 15, 1988)
• "Solar Engery Online--sputtering,"
http://wire0.ises.org/wire/glossary.../
ceb6530bcd4d7713c125664e00453059!OpenDocumen, Printed May 15,
2001
• "Absorption Coefficient," http://wire0.ises.org/wire/glossary.../
d338eda3f810b1a0c125664b004d89e0!OpenDocumen, Printed May 15,
2001
• "Intrinsic Semiconductor," http://wire0.ises.org/wire/glossary.../
e0397d4ef1cec125664e00448402!OpenDocumen, Printed May 15, 2001
• "Band Gap Energy (eg)," http://wire0.ises.org/wire/glossary.../
fbe42f37e6d7d7c1c125664c0055e79c!OpenDocumen, Printed May 15,
2001
• "Substrate," http://wire0.ises.org/wire/glossary.../
9b4895480f002393c125664e0045353b!OpenDocumen, Printed May 15,
2001
69
• Superstate, http://wire0.ises.org/wire/glossary.../
f481898dfb6ccc569ac125664e00453918!OpenDocumen, Printed May 15,
2001
• "What is Photovoltaics?" http://www.daystartech.com/whatpv.htm,
Printed Feb. 20, 2001
• ".oe butted.Solar Cell Manufacturing Technology,"
http://www.nedo.go.jp/3color-e/shinene/taiyo-1.html, Printed Feb. 20,
2001
• "NREL Achieves World Record Performance For Thin Film Solar
Cell Technology," http://www.nrel.gov/hot-stuff/press/thinfilm.html,
Printed Feb. 20, 2001
• "World-Record Solar Cell A Step Closer To Cheap Solar Energy,"
http://www.nrel.gov/hot-stuff/press/999world.html, Printed Feb. 20, 2001
• "Material And Device Development,"
http://www.nrel.gov/ncpv/cadmium.html, Printed Feb. 20, 2001
• "Manufacturing and Deployment,"
http://www.nrel.gov/ncpv/cdteteam.html, Printed Feb. 20, 2001
• "Thin Films: Past, Present, Future,"
http://www.nrel.gov/ncpv/documents/thinfilm.html, Printed Feb. 20, 20

70

71
72
73
74
75
Thin film solar cell and production method therefor

Inventors: Sasaki, Hajime; Morikawa, Hiroaki; Satoh, Kazuhiko; Deguchi, Mikio;


Assignee: Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha (Tokyo, JP)
Primary Examiner: Weisstuch; Aaron
Assistant Examiner:
Attorney, Agent or Firm: Leydig, Voit & Mayer

A method for producing a thin film-solar cell having a thin film-active layer in a
graphite sheet substrate includes the steps of adhering two sheets of graphite
together, forming a thin semiconductor films acting as active layers for the
second main surface two sheets of graphite, which separates the two graphite
sheets from each other. In this structure, the stress caused by a difference in
rates of expansion between the top sheet and the semiconductor thin film has
been canceled by the stress caused by a difference in expansion rates
between the lowest and package semiconductor thin film. Therefore, curvature
of the substrate is prevented under which the next steps of the process easy
out. Moreover, the number of products per unit time is doubled, thereby
increasing productivity
DESCRIPTION An object of this invention is to provide an inexpensive thin film
solar cells with high efficiency and reliability that are produced in a simple
process and a method for producing both thin film solar cells.
It is another object of this invention provides a method for continuously
producing a thin film semiconductor device used after being separated from a
substrate.
It is yet another object of this invention to provide a very reliable method for
connecting a plurality of solar cells with high mechanical strength in a simple
and highly reliable components of solar cells produced with the method.
Other objects and advantages of the present invention will appear from the
detailed description given below.
It should be understood, however, that the detailed description and specific
incarnations given as a guide only various changes and modifications in the
spirit and scope of the invention will appear to those skilled in the art from this
detailed description.
According to a first aspect of the present invention, a method for producing a
thin film solar cell, a graphite sheet substrate is heated directly by heating high
frequency, while a thin film is formed on the substrate. Therefore, the substrate
is heated by high performance do not damage the substrate.
According to a second aspect of the present invention, a method for producing
a thin film solar cell and a graphite sheet substrate beltlike passes
successively through the chambers of reaction, a thin film semiconductor
active layer formed on a substrate, a cap layer, as as a layer of silicon oxide or
silicon nitride layer, then formed in the thin film semiconductor active layer and
the thin film semiconductor active layer is melted and recrystallized to increase
76
the diameter of crystal grains of the semiconductor active layer and covered
with a mattress cover . Therefore there is a thin film is encapsulated
Soluble precursor to poly (cyanoterephthalydene) and method of preparation
The above described problems and others are substantially solved and the
above purposes and others are realized in a method of preparing PPV
derivatives including ...
Complementary junction heterostructure field-effect transistor
It is a primary object of the present invention to obviate the problems of the
prior art complimentary III-V field-effect transistors. Another object of the
present ...
Magnetic field sensor on elemental semiconductor substrate with electric field
reduction means
It is, therefore, an object of this invention to provide a magnetic field sensor of
an indium antimonide film or indium arsenide film supported on an
elemental ...
Method of preparing InSb thin film
An object of the present invention is to provide a method of preparing an InSb
thin film, which can form an InSb thin film having high mobility on a surface of
the ...
Organometallic fluorescent complex polymers for light emitting applications
The above described problems and others are at least partially solved and the
above purposes are realized by a method for the preparation of a fluorescent
complex ...
Method and apparatus for manufacturing semi-insulation GaAs monocrystal
Accordingly, it is the object of the present invention to provide a method of
manufacturing a semi-insulation GaAs monocrystal by controlling carbon
concentration during ...
Semiconductor luminous element with light reflection and focusing
configuration
OF THE INVENTION FIG. 1 (a) shows a cross section of semiconductor
luminous element A, a surface-emitting element which is a first preferred
embodiment of this ...
Hydro-air renewable power system
To achieve the foregoing and other objects, and in accordance with the
purposes of the present invention, as embodied and broadly described herein,
the apparatus of this ...
Electrodes comprising conductive perovskite-seed layers for perovskite
dielectrics
As used herein, the term "high-dielectric-constant" means a dielectric constant
greater than about 50 at device operating temperature. As used herein the
term "...
Nitride based semiconductor device and manufacture thereof
It is an object of the present invention to address the above problems and
provide a nitride semiconductor device, in particular a semiconductor light

77
emitting device ...
http://www.nrel.gov/technologytransfer/ip/search_ip.php/solar

National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technology Transfer Solar


Technologies Available for Licensing
The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is a pioneer in the development of
solar technology that will eventually be extended to applications in solar
photovoltaics, concentrating solar power and solar hot water to facilitate
market development. The number of solar technology that NREL has been
patented and are available for licensing.
Intellectual Property Items
U.S. Patent 5,747,967 - Apparatus and Method for Maximizing Power
Delivered by a Photovoltaic Array
U.S. Patent 6,275,060 - Apparatus and Method for Measuring Minority Carrier
Lifetimes in Semiconductor Materials
Apparatus and Method for Maximizing Power Delivered by a Photovoltaic
Array
U.S. Patent 5,747,967 Technology Description
A method and apparatus for maximizing the production of electricity from solar
arrays connected to a battery is the voltage across the photovoltaic array is
regulated through a number of trends to find the voltage across the
photovoltaic array to maximize the electrical energy produced the photovoltaic
array and then maintained for a period of time. After time has elapsed, the
voltage across the photovoltaic array adjusted again through a range of
voltages and the process repeated. The electricity and electricity generated by
solar arrays delivered by the battery which stores electricity and electricity for
later delivery to a load.
Inventors Roger W. Taylor; Eduard Muljadi
Preparation of thin film for solar cell using paste
USPTO Application #: 20090214763
Title: Preparation of thin film for solar cell using paste
Abstract: The method of preparation of a CIS-based or CIGS-based thin film
on a light absorption layer of solar cells, which use a paste prepared by mixing
the precursor Cu, In, Se, Ga and optionally in a solvent minimizes raw material
losses, it produces a toxic gas during the process, and is suitable for large
scale film with low production costs. (End of abstract)
Preparation of thin film for solar cell using paste description / claims

The Patent Description & Claims data below is from USPTO Patent
Application 20090214763, Preparation of thin film for solar cell using paste.

Brief Patent Description - Full Patent Description - Patent Application Claims


CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
This application claims priority from Korean patent application No. 10-2008-

78
0017727 filed on Feb. 27, 2008, all of which is incorporated herein by
reference in its entireties for all purposes.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a method for preparing a CIS (Copper-Indium-
Selenide)-based or CIGS (Copper-Indium-Gallium-Selenide)-based thin film
for a light absorption layer of a solar cell.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Various organic or inorganic semiconductors used to manufacture a solar cell,


but only based on silicon solar cells and CIGS-based thin film (hereinafter "CI
(G) S-based thin film) solar cells have been commercialized. While silicon-
based solar cells have a high efficiency photoconversion, the manufacturing
cost is high. For this reason, there have been many attempts to build a thin-
film solar cells using compound semiconductors can be formed into a thin
form.
In general, as a thin film solar cell consists of a compound semiconductor
produced using elements of groups 11, 13 and 16, which typically involve the
use of CI (G) S thin film. In such a thin film solar cells, light-absorbing layer is a
buffer layer and window layer of CuIn (Ga) Se2, CDs and n-type
semiconductor, respectively. Specifically, the light absorption layer of solar
cells determines the solar cell \ 's capacity. A CI (g) the light absorption layer is
typically shared evaporation of suitable metals in the gaseous atmosphere Se,
or selenization a Cu-Ga-In alloy layer is preformed using an evaporation
deposition method using gaseous selenium compound. A solar cell consists of
a CI (G) S light-absorbing layer made of the above methods has a high
efficiency photoconversion. However, these methods are not suitable for
making large-scale thin layer and prevent the problem of air pollution resulting
from the use of toxic gases or selenium compound, other than the additional
problem of the first injury caused by the use of vacuum equipment, which
increases production costs.
Low-cost manufacturing processes of thin film which does not require the use
of vacuum equipment, such as chemical spray pyrolysis method and a coating
batter with metal precursors have been reported [U.S. Pat. No. 6,127,202 in
the name of Kapur et al.? And U.S. Pat. No. 5,910,336 in the name of Ishihara
et al.] However, these methods still suffer from the problem that use toxic
gases or H2Se Se in step selenization.
Thus, the need to develop a low cost method of manufacturing a compound
semiconductor on a large scale film. For such a method is appropriate to
prepare the light absorption layer by using a paste or ink containing CI (G) S
material.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Consequently, the object of this invention to provide low-cost method for
preparing a thin film on a light absorption layer of solar cells, using a CI (G) S

79
paste or ink that you are using no toxic gases or selenium H2Se. According to
the present invention, if there is a method for preparing a CI (G) S-based thin
film, comprising the steps of:

• (1) mixing precursors of Cu and In,, optionally, a precursor of G'A to obtain a


mixture, and optionally heating the mixture to obtain a mixture of oxides

• (2) Se added to the precursor mixture or a mixture of oxide and adding the
mixture in an aqueous or alcohol solvent to obtain a paste
And
• (3) coating the paste on a substrate and heating the coated substrate in an
inert atmosphere or reducing gas. The present invention also provides a CI (G)
S-based thin film

The method of the present invention using a paste does not require the use of
vacuum equipment and minimizes the loss of raw materials and hence
production costs are low. Moreover, the method of the present invention does
not employ toxic fumes or gases H2Se Se, so that the manufacturing process
safe. Besides, this method can be applied to various types of substrates, and
is easy to check the voltage and current of solar cells obtained by controlling
the band gap energy by adjusting the composition of raw materials
This application claims priority from Korean patent application No. 10-2008-
0017727 filed on Feb. 27, 2008, all of which is incorporated herein by
reference in its entireties for all purposes.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a method for preparing a CI (G) S-based thin
film, CIS (copper-indium-selenide)-based or CIGS (copper indium-gallium-
selenide-)-based thin film on a light absorption layer of solar cells.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
These and other objects and features of the present invention will appear from
the following description of the invention, when taken in conjunction with the
accompanying drawings, which are respectively:
FIG. 1: an example of the method for the preparation of CI (G) S-based thin
film of the present invention;
FIG. 2: a standard XRD oxide CIGS (CuInGaO4) prepared in Example 1
FIG. 3: XRD diagram of the CIGS thin film prepared in Example 1
FIG. 4: XRD diagram of the CIGS thin film prepared in Example 2
FIG. 5: XRD diagram of the CIGS thin film prepared in Example 3
FIG. 6: XRD diagram of the CIGS thin film prepared in Example 4.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Henceforth, CI (G) refers to a copper or copper-indium-gallium-indium, and CI
(G) S-mentioned copper-indium selenide and copper indium-gallium-selenide-.

The inventive method for preparing a CI (G) S-based thin film using a paste or

80
ink will be explained with reference to FIG. 1.
In the first stage of the method in accordance with the present invention, the
precursors of Cu, In, Ga and optionally mixed to prepare a CI (G) a mixture of
precursor (100), and optionally the mixture is heated to obtain CI (G) oxide the
mixture (101). The mole ratio of precursors Cu, Ga In and used in this step is
1:0.5:0 to 1:2:2, preferably 1:0.8:0.8 to 1:1.2:1.2.
The precursors of Cu, Ga and In can be any corresponding hydroxide, nitrate,
sulfate, acetate, chloride, acetylacetonate, formate, or oxide. The metal
precursors are mixed preferably in the form suspended in water or alcohol with
a pH of less than 10 or preferably 4 to 9.
The optional heat treatment of the precursor mixture can be conducted at a
temperature of 500 to 900 ° C., preferably 650 με approximately 800 ° C after
drying the mixture at room temperature.
In the second stage of the method in accordance with the present invention,
the CI (G) a precursor mixture or a mixture of oxides prepared in the first step
is mixed with Se precursor to receive CI (G) S precursor mixture (102, 103),
which added to an aqueous, alcohol, soda or glycol solvents and stirred to
prepare CI (G) S paste or ink (105). The mole ratio of CI (G) a precursor
mixture or a mixture of oxide and Se precursor used in this step is 1:0.5 to 1:2.

The Se precursor can SeCl4, SeS2, Na2Se, Na2SeO3, Na2SeO3.5H2O or a


mixture thereof.
The CI (G) S paste or ink may further include a dispersing agent and / or
binder is added during the mixing. Any conventional dispersion agent such as
a-terpienol, ethylene glycol, thioacetamide or a mixture thereof, and / or binder
such as ethyl cellulose, palmitic acid, polyethylene glycol, polypropylene
glycol, polypropylene carbonate, or mixture thereof may be used at this step in
an amount 10 to 400 parts by weight, based on 100 parts by weight of CI (G) S
precursor mixture.
To increase the electrical capacity of sulfur can be added in the form of sulfur
containing organic / inorganic, for example, the processing of thin film gas H2S
or add a sulfur compound as RSH (where R is alkyl or carboxyalkyl) ,
thioacetamide or Na2S to paste or ink. The amount can vary from 1 to 100
parts by weight, based on 100 parts by weight of CI (G) S precursor to the
mixture.
Also enhance the electrical capacity of solar cells includes a thin film of the
present invention, a dopant such as Na, K, Ni, P, As, Sb, Bi or a mixture
thereof may be further add to the mixture of precursors. For example, a
precursor compound of the metal may be added during the preparation of the
paste or ink in an amount of 0.01 to 10 parts by weight, based on 100 parts by
weight of CI (G) S mixture precursors.

The CI (G) S precursor mixture prepared by the process 102 or 103 may be

81
heated to obtain CI (G) S powder (104). The heat treatment is conducted
preferably in a reducing atmosphere at temperature of 200 με around 700 ° C,
preferably 350 με 550 ° C. The CI (G) S powder of the present invention can
be dispersed in a solvent with optional dispersion agent and / or binder for the
preparation of CI (G) S paste.
In the third step of the method in accordance with the present invention, the
paste or ink prepared in the above step is coated with a substrate, and the
investment has been heat treated to obtain CI (G) S-based thin film (106) . The
substrate can be any material which is conductive and stable at 300 ° C. or
larger, eg, ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) or FTO (fluorine-doped Tin Oxide) glass,
metal foil, metal plate or conductive polymer material.
The coating of the paste or ink may be carried out by conventional means, for
example, using a method of coating with spaoula, screen coating, spin coating,
spray coating or paint coating. The thickness of the coating can be in the
range of 0.5 to 10 micrometers.
The thermal treatment of pulp and the ink coating can be carried out under an
inert gas and / or reducing gas atmosphere, preferably H2/Ar mixed gas,
temperature of 200 με around 700 ° C, preferably 350 to 550 ° C.
The thermal treatment of pulp and the ink coating can be made in ambient
atmosphere at 100 to 400 ° C followed by heat treatment under an inert gas
and / or reducing gas atmosphere above3 to 6 feature that peaks (112) and
(220) / (204) of CIGS is dominant, which shows that CIGS thin film and powder
were CIGS.
Although the invention has been described in relation to these specific
incarnations should be recognized that various modifications and changes
may be made to the invention by a qualified professional who also fall within
the scope of the invention as defined by the requirements attached
Patent Claims The Patent Description & Claims data below from USPTO
Patent Application 20090214763, Preparation of thin film solar cells using
paste.
What is required are:
1. A method for preparing a CIS (copper-indium-selenide)-based or CIGS
(copper indium-gallium-selenide-)-based thin film on a light absorption layer of
solar cells, comprising the steps of:
(1) mixing precursors of Cu and In, optionally with a precursor of G'A to obtain
a mixture, and optionally heating the mixture to obtain a mixture of oxides
(2) Se added to the precursor mixture or a mixture of oxide and adding the
mixture in an aqueous or alcohol solvent to obtain a paste
(3) coating the paste on a substrate and heating the coated substrate in an
inert atmosphere or reducing gas.

2. The method of claim 1 where the precursor of Cu, In and Ga is the


corresponding hydroxide, nitrate, sulfate, acetate, chloride, acetylacetonate,
formate, or oxide.

82
3. The method of claim 1, where the precursors of Cu, In and Ga optionally
mixed in a molar ratio of 1:0.5:0 to 1:2:2.

4. The method of claim 1, where Se is the precursor SeCl4, SeS2, Na2Se,


Na2SeO3, Na2SeO35H2O, or a mixture thereof.

5. The method of claim 1, where the oxide mixture is mixed with a Se


precursor molar ratio of 1:2 to 1:0.5 in step (2).

6. The method of claim 1, where the heat treatment in step (1) conducted at a
temperature of 500 to 900 ° C.

7. The method of claim 1, which are the precursors of Cu, In, Ga and
optionally mixed with water and avoid alcohol in step (1), optionally, a pH 10 or
below.

8. The method of claim 1, where the resulting mixture including SE precursor


in step (2) is heated to obtain a CIGS-based powder, followed by the addition
of the powder in water or alcohol solvent to obtain the paste in step ( 2).

9. The method of claim 1, in which a dispersing agent, a binder, or


combination thereof, further added in step (2).

10. The method of claim 9, where the dispersion medium is a-terpienol,


ethylene glycol, thioacetamide, or a mixture thereof.

11. The method of claim 9, where the substrate is ethyl cellulose, palmitic acid,
polyethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, polypropylene carbonate, or mixture
thereof.

12. The method of claim 1, which contains a sulfur compound added yet in
step (1) or (2).

13. The method of claim 12, where the sulfur-containing compound is H2S,
RSH (where R is alkyl or carboxyalkyl), thioacetamide or Na2S.

14. The method of claim 1, where one or more elements selected from the
group consisting of Na, K, Ni, P, As, Sb, Bi and added further as a dopant in
step (1) or (2).

15. The method of claim 1, where the coating in step (3) is the method of
coating blade doctor, screen coating, spin coating, spray coating or paint
coating.

83
16. The method of claim 1, where the heat treatment in step (3) conducted at a
temperature of 200 to 700 ° C.

17. The method of claim 1, where the reduction of gas in step (3) is hydrogen
gas.

18. The method of claim 1, where the heat treatment in step (3), carried out at
room temperature at 100 to 400 ° C followed by heat treatment under an inert
atmosphere or reducing gas.

19. The method of claim 1, where the thickness of the coating obtained in step
(3) is about 0.5 to 10 micrometers.

20. A CIS based or based on CIGS thin film prepared by the method of claim
1.

21. A method for preparing a CIS (copper-indium-selenide)-based or CIGS


(copper indium-gallium-selenide-)-based powder, comprising the steps of:

(1) mixing of precursors and Cu In, optionally with a precursor of Ga to obtain


a mixture, and optionally heating the mixture to obtain a mixture of oxides
(2) Se added to the precursor mixture or mixed oxide and heating the resulting
mixture in an inert atmosphere or reducing gas temperature of 200 με at 700 °
C.

22. A CIS based or based on CIGS powder prepared by the method of claim
21

• OTHER THIN FILM PATENTS



• S. Patent 5,396,332 - Apparatus and Method for Measuring the
Thickness of a Semiconductor Wafer

• U.S. Patent 5,929,652 - Apparatus for Measuring Minority Carrier
Lifetimes in Semiconductor Materials
• U.S. Patent 5,217,285 - Apparatus for Synthesis of a Solar Spectrum
• U.S. Patent 5,639,520 - Application of Optical Processing for
Growth of Silicon Dioxide
• U.S. Patent 4,779,980 - Atmospheric Optical Calibration System
(AOCS)

84
• U.S. Patent 5,304,509 - Back-side Hydrogenation Technique for
Defect Passivation in Silicon Solar Cells
• U.S. Patent 5,948,176 - Cadmium-Free Junction Fabrication Process
for CuInSe2 Thin Film Solar Cells
• U.S. Patent 6,093,757 - Composition and Method for Encapsulating
Photovoltaic Devices
• U.S. Patent 5,223,453 - Controlled Metal-Semiconductor
Sintering/Alloying by One-directional Reverse Illumination
• U.S. Patent 5,544,616 - Crystallization from High Temperture
Solutions of Si in Cu/Al Solvent
• U.S. Patent 5,314,571 - Crystallization from High-Temperature
Solutions of Si in Copper
• U.S. Patent 4,667,059 - Current- and Lattice-Matched Tandem Solar
Cell
• U.S. Patent 5,223,043 - Current-Matched High-Efficiency,
Multijunction Monolithic Solar Cells
• U.S. Patent 5,406,367 - Defect Mapping System
• U.S. Patent 5,397,737 - Deposition of Device Quality Low H
Content, Amorphous Silicon Films
• U.S. Patent 5,776,819 - Deposition of Device Quality, Low
Hydrogen Content, Amorphous Silicon Films by Hot Filament
Technique Using (SAFE) Silicon Source Gas
• U.S. Patent 6,468,885 - Deposition of Device Quality, Low
Hydrogen Content, Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon at High
Deposition Rates
• U.S. Patent 6,124,186 - Deposition of Device Quality, Low
Hydrogen Content, Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon at High
Deposition Rates with Increased Stability Using the Hot Wire Filament
Technique
• U.S. Patent 5,358,574 - Dry Texturing of Solar Cells
• U.S. Patent 6,239,354 - Electrical Isolation of Component Cells in
Monolithically Interconnected Modules
• U.S. Patent 6,332,967 - Electro-deposition of Superconductor Oxide
Films
• U.S. Patent 6,859,297 - Electrochromic Counter Electrode
• U.S. Patent 6,441,942 - Electrochromic Projection and Writing
Device
• U.S. Patent 5,377,037 - Electrochromic-Photovoltaic Film for Light-
Sensitive Control of Optical Transmittance
• U.S. Patent 5,356,839 - Enhanced Quality Thin Film
Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 for Semiconductor Device Applications by Vapor-
Phase Recrystallization

85
• U.S. Patent 5,429,985 - Fabrication of Optically Reflecting Ohmic
Contacts for Semiconductor Devices
• U.S. Patent 5,342,453 - Heterojunction Solar Cell
• U.S. Patent 5,316,593 - Heterojunction Solar Cell with Passivated
Emitter Surface
• U.S. Patent 6,908,782 - High Carrier Concentration P-Type
Transparent Conducting Oxide Films
• U.S. Patent 5,897,331 - High Efficiency Low Cost Thin Film Silicon
Solar Cell Design and Method For Making
• U.S. Patent 6,201,261 - High Efficiency, Low Cost, Thin Film
Silicon Solar Cell Design and Method For Making
• U.S. Patent 5,426,061 - Impurity Gettering in Semiconductors
• U.S. Patent 5,897,715 - Interdigitalized Photovoltaic Power
Conversion Device
• U.S. Patent 6,281,035 - Ion-Beam Treatment to Prepare Surfaces of
p-CdTe Films
• U.S. Patent 6,815,736 - Isoelectronic Co-doping
• U.S. Patent 6,300,557 - Low-Band Gap Double-Heterostructure
InAsP/GaInAs Photovoltaic Converters
• U.S. Patent 6,852,371 - Metal processing for impurity gettering in
silicon
• U.S. Patent 4,942,299 - Method and Apparatus for Differential
Spectroscopic Atomic Imaging Using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
• U.S. Patent 7,122,736 - Method and Apparatus for Fabricating a
Thin-Film Solar Cell Utilizing a Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition
Technique
• U.S. Patent 5,304,534 - Method and Apparatus for Forming High-
Critical-Temperatures Superconducting Layers on Flat and/or Elongated
Substrates
• U.S. Patent 6,441,896 - Method and Apparatus for Measuring
Spatial Uniformity of Radiation
• U.S. Patent 5,426,569 - Method and Apparatus for Simulating
Atmospheric Absorption of Solar Energy Due to Water Vapor and
CO.sub.2
• U.S. Patent 7,300,890 - Method and apparatus for forming
conformal SiN.sub.x films
• U.S. Patent 6,713,400 - Method for Improving the Stability of
Amorphous Silicon
• U.S. Patent 5,047,112 - Method for Preparing Homogeneous Single
Crystal Ternary III-V Alloys
• U.S. Patent 5,627,081 - Method for Processing Silicon Solar Cells

86
• U.S. Patent 5,441,897 - Method of Fabricating High-Efficiency
Cu(In, Ga)Se.sub.2 Thin Films for Solar Cells
• U.S. Patent 6,787,385 - Method of Preparing Nitrogen Containing
Semiconductor Material
• U.S. Patent 5,487,792 - Molecular Assemblies as Protective Barriers
and Adhesion Promotion Interlayer
• U.S. Patent 5,391,896 - Monolithic Multi-Color Light
Emission/Detection Device
• U.S. Patent 5,322,572 - Monolithic Tandem Solar Cell
• U.S. Patent 5,019,177 - Monolithic Tandem Solar Cells
• U.S. Patent 6,281,426 - Multi-Junction, Monolithic Solar Cell Using
Low-Band-Gap Materials Lattice-Matched to GaAs or Ge
• Trademark 7,309,832 - Multi-junction solar cell device
• U.S. Patent 7,229,498 - Nanostructures Produced by Phase-
Separation during Growth of (III-V).sub.1-x(IV.sub.2).sub.x Alloys
• U.S. Patent 7,179,665 - Optical Method for Determining the Doping
Depth Profile in Silicon
• U.S. Patent 5,577,157 - Optical Processing Furnace with Quartz
Muffle and Diffuser Plate
• U.S. Patent 5,452,396 - Optical Processing Furnace with Quartz
Muffle and Diffuser Plate
• U.S. Patent 6,275,295 - Optical System for Determining Physical
Characteristics of a Solar Cell
• U.S. Patent 6,436,305 - Passivating Etchants for Metallic Particles
• U.S. Patent 5,922,142 - Photovoltaic Devices Comprising Cadmium
Stannate Transparent Conducting Films and Method for Making
• U.S. Patent 6,169,246 - Photovoltaic Devices Comprising Zinc
Stannate Buffer Layer and Method for Making
• U.S. Patent 6,458,254 - Plasma and Reactive Ion Etchning to
Prepare OHMIC Contacts
• U.S. Patent 5,976,614 - Preparation of CuInSe.sub.2 Precursors
Films and Powders by Electroless Deposition
• U.S. Patent 5,785,837 - Preparation of Transparent Conductors,
Ferroelectric Memory Materials and Ferrites
• U.S. Patent 5,711,803 - Preparation of a Semiconductor Thin Film
• U.S. Patent 6,137,048 - Process for Fabricating Polycrystalline
Semiconductor Thin-Film Solar Cells, and Cells Produced Thereby
• U.S. Patent 6,281,098 - Process for Polycrystalline Film Silicon
Growth
• U.S. Patent 5,541,118 - Process for Producing Cadmium Sulfide on
a Cadmium Telluride Surface

87
• U.S. Patent 6,518,086 - Processing Approach Towards The
Formation Of Thin-Film CU(IN,GA)SE2
• U.S. Patent 5,731,031 - Production of Films and Powders for
Semiconductor Device Applications
• U.S. Patent 6,369,603 - Radio Frequency Coupling Apparatus and
Method for Measuring Minority Carrier Lifetimes in Semiconductor
Materials
• U.S. Patent 6,251,183 - Rapid Low-Temperature Epitaxial Growth
Using a Hot-Element Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition Process
• U.S. Patent 7,329,554 - Reactive Codoping of GaAlInP Compound
Semiconductors
• U.S. Patent 5,436,204 - Recrystallization Method to Selenization of
Thin-Film Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 for Semiconductor Device Applications
• U.S. Patent 6,984,263 - Shallow Melt Apparatus for Semicontinuous
Czochralski Crystal Growth
• U.S. Patent 5,376,185 - Single-Junction Solar Cells with the Optium
Band Gap for Terrestrial Concentrator Applications
• U.S. Patent 6,872,378 - Solar Thermal Aerosol Flow Reaction
Process
• U.S. Patent 7,033,570 - Solar-Thermal Fluid-Wall Reaction
Processing
• U.S. Patent 6,126,740 - Solution Synthesis of Mixed-Metal
Chalcogenide Nanoparticles and Spray Deposition of Precursor Films
• U.S. Patent 7,067,850 - Stacked Switchable Element and Diode
Combination
• U.S. Patent 5,384,653 - Stand-Alone Photovoltaic (PV) Powered
Electrochromic Window
• U.S. Patent 4,963,949 - Substrate Structures for InP-Based Devices
• U.S. Patent 5,785,769 - Substrate for Thin Silicon Solar Cells
• U.S. Patent 5,401,331 - Substrate for Thin Silicon Solar Cells
• U.S. Patent 5,581,346 - System for Characterizing Semiconductor
Materials and Photovoltaic Device
• U.S. Patent 5,757,474 - System for Charactrizing Semiconductor
Materials and Photovoltaic Devices Through Calibration
• U.S. Patent 5,588,995 - System for Monitoring the Growth of
Crystalline Films on Stationary Substrates
• U.S. Patent 6,221,495 - Thin Transparent Conducting Films of
Cadmium Stannate
• U.S. Patent 7,053,294 - Thin-Film Solar Cell Fabricated on a
Flexible Metallic Substrate
• U.S. Patent 7,109,818 - Tunable Circuit for Tunable Capacitor
Devices

88
• U.S. Patent 5,166,761 - Tunnel-Junction Multiple Wavelength
Light-Emitting Diodes
• U.S. Patent 5,747,099 - Two Chamber Reaction Furnace
• U.S. Patent 6,820,509 - Ultra-Accelerated Natural Sunlight
Exposure Testing Facilities
• U.S. Patent 5,909,632 - Use of Separate ZnTe Interface Layers to
Form OHMIC Contacts to p-CdTe Films
• U.S. Patent 5,712,187 - Variable Temperature Semiconductor Film
Deposition
• U.S. Patent 5,882,412 - Vertical Two Chamber Reaction Furnace
• U.S. Patent 7,095,050 - Voltage-Matched, Monolithic, Multi-Band-
Gap Devices
• U.S. Patent 7,095,050 - Voltage-Matched, Monolithic, Multi-Band-
Gap Devices
• U.S. Patent 7,238,912 - Wafer Characteristics via Reflectometry and
Wafer Processing Apparatus and Method
• U.S. Patent 7,179,677 - ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se, Solar Cells Prepared by
Vapor Phase Zn Doping

89
90
91
92
hi
min solar energy group

The Iimin Solar Energy Group Solar Energy, Ltd Dezhou Chaina, founded in
1995, is a large private limited liability company integrating R & D,
manufacturer and marketing. The company has approx. 330ha area of land,
4,000 staff members operating Dezhou and more than 50,000 workers
nationally. According to statistics from 2004, Himin Group produced 1 million
units / sets the product and became the largest solar energy product
manufacturing base and clean energy supplier in the world. The company was
among the top 30 private companies in terms of taxation, one of the top 5
93
brands of the influence of home appliances throughout the country and the
exclusive "Chinese famous brand" in the solar energy industry was measured
signal of RMB5.1 billion yuan.
The group has dozens of existing and branches in the country and abroad,
such as solar water heater factory, vacuum tubes of plants, plant electronics,
win-pin power savings glass company, solar business, the construction
business section, ECS business services The solar real estate company,
Nanjing Electronic Research Institute, Central Research Institute, Europe R &
D center, etc.
The group has recently launched four national projects under the project 863,
which is nearly 200 patents, established independent intellectual property and
entered into photovoltaics, winpin energy saving glass, building integration of
solar energy and other sectors to produce solar water heater, heating vacuum
collecting tubes, large solar water heating system, Dongguan domestic water
heating center and similar product lines that have won dozens of national
awards.
The Group has invested 1 billion Yuan in the construction of "international
environmental friendly Energy Saving Demonstration Zone" and "Chinese
Solar Energy Demonstration City", the projects are implemented, including
several buildings incorporating solar energy, solar energy park, solar energy
Testing Center, Chinese college renewable resources, solar energy stage, the
solar photovoltaic applications and solar energy museum, etc. After completion
of the project team will become the center of the world solar cooling mode,
power generation, desalination of sea water, photo - thermal and photovoltaic
full recovery, world-class R & D and testing, manufacture and distribution of
scientific publication. In terms of core technology and R & D, the Group has
signed agreements with the Fraunhofer Institute and the University of Sydney
and began regular strategy will Himin R & D public perception of the core.
The Group has granted the title of "key new high-tech enterprise under the
National Programme Lens" and has four national projects within the project
and 863 national allowance with interest. Dr. Zhang Qichu, the "king of film
coating in the world, has participated in Himin Solar let the smooth cooperation
between Himin and the world of technology candidates. The Chinese
Academy of Sciences Laboratory Himin Solar Energy and State of residence
and domicile Environment Engineering Institute established jointly Solar
Architecture Integration Technology Research Institute in Beijing. and called
the first scientific and technical conference which highlighted Himin core
competitiveness. During the 4th China International Exhibition Residence
Industry, Himin solar building heat sink end won the prize technology and
product innovation issued by the Ministry of Public Works, which was the first
product to ever win such a title.
The Chinese Academy of Sciences Himin Solar Energy Laboratory has
successfully performed the experiment of sunlight and solar heat collection
94
and solar energy air-condition introduced three-high "solar core technology is
a world leader in Australia for the production of three high-vacuum tubes (anti-
high temperature, low temperature and high shielding efficiency).

THIN FILM PHOTOVOLTAICS


In recent years, demand is greater than the supply. The major problem has
arisen in the last four years (the inability to obtain sufficient raw material, high
purity silicon) appear to be resolved definitively. Many new units already under
construction worldwide and expected soon surplus of available raw material for
production of photovoltaic. At the same time new technologies (thin film) do
dynamically in the scene, while the prices of photovoltaic following continuous
downward trend. Ap'A what appears from the period 2009-2010 will have
oversupply of products, which will lead to further price reductions and
redeployments in industry (eg through mergers of companies).
EMBASSY OF GREECE IN BEIJING
OFFICE OF FINANCE AND
Commercial

The development of the renewable energy market in China

China is second only to the U.S. largest consumer of electricity, while


celebrating the largest producer / manufacturer of consumer products
worldwide has resulted in consumption of very large amounts of energy as
only the construction sector accounts for 70% of total energy reserves of the
country.
As the coal reserves, the largest worldwide, exhausted under the pressure of
the exponential growth, China puts priority on developing clean energies as
the energy of self-reliance is important, perhaps, a factor may prevail as the
dominant power global economy.
To achieve this goal, China attaches great importance to the gradual self
from conventional energy sources, representing 80% of total energy
production. As it is, now, self-sufficiency and are forced to search for energy
resources in other geographical areas, for example Africa (through mainly
bilateral development cooperation projects and joint agreements, which
provide preferential treatment and oil drilling rights), Middle East, S. America
and Russia (with appropriate economic and trade agreements), China is the
possible greater self-sufficiency the RES
Furthermore, the development of RES consistent with the goal of achieving
safe and sustainable development that does not exhaust the environment and
save natural resources available for other needs, but also enhances the profile
of the country, showing that practical efforts to protect the environment and
combat climate changes.
For these reasons, China is becoming one of the largest worldwide,
95
countries in the RES and development of "green" technologies.
The Chinese government has prioritized the development of the domestic
market "clean" or "green" energy, with the assistance of the New Energy
Chamber of Commerce in China (China New Energy Chamber of Commerce),
as a key institutional factor in this process.
Responsible entity management programs to increase the production of
RES China is the Committee for National Development and Reform (National
Development and Reform Commission), an independent body reporting
directly to the State Council.
The government aims that by 2020 renewables will account for 15% of the
energy balance of the country.

Legal framework for energy

Basic legal foundation for the development and deployment of clean energy is
the Law for RES / Renewable Energy Law (REL), valid from 1/1/2006.
An interesting feature is that it provides for the imposition of penalties for non-
compliance of which will contribute to better implementation.
The main objective of REL is the commercialization of new energy sources,
making them able to compete directly with conventional energy. Specifically,
the REL is designed to create:
- Conditions for development of RES market
- Financial system.
- Demarcation of the boundaries of private and state responsibility programs
RES
The basic principles of REL forms the combination of national and
international practice. In China there are already some cities (such as
Guanzhou) with significant experience in new forms of energy.
However, the experience is relatively small and require the assistance of
countries with a tradition of expertise in specific subject, such as the USA and
European countries.
O REL emphasis on specific training objectives, both at central government
level and at provincial level. These goals should identify prospects - potential
development of renewable energy per province, installation costs, sales prices.
Especially in terms of sales prices, renewable energy has the special feature
that the initial investment cost is high, gradually, however, reduced
manufacturing costs and create economies of scale and, therefore, the prices
should be adjusted accordingly. Furthermore, the REL provides government
financial support for renewable energy is a new form of energy that needs
government boost. In particular, it required special government funds:
development research for the development of New Energy in the border areas
of China, adopting preferential policies to reduce the cost of investment,
measures to encourage entrepreneurship in the energy sector policies
96
removing existing barriers, etc. However, the effective implementation of REL,
required: 12 training texts implementation by relevant Chinese authorities,
which have not yet completed.
- At local government level, introduce necessary legislative framework derived
under REL, which will facilitate the development of RES, as it puts the
necessary mechanisms for simplifying procedures, encouraging the
involvement of non-state actors., evaluating the enforcement activities of REL,
etc.
- Conducting a feasibility study of market and industry RES in the provinces of
China. - Allocation of responsibilities between central government and local
governments.
The REL is considered to be too general and does not contain the required
specific provisions to enable the immediate application. We have possibly
improved in word processing and the Law issue clarifying rules. As China is
still a basic law regulating the issues of development and management of
energy, is expected to be a significant contribution of the adoption of a new
Law on Energy, the process which began in 2006, without, however, has yet to
determine years of its adoption by the National Assembly (National People's
Congress).
Under the draft Law, the term "energy" includes both conventional energy
(fossil fuels like coal and crude oil, natural gas, electricity, hydro, nuclear) and
RES (Solar, wind, geothermal, photovoltaic, etc.). Objectives of the passage of
the Energy Law is to create an effective regulatory framework for the
development, operation and management of various energy sources and
support energy security of China by providing a streamlined system of stable
and inexpensive energy supply. In terms of policies, enact legislation, in
preference:
- The gradual replacement of fossil fuels from RES
- The use of high performance clean energy and low carbon emissions,
replacing high emissions. The draft law provides that the competent body for
the formulation of national energy strategy as the Council of State, in the long
term 20-30 years, adjusted for energy policy every five years depending on the
developments and needs of the country, while main body of the national
energy policy and market regulation RES the National Energy Authority.
Although not yet adopted the new Law on Energy, National Energy Authority
was established by the State Council, in July 2008. The draft Law also
provides for the establishment of independent province by Departments on
energy, which under the Local Government on the management of energy
issues at the local level. Because the area of energy is of paramount
importance to national interests and security for government control of "key
areas of energy," without specifying further term. In practice, government
control is:
- Approval by the National Energy Authority business plans (projects) on
97
development and exploitation of energy sources that are considered essential
to the national security, such as oil, natural gas, nuclear
- Especially for the construction and operation of nuclear power stations, the
approval of the State Council
- Projects involving the development and operation of hydro and ocean energy
must be approved by the National Energy Authority at the central level and
local authorities operations scheduled to be established at provincial level
- Projects involving the development and exploitation of solar, wind or bio-
energy must be approved by the Local Authorities Energy is expected to be
established at provincial level.
Moreover, foreign investment in the energy sector are subject to restrictions
as government control, participation of Chinese partner (the required type of
company is typically the Joint Shareholders Company), special permits, etc.
The vote in the Energy Act provides for a comprehensive guide to foreign
investment in the energy sector, which should indicate the favorable policies to
encourage foreign investment in clean energy.

INTERNATIONAL PV market
With unprecedented growth driven by the global photovoltaic market in recent
years, particularly through the programs of three countries that are the
barometer for the development of this technology: Germany, Japan and the
U.S.. New dynamic players such as China and Spain are currently entering the
game, with new production units and comprehensive measures to support and
encourage
solar electricity. For the sixth consecutive year, the international photovoltaic
industry shows growth rates close to 50%, showing that development is not a
cyclical event, but a substantial progress fueled by generous aid policies of the
produced solar electricity. In 2005, the photovoltaic industry had an increase of
44% of volume sales, 50% to 149% revenue and profits. The demand today is
more than twice the
supply. The major problem has arisen in the last two years (the inability to
obtain sufficient raw material, high purity silicon) seems to be finally settled.
Many new units already under construction worldwide and at the end of 2008,
quadrupling the available raw material for production of photovoltaic. From that
year estimated that prices will get back something like the traditional case for
decades (and not applied the last two years due to lack of sufficient stock).
The following table summarizes the expected trends in 2010 (Photon
Consulting, September 2007).

Prospects of the Photovoltaic Industry


2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Production (GW) 2,6 4,0 6,1 10,2 15,1
Annual growth rate
98
58% 53% 54% 66% 48%
Mean installed system (€ / W)
6.0 5.8 5.4 5.1 4.8
At the level of installed systems, Germany has by far the lead (having installed
a total of 3.063 MWp, of which 1.153 MWp in 2006), while that for the
production of photovoltaic, Japan, China and Germany have by far the first
positions. In two or three years especially, it is estimated that China has won
half the world market.
This year the Chinese dragon
For many years, the dominance of Japanese companies in the construction
PV was unquestionable, having held u945 more than half the world market.
The rule was challenged strongly in 2006 by the new rising power in the
construction of photovoltaic which is none other than China. The Chinese
industry is growing at rates close to 50% annually and in 2006 passed in first
position with respect to construction of photovoltaic modules, leaving the
Japanese and Germans also rising.
Photovoltaic Thin Film

Photovoltaic Thin Film at home


What many do not know is that solar panel production plant with this
technology built in Ellada.grigores, clear procedures in all our dealings. It is
wrong and the incompetence of some interest to delay and turned back across
the country.
NEXT SOLAR: Solar Panel Production of Thin Film in Greece
H Next Solar, newly established Greek company producing solar panels,
announces the construction of its first factory to produce solar panel
technology thin film. The Oerlikon Solar will deliver the production line on
turnkey basis for this year. The production line ... Contact: Granicus 7 151 25
Maroussi - Athens Greece Tel: 210/6106767 Fax: 210/6106717
Website: www.theprteam.gr Email: info@theprteam.gr
Photovoltaic production plant in the Next Solar Tripoli
http://www.eurocharity.org/article.php?article_id=3350
Production
In full swing at the Next Solar plans to construct plant solar panel thin film
technology in Tripoli. Key shareholders of Next Solar is the American fund
Plainfield Asset Management, the Sciens (Piraeus Bank) and businessman C.
freckles. According to plan the annual production capacity of new plant being
built in Tripoli Industrial Zone will be 60 MWp (2010). although in principle
would be 30 MW. Work progressing normally provided in the program and the
plant will begin operations next April. The construction of the plant will cost 180
million and funded entirely by private funds but has been done and for funding
from the Development Act (for 21% of the project). The plant was constructed
in the industrial area of Tripoli and is expected to reach full capacity of 60MW
by 2010. Then we produced 500 thousand panels, while the expected turnover
99
will be 140 million. The plant will produce in Tripoli panel technology, thin film,
which is growing rapidly worldwide with great benefit to have lower costs as it
uses much smaller quantities of polysilicon in contrast to the crystalline panels.
Today, thin film technology accounted for 10% of world production PV panels,
and within the next three to five years ananmenetai to reach 20 to 30%. The
solar panels will be produced with the technology company Oerlikon
(micromorph technology). The plant will have a fully automated production line
that uses glass as raw material (130cm x 110cm) and produces a complete
solar panel technology Plasma Enchased Chemical Vapor Deposition
(PECVD) where two layers of silicon (micromorph and aC) deposited in
plasma environment. Important role played by the cleanliness of the
production site (number and particle size, temperature and humidity).

I thought the PV panels are fragile and glass


Consumers no longer need to rely solely on hard, heavy, fragile solar panels.
The solar panel thin film coating (thin film technology) consisting of micro-solar
cells. The panels are lightweight, flexible and very powerful. It is the most
advanced solar technology available today. The panels are waterproof and will
not create noise or heat. Once exposed to the sun produce energy.
Technology thin film CIGS - What is it?
The cells thin film coating (thin film cells) is 100 times thinner and lighter than
the conventional silicon cells. Because they require less semiconductor
material than other solar cells, can produce many more cells thin coating with
less money. But the cells thin film coatings have a much more complex
structure and is more difficult to manufacture - so that's why the world is just
beginning to see products with cells thin film coating to the market. The CIGS
stands for Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide. This revolutionary technology
used by NASA and the military thanks to the great strength of the panel.
Thanks to technology, CIGS panels and can produce more energy than the
same amount of sunshine than other PV thin film technology and therefore
have greater efficiency. Also, the efficiency remains unchanged over time.
"Charge" to ... power of the sun ... Wherever you are, wherever you go! Now
with the new, revolutionary solar products have never been so easy to have all
your electronic devices charged (mobile, iPod, GPS, MP3 player, digital
camera, PDA, etc.). Prosferoumei a series of solar products designed to help
the modern ecological awareness of people do not ever run out of energy!
Whether for business or daily for a long trip, these products promise to keep
your devices charged turning quietly and safely clean and free solar energy
into electricity

100
Ηλιακός χαρτοφύλακας
JUICE BAG ES300 - Ηλιακό σακίδιο
MESSENGER πλάτης JUICE Ηλιακό σακίδιο
BAG ES100 - JUICE BAG ES200 -
209.00€ DAYPACK
BACK PACK
229.00€ 189.00€

The Power pockets are ideal for portable solar power for all the needs of
outdoor activities. Built with technology thin film, providing an excellent
solution for excursions, hiking, camping, outdoor sports and outdoor activities
requiring lightweight and flexible portable energy in life. With Power Pocket
charge the batteries your electronic pocket devices: mobile phones, PDA /
Smart Phones, MP3/MP4, iPod, game consoles, digital cameras ... wherever
you are! Keep one in the glove box of your car, put it on Fri-Bruges and keep
the battery charged when your car is immobilized for long periods. The uses
are endless! Folded fit comfortably in your purse or your jacket! The Power
Pocket of 6,5 W is the lightest in its class weighing just 200g while the 12W
Power Pocket weighs only 360gr!

Power Pocket 6.5W Power Pocket 12W


129.00€ 119.00€ 229.00€ 190.00€

The Autonomous Solar Kit is a complete energy system offered ready with
instructions in Greek and requires no installation expertise, easily placed
anywhere thanks to the clever construction and can be applied anywhere
where you want. It is very easy to install - each kit includes photovoltaic
101
panels, a charge controller, two to six fluorescent fixtures * light flashes,
night rectifier for radio *, converter voltage 220 Volt devices * (eg television),
cable connector for charging mobile, all cables, accessories and installation
instructions. The user only has to buy and add to the system one or more
batteries (depending on the Kit).
Is the solution to provide the basic functioning of electricity in houses,
warehouses, garages, agriculture and animal husbandry facilities, etc. the
power of the sun.

SOLAR KIT SOLAR KIT


219.00€ 200.00€ 329.00€ 300.00€
Διάφορα χρήσιμα αξεσουάρ που έρχονται να συμπληρώσουν την γκάμα ηλιακών
προϊόντων της SOLARTEC.

Ηλιακή μπαταρία Ηλιακή λάμπα


129.00€ 110.00€ 66.00€ 60.00€

Photovoltaics even though they are the cleanest source of energy today, are a
major obstacle to overcome. Their performance on the percentage of solar

102
radiation can convert into electricity. Current photovoltaic traded have a yield
of between 13-15% approximately. Although significant progress compared to
photovoltaics, which were built 60 years ago (which had just touched yield 6%)
still have not managed to get the maximum efficiency.
To date, many attempts have been made to increase performance to become
a profitable and reliable energy source. Therefore tested various materials and
methods that each element can receive as much as possible sunlight, and
materials that reduce resistance to the transfer of power produced to raise as
much as possible performance. Also made considerable efforts to reduce the
cost of solar to become more accessible to the public.
The UNSW ARC Photovoltaic Centre of Excellence managed to "win" the title
for more efficient solar cell, through the revision of international standards
against which measured the performance of photovoltaics. An understanding
of the weather, and change the colors contained in the spectrum of solar light
during the day, led to a climate model which is an assessment of the cell,
changing both the yield up to now had several companies .
The most favored of all came the UNSW ARC Photovoltaic Centre of
Excellence and this reason that, the cells that produce absorb more light in the
range of blue (which makes more energy content than the other colors of the
spectrum), which according new standards gives a stunning performance of
25%. The yield is really high as it is 6% above the most efficient photovoltaic
today closer than anyone on the threshold of 29% which is the theoretical
maximum of classical photovoltaic silicon. All companies that manufacture
solar panels increased the performance (due to new calibration) but not so
much. Besides the high efficiency of the blue, something similar happens with
the red, but the company needs to develop different techniques to try to
exploit. The company plans to promote directly the photovoltaic market in the
first embodiment after further improvements. The development of photovoltaic
systems to have higher returns, it is necessary nevertheless be combined with
a reliable and relatively inexpensive method of storing excess energy so they
can give energy and night. This would increase their efficiency and
simultaneously made them widely accepted since it might be based there for
the exclusive supply of electric power. So far there have been some
remarkable efforts to save energy from the sun but still a long time to be able
to provide a comprehensive and affordable solution.
About Nanosolar reveals the machine that prints solar.
103
7 months ago here in Medgreece, we had mentioned a company that was to
revolutionize the field of photovoltaics. Then we wrote that the company had
as its goal the following year (ie year) progressed to a larger production. And
finally happened. The Nanosolar has a machine built, which can and prints
(looks like the printing presses that print newspapers), about 30-33 meters
with flexible solar panels per minute. Innovation is the largest field of
photovoltaics is one of the most important steps in the production of cheap
panels, flexible, economical and great posotita.Ta Panel Nasnosolar
economically because instead of using silicon using a mixture of other
materials with which produce a light-sensitive "ink", and "printed on the foil
from the printing machine. The innovation of Nanosolar awarded by Popular
Science magazine as the green innovation chronias.Symfona the company
printing the rate may increase more than 30 meters per minute.
What is the goal of the company? To construct solar panels, which have cost
under $ 3 per W, and be able to invest them with the exterior surfaces of
buildings and homes in order to operate the building to allow more solar
energy. Important advantage: the PV will be virtually invisible, unlike now, and
very oikonomikotera.Parakato, you can see a video machine that prints solar
panels, which cost more than 1.5 million dollars ....
Artificial islands of power to solve the energy problem.
With the pace of ever-increasing energy consumption in the world, the
resources have started running out (oil and fossil fuels in general), which
inevitably leads to higher prices and difficult problems solved. The Western
world is the growing appetite for energy slowly drains the planet and the future
seems rosy, unfortunately. The only solution then is to turn human energy
which is (as we regard them) renewable. Solar, wind, energy from the waves,
geothermal, etc. The green energy sources are even now remain largely
unexplored, although the technology around them in recent years has made
significant progress even in sources which are not idea that we can take
advantage of before. Hence the idea of artificial islands power. The architect
Dominic Michaelis, his son Alex Michaelin, and Trevor Cooper-Chadwick,
developed an idea to bring various ways of exploiting renewable energy
sources in an artificial island that will operate independently and can produce
up to 250 MW ( !) energy. This technique called OTEC (Ocean Thermal
Energy Conversion) and consists of the use of solar energy, wind energy and
also stored in the waters of the ocean in the form of temperature difference.
104
What does last?
In some areas of the ocean, the temperature difference between sea surface
and the water is deep, it is up to 20 degrees Celsius (about 29 degrees to the
surface and about 5 degrees deep). This temperature difference operating
system. In general the system works as follows: The hot water from the sea
used to heat a quantity of liquid ammonia is in a closed container. Ammonia is
converted into gas and "inflated" by initiating a generator which is beginning to
produce electricity. Then cold water from the depths of the sea used to cool
the ammonia again and the cycle repeated. In this way the artificial islands that
will shape the hexagon (to be connected like cells) will produce energy from
wind, sun and sea. It has been estimated that about 50,000 such islands could
meet the needs of the world's energy, and moreover could be used as
desalination plants, and a byproduct of the process is desalinated water
(drinking). The best (which I left it last) is that the project will be implemented
later this year, the company Virgin Earth Challenge. The whole project except
that it seems feasible (since the technology to implement the already exist),
seems to have a bright future and may be the answer to the energy problem in
the future
Green ... solar plants.
The solar circulating is true that not so attractive in appearance. Of course we
care more than once usually placed on the roof of the house, and give us free
energy. Also, by far the solar circulating (at least most) was flat structures
destined for stable placement. But since the flexible solar panels have
appeared all changed ... The solar panels can now find a bunch of new
applications because of their flexibility. A collaboration between Mitsubishi
Corp. of Tokki Corp. and AIST (Japan's National Institute of Advanced
Industrial Science and Technology) has led to the creation of an organic
photovoltaic minutes which can get that shape you want and cut into that
shape you want. The novelty is that color is green (as opposed to the far solar
which should be dark). These solar panels are intended to be used anywhere
appearance is important. Whether this is a building which decorated with
plants such as the photograph or a piece of clothing to be integrated
photovoltaics. For this reason (because it is intended to be used in places
where it can be easily damaged) manufacturers have overlap with a thin layer
of a plastic which protects it from water, oxygen and other stresses. It is worth
mentioning that each sheet from the "green" plant has an area equal to 7.5
105
square centimeters, which means that only 8 leaves reached 60 cm square
area.
Innovation: artificial "leaves" from an artificial plant, producing electricity.
A few days ago we put a vote Medgreece, to gather views on how you see the
implementation of renewable energy in the future. Among the possible
answers was one that indicated a combination of different sources. Today in
this article we present a new approach to energy production from renewable
sources. And what they could do better, apart from something that is inspired
by nature itself? Those who see in the picture and look like little pieces of
paper glued to the table is GROW. What is this? It is a breakthrough in
renewable energy sources, which owes its paternity to a group of designers
named SMIT (Sustainably Minded Interactive Technology). It consists of
several small solar panels, which are pliable and lightweight. The panels are
held in place by an artificial "stalk" (one from a distance on a building like ivy
leaves. They can cover large areas of a building, feeding it with power from the
sun without the heavy, bulky solar panels that we knew until now. As the wind
blows, the "leaves" and swing through small piezoelectric generators situated
at the base of the stems produce energy from wind. It is a structure which
combines both energies in harmony, without the use of wind turbines and solar
panels that are as awkward constructions. sygkkrimeno Although the Project
has been implemented and operated, we've still got 1-2 years to exit the
market. What struck me out of shape is possible (my thought but I find logic) to
begin to place such "sheets" at home and when you want, without major
expense may extend the area of getting new cards and adding them to the
original system. Also this would be practicable and finally in an apartment if
has a balcony that is orientated towards the sun (again my own thinking, rather
than anything else, I say this not to misinform the reader that words are the
designers).

A hybrid car with powerful batteries for more miles.


In England for some time now tested a new hybrid car (which works with both
electricity and conventional fuels), whose innovation was the new battery
which is powered by the engine. This car has come now after a long time test
and 161,000 km and the results are sufficiently satisfactory. The car name
using the CSIRO battery system which consists of a yperpyknoti a bararia lead
to an integrated system. NIA are the advantages of this new battery that was
tested? This battery:
• lasts longer,
106
• costs less
• is more powerful than the batteries currently used in hybrid
• and most importantly can be charged quickly and efficiently than
conventional.
Indeed the battery lasts (lifetime) 4 times and has 50% more power than
normal.
The profit from the development of batteries used by hybrid cars is that the
improved use less and less conventional fuel which results in fewer
greenhouse gas emissions. So the hybrid becomes more green.
Do not forget to mention the fact that as the batteries in hybrid cars use the
energy lost in braking for example to be charged in this system the battery
faster, taking advantage of better action. This is mentioned in the beginning,
namely that successfully closed 161,000 km of use shows that the battery has
many opportunities. The company thinks in the future to use it in conjunction
with renewable energy, to store the excess energy not used.
Drinking water from the air.
The drinking water today is precious. Old Medgreece in particular, last
November we present invention which operates the condensation to produce
water from air to store it in a tank for further use. The device is manufactured
by the company Klimatec intended to be placed in an enclosed space and not
on the roof of a house (although there is a possibility). The device is called
Klimatec Base 1 AirWater and it looks like the coolant often found in offices
and public places, just missing the pot with water on top. Remarkable is that it
can produce every day until 19 liters of water from the atmosphere of the place
where it is located. Of course, the amount of water collected in connection with
the invention mounted on the roof of the house is much less, but may find
application in many areas and no special facility. The water is passing through
a carbon filter which is committed to retain all of the potential contaminants
present in water concentrates. Then ultraviolet light to disinfect bear killing all
germs, making it safe for immediate use. To understand the process,
something like that you notice when you put on your air conditioner running
during the summer months, and begins to drip water from the hose outside the
house. Basically the air is the air conditioned space passes through the indoor
unit air conditioner which cools and condenses water vapor in the atmosphere,
which then led into the tube to the exterior of your home.
But back to the subject of the article, the device does not stop here. Like all the
coolers of this type can produce not only cold water and hot.
Also includes a small refrigerator where you can put some soft drinks.
Because the process is understandable that requires energy, the company has
built such a machine but can be connected to a solar panel which will supply
the required energy. At present it announced the price of the device, although
judging by the features would be an ideal solution for various public places
such as to provide a stable water without the use of spare bottles and drafts.
Especially if combined with the sunshine of our country could be a greener

107
way of delivering water.
Warm your home yourself without electricity or fuel consumption!
This invention is something that everyone can with little effort to build and
succeed in a cheap heating without being influenced by current or burners. Of
course, the whole construction has some limitations, for example, can yield
only when it is sunny. But here in Greece believe that the sun is not lacking.
The invention therefore operates much like work and the solar water heater
which decorates every terrace house in Greece. It uses a box which means it
has a surface which is black and does not reflect solar radiation (such as solar
water heater), and a fan from a computer which is powered by a small solar
panel. The result according to the inventor, is that cool air enters the box and
heated by the black surface and then blown into the house. According to him
managed to raise the temperature in a room of 12 degrees Celsius to 29 only
with this system, while outside there was a temperature of 10 degrees Celsius
is certainly significant temperature increase achieved. The truth is, however,
that the materials for the construction is nothing exotic, and do not cost much.
The solar panel guess it is more expensive, but 1st) does not need a big one
and it takes only a small fan, and 2nd) he managed to raise the ambient
temperature by several degrees, would actually make extinction soon. This
system is environmentally friendly and economical. The extra good thing is
that can be manufactured in that size we want, but the fact that it works
automatically, ie when it has enough sunshine and of course stops at night
(sadly ....)
Self Powered Furnace Solar Box
(C) G. Forrest Cook 2002
This work can be powered by a solar kit CirKits power circuit.
(Photo 1) Solar furnace installed in an exterior door
(Figure 1) Expanded layout parts
(Photo 3) Warm air exits from the gate at the top
(Photo 2) The fan pushes cold air into the entrance at the bottom.

This project involves the construction of a robust solar box oven (Photo 1).
With the continuous increase in the price of natural gas and heating oil, the
project becomes more attractive. The assembly of the original materials that I
had been going around my workshop. It is suitable for heating up a small room
or detached shed. I use the microwave to heat my garage that needs to chill a
large enough cold sunny days. It is possible to scale this project up to any
size. A longer version of this furnace can be used to add a lot of supplemental
heat a home.
At night, solar furnace will cause heat loss due to downward convection of cold
air inside the box. This inference can be reduced significantly by bringing the
port of entry to the level of the outlet port with a pipe-right corner. SA formed
the passage of air will cause cold air trapped at the bottom of the box at night.

108
Specifications
Rated Voltage: 12VDC
Operating Current: 200MA (depending on the fan)
Heat output: depending on the size of the box, the equivalent of a few hundred
watts when the box is in full sun. Some items such was the solar oven. On a
sunny day with 10 degree C ambient temperature, the furnace was able to
increase the indoor air garage 12 degrees C to 29 ° C. The fan rating air flow
is 30 cubic feet per minute at full speed.

Theory
This is an autonomous and self-powered device. Sun shining black metal
collector plate is absorbed and converted into heat. Sun shines on the solar
panel array powers the blower, which pushes cold air into the bottom frame
(photo 2). The cold air rises as it passes over the plate collector, then the
warmed air exits from the top of the frame (Photo 3). The insulation on the
back of the box prevents the loss of heat from the cold side.
The electronics in this project is quite simple (Figure 2). The array panels
provide enough power to run a 12V fan on the computer. The capacitor
smooths the electrical connection to the fan, so that interruptions to the light
source does not produce sudden changes in engine speed. This should
increase the lifetime of the bearing fan. When there is enough sunlight to heat
the part, there is generally some sunlight to operate the fan. No electrical
controls are necessary. An effective control system fan can be achieved using
a differential temperature control circuit, this would require a solar-charged
12V battery and a charge controller such as PV SCC3. The difference in
temperature control will insure that the fan does not work when the furnace
does not produce useful heat. A big advantage of the system, such that control
may be configured to open when the temperature of the air box is a specific
number of degrees warmer than the room air. This allows the furnace to the air
output is significantly higher than the inside air and the fan only works
intermittantly

Construction
Size depends on the materials you use, consider the space you have to mount
the box and the materials you have at hand. My position is about 2,5 "x 4".
Construct a wooden box out of wood, 2x6, I used a table saw to reduce the 3 /
8 "deep slots near the front edge of the 2x6 box sides. This creates a loophole
for the panel glass to slide into. Screw 2x6 pieces together to form the box.
Surplus shower door, will also make an excellent team of glass as it comes
with an aluminum frame and is made of safety glass. The shower door could
be installed in front of the frame 2x6 and sealed with silicone adhesive. Cut
collection plate to fit inside the box. The collector plate should be about 2
"smaller than the inside of the box, so that air can move up and down and up.

109
(Figure 1) The color should be painted flat black, high temperature stove paint
is a good choice. Paint both sides of the collector plate for best results.
Bend the two metal rods in a square shape of U, should keep the metal
collection plate inside the box, so the collector plate is a vacuum both the front
and back. The U bars should fit comfortably in the sides of the box. I placed
the bar in a vise and hammered two sides of a 90 degree bend. Drill four 5 / 64
"holes in each bar, 2 holes for connecting the collector plate and 2 holes for
screwing the bar inside the frame 2x6. The collector plate is connected to the
bar 4 U sheet metal screws. The bars U attached to the inside of the box with
4 screws 2x6 wood.
A 2x2 framework should be shaped in a double H (Fig. 1), its purpose is to act
as a spacer between the back panel and metal plate collector. Screw the 2x2
part inside the box 2x6. In the original version, my 2x2 part narrower than the
box, to match the slope of the rod ends U.
Cut the metal back panel to fit just inside the box 2x6. Using a jig saw, cut
holes in the top and bottom center of the rear panel metal for the conductors
pass. Screw the back panel metal into the back of the frame 2x2.
Cut fiberglass insulation to fit between the rear panel and metal back of the
box 2x6. Cut holes in the fiberglass for the two conductors. Cut the plywood
back panel to cover the bottom of the box 2x6. Cut holes for the 2 pipes on the
back panel. Fiberglass insulation is harmful to the lungs. The insulation should
either be sealed by the state of the air with a silicone adhesive, or a different
type of solid styrofoam as insulation should be used. Disassemble the frame,
color all the pieces of wood deck water seal type. Clean and paint the plate
collector in the black, let it bake in the sun. Reassemble all the painted parts.
Apply a drop of silicone caulk around the edge of the glass panels to keep
water and cold air from leaking in the box.
Install the 2 metal pipes into the holes on the back of the box. The pipelines
will have to go in the box as the metal back panel. Insert the 12V fan on the
back of the lower pipeline. The pipeline can be cut along with a scrap of tin,
about 1 "deep. The resulting sheets of metal shall be scattered and boring to
match the fan mounting holes. Place the fan at the end of the pipeline.
Launch actions are specific to your installation. I installed the framework for an
external wooden doors and cut holes in the door for the conductors pass.
Insulated ducts should be used if the pipelines must pass through an area of
cool air. Put solar panels on top of the box, or somewhere that it takes lots of
sun through the day. The groups used were surplus amorphous form, I glued
them to a panel board fiber with caulk silicone rubber, and mounted the panel
on the top of the box oven.
A joint VW / Audi battery maintainer solar panel is also suitable for use in this
project. These panels are available on eBay for about $ 20, one or two of them
could work very well for this project. Wire the solar panels parallel to each
other, the fan and the capacitor. All positive results associated with all the
negative leads connected together. Attach the wire crosses of wire nuts.

110
Alignment
The point of the oven with the South if you live in a climate of the North. If you
can, place the box in the corner to face directly toward the sun at midday
during the winter months. In some cases, the vertical mounting position is the
only option, useful heat will be generated as the box is in full sun.
In my installation, the package is mounted vertically and stressed that it is in
the South West. The furnace starts later in the day than if it had been south,
but will rise rapidly and provide more heat later in the day.

Use:
Just let it run, if the sun shines on the box, warm air generated by the top
conductor. I use the microwave to heat my garage through different seasons
cold, warms up nicely an otherwise cool the house. This position can pay for
itself over time by reducing your utility bills and increase comfort.
During the summer months, when extra heat is desired, the front glass of the
solar oven will be covered with a reflective surface such as a piece of plywood
or metal. The cover should be white to reflect the sun. The fan can be
disconnected to save his longevity.

Parts
2x 12V/150ma polysilicon or amorphous solar panels
1x 12VDC 4 "computer fan, about 200MA using the current
1x Finger Guard fan (optional, but recommended)
1x 1000uF 25V electrolytic capacitors
2x wire nuts
10 feet of # 20 stranded wire hookup
1x clear glass, 3 / 8 "tempered glass is recommended
2x6 lumber for the time frame
2x2 lumber for the internal spacer under
plywood or press board for the return
Corrugated steel roofing material
2 pieces of 1 / 8 "x 1 / 2" mild steel bars, spacers fence lines work well.
flat black paint for the team, collector metals, high temperature paint is best
deck water seal type pieces of wood
1 tube of silicone caulk
fiberglass or high temperature solid insulation
2x 8 "long 4" diameter metal pipe
Additional screws

Parts Sources
The mechanical parts can be purchased from a local hardware / building
supply store

111
CirKits Links to Alternative Energy Web Sites

112
Photovoltaics in our homes - 2 Output
Before you begin installation procedures solar house must be wondering why it
wants to install. If the answer is just a profit then it belongs to the long-term
investors. 25000 € investing today to get a total of 15-20 years back their
money plus 5-10000 € after depreciation. If the answer is the environment it is
romantic and rather wealthy and I propose that NATO ykolous more ways to
spend their money green. The correct answer (if any) is for both. Let us see
what to do someone who really cares.

1. Do not rush. Let's get the law, look at the application, let's look at the
incentives just calmly and see.
2. Good market research. Very good market research. Prices play very
carefully and wants to specifications, warranty, warranty conditions, the
uncontrolled costs and who put (inverter, insulation, wiring method, etc.).
Buying over the internet from abroad should not be ruled out if we have
someone to install. But again caution.
3. If you have a house (residence or holiday) congratulations if you have the
surface and the money. If you are building Forget it. Here they can not find the
owners of the gas will come for photovoltaics?
4. Do not think small decay times will promise you a number. We do not know
if and how much will increase the purchase price of the PPC.
5. If you combine investment with other forms of saving. But we must see what
the law include those ..
Photovoltaics in our homes
And suddenly we became Germany. Filled newspapers articles about the new
incentives will the government for the installation of small solar homes and
paperless resale of electricity in the first DEI.As see what the guy says and
then we'll suggest some practical steps in the opinion I akolouthisete.Apo the
Nation: "The new program is for power systems up to 10 KW and a
guaranteed sales price of generated power to the grid at 55 cents / kWh. H
average investment for installing a solar system 5 KW to 80 sq.m . a roof costs
around EUR 25000-27000.
The return on investment for the installation will be done in 7-8 years, but the
parties should, bearing in mind the extra work (eg insulation) and maintenance
costs, to calculate depreciation at 12 to 15 years, according to players market.
Besides, experience in solar buildings shows that periodically needed money
for repairs to roofs due to leakage and must not exclude the possibility serious
damage to the panel in one of the most frequent extreme weather events. You
should also take into account that in the next 25 years the "gap" of the selling
price at the PPC households will ever diminish in relation to the guaranteed
price.
In each case, however, hardly an investor may get lost by installing a small
solar system, however, provide significant gains in the long term. To connect
the PPC will be installed a new clock with a double gauge for measuring the

113
output power and low energy absorbed by the inverter at night and any
accompanying equipment (eg cameras, alarms). H measurement of the
energy is at the same time it's consumed. H statement made by the PPC or
other licensed supplier, which for this purpose acting on behalf of electricity
consumption of the property on credit record.

The schedule of 70 days from the application in production


The cost of installing a photovoltaic system up to 5,000 Euro / KW, the cost of
study at 500-1000 euros, while the cost of other processes between 300-500
euros. The period from application until the operation of the solar system goes
around 70 days.

1. O investor concerned can be updated via Internet from the Ministry of


Development for the construction companies that undertake the design and
installation of the solar system.

2. Following a prepared electrical monorail project, completed technical


brochures, there is an application to the PPC and prepared a technical study.
The cost ranges from 500 to 1,000 euros, according to the company.

3. Katatithetai application to offer local service to connect to a network of PPC.


H service will be answered within 20 days.

4. Series gets the approval of small-scale work by the Town Planning. The
terms will be defined in a circular YPEXODE, but the issue of the approval
should be made in 5 days.

5. Then you need to ensure the financing of investment (through a bank loan).

6. Then followed the completion of the contract application to connect to local


network service of PPC and the implementation of the connection works within
a period of 20 days. The cost for the works (watch the installation of new dual
gauge substantially) ranging from 300 to 500.

7. Oloklironetai install equipment from the engineering company. The cost per
KW to reach 5,000 euros less.

8. Signing the contract of sale with the local office of PPC marketing within 15
days.

9. Energopoieitai the connection from the local service network PPC up to 10


days. "
From the Times: "Production

114
A solar power 1 Kw has a maximum annual production of 1.300 kWh, but that
covers only 1/5- 1 / 3 of current needs in an average household of 4 people in
a house 100 square meters, and the average consumption is estimated at
5.000-7.000 kWh per year. This means that for the average household needs
to be installed plant at least 5 kW, which costs 25,000 euros (only the panel)
and occupies 80 square meters terrace. Theoretically the maximum of which
can yield a revenue of PV power 1 KW to sell at 55 minutes / KWh is 750
euros per year. But PPC will purchase and credit to the consumer-producer
excess electricity will be getting, the difference between output and power
consumption. The difference is credited to the beneficiary and will be paid
through bank accounts. "From the New"

1 which can be installed a photovoltaic?


The program consists of systems to 10 kWp, the roof or roof (including
shelters terrace) building used for housing or housing micro-enterprises. The
program covers the entire territory except for non-interconnected islands with
the mainland system in the country.

2 THAN EVER Can I install it?


Once the joint ministerial decision is expected within 10-15 days.

3 WHO AND CONDITIONS WITH WHAT CAN INSTALL PV?


Right to membership in the program are individuals, not traders and natural or
legal persons traders classified as micro enterprises. In particular, the right
integration are either owners of horizontal properties represented by the
trustee by agreement of all or one of them after the grant of the shared use of
space than others.

4 AMOUNTS ALLOWED BY PHOTOVOLTAICS roof?


A single system.

5 REQUIREMENT FOR LISTING IN THE PROGRAM IS FITTING Solar Water


Heaters?
Yes. The heater system for converting solar radiation into useful heat is an
essential element in improving the energy situation of the building and
therefore its existence would be a prerequisite for the integration of the PV
installation program.

6 HOW being or compliance for all co-owners DD Calling site on a jointly


owned?
Practically unanimous decision of the General Assembly or by written
agreement of all co-owners of the building.

115
7 APARTMENT IN OLD WITHOUT REGULATION, HOW CAN be installed
photovoltaic?
Again practically unanimous decision of the General Assembly or by written
agreement of all co-owners of the building.

8 IF ONE IS LORD OF THE RIGHT TO THE ANOIKODOMISIS DOMATOS


(YPSOUN) may install ONLY the photovoltaic system?
No, because this right does not entail a right of exclusive use of the terrace,
which was reconstructed until the floor above, is jointly-owned and shared.

9 ONE IS THE RIGHT OF THE EXCLUSIVE USE OF TARATSAS. Can I


install ONLY BY THE SYSTEM?
Yes, if not prohibited by express provision of the regulation of the building. In
this case the system will be connected to the counter (clock) PPC home and
the revenue collected by him.

10 WHAT PERMITS ARE REQUIRED AND AMOUNT OF TIME will come


out?
The whole process is very simple. It requires no energy as they leave we have
for the larger stations. To connect the PV and sale of energy, the producer is
addressed in the local electricity, signing a 2 corresponding contracts for the
installation of the meter essentially one for the sale of energy. The Ministry
undertakes the whole process should not exceed 70 days.

11 TAX MATTERS.
The low power photovoltaic ensure that the generated energy equivalent to
that required to meet the energy needs of the owner of the solar system.
Consequently, there are, for the main solar system, tax liabilities for the
disposal of such energy to the grid. The citizen-consumer producer will have
no tax or insurance requirement (open book, invoicing, insurance, etc.) or a
trader or not.

12 Planning: What does work permit SMALL SCALE?


To install a photovoltaic system requires approval out of the small scale within
the meaning of Article 7 paragraph 1 of Law 3212/2003 (Government Gazette
A 308). The conditions of establishment will be defined by a circular of the
Minister of Environment and Public Works.

13 WHAT WILL BE CHARGED BY THE SALE OF POWER?


The guaranteed selling price of electricity announced lepta/kilovatora--55 is the
highest among the countries featured in the photovoltaic market
panefropaikos.

14 THE COST?

116
All costs are included in the so-called cost per installed kW which is about
5,000 per kW (and with good market research can be reduced to 4.000 per
kW). The only costs not included in that amount is the likely cost to insure the
equipment against sabotage, etc. It should be noted that in most cases the
equipment is covered by a guarantee of more than 10 years.

15 CLOCKS PPC: AMOUNTS TO BE SETTING AND WHO WILL PAY?


We installed a new clock with a double gauge for measuring both the output
from the solar energy and the low energy ingested by the inverter at night. The
new clock will be followed by equipment (eg cameras, alarms). The cost borne
by the watch manufacturer as in all cases connection to the electricity network.
Connection costs in most cases does not exceed 500 euros and a small cost
to install solar.

16 YEARS OF AMOUNTS TO THE COST OF MARKET damped-


ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INSTRUMENT photovoltaics?
At approximately 8 to 9 years. In a common type of roof 100 m can be easily
installed on a system of technology such as 5-7 kW polycrystalline silicon and
a less comfortable in the same power, but technology thin film. The cost can
be reduced below the 25,000 to 35,000 euros (5,000 euros / kw) and the
damping is linked to both the price to compensate the energy produced (0,55
EUR / kWh) and the amount of generated power (1 kW generates an average
of 1.300 kWh / year). Furthermore, the required energy consumption of a
household is 5.000-7000 kwh / year, costing 0.12 euro / kwh and produced
energy equivalent to 5-7 kw of PV system. The counting of the energy
produced is done simultaneously with the consumed. The statement made by
the PPC or another licensed supplier. By accounting offset income from
energy production and the cost of energy consumption, the electricity bill to a
credit. "
New investment in renewables
"In 2500 came the investment projects producing electricity from solar panels
to the interconnected islands of the country ca cover the planned capacity of
200 megawatts. Of all the requests, the competent services of the PAE have
so far examined the 1100 and up to 30 September, based on the planning
authority, it is estimated that another 600 will go to the end of the year will
consider all applications. It should be noted that the photovoltaic development
program in the islands does not require large investments to leave, but small
that they fall into the category of "exceptions".

Of the total investment proposals, the lion's share collected by the Crete, in
1300 Applications for investments of 80 kilowatts each. Then followed the
Rhodes with 230 projects for power 100 kW each and Lesvos with 225
investment of 70 kilowatts each. In Kos filed a total of 85 exemptions for power

117
100 kW each and 74 also in Chios same power each. In Kalymnos submitted
27 projects in Leros and 12 for power 100 kW each.

For the circle has not yet advanced applications, while according to
information in photovoltaic development program in non-interconnected
islands are expected to open in the summer.
Since the degree of realization of these investments, but also expected in the
next phases of the development of photovoltaic, will determine the relationship
between the Greek islands with "green energy", since the development of wind
left behind.
Meanwhile, it remains open the installer of photovoltaic roofs, and the
expected legislation be postponed until after the elections. "

It would be nice to be stirring than those who get permits and investments that
ultimately implemented. And after how long after the final authorization ends
lining and falls paradaki for which all the farmers they became "investors".

Photovoltaic Thin Film


In recent years there is much noise on the design of new units of energy and
time required to implement. In advanced countries (Greece is not one of them)
do not require more than 18 months to design and install a large PV plant. A
typical example of the announcement of the company Sempra Energy to
expand the facility from 10 MW to 58 MW. Mallista used photovoltaic minutes
membrane (thin film) new technology although it is less efficient is much
cheaper.

118
In countries like Greece, the debate is not about technology but about
how ladosoume countless departments to get permission in
advance. After that it will sell the license to someone so great
I think it's time to demand from the State prompt, clear
procedures in all our dealings. It is wrong and the incompetence
of some interest to delay and turned back across the country.
The Ai-Stratis will be "green" island
It was unofficially known for 2-3 weeks Ai-Stratis is the first
island to be made-pilot-green. If you hit the "Green Island"
project will follow the Nisyros and Tilos, site works on a
commercial scale, as announced by the Minister of Development
Mr. Hatzidakis.

The energy needs of St. Efstratios currently covered by five


ntizelogennitries PPC, which, when completed works will be held
in reserve and the island will only electrified by wind, solar and
biomass utilization. The plan provides for replacement of the

119
transport of electric bikes and cars. The study of the Santa army
will be completed in May while power generation from renewable
sources will be installed by year's end, even if needed, as Mr
Hatzidakis-regulation to accelerate the procedures. He noted that
since 2004 has tripled the installed capacity of RES plants in the
country, from 430 to 1350 megawatts. The project involves the
PPC, especially with its subsidiary PPC - Renewable Energy,
National Technical University, CRES and University of the
Aegean. Coordinator will be PPC - Renewable. The Ai-Stratis
chosen for pilot implementation of renewable sources for two
reasons: First is a small island with few residents (fewer than
250) and low consumption (the average daily consumption is
1,500 megawatt hours, while the peak is less than 280 kilowatts) .
Second was a place of exile and the government wants to convert
it into a symbol for the new season. So the summer will be the
notices for the next "green islands" on the basis and have
expressed interest by then local Arches.To project cost is
estimated at 10 million and will be covered by the General
Secretariat of Research - Technology.

Comment greek-energy: It is promising that found 10 million


euros for this project through the atmosphere of austerity which
now dominates. The specific choice of Ai Stratis includes but
negatives with positives. In my opinion the choice of such a
small island does not allow the full deployment of a hybrid
system that could be an effective solution for remote islands. The
Ai-Stratis is a low risk option because electricity for 250 people
covered easily with 1-2 and a few solar wind. The evolution of the
program in Nisiro (if ever) will be a crucial moment to
demonstrate the successful operation of an integrated hybrid
system.
Fortunately, not including desalination plants because the focus
of the project would move. One issue that must be met with
solutions from biomass is to use diesel for fishing boats. To
become "green" Ai-Stratis energy balance should cover this area.
Whatever the concerns, however one thing is clear that for
perhaps the first time together in such a project, PPC, local
society and research institutions. The expertise which will
apoktthei eiani valuable and Greek society understand the need
to push for more such programs.
The green revolution in Sicily
Finally, Sicily has not only the mafia but green political will.
Quote from NEWS (19/3/2009)
On Tuesday the Industrial Revolution intend to start from Sicily

120
strong local government and the famous American economist
Jeremy Rifkin. In order to pull the world from the "era of twilight,
as he describes the years that use fossil fuels and nuclear
technology, the Cold War, Rifkin argues that the 5,000,000
inhabitants of Sicily can open a new path based on intense and
small-scale use of renewable energy. The basic idea is that every
consumer of electricity will be simultaneously output via the new
buildings that use renewable sources and is the least intensive.
The new energy plan presented in Sicily at Palermo at the
weekend by Jeremy Rifkin and Raphael Lombardo, powerful and
nationalist governor. The 64chronos Rifkin explained for one
hour at a drift of humanity to the environment if they are directly
katastrofiektos radical changes and adopt programs that use the
sun, wind, waves and biomass and hydrogen to store electricity.
"If you create a self-sufficient energy Sicily, perhaps we can
create a self-contained world," said Rifkin.
Why chosen Sicily? Console Angelo, director of the Foundation
on Economic Trends, which made the Rifkin and headquartered
in Brussels, told the newspaper «Financial Times," appears as
the main reason the sun - "all solar technology companies
consider Sicily as an untapped market that can invest quickly.
The energy plan foresees the investment of $ 5 billion over the
next 5 years, which will come mainly from the European Union.
But if you ask any Sicilian, I will answer: "I will never make them,
ever. It is just words. " And then you lift your shoulders and
added: "The Mafia". Indeed, in a bid to expand its range of
business activities of the Mafia is "green." The police recently
arrested 8 businessmen and local officials were preparing to
"launder" money by building a wind farm. The commander
Lombardo admits that a "green" Mafia is "a risk we face." Sicily,
he adds, "We need a cultural revolution."
"Obama has available, but not design • Europe has a plan, but no
money!"
"Sicily may be the flagship of a new industrial revolution," says
Jeremy Rifkin, American economist and adviser to the European
Commission on energy issues. With the agreement of several
leaders, including German Chancellor Angela Merkel. San
Antonio, Texas, and some cities in Europe say they are close to
adopt his vision, despite that some utilities, but supporters of
Obama's initiative for renewable sources believe that his ideas
have no basis.
Inside the financial crisis, Rifkin fears that governments will
spend a lot of money trying to save "old" industries such as
automakers that produce cars powered by oil and nuclear

121
industry, leaving little investment in new technology. His own
vision of providing sufficient energy buildings, which will sell the
energy they generate back to the main system and contradicts
the idea of big central power plants that collect solar energy and
wind energy, which supports Obama. "Obama is available but
has no plan, while the EU have the plan but the missing money,
"observes.

Comment greek-energy: I do not think now is a feasible plan so


much but some hunting. In Greece we are talking but not doing
much. Of course the lack of money is given but here we lack the
expertise and will be introduced and this. So even a "green"
island of 500 residents is a big deal when it comes to be realized.
Cars with solar panels

Toyota has announced that the next generation Prius car will be optionally
installed on the roof solar panels to be used for the fan that cools the car when
it stopped. So stop the problem of hot entry in the car is parked in the sun.
This discovery is important because it shows us how far we are from the actual
use of solar cars. Even to put a big manufacturer of solar panels on the car will
not be able to raise only 10% of the distance can be traveled without
reloading. And it is doubtful whether consumers want to see the panels
installed.
10 MW PV plant in China
It is the largest unit but no mention about to have the necessary scale size in
mind when he speaks of photovoltaic modules and their cost.
On 20 March the Chinese government will announce which company wins the
tender for the construction of a 10 MW power generation using photovoltaics.

122
The plant will be built in Dunhuang voriodytikis province of Gansu. There were
36 Chinese and German companies 1 1 from Denmark. The cost is estimated
at 500,000,000 Yuan (1 € = 8.85 Yuan) approximately 57.000.000 €. The area
will occupy the new facility is 1,000,000 square meters is 1000 acres and
construction will be completed in 18 months. The energy production is
estimated at 16.37 million kilowatts a year.
Papers on Chinese manufacturers of photovoltaic
According to the latest figures from the manufacturers of photovoltaic panels,
the global economic crisis has already hit the Chinese construction industry.
Of the 350 companies / manufacturers of about 250 (or 70%) have suspended
the construction of new panels. Of course this is not the major players in the
market but for smaller manufacturers based on their competitiveness in cheap
labor alone. Falling paragelion the last 2 months was long enough to cause
this crisis. Of course, serious manufacturers will benefit greatly increase the
market share katechoun.I average price of photovoltaic panels in Europe
during the month of January is 4.61 € / Watt panels for 125 Watt-peak. It is the
third month in a row that the average decline (from 4.72 € / Watt in October).
Power of Wind
So now I knew the battery chargers use a small photovoltaic solar energy. But
now that the wind was in fashion and began diaofores companies putting out
products that exploit the need to express the world ecologically. So the
American company K2 is a little time to take off the market a battery charger
and small device that works with solar but also wind. The product costs about
100 dollars.

This summer the islands, and very windy, it will be possible to charge the
gadjet it. Those who go on holiday will be placed under the air conditioner.
Retrieve at least one part of the energy we spend.

123
What investments go in 2009
Energy investments despite the crisis found fertile ground because of the
failure or inability of PPC to launch new investment. Thus:
In thermal power going three major investments and is expected to start even
mias.rokeitai for units of the shape ELPE - Edison - ELLAKTOR the Endesa
Hellas and Terna Gdf Suez. These units are currently undergoing construction
and is expected to be completed either by the end of 2009 or the first half of
2010. While following the green light by the Central Archaeological Council,
due to start, and the fourth unit from Enelco.
2) Renewable Energy:
a) Wind Energy: Selected investments made or planned in the area of
renewable energy is the park ELLAKTOR Kefalonia power 27-28MW, the
expansion of the park's Edf also Kefalonia from 30 to 40MW, but expansion of
the park by the Panachaikon 35 to 50MW.

b) Photovoltaics: already implemented or planned projects in 2009 by several


groups: the Renewable Electricity in Megalopolis, the Rokas in Tripoli,
Selected in Thessaly, TEKOM (Theocarakis), Volos, Austrian Energa the
material is some of the plans expected to implement or operate from 2009.

The owners go and cover the absence of the state. At what cost to the
Greeks?
Posted on Energy at 8:00 PM 0 comments
Tags wind farms, renewable energy, electric power, gas, solar
Happy New Year with good news for those in the solar
2009 will be a very good year for those who want to install photovoltaic
systems. The solar industry will become a victim of its success. Sales growth
has led to a plethora ASH & oversupply of photovoltaic production. While
demand will reach 2009, 4.2 GW (from 3.8 in 2008) production capacity will
reach 11.1 GW from 7.7 GW to 2008. To 2008 production has already
exceeded the demand, but in 2009 this oversupply is expected to drop prices
by 4.20 $ / MW is currently at around 2.50-2.75 $ / MW while the average price
this year will fall to 3.10 $ / MW. Prices will begin to return, the end of 2010.
Falling prices will push too many producers, while not impossible to stop the
production of some manufacturers primarily in China and Taiwan. On the other
hand is expected to increase significantly and the demand for new facilities.
Figures from the company iSupply.

124
The largest photovoltaic thin film plant in USA

About First Solar completed installation of the largest solar module thin film
(Aniline Point) in America for the company Sempra Generation. The
installation of 10 MW size built in Nevada (Boulder City) next to a factory
producing electricity from natural gas from Sempra Generation. The latter
intends to grow the facility to 60 MW. The unit now starts the operation of
generating 23 GW-hours per year. The facility consists of 167,000 solar
modules.

125
New permits for photovoltaic
According to the newspaper "Times", the Energy Regulatory
Authority (RAE) has issued permits authorized thus far electricity
production from photovoltaic stations, total capacity 400 MW in
total claims that exceed a force of 3.500 MW, adding that he
recently completed evaluation requests for the installation of
small photovoltaic Crete, less than 150 KW: H RAE 1300 granted
exemption permits to install solar panels on the island the total
power 105 MW. As we know, by 2020 20% of energy consumption
should come from renewable sources, according to the plan in
Brussels. Recently renewed this commitment diavevevaioseis of
the European Commission that will be affected by food crops to
produce energy crops and biofuel production should be done by
first lignocellulosic yles.Mechri now produce electricity from
renewable sources have been permits for facilities total power
7.465 MW. H overwhelming majority for wind farms have not been
implemented because currently in operation is about 1.000MW by
wind. Much of permits for projects that have implemented risk
revoked. The Regulatory Authority for Energy has withdrawn
production licenses currently in effect for 668 MW.
Solar project in Greece CPV technology

126
The system SF-1100S-CPV

These days, Greece has shown in international media about the events and
losses and the negative impact of economic crisis. A news report released
yesterday makes us think a bit positive and hope for the future. The first solar
project in Greece using the technology of radiation concentrated photovoltaics
(CPV) cause the company SolFocus and Samara group, as indicated in a
statement the two groups. Because of this project, SolFocus will expand its
operations in Europe, which are based in Madrid, creating a subsidiary in
Greece. Creating multiple facilities, the overall systems development of
SolFocus will have a total capacity of 1.6 megawatts of power (MWp). The
system SF-1100S, which was implemented recently have frameworks with
unprecedented efficiency to 25%, which is the highest efficiency photovoltaic
systems in use today. During the first year of production, the entire plant has
the capacity to meet the energy demands of a small town about 2,500
residents, while avoiding the emission of 2800 tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2).
The installation of the systems will begin in spring 2009 and the first power
generation until the summer of that year. The design of the SolFocus CPV
system uses a reflective surface to collect sunlight for 500 small but highly
efficient solar cells. The system SolFocus 1100S uses about one-thousandth
of the active, expensive solar cell material, compared to traditional photovoltaic
systems. Moreover, the cells used in the system (CPV) of SolFocus has twice
the performance compared to traditional silicon cells. On a sunny country like
Greece, this scale efficiency translates into very high energy, which will
accelerate the progress of solar energy equation with energy produced by
fossil fuels. The SolFocus completes the modules concentrated radiation
(CPV) with advanced tracking solar position, continuously aligns the provision
of frameworks to direct sunlight throughout the course of the day. The
127
possibility of accurate solar tracking system SolFocus 1100S, leading to
energy production to meet the ideal peak demand periods such as summer
afternoon. The partnership follows the announcement of such cooperation with
SolFocus EMPE Solar, which provides for implementation of that technology
development and deployment of total power 10 MW in Spain and is expected
to be the largest installation of photovoltaic systems concentrated radiation
(CPV) in Europe. The parameters that determine the time interval is large
(amount of investment, location, technology, etc.). The data in Table
roerchontai study by Stanford professor, Mark Jacobsen.

128
It should be noted that according to the study, these data apply to major
countries (U.S., Germany, Japan). In Greece, must add one plus years
and has to deal with incompetence, indifference and corruption of the
Greek government.
Market Share of Photovoltaic Companies
The diagram below fainetia market share of leading manufacturers of
photovoltaic cells in 2007. As can be seen from the market is not
monopolized by a manufacturer, but many smaller companies that
129
occupy 40% of the market.

Photovoltaics worldwide
The diagram below shows the evolution of installed systems worldwide
sfotovoltaikon. How to develop the path of - is really expensive - solar
amid financial crisis is unknown.

Many talk about reducing the growth of systems especially if oil prices
fall further. My personal opinion is that decisions at the global level have
been taken long ago. The world wants to leave the oil and dirty energy
sources to check a few and gain even less. Whether it is the solar
solution and think especially if the price is not reduced or increased
performance. But this like many others was a way forward and should
not bedefomaste by economic crisis or the oil price fluctuations. To
recall only the very oldest statements of former oil minister of Saudi
Arabia: 'The Stone Age did not come to an end because we had a lack of
stones, and the oil age will not come to an end because we have a lack
of oil . ' (Ahmed Zaki Yamani) Despite the economic crisis but the U.S.
has new financial incentives and tax breaks for renewable energy. The
encouragement of their use should be systematic here.
European record for solar efficiency
The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE) in Freiburg,
Germany, has achieved a new European record efficiency solar cells,
39.7% (very close to world record 40.8% reached in August by the
National Renewable Energy Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy). The
previous European record was 37.6% of its own since July.

The photovoltaic material is, like the U.S., triple link (triple junction) and
the structure consists of more than 30 layers (including Ga0.35In0.65P,
Ga0.83In0.17As and Ge) deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor
deposition vapor (metal-organic chemical vapor deposition OCVD) on a
substrate Germaniou.Ta results obtained from the European Programme
Fullspectrum.Prepei be noted that these returns are measured in ideal
conditions but on the continuous record showing the progress on the
field.

Photovoltaic panels 90 or 140 Watt / p DIY solar at half the cost!


Here we present the construction of a solar panel 90 Watt / p (cell size
125Ch125mm) or 140 Watt / p (cell size 156Ch156mm). Such a
photovoltaic generating from 500 KWh to 800 KWh per day or 20 έως 30
130
KWh per month in summer and 12-18 KWh per month at a mean winter.
We are able to provide the energy required per day for lighting in areas
3-4 4-5 hours, a 21 "TV for 3-5 hours, the laptop for 3-5 hours, charging
mobile phones, other gadgets, fan etc. ! If you build it ourselves, we can
win up to 400 million compared with the ready to purchase! For starters
let's see in detail all the materials you will need to build the solar
collector. At the end of this article there link to a page with videos of
construction:
The PV-modules:
The main part of a solar collector (panel) is of course the individual
small photovoltaic (or solar cells) which collect sunlight and convert it
into electricity. The PV data we use here is very high performance
crystalline (approximately 15%). Each photovoltaic element gives
approximately 0,6 volt and a little more than 2,5 Watt and the
125Ch125mm the 156Ch156mm 4,0 Watt. The photograph depicts a
polycrystalline PV element. The rule in the solar panel is to have 36 such
items, with a minimum of 32 or 33 points. So, linking 36 such cells in
series have exit 36 X 0,6 V = 21,6 Volt. The upper side of the PV element
with shades of blue (the front, is shown in the picture) is negative and
the bottom (behind the gray side is not shown) positive. Over in each
cell there are "guides" two minute ride on which we stick to the specific
cable (flat kalodiotainies) interface electric soldering iron 40 έως 60
Watt. The kalodiotainia already impregnated and does not need well.
The kalodiotainia interface:
The cable mentioned in the previous paragraph is a special kalodiotainia
(plywood) already impregnated and you do not stick well to the top and
bottom of the photovoltaic cells. As mentioned above in each cell are
two minute ride on which we stick to kalodiotainia electric soldering iron
40 έως 60 Watt. A slow transition with a slight pressure is sufficient.
The PV module or modules:
That is, the "frame" within which we will post (to stick with a little glue)
lines with the solar cells described above. Here we will follow the
solution yourself. Not only is it cheaper option as it would cost about 40-
50 euros, but as the satisfaction of "Do it yourself" is indescribable (like
the ... admiration of others who will see the final result: "Not only can
you manufactured I)! In the photo below appears ready (after assembly),
the panel constructed and will stick to the PV cells that we saw above.
Summary:
In summary therefore, the materials we need are:
1. 36 PV-modules
2. 20m kalodiotainia
3. Glass or plexiglass UV 5mm in dimensions that we want to back frame
and glass or plexiglass UV 3mm thick on front (same size as the back)
131
4. Silicone insulated perimeter of the frame.
The construction costs of solar collector
Sourced from plants abroad (they do not exist in Greece), relatively
large amounts of PV-modules, because I knew that some can break
during transport. After sorting, the cost came to just under 250 euros for
every 36 cells is needed, along with kalodiotainia.
If a friend wants to create such a panel 140W happy to help.
The cost for the last 4 sets of remains could be 195.00 million for 36 2
cells, about 1.39 per Watt, where the relevant trade panel can be
overcome and 5.00 euro.
Are 20m kalodiotainias to 20.00 euros. Anyone interested friend can
contact me here.
The remaining materials count 30 to 40 euros. Thus, the total cost for
the panel will come out around 250 euros! Not bad, given that market
research I did recently, Panel 150 Watt / p you asked me up to 700 euros,
with an average of 640 euros!
The quality of construction of the panel
Certainly the build quality is not comparable to commercial solar panel,
but it is very good. After all, the price of one can make two panels!
Furthermore, the heart of the panel, namely PV components are the
same used in professional panels and is guaranteed for 25 years.
On the next page begins the construction of solar panels and showing
the first pictures.
>> Next page of manufacturing photovoltaic panels
>> Videos with the construction of the module step by step

Small photovoltaic with 32 euros!


Make yourself a small solar panel for only 32 euros!
I always wanted to have a small solar panel (solar panel) which I take
everywhere with me (in the car, the cottage, the excursion and
elsewhere) in time of need. I decided to construct a small portable solar
panels on my own, with very low cost photovoltaics. To the panel
compact and durable transfer chose solar cells (photovoltaics) in
amorphous silicon, which is already in LENS and ready output cables. It
is very durable (do not break easily) in connection with monocrystalline
or polycrystalline used in larger panels. Also, each provides
approximately 4,5 volt no load, compared with 0,5 volt to give the
crystalline solar cells. This means that I can use only three such cells
connected in series (positive-negative-positive-negative) to succeed
about 12 volt which was my goal for this panel. This means lower cost,
lower surface and ease of manufacture. But because the current pay is
132
about 80mA-90mA, I used two other sets of three elements in parallel
with another line (connecting the negative of the free 3 horizontal lines
between good and free of the same lines between them) to succeed
approximately 250mA.
For the circuit (Figure) and other technical characteristics of these PV
cells (elements), see the page for the construction of a panel 10w / p or
20w / p.
So a total of 9 pieces, total cost of 31.5 million (Euro 3.5 each cell). I
asked to put the package and a measure of material interfaces, although
you could use simple kalodio.laisio could construct from plexiglass, but
I preferred the easy (but functional) solution of a plastic frame ...
24ch20cm! Small size, lightweight and low cost: just 1 to 3 euros,
depending on the frame. To be able to connect various devices,
chargers and rechargeable batteries, used a cigarette lighter plug
adapter as shown in the picture (cost half a euro or electronics store).
Purchased a small cigarette lighter adapter with 12 volt input and output
1,5 - 3,0 - 4,5 - 6,0 - 7,5 - 9,0 - 12,0 volt. The transformer (see photo
below) is the plug that I mentioned just before. So I can connect all kinds
of devices or batteries from 1.5 to 12 volt with no problem.
The first test was during a sunny day in April, at 15:00. The small solar
panel on sunny, empty, with the multimeter to show 12,5 volt and 230
mA! (Update: May at 12:00: 13,2 volt and 260 mA).
After connecting the adapter to the small solar panel, the multimeter
showed 12.5 12,0 volt. Perfect! Certainly the summer months the price
will be slightly better, but so is a joy! Besides more than 15 volt will have
a problem converter. The first practical use was to charge my phone
using the car charger and the second to charge some rechargeable
batteries. The next move will be to use solar panels in the notebook
(laptop). This will tell unlimited (almost) independent!
Possible improvements of photovoltaic modules:
I could use many other sets of three photovoltaic cells to several mA,
growing up just the size of solar panels. For example, with 9 other solar
cells, the flow would reach 540mA at 12 volt. Or I could do it and
kneeling on an even smaller size!
Note: This panel can charge batteries up to 9V. The 12voltes battery
charging voltage roughly want more than 14V under load. So they want
a panel with 5 cells in series instead of 3 cells as shown here. But we
can operate directly from a device 12V, provided they do not have large
power requirements (amps), eg a radio or a fan 12V.Kalo I would be
stuck in the positive power output and a diode (from the electronics
store half a million), not to return power from the battery to the panel
when it is sunny.
How to easily fix yourself a portable electric generator
133
Generator of solar energy - without fuel and Quiet!
The following small photovoltaic systems for use in a caravan, a remote
area where no power supply, board, etc. Even in our house for a power
failure.

The solar generator consists of a small solar panel 10 watt / p, which


charges a battery enclosed 12v and 18Ah. It could get greater battery. To
move easily, I got a suitcase and tools located in the battery, the inverter
and battery.
Above the battery have a link inverter 300W that converts DC battery
power into AC 230V. So can power devices 230V. No matter how many
devices to connect simultaneously, provided that they exceed all along
the 300 Watt.
Wiring photovoltaic (PV) system
Here the assembly of PV. The outlet of the inverter (inverter) connected
devices that require 230V.

Observations on the photovoltaic power generator


To charge the battery photovoltaic need 2-3 days in summer and 3-4
days in winter.
As for power failure this time is more than adequate (we have power
cuts every day).
Thus, it can be used much longer battery even though he needs more
days to charge fully. In fact, when it's stop, the battery is full even
though it has a capacity of 100Ah.
The construction cost (at current prices)
• The PV 69 million.
• The charge 23 euros
• The power inverter 300 watt, 37 euros.
Total only EUR 129!
Battery can not put more than 18AI (12V lead, closed). The suitcase and
πολύμπριζα course is optional. The above system works flawlessly and
only with the solar panel, charge controller, battery and inverter 230V.
Testing the system
I tried connecting both a TV 21 "(65w), a table lamp (25w) and a radio.
They worked flawlessly for a time took the test, with the small battery of
18Ah was able to give almost another hour of operation before need
recharging.
Applications
This system can be used in a caravan, a remote area has no power,
board, etc. Even in our house for a power failure. With a 20Ah battery
can have power for all of the following even function simultaneously:
1. Lighting in our field (eg 2 lamps economy) for 3-4 hours.
134
2. A small (14 "-21") TV and notebook computer (laptop) for 2 hours in
total.
3. A radio for several hours.
4. Charging mobile phones and other gadgets.
Using as described here, when a battery drain of 20Ah, a photovoltaic
10Wp will need about 3 days to charge fully. As mentioned above,
because it is not intended for everyday use, this space is more than
adequate (we have power cuts every day). Thus, we can put twice and
battery capacity (doubling in this way and more time operating the
equipment).
• solar charger for mobile with 8 million!

Solar energy mobile phone batteries, mp3, ipod. Scenario 1: Imagine you
are lost in a wilderness, and urgently want to contact someone.
The phone does not have signal (I said, is desert). You walk for a
long time until you find one that would have a better signal. And
when you find, finds that mobile phone battery left!
Scenario 2: You're holidays (or work) and see a landscape that you
want to be photographed for long memory (or publication). You
take your digital camera, but disappointed after he discovers that
the battery is pesmeni.Tha could think of other scenarios too, but
there's the issue. Solar charger here present I made for fun and not
get lost in fear no gully and stay out of batteries (cell phone,
flashlight, camera, etc.) is just another great gadget to show my
friends. And who knows, may eventually need it in no blackout
PPC!
The construction of solar photovoltaic charger
It was very easy and does not need many words are clear and the
photos. I used a wallet and two by solar cells (or solar cells) of
amorphous silicon used in the manufacture Make yourself a solar
panel. (Eventually these photovoltaic cells are small miracles of
technology. Always take care to have enough in the cupboard,
because I always run out of ideas for ... gadgets solar energy - and
these cells are suitable for such experiments). Link them together
(positive power of one to the other positive and negative one with
the other negative). Each one gives approximately 4,5 volt and
100mA no load, so this way I have a combination that will finally
give some 3,7 volt and 180mA when connected to a load, eg a
mobile phone with empty battery. That should say to charge
batteries for a while to 3,6 volt (eg 3 AA batteries, AAA, C or D, a
mobile phone battery 3,6 volt, or other device compatible with
these features - radio, mp3 player, ipod-type electronic devices,

135
etc.). I will not charge you, but we do need a load! Stuck on the
cardboard and those stuck on the inside of the wallet. I opened two
holes to discrete output cables so elegant. The cables can be
wrapped in the pouch wallet entering the money. They use all
kinds of plugs. For example, buy a cheap car charger, cut the plug
that goes to the cigarette lighter and connect the bare wires in two
more cables pulling out the charger.
Optional but helpful:
1. A short passage from electronics store, connected to the
positive cable to prevent discharging the battery when there is
sunshine.
2. Little rubber, leather or thick cloth around the solar cells to
come into contact and wear when you close the wallet.
Solar Power: Important notes
To charge a typical mobile phone battery (about 800mAI) just to
make 2-3 calls emergency, enough 15-20 minutes of sunshine.
1. This photovoltaic charger for emergencies and not to fully
charge the battery and every day.
2. Every mobile phone or other device has its own built-in charging
circuit that may not allow direct charging from the solar charger
(you will probably need to get out the battery from the device to
the charge that the solar charger).
Construction costs
1. The purses, 1 million.
2. Two amorphous silicon solar cells, 7 million.
Total 8 million.
Improvements
I could use multiple wallet (credit card) that opens on more levels
(or an oblong piece of leather or cloth) and use 4 or more solar
cells for more Volt or mA (recommended: 8 CIS for 7,4 V and
360mA ) for a complete battery charging mobile, mp3, etc. 2-3
hours. The thick cover of a book and put 4 solar cells on one side
and the same number to another (connected in series in each set
of four cells, while both 4ades between them) in order to build one
- impressive in form and function - Portable foldable solar panel
tabloid, who would be able to charge even 12 volt batteries with
180mA time! Fold panels sold such expensive on the market.
Check this once folded solar panel construction with the new
much stronger monocrystalline cells. Even with such a cell can
you make the above a small solar charger even 5 times stronger! I
recommend for those who are not electronic.
"Projects survival after natural disasters"
Recent years have dramatically increased the factors that can lead
136
to a crisis that will affect a small or large extent how we live, or
even short term:
Environmental degradation, climate change, global warming,
energy crisis, oil prices, asymmetric threats, terrorism,
earthquakes, floods, fires, strikes or any major damage to the
power grid and electricity current it is some of the factors that may
affect the lifestyle to even the very survival of us if we find
unprepared. The recent fires and a few years ago a large
earthquake are two examples of the need to be prepared to face
the consequences following from such disasters. The upcoming
(or already started?) Financial crisis may affect oil, energy,
electricity and elsewhere. Usually, the problems we must face to
do with the stream, drinking water and cooking, lighting,
communications and transport. Under plans survive without power
after natural disasters will be continuously added new articles to
answer exactly these needs. More specifically, how can the solar
electricity from photovoltaics to help in this direction.
Solar electric bicycle!

Το ποδήλατο που δε βαριέσαι ποτέ...

Bike solar electricity! You may have seen and the presentation I made in TV
channels and newspapers. This article describes an easy and economic
transformation of an ordinary bicycle electric bicycle powered by solar energy,
with power from the electricity network, as well as a regular bike. Answers to
the problem of movement where there is no possibility of using other modes
(eg lack of fuel or inaccessible roads).
Here you see how easily converted an ordinary bicycle, as moving as a normal
bicycle, but with electricity as help!
My goal from the outset was not to remove features a bike:
The rider must pedal clicks, otherwise we go to buy a bike ... The solar cycle
will only have to assist the rider to be able to make longer journeys and not
afraid of climbs.
The second objective was to me the electric bike light and beautiful. I think I
got it! You will judge ...
The conversion to electric bike
The conversion to solar electric bike was very easy: buy abroad a ready
conversion kit that includes everything you need:
1. The front wheel in the center who has built a 250W motor that drives the
wheel of electricity (see photo).
2. The regulator controls the speed of the motor, the brake when he isolation,

137
etc., I put a small bag under the saddle.
3. Handles the steering wheel that replaces the bike (the right function as the
"accelerator" to motorbikes to regulate the speed).
4. Brake handles that replaces the bike: When you brake, the motor and
isolate it stops moving the solar bicycle.
As shown in the photographs, the placement of this is easy for someone to
"catch his hands."
Otherwise it could help a cycling.
1. Unscrew the front wheel and said the position of the new wheel that has a
built-in motor.
2. Unscrew the brake handle and said the new ones.
3. Find a convenient spot to place the compact controller (eg a saddle bag or
grilled).
4. We connect all the cables (from the motor, brakes and "throttle ¨) to the
controller, depending on their color (the written instructions were clear and
easy).
Finally, we join the two wires, positive and negative (red and black,
respectively), the control over their respective poles of the batteries located in
a small box behind the grill. The batteries are 12V and three lead 13AI, closed
type, such as those who have bikes. They can be recharged with the charger
from a simple electrical socket PPC, but with solar photovoltaic panels.
Providing range of around 40 km at normal routes with a few climbs and helps
the rider to pedal a bit, especially at the start from zero (because there is
greater power consumption). I could use smaller and lighter batteries (eg
example, 7.5 AH) to half size and varos.I an array of 30 small rechargeable
battery nickel 8a The. As they say with cordless rechargeable vacuum cleaner
and tools (but it is better but quite expensive).
Walking by the solar bike
Anyone who makes a trip once with an electric bike, it never comes back again
in a simple bike ... The feeling is amazing! While you continue to do normal
cycling, not very tired, no sweat, you feel clean and refreshed many kilometers
you did. It is like a motorbike, bicycle remains. Just where did before 5 km 15
now do without thinking, so exercised and more. It's like you have with you a
professional racing cyclist invisible who stands with you pedal! Especially on
climbs is very important. Also, you feel more energetic security. It accelerates
much faster from zero, and develops and higher speeds on the road (up to 35
kilometers per hour straight at light pedal) to adjust to the traffic requirements.
And looking and all amazing! Finally, you have an instrument if necessary, to
move somewhere where there is no other way (for example, inaccessible
roads, fuel shortages, etc.).
The technical characteristics and cost of converting to electric bike
The motor is 36V - 250W and needs no maintenance (it is with permanent
magnets). The 250W is the average power that turns a professional cyclist
138
during a race. The batteries are three 12voltes connected in series (plus to the
other alternately) to give the 36V wants the motor. The capacity should be at
least 7AI to have a range of around 15-20 km a day. I put 13AI, but have more
weight and volume. 7AI with the extra weight the bike is about 12 pounds, but
do not feel as you move. If it was the most expensive nickel, the weight would
be around just 5 pounds. In normal use would be permanently almost 3 years
before needing replacement. The final cost was when I made 377 euros for the
conversion kit (now are a little cheaper). The batteries cost about 15 euros (7.5
AH) and 30 Euros (13AI) each (need three).
Charging by solar energy (photovoltaic)
In my balcony I put 3 small PV of 20 Watt / p. I have taken some steps to wire
the ground and allow the electric bike to charge it after each use. The
photovoltaic panels are quite small so I can get them and me (fit in a large
briefcase). But it is better to get with me if I want security small charger,
despite a large portfolio ...
Can I remove the box with batteries and take it with me to recharge at home
and a wall (or the PV).
To fully charge the batteries enough 7AI 2.5 -3 hours in the charger or a power
breakfast (5-6 hours) the sun. Where it is completely empty. If the trip was our
example only 7-8 km, will take half the time to fully recharge it again. The
electric bicycle requested by the organizers of the exhibition EnergyRes as
one of the main exhibits and the reaction of visitors who tried it was
impressive! In the photo right next to the electric bike in the solar car ...
Solar oven
• The solar oven to cook anything!
• The solar oven: Or else the solar oven. This article describes the easy (and
very popular) build a small solar oven made from wood, which will be able to
cook any meal as a conventional oven, with the difference that it would have
no electricity, only a little sunshine (even in winter)! Moreover, it can convert to
drinking water, water that normally would not be appropriate (even seawater).
Here we see that built a solar oven, that is a very simple and inexpensive
structure which can cook any food or boiling water, only with solar energy and
without electricity. The solar oven is a commercial version and abroad, which
sold for around 200 Euros. Us would cost us less than 30 euros!
The oven can be set at a temperature of 200 degrees Celsius for cooking. But
the food could be cooked and with much lower temperature, just twice a year.
It has been shown that all foods are cooked at temperatures over 100
degrees. The solar oven temperatures from 110-140 degrees, depending on
the sunlight.
How to develop such temperatures, the solar oven?
By leaving the details to be seen, we can say that the solar oven is essentially
an insulated box with glass lid. The solar radiation penetrates the glass and
converted into heat which is trapped within the bulk of the inside of the box,
139
constantly increasing temperature (global warming). In about 45 minutes has
reached 100 degrees, which is the boiling point of water. The solar oven does
not need continuous sunshine: Just the sun appears for 30 minutes every
hour, let there be sunny the rest of the time. Also, the solar oven does not
need high temperatures. You can cook even if the snow settles and the
temperature is 2 degrees. Long as there is sunshine. It is obviously reasonable
to expect that the months of November through February will be fewer suitable
days for the solar oven, than the rest of the year.
What made the solar oven
The construction is very easy, while the cost of materials does not exceed 30
euros. Even under conditions may also be less than 5 Euro!

1. First order from a carpenter finished two wooden boxes as in the photo on
the left. One box should be slightly smaller than the other so that the little box
to fit inside the large, leaving about 3 cm gap from the sides and bottom. This
gap will fill with crumpled pieces of newspaper for insulation.
2. From a glass crafts order a piece of glass thickness 5 mm, with dimensions
such as to cover the entire top of the large external box (like a cap).
3. Cover interior walls of the small box with foil to reflect the light does not
reach directly to the pot cooking on it by the reflection (photo on right). Keep
the glue we use is non-toxic at high temperatures. On the basis of internal
small box, place a piece of sheet metal or dark.
4. Place a tape of foam (like that used for insulation in windows) around the
upper part of the two boxes that touches the glass. Beware of the possible
leakage of air out of little box when mounted on the window.
5. Finally, we make (like a cap) and a reflector made of wood and tin foil,
which reflects more light in the solar oven for even greater efficiency.
A slight tilt toward the sun increases the efficiency. The container must have
lid and made of metal and dark, preferably black. Also, not very big (barely
able to contain the food). If you want an economical and handy solar cooker,
we can use cardboard boxes and instead cap glass, a transparent plastic
sheet oven (sold in supermarkets). The performance and durability of the oven
140
but it will be much lower.
The test of the solar oven
The test was in April with an outside temperature about 23 degrees C and
sunny. The digital thermometer, as shown in the pictures below, shows the
inside of the oven 139 degrees C! The burger was baked well in about 90
minutes, and the sausages that followed! The next day I prepared a steak,
which, because it was quite thick, baked in about 3 hours. General chunks,
potatoes and beans need more time, while the thin pieces of meat, pasta (rice,
pasta in a little water) and vegetables like considerably less time.
Solar air heater - Heating without power!
Solar space heating application - Solar Heater
The construction will show you here, you can warm a room in winter (the days
can be cold but it is sunny, even in part). PV is not suitable for heating a
space, because the conversion of solar energy electricity and then again
convert electrical energy into heat means huge losses, making the solution of
photovoltaic inefficient. Here however, we will convert solar energy directly to
heat, warming the air.
The solar air heater (solar heater) is very easy to manufacture and very cheap!
To me it cost about 30 euros in materials and 2 hours of my time!
This will see here is very small and because of this small area is suitable for a
small space like a small store a small camper, etc. (If you put two such
panels).
Building but in the larger (and / or placing more) and can heat as larger
spaces.
For example, here is a collector is 50cm wide and 100cm in height, is an area
of 0.5 m
A room for example 10 m needs 1 / 5 of the surface collector, ie 2 m solar
collectors like this cooler.
So for an area 10 m will make a solar air heater (collector) with an area four
times greater than 0.5 m, ie a manifold with dimensions 2 m high, 1 meter in
width (2 m).
For a space of 20 sq.m. will make 2 panels 2 feet tall by 1 meter width each.
Construction
As shown in the picture above, we construct (or We order prepared by a
carpenter) a frame the size we want, depending on the square meters that we
want to heat (see above). In front of a glass place (in sticking around with clear
silicone).
The distance from the wood back to the front window should be about 7 cm
per 1 meter of the collector. There will be heated air from the sun. The ratio of
height to width of the collector should be about 2:1. On the back there should
be two openings, one downstairs and one upstairs. Underneath it gets cold
and the air will exit from the top opening heat (hot air is lighter than cold, so it
goes and finds out of the top opening). The next photo shows the exposures. I
141
did at the beginning of the cycle experiment, but it is preferable to a
rectangular shape as in the following
:

The amount of slit inlet and outlet flow is approximately 6 cm on each measure
of the collector. If for example the height of the collector is 2 meters, then each
slot should have a height of about 12 cm and a width approximately the width
of the collector. As said, the hot air will go out with pressure alone, without
using fan from the upper outlet as shown in the representation of napkins I
made the following illustration. The collector is placed outside the wall of the
space we want to heat. Open a hole in the wall which communicates with the
lower opening of the collector and insulate the gaps that there are no leaks.
Or joined with a pipe, thus creating an air duct. From here it gets cold air
space. Do the same for the top opening of the collector and the wall of our
field. From there it will return the heated air is now back inside, warming the.
Designed to prevent the reverse at night and cools the space, hang a thin
plastic sheet on the top exit. Because it is light, the pressure of the hot air
outlet to push so we did not cut off the path of air. At night there is no air
movement, the plastic visor falls and closes the exit. I figured out (with several
complex calculations that are not present), that this structure we achieve
approximately 1.000 BTU per square meter collector. That is, with a collector

142
area of 2 m win every day (from 10:00 to 16:00) over 10.000 BTU in free heat!
4 m win over 20.000 BTU. Not bad ...
And then the benefit is larger if we consider that when you get the sun and turn
on a radiator, stove or electric heater, they will just have to keep an already
warm cozy and not the heat from 13 degrees to 19 (this implies a significant
fuel economy or power).
The solar air heater can reach an area of 13-14 degrees Celsius temperature
of 19-20 degrees Celsius in two hours.
Oi first tests
The first trial began in January, on a sunny day, not exactly but with enough
sun. The outdoor temperature was just above 15 degrees Celsius (digital
thermometer behind the collector shows 18.4 because there the air
temperature is affected by the same collector).
I left the sink for 30 minutes in the sun. With a digital thermometer (and this
DIY) to measure the inlet temperature of cold air and it was 18.4.
Counted immediately after the outlet temperature of hot air was 50.4 degrees
Celsius!
The solar air heater raised the temperature of air in his entire 32 degrees in
seconds!
So even works very efficiently. His performance certainly went a bit after I
hung and stretched a black metal screen (like that put in windows for insects)
into the box and halfway from the back as tzami.Epeidi is black and metal,
heats up and quickly transmits its heat to air passing over and the next as he
goes up to find the exit onto the frame.
Applications
The applications are many: a small scale can heat a small space like a
caravan, a small workshop or garage k.lp.Se large scale, we can imagine the
entire south side of a house "dressed" with such collectors who will give

143
100,000 BTU per day indoors, warming the day and saving fuel in the
afternoon (because when put into operation the heater, the space is already at
room temperature).
Because construction costs are low, the damping is too fast. In terms of
aesthetics, if done right job, the result is beautiful. What appears is a black
glass surface, where it would otherwise appear as the wall behind the glass
panels. There are ways of storing heat supplied by the solar collector. But add
in complexity and will not go into here. Indicative only: The warm air of the
cooler can be directed onto a large diameter column filled with water. The
water will warm up much, but it slowly releases the heat it until late in the
evening after sunset.
Solar garden lights (not only)
That illuminate normal, not like the others ...!
This month I wanted to make solar garden lights! Not like these solar lighting
trade are looking to see if it is lit ...! These trade using one or more led lights
but they are only suitable for decorative lighting, not functional.
The "lights" led have evolved over the years, so I looked for someone who is
strong and with the least possible power consumption.
I ended up in the press led luxeon 1W. One Watt may seem little but is not!
One luxeon led more than 10 times brighter than usual led.
Thus, the brightness of 8 lights will be similar like we had almost 100 of the
simple solar lights!
Such a super-led not just to replace the small led to a typical solar garden
light, why would not it supported the electronic circuit or the battery.
But better! Anyway I do not like the shape and quality of these cheap solar
lighting.
Here we will make a conversion kit that can be put into any luminaire as
normal outdoor lighting powered by the power of PPC.

144
Only with this conversion kit will not need cables to the garden or watch the
installation of electricity, nor would we have monthly bills or will need 2,000
euros for the electrical and material!
It will be a conversion kit that could find application in other uses:
1. Lighting billboard advertising
2. Lights on the balcony
3. Indoor Lighting (warehouse, small room, Light Box, etc).
Construction
The only materials needed are:
1. The powerful luxeon led 1W
2. A three compartment three batteries with rechargeable batteries 2000-
3000mA
3. Two small photovoltaic panelakia almost 6V
4. A bracket of the photovoltaic (I used a wall bracket for a small speaker, but
would do and a simple wooden pasalaki or a small piece of sheet metal)
5. An electronic kyklomataki - night sensor 3,6 V

145
As shown in the photo above, assembly is easy:
1. The two outer wires of the board go in positive and negative terminals of the
battery.
2. The two internal wires of the board go to their respective poles led.
3. The positive and negative power of the photovoltaic go to the respective
poles of the battery to charge it from the sun.
When I say battery, I mean a three compartment three batteries with
rechargeable AA batteries of 1,2 V (with a capacity of at least 2.000AI).
I put them all in a waterproof plastic electrical box, which had opened a small
hole for projecting the photoresists of the electronic circuit board (PCB) and
another one to come out the wires going to the lamp and led to PV.
The board - night sensor, the photoresists understands the darkness to
automatically turn on the lamp. Similarly understands and daylight to turn off
the light.
The sensor night was the hardest part, after the market offered only to 12V,
while the kit needs to 3,6 V. Okay, just looked and found how to convert a
kyklomataki 12V to 3,6 V (once I get some time to convert some friends and
not electronic) ...
The photograph shows the final installation. The box containing the light kit
fastened to the back of the photovoltaic element. The lamp led light coming
into the outer space from a hole that opened at the top, as shown in next photo
(the kit could be put in and the light for not shown). Insulation gaps with
silicone to protect from rain.

His performance is more than adequate, and illuminate for many hours at
night, those were the peak hours of sunshine a day and a bit more!

If that is a summer day saw 6 hours of intense sunshine will glow


for about 8-10 hours a night. The winter count to work for about 6-7
hours a night. The photovoltaic panels instead of inserted at the
top of the lamp could be placed lower, for example based on a
piece of sheet metal in the base of the lamp, or beside the lamp on
a wooden or metal pasalaki.
146
Other uses of lighting kit
As mentioned above, lighting kit can be used elsewhere. With 3 kit
(without natural light metal) placed next to each other on an
elongated plastic, wood or aluminum base, can illuminate an
advertising billboard. With 3 or 4 kits can illuminate even a small
room or store! In the latter case not even need a board-sensor
night, since we can turn on a switch (and thus greatly reducing the
cost).
The cost for the entire lighting kit
7.00 Euros luxeon led
12.00 Euro plate sensor night
28.00 Euro PV
Total 47.00 euros. Other cost me 9.00 euros in outdoor lighting.
With less than 450 euros to say, I'll post 8 solar garden lights that
do work! Solar lights: When and where no electricity or power is
expensive, there is a safety issue. This article describes the
construction of a lighting kit at a very low current (only works with
3 AA batteries of 1,2 V), but which is very light and can be used in
garden lights and elsewhere. Lights automatically sunset and off in
the morning, thus operating without the presence of mas.Enas
would ask an electrician about 2,000 euros, not counting the
electricity bill and the table or the clock, like digging in the
garden. .. I'm good and the environment. And if need be in no
blackout, bring 2-3 of these solar lights in the house ...!
• What do I need solar and what are the prices?
Photovoltaics: prices for all equipment
Also, practical method of calculating consumption and small size
PV system for Spring, Summer and Autumn.
Note: The prices for photovoltaic and other equipment at the end
of this article.
First you must calculate the consumption of each appliance.
Suppose then that we have 3 lamps economy 15W (a 15W energy
saving bulb is equivalent to an incandescent lamp of 60W) and a
TV 14 ".
A 15 watt bulb economy consumes 15 watts per hour. In 4 hours 60
watt / hours (4 hours X 15 watts). Three such lamps 4 hours each
one, using a total of 180 watt / hours (3 lamps x 4 hours x 15
watts). A 14-inch TV consumes about 40 watts an hour, consumes
5 hours, 200 watt / hours (5 hours x 40 watts). Similarly we can
calculate the consumption of other devices and finally aggregate
the consumption to find the total consumption of the system
(consumption of each device is usually printed on some of the
device or on the feeder / transformer). So the bulbs and TV will
147
consume a total of 380 watts / hours each day.
Calculating sized photovoltaic panels
To find the correct size of the required initial solar divide this
number by 5, those conventional and, on average, so the useful
hours of sunshine. So we have about 380 / 5 = 75Wp power
requirement of the photovoltaic (if you want to calculate and
November to February would be dividing by 3).
Calculation size battery (accumulator 12V)
Similarly, to find the right size battery (accumulator 12V), multiply
by 2 the least (to not empty completely each day and reduce the
battery life). So 380CH2 = 800 watt / hours the required capacity of
the battery. Since the battery capacity indicated in Ah (ampere
hours), divide the battery voltage (12 volts): 800/12 = about 65Ah.
The larger this size, the better. We do not use a car battery, but
battery (battery) closed, deep discharge. Finally, increasing the
size of the PV and battery by 25% to predict and losses will
inevitably have the system. This results in PV around 90Wp and
battery over 80Ah.
All this for a photovoltaic system for a day. If we can predict about
2 days of complete cloud almost doubles the size of the PV and
battery reached above.
The inverter (inverter) 220V
If the equipment is our 12 volt to connect on the battery (or
rymthisti charge, if such a possibility). If you want some devices
use 220-volt inverter (inverter) 220V. Its size depends on the total
watts for appliances that operate simultaneously (in mind that
appliances with motors, such as in refrigerators can pull instantly
when booting up to 10 times more watts than the names of so
choose correspondingly large inverter). Inverter are so-called
modified sine and pure sine relatively expensive as PPC (or
higher).
This is a practical method for calculating both small photovoltaic
systems that can make everyone. In older systems, what we have a
professional approach to analytical study.
Photovoltaic systems, photovoltaic systems Prices
Prices for PV systems vary depending on the price list for each
company. In general, however, prices for photovoltaic panels is
one of about 4.5 up to 5.0 per Wp power (eg panel 50Wp 250
million). The acquisition of several panels, and the price falls
below the 4.0 per Wp.
The price of a battery deep discharge is slightly lower than 2.0 per
Ah capacity. So a deep discharge battery (Deep Cycle) 100A
capacity costs around 180 euros.
148
The values of an inverter and a charge controller is considerably
lower than those of solar and battery (battery).
Prices regulators begin charging 25 euros for small panels and can
be overcome and EUR 100 if they are to support more panels.
There are charge controllers with advanced features that costs a
lot more. The price of an inverter 300 Watt modified sine is about
50 euros and a 1.500 Watt about 150 euros (the pure sine inverter
cost 3 to 4 times more). Here we will try to explain in simple words
what are the solar panels, the inverter (inverter) 220V, batteries
(battery) 12V, the charge controller, how do we calculate our needs
in a stream, the required size and connections of PV.
Photovoltaic panels
What is it and how the photovoltaic panels
The main part of a photovoltaic system is naturally photovoltaics.
They consist of a frame (panel) in which solar cells are located (or
cells). The characteristic of the photovoltaic cells that convert
sunlight into electricity. On the back side of solar panels leaving
two wires (positive and negative + -) from where we get electricity

Performance of photovoltaic
Photovoltaic panels convert only a fraction of solar energy into electricity. How
big is this figure depends on the type of photovoltaic cells. The so-called single
crystal components have the greatest return (convert up to 17% of solar
energy into electricity). The polycrystalline data are slightly lower yield (13%
-15%), but cheaper than monocrystalline. There are so-called "amorphous"
consisting of a single area and not interconnected photovoltaic cells as above.
They have a lower yield (5% -10%) but are cheaper. Just need a larger
surface to give the same effect in monocrystalline or polycrystalline solar
panels.
Available solar energy photovoltaic
The sun provides over 1000 Watt per square meter. Thus, a photovoltaic
dimensions one meter width and height of one meter (ie one square meter) will
produce around 160 Watt hour consists of a monocrystalline solar cells, about
140 Watt per hour consists of a polycrystalline solar cells and about 80 Watt
per hour if, for example amorphous silicon.
A photovoltaic rated maximum power 100 Wp output turns around and 20 Volt
5 Ampere (20X5 = 100). We can connect what we photovoltaic panels in
series or parallel, to achieve the supply voltage (volt), amperage (ampere) and
of course the total power (watt) that we have in our system.
Example: connected solar
If we have 10 solar panels power 100Wp each, connected in series will have a
total voltage of about 200V 5A and intensity. Associate will also have overall

149
trend of about 20V and intensity 50a. In both cases, the total capacity is 1.000
Watt / p. That is, 5 hours of intense sunshine a day, will pay 5.000 Watt / hours
per day, or else 5KWh.
Photovoltaic systems connected in series mean when we connect with each
other, connecting the positive power output of one panel to the negative of the
other, that alternatively the + to - etc.
Connected together is when we connect the positive cable to output a panel
with the following positive and negative output cable to the negative the next.
Series is summed only the voltage (the volt), while only the summed intensity
(the ampere).
The photovoltaic panels typically connect in series for higher voltage (volt)
when it comes to syndedethoun to the electricity network. Although intended
for autonomous system with accumulators (batteries), then the required
voltage is dependent on batteries. If the voltage of the batteries is 12V, then
connect the solar parallel (the voltage stays constant and multiply the
Ampere).
Sunlight in Greece
A PV system rated 1 KWp (for example, 10 solar panels 100Wp each) returns
to Greece from about 1.150 KWh (northern Greece) to 1.450 KWh (southern
Greece) year. In Attica, the Cyclades and the Dodecanese islands around the
1.300-1350 KWh. To find the average daily output of a solar panel, we tend to
multiply its rated power for 5.
Thus, a solar panel rated 100Wp, estimated daily take 500Wh (0,5 KWh) on
average. It is obvious that in the summer, the average yield will be higher than
the average production in winter (July or August is almost double than in
December or January)
Battery charge controllers
What is it and how the regulators battery charging
The charge is a simple electronic device to ensure proper charging of the
batteries (battery) of the photovoltaic system. Controls the charging process
and stops charging when it finds that the battery is fully charged. Otherwise
there would be a serious risk of damaging the battery. Since the batteries tend
to be discharged out even if no power to any device, charge controller shall
automatically resume the process of charging the battery if it finds that the
trend has fallen below the level of full load.
Many charge controllers have a slot on the connecting electrical devices that
we want to switch over to battery. So have the additional capability to interrupt
the operation of electrical appliances when they discover that the battery is
almost completely emptied, shielding her again in this way complete discharge
would lead to its destruction.
Select the correct charge regulator
The size of the charge controller depends on the size of PV will connect on it.
Must outweigh the total intensity in Ampere photovoltaics. If, for example,
150
rated in Ampere of PV is 10A, you must choose a 12A charge regulator.
It should also be suitable for the voltage of the photovoltaic system. If the PV
earn a total voltage 12V, select control for photovoltaic 12V. If our solar earn
overall trend 24V, select control for photovoltaic 24V.
It is good to predict for the future. If we have to expand our solar system with
more solar panels in the future, then it is advisable to choose a larger charge
controller to cover future needs.
Voltage converter (inverter)
Converter voltage: 12V DC Convert (DC) to 220V alternating (AC) power
The inverter (can see them referred to as inverter or converter) is a device that
converts DC (DC) current of the PV system into alternating (AC) power 220V.
So can we supply the solar battery system, all household appliances require
220 Volt.
The inverter or converter 220V is a double wire (positive - negative) over the
poles of the battery. It usually has one or two sockets as sockets that have
walls of our house, on which we connect devices that require 220V, directly or
using πολύμπριζο or balanteza.Den matter how many devices will connect at
the same time, enough power for all devices operating at the same time not to
exceed the allowable power inverter - converter voltage. So if you have an
inverter 200W (200 Watt), can operate while a television 60W, a ventilator
40W, a 60W laptop and lamps economy 40W total power.
A good converter will shut down if you accidentally connect a device Watt
more than it can afford, thus protecting our appliances. The same would make
a good quality inverter if it finds that it is almost empty battery There inverter
from 50W to 10.000W. Usually we use inverter from 150W to 1.200W
depending of course on our needs. A small solar system back-up for power
failure may be served by an inverter 300W, but a large photovoltaic system
that covers all the daily needs for a whole house will want to inverter over
4.000W.

151
Inverter with modified and inverter with pure sine
The inverter can be divided into modified sine inverter (modified
sine-wave) and pure sine inverter (pure / true sine-wave). A
converter with modified sine, is cheaper than one with pure sine
and is suitable for most devices. But consumes up to 20% more
battery power than a pure sine inverter. Moreover, in TVs and
sound systems of poor quality will hear a slight hum. On the other
hand, the only downside with the pure sine inverter is their price,
after three to four times more expensive than a counterpart with
modified sine. If you have sensitive electronic devices, it is good to
use for those with pure sine inverter.
The devices operate with motors (eg refrigerator) to require a
moment (when you start the motor) multiple Watt (eg five times or
more) than their normal function. This is something we need to
know when choosing the converter to select a greater effect on the
overall (nominal) Watt of devices that operate simultaneously.
Cost - Prices inverter
A modified sine inverter 300W will cost around 50 euros, and a
300W inverter with pure sine has cost around 200 euros.
The price of a modified sine inverter 1200W is approximately 200
euros, while the price of an inverter 1200W with pure sine is
approximately 800. The prices certainly are indicative because they
depend on the quality of construction, origin, brand converter, etc.
Photovoltaics: prices for all equipment
152
Also, practical method of calculating consumption and small size
PV system for Spring, Summer and Autumn.
Note: The prices for photovoltaic and other equipment at the end
of this article.
First you must calculate the consumption of each appliance.
Suppose then that we have 3 lamps economy 15W (a 15W energy
saving bulb is equivalent to an incandescent lamp of 60W) and a
TV 14 ".
A 15 watt bulb economy consumes 15 watts per hour. In 4 hours 60
watt / hours (4 hours X 15 watts). Three such lamps 4 hours each
one, using a total of 180 watt / hours (3 lamps x 4 hours x 15
watts). A 14-inch TV consumes about 40 watts an hour, consume
in 5 hours, 200 Watt / hours (5 hours x 40 watts). Similarly we can
calculate the consumption of other devices and finally aggregate
the consumption to find the total consumption of the system
(consumption of each device is usually printed on some of the
device or on the feeder / transformer).
So the bulbs and TV will consume a total of 380 watts / hours each
day.
Calculating sized photovoltaic panels
To find the correct size of the required initial solar divide this
number by 5, those conventional and, on average, so the useful
hours of sunshine. So we have about 380 / 5 = 75Wp power
requirement of the photovoltaic (if you want to calculate and
November to February would be dividing by 3).
Calculation size battery (accumulator 12V)
Similarly, to find the right size battery (accumulator 12V), multiply
by 2 the least (to not empty completely each day and reduce the
battery life). So 380CH2 = 800 watt / hours the required capacity of
the battery. Since the battery capacity indicated in Ah (ampere
hours), divide the battery voltage (12 volts): 800/12 = about 65Ah.
The larger this size, the better. We do not use a car battery, but
battery (battery) closed, deep discharge.
Finally, increasing the size of the PV and battery by 25% to predict
and losses will inevitably have the system. This results in PV
around 90Wp and battery over 80Ah. All this for a photovoltaic
system for a day. If we can predict about 2 days of complete cloud
almost doubles the size of the PV and battery reached above.
The inverter (inverter) 220V
If the equipment is our 12 volt to connect on the battery (or
rymthisti charge, if such a possibility). If you want some devices
use 220-volt inverter (inverter) 220V. Its size depends on the total
watts for appliances that operate simultaneously (in mind that
153
appliances with motors, such as in refrigerators can pull instantly
when booting up to 10 times more watts than the names of so
choose correspondingly large inverter). Inverter are so-called
modified sine and pure sine relatively expensive as PPC (or
higher).
This is a practical method for calculating both small photovoltaic
systems that can make everyone. In older systems, what we have a
professional approach to analytical study.
Photovoltaic systems, photovoltaic systems Prices
Prices for PV systems vary depending on the price list for each
company. In general, however, prices for photovoltaic panels is
one of about 4.5 up to 5.0 per Wp power (eg panel 50Wp 250
million). The acquisition of several panels, and the price falls
below the 4.0 per Wp.
The price of a battery deep discharge is slightly lower than 2.0 per
Ah capacity. So a deep discharge battery (Deep Cycle) 100A
capacity costs around 180 euros. The values of an inverter and a
charge controller is considerably lower than those of solar and
battery (battery).
Prices regulators begin charging 25 euros for small panels and can
be overcome and EUR 100 if they are to support more panels.
There are charge controllers with advanced features that costs a
lot more. The price of an inverter 300 Watt modified sine is about
50 euros and a 1.500 Watt about 150 euros (the pure sine inverter
cost 3 to 4 times more).
How do I calculate the demand for electricity?
A simple way of calculating the power consumption and size of a
photovoltaic system.
Each device has more of a small tag that lists the power
consumption of the device. For example, a 21-inch TV can write
220 volt and 0.5 Amps (A). This means you can consume 220 x 0,5
= 110 Watt. Some devices may display only and not 220 volt amps.
In this case, it will report directly watt. In the previous example will
create 220 volt and 110 watt.
This means that more electrical appliance will consume in a fully
operational 110 watt per hour to operate. In practice it may
consume less, if, for example, works with low brightness and low
volume.
Step 1: Saving Energy
An Example of are light bulbs. A light bulbs of 60 watt, such as
those that most use for lighting the premises, consumes 60 watt
hours for each operation. This means that if we have 5 such lamps
operate on average 6 hours 24 hours each one, then the
154
consumption will be 5 X 6 X 60 = 1.800 Wh 24 hours.
Compared to incandescent economy of 15 watt (which is
"attached" as the common incandescent bulbs of 60 watt) have 5 X
6 X 15 = 450 Wh, ie an economy 1.350 watt per 24 hours. When
designing a photovoltaic system, the main and first thing which
needs to start is to examine the potential for energy savings.
Step 2: Calculation of consumption
1. Multiply the Watt each device by the number of hours they will
work.
2. The sum of all those of the products will be our total daily
consumption in Wh.
3. Because there are no leaks in our system and hidden
consumption of appliances that are not calculated (eg devices that
consume electricity even closed or on hold), multiply the previous
total by 1.5.
So, if after these 3 steps we conclude that we need a total for all of
our components 600 Wh per 24 hours, you must install a
photovoltaic system (panels - panels - solar power) and battery
(batteries) that can provide us at least 600 Wh per day.

Step 3: Computes the size batteries


Accumulators (batteries) indicate the capacity in Ah (ampere per
hour). Thus, a battery of 12 volt 100 Ah and provides 12 X 100 =
1.200 watt DC (DC) for 1 hour or 120 watt for 10 hours or 12 watt for
100 hours. Another important indicator is the one who gives us
information on the rate of decay by which the battery can give
quoted Ah. Thus, 100 Ah C20 means that the 100 Ah achieved
when the gradual discharge lasts 20 hours. For fewer hours (C10,
10 hours) get fewer Ah, but a gradual discharge more hours (eg
C100, 100 hours) get significantly more Ah.
1. It is preferable when working to provide a few more watt hours
than many watt for a few, because if the latter is reduced
drastically the time of their lives.
2. Never completely discharged batteries as this may destroy
them.
3. There are different types of batteries with different levels of
allowable discharge. The general rule in common use do not allow
discharge of more than 50% and only in exceptional cases need to
reach 80%.
So when you buy batteries (batteries) for the solar system, we
choose the capacity of at least twice as much calculated to cover

155
our needs. The bigger the better for battery life.
So if we calculate that we need 600 Wh 24 hours, we choose
syssoretes with double capacity (1.200 Wh), ie at least 12 volt
100Ah to have an independence day.
Usually but provides for 5 days with no sunshine, so multiply the
previous value at 5: 100Ah X 5 = 500Ah at 12 volt (or 24 volt and
250Ah).
Note:
When a device requires a 220 volt - 1 A and use a 12 volt inverter
220 volt (inverter) to operate from the battery, then pull 18.33 D
battery, not 1A, as the 220 watt in operation alternating current
(220v X 1A = 220 watt) translated into 12 volt X 18,33 A (= 220 watt)
when operating with inverter (inverter) and power from battery 12
volt. Where applicable and when used battery 24 volt, which will
"grab" A 9.16 (24v X 9,16 = 220 watt).
As the use of inverter (inverter) involve the loss of 10% to 20% of
final consumption will be higher than indicated in full operation.
Step 4: Calculate the size of solar panels.
So if we reach the size of batteries (battery), then there only
remains to calculate the size of solar panels that will be able to
charge batteries. A solar panel 50 watt / p nominal (per hour
sunshine) will give a day with 5 hours of sunshine (eg April) 250
watt / h in theory (because losses will be 10% to 20% less) and in
days with 7 hours of sunlight (eg July) 350 watt / h.
To charge completely empty battery (theoretically, because we will
never be completely empty as we said above) and the 12 volt 100
Ah (1.200 watt / h) will have 4 days in April and 3 days in July. If
you install such solar panels, three of 50 watt / p each one (or one
of 150 watt / p), then you need a day in July and nearly two days in
April.
When designing a large photovoltaic system for your home, it is
our basis for the worst scenario is the winter sunshine hours
(average), which for Greece is the 3 hours a day (in December). If
you are planning a holiday to visit only in summer (May to
September), hours of sunshine that count is 6 (M). Thus, the
previous example we calculated that we consume 600Wh 24 hours,
we need solar power panels 600 / 3 = 200Wp to our cover winter
and summer. If we want to cover only the summer, we would need
solar panels total power 600 / 6 = 100Wp. In this case we would
need even smaller batteries, since summer is not necessary
autonomy for 5 days without sunshine calculated in step 3
EXAMPLE
PV Practice
156
Holiday home, caravan, mobile homes, cottage, warehouse, boat
So we have one site (eg cottage, caravan, mobile homes, cottage,
warehouse, boat etc.) that you visit every weekend and want to
have light bulbs with 3 to 5 hours daily, a TV for 4 hours a day and
a small refrigerator to keep cold water, soft drinks, food, etc.
The lights and television on solar power
In solar energy applications try to use economy of lamps 12 volt,
not 220. Fed directly from the batteries so we have minimal losses.
If you use lamps with 220V inverter will have lost up to 20%.
To illuminate for 5 hours with 3 12V-15W fluorescent work
simultaneously (15 Watt lamps for 3 to 5 hours) we 225Wh.
The TV is having 220 volt, will be powered by inverter 220V. A 21-
inch TV with small claims. 60W for 4 hours is 240Wh day. Total 465
Wh.
Inverter is a device that converts direct current from batteries
(rechargeable batteries) to alternating current of 220 volt, so we
can link up and we supply electrical appliances using alternating
current 220 volt - like that of PPC.
The refrigerator
The refrigerator is the energy-hungry appliances, after the cooker,
electric water heater and air conditioner. So we use gas stove,
solar heater and fan, respectively. He has great power
consumption as the motor operates in several hours a day, trying
to maintain a low temperature inside.
It should not be open often and for too long the refrigerator door.
They should also check that seal well and have worn out plastic
door. Finally, it is important to be in a place not facing the sun and
away from sources of heat. Of course it should be and the energy
class "A" for lower power consumption.
In this instance, our requirements in relation to the fridge is small,
so use a small refrigerator, for example 60W. If the motor to work
10 hours a day, will consume 10 hours at 60W, is set 600Wh (600
Watt x Hours).
Whenever you start the motor, some would require multiple instant
Watt by name. So for a refrigerator of 60W, we are well ahead
inverter 60 watt, which raises starting and running motors.
It is advisable to opt for a separate, independent solar power
system for the refrigerator and another inverter, solar battery and
other devices.
Accumulators (batteries)
For 24 hours autonomy, we need accumulators (batteries) to
provide about 1000 Wh (eg 12v and 80Ah) for lighting and TV
(465Wh for 2 to avoid completely discharged batteries to withstand
157
several years) and inverter 150W.
Depending on the refrigerator 60W batteries need to supply
(consumption and cooler 600Wh there for 2) 1200Wh (eg 12v and
100Ah) and good quality inverter, 300 watt continuous operation
with 600 watt option for small spaces.
In this way, enough energy to power with electricity and other
widgets (such as radios, mobile phones etc).
The photovoltaic panels
The size of PV depends on how often and for how many days will
run this.
In this example, we visit the site once a week for 24 hours, so even
a small solar panel enough time to recharge their batteries during
the period of absence of 6 days. Otherwise, we should at least
replenish the consumption of each day:
By M.O. 5 hours of intense sunshine of the day (eg April), we
would need solar power overall 2000 / 5 = 400Wp. to replenish the
consumption of cargo every day.
But because we are not there every day, we will collect solar that is
required for a 24-hour electricity, during the 6 days of our absence.
So we divide by 6 and we need a total capacity of photovoltaic
panels around 70Wp. Thus, we get a solar panel 40 Wp for the
refrigerator and another one the same for other devices.
If you visit the above site in summer, then our reach and an even
smaller photovoltaic (eg 30Wp) because in the summer sunshine is
more than 5 hours. If you visit the above site and winter, then we
need more solar (eg 70Wp) because the winter there is sunshine
for 3 hours a day (avg).
Prices (cost) PV system
The above solar system, with charge controllers, cables, etc. cost
less than € 1,000 without installation. Details:
• Two photovoltaic panels 35-40 Wp, price 450-550 euros.
• Two charge controllers, 12 volt - 5 A, costs about 50 euros.
• Two batteries (battery) 12V - 100 Ah, suitable for solar energy
applications (deep discharge) price of around 350-400 euros.
• Two inverter 220V, 150-300 W cost around 100-150 euros.
Make a good market research and price comparison of
photovoltaic and batteries (batteries), because the prices of PV in
Greece "play" a lot of online store to online store and Greek solar
company to another European company fotovoltaikon.Gia to have
autonomy 2-3 days without sunshine, it doubles the size of these
batteries and solar and / or add a small generator fuel (for greater
certainty in the winter or fail in any part of the solar system).
Backup solar system
158
Stored solar energy for hard times!
We have all experienced: Sudden blackout! And then we see that there are
candles in the house. And if you are not able to find matches or lighters in the
dark. But where is the lens! It has batteries?
In the next blackout we are prepared. The best way is to have a hierarchy of
our needs before the power failure.
• What equipment will need to work (lights, computers, television, radio, etc.)?
• In what areas (kitchen, living room, storage, etc.)?
• For how many hours or days?
So we will be able to configure the size of the photovoltaic system and
batteries that will be needed. The next step is to calculate the consumption of
these loads.
A backup system of photovoltaic panels can be very economical if you stick to
basic needs such as lighting 2-3 rooms, a small television, a radio and a fan.
A backup system of photovoltaic panels composed of
• the solar collector or solar panels
• the regulator load accumulator (battery)
• The accumulator (battery)
• optional inverter (inverter) 12, 24 or 48 volt to 220 volt.
The facility safely done by an electrician although it will not pose any problem
for someone with rudimentary knowledge of electrical engineering.
Such a solar backup system could also be portable for use in car, boat,
camping or allou.Ftiax it yourself: Portable power generator low-cost solar
panels!
Calculating your needs correctly, the next blackout could own your house has
light, cordless telephone, television, microwave and toaster with neighbors to
wonder as we stumble ... looking for batteries for the camera! Where
applicable to the case of a generalized black out that can hold many hours or
days!

Table ROI PV
Gross investment income per year before tax
Prices for this guide investment in photovoltaic solar energy was calculated
assuming that the value of the MWh shall be adjusted by 2.4% per annum for
a plant which gives 160 MWh per year.
The total cost of such a facility is approximately 850,000 euros (2007 prices)
has been calculated without any subsidy would reduce the price by about half.
It includes operating and related costs, reducing the efficiency of photovoltaic
cells and taxes.
Thus, the 1st year revenue will be approximately 72,000 Euros, the 2nd year
approximately 73,728 Euros, etc. The 25th year will give (with the above
simplifications) and a total of 127,212.99 euros in 25 years would have
accumulated (without reinvestment), almost 2.5 million.

159
Because you are operating expenses and taxes, net earnings would be
roughly say about half of the above. So we see that (with the current price of
photovoltaic and present performance) without subsidy investment would
perform poorly. With a lower purchase price even kWh would be completely
asymfori.Syntoma but we will see solar cells with greater efficiency and lower
costs. And the cost of generating energy through conventional means rising
constantly for a bright future for fotovoltaika.Den is no coincidence that the
major oil companies (BP, Shell, etc.) are the current leaders in research,
production and promotion of photovoltaics.
Investing PV
Instructions for the investment program in solar energy
1. We pay the price of megawatt hours (ie 450 euros).
2. The performance of each resident in KWp KWh per year (in Greece 1150-
1450 KWh per year).
3. The ratio of operating costs per month, total revenue per month. Do not
forget to add our business and to pay operating. If for example the cost is
40,000 and income 100,000 then the rate is 40%, so we introduce the number
40 in their field.
4. We give the rate of annual yield reductions of PV, eg 1% for 1 year.
5. We give the average interest rate which will be remunerated at the net
annual profits will be reinvested and / or file all year. Eg 4 4%.
6. We give the subsidy from the investment law, eg the number 50 to 50%.
7. Also, we installed KWp the total final cost of initial installation per Watt. It is
estimated that about 6.00 per Watt. It is a little higher for smaller plants.
Expected to decline in coming years.
8. Finally, we give an estimate (eg the value of 3 for 3%) for average annual
inflation during the investment (hard for so long, but that price and to give, is
deflated and the amount in the present value , when talking about the current
amounts). The adjustment in the price of KWh of Electricity adjusted annually
to 80% inflation and we will NOT include possible increases in the PPC that is
above inflation.
The last two columns give us: The penultimate column of the flow of net profits
(aggregate function) of investment over the years. The last column of the
current (deflated) value of these poson.Mporeite a free download to your
computer and to calculate different scenarios of investment in solar energy.

Home without PPC Eco Home


Is it still viable to cover ALL the needs of a residential photovoltaic MAIN. And
that's why KWh of Electricity is much cheaper than that resulting from the cost
of photovoltaic required. Even assuming that we cover all the needs for solar
hot water heater and kitchen with gas, still needs heating and cooling of space.

You can certainly build a eco home that will lower heating and cooling needs.
Construction costs for a green home will be considerably higher, but will be

160
depreciated from the low cost management in depth 20 years.
What can we do? First started with energy saving lamps in the economy,
insulation, etc:
1. Perfect cover insulated walls and windows (eg double glazing). Tents,
awnings, etc.
2. Bulbs economy economy in lamps for lighting.
3. Appliances (refrigerators, washing machines etc.) A type of energy, the
lowest possible consumption.
4. Solar hot water heater, kitchen with gas.
5. Rational use of appliances, avoiding wastage.
Only the above will guarantee that your home energy savings over 50%!
Then, calculate your needs in electricity (how many kilowatt hours per month
will eat) and decided what you want to rate ranging from photovoltaics.
An average Greek house with solar water heaters and lamps economy and
with air condition, oil burners and electric cooker, using about 350-450 KWh
per month (cost around 40 euros). Without electric stove and air condition
consumes about 250-300 KWh.
To produce 250 KWh per month required by photovoltaic solar panels about
12 of 180 watt each, plus batteries and accessories. Along with the installation,
the cost reaches approximately 17,000 to 22,000 euros, depending on the
batteries to be used.
If the house has no connection to electricity, we must invest in a larger system
or a mixed system with wind turbine to have a few days of autonomy in case of
heavy and continuous cloud for days. It is useful in these cases and generator
fuel for extreme cases.
If you have connections with PPC then these cases are migrated to the
network stream from the PPC. Moreover, we do not need batteries so the cost
of these household photovoltaic system is reduced to 30%.
The final solution is proposed for a main house with all modern amenities. In a
cottage, we could compromise with a few simple and fairly cheaply, to avoid
completely, PPC with all fixed charges and to others it means ...
PV Practice
Holiday home, caravan, mobile homes, cottage, warehouse, boat
So we have one site (eg cottage, caravan, mobile homes, cottage, warehouse,
boat etc.) that you visit every weekend and want to have light bulbs with 3 to 5
hours daily, a TV for 4 hours a day and a small refrigerator to keep cold water,
soft drinks, food, etc.
The lights and television on solar power
In solar energy applications try to use economy of lamps 12 volt, not 220. Fed
directly from the batteries so we have minimal losses. If you use lamps with
220V inverter will have lost up to 20%.
To illuminate for 5 hours with 3 12V-15W fluorescent work simultaneously (15
Watt lamps for 3 to 5 hours) we 225Wh.
The TV is having 220 volt, will be powered by inverter 220V. A 21-inch TV with

161
small claims. 60W for 4 hours is 240Wh day. Total 465 Wh.
Inverter is a device that converts direct current from batteries (rechargeable
batteries) to alternating current of 220 volt, so we can link up and we supply
electrical appliances using alternating current 220 volt - like that of PPC.
The refrigerator
The refrigerator is the energy-hungry appliances, after the cooker, electric
water heater and air conditioner. So we use gas stove, solar heater and fan,
respectively. He has great power consumption as the motor operates in
several hours a day, trying to maintain a low temperature inside.
It should not be open often and for too long the refrigerator door. They should
also check that seal well and have worn out plastic door. Finally, it is important
to be in a place not facing the sun and away from sources of heat. Of course it
should be and the energy class "A" for lower power consumption.
In this instance, our requirements in relation to the fridge is small, so use a
small refrigerator, for example 60W. If the motor to work 10 hours a day, will
consume 10 hours at 60W, is set 600Wh (600 Watt x Hours).
Whenever you start the motor, some would require multiple instant Watt by
name. So for a refrigerator of 60W, we are well ahead inverter 60 watt, which
raises starting and running motors.
It is advisable to opt for a separate, independent solar power system for the
refrigerator and another inverter, solar battery and other devices.
Accumulators (batteries)
For 24 hours autonomy, we need accumulators (batteries) to provide about
1000 Wh (eg 12v and 80Ah) for lighting and TV (465Wh for 2 to avoid
completely discharged batteries to withstand several years) and inverter
150W.
Depending on the refrigerator 60W batteries need to supply (consumption and
cooler 600Wh there for 2) 1200Wh (eg 12v and 100Ah) and good quality
inverter, 300 watt continuous operation with 600 watt option for small
diastimata.Me above, enough energy to power with electricity and other
widgets (such as radios, mobile phones etc).
The photovoltaic panels
The size of PV depends on how often and for how many days will run this. In
this example, we visit the site once a week for 24 hours, so even a small solar
panel enough time to recharge their batteries during the period of absence of 6
days. Otherwise, we should at least replenish the consumption of each day:
By M.O. 5 hours of intense sunshine of the day (eg April), we would need solar
power overall 2000 / 5 = 400Wp. to replenish the consumption of cargo every
day.
But because we are not there every day, we will collect solar that is required
for a 24-hour electricity, during the 6 days of our absence. So we divide by 6
and we need a total capacity of photovoltaic panels around 70Wp. Thus, we
get a solar panel 40 Wp for the refrigerator and another one the same for other
devices.

162
If you visit the above site in summer, then our reach and an even smaller
photovoltaic (eg 30Wp) because in the summer sunshine is more than 5
hours. If you visit the above site and winter, then we need more solar (eg
70Wp) because the winter there is sunshine for 3 hours a day (avg).
Prices (cost) PV system
The above solar system, with charge controllers, cables, etc. cost less than €
1,000 without installation. Details:
• Two photovoltaic panels 35-40 Wp, price 450-550 euros.
• Two charge controllers, 12 volt - 5 A, costs about 50 euros.
• Two batteries (battery) 12V - 100 Ah, suitable for solar energy applications
(deep discharge) price of around 350-400 euros.
• Two inverter 220V, 150-300 W cost around 100-150 euros.
Make a good market research and price comparison of photovoltaic and
batteries (batteries), because the prices of PV in Greece "play" a lot of online
store to online store and Greek solar company to another European company
after.
To have autonomy for 2-3 days without sunshine, it doubles the size of these
batteries and solar and / or add a small generator fuel (for greater certainty in
the winter or fail in any part of the solar system).
Useful articles and links for photovoltaics, solar and wind energy. articles and
examples of practical application for solar energy, photovoltaics and
renewable energy sources (RES)! About me ...
When I began this effort a few years ago, the site that was the first and only in
Greece category of applied use of Renewable Energy Sources (RES).
Then I could not imagine the interest and the impact it would have such an
issue, not only in Greece and abroad ... Currently receiving e-mail from
friends, even from countries like the U.S. and Germany, who want to translate
pages into English. This is because while there are some similar websites in
English, but dealing piecemeal rather sfairka or in depth with the issue ... The
promise to give is that I will continue in the same way to support with passion,
what I do. Below construction "fix it yourself" as photovoltaic panels, solar
cycle, solar air heater, solar furnace, solar water heating, geothermal, wind
energy / wind turbines and more! To be the world's largest site in this category,
Greek!

Example of a photovoltaic system

Four lamps economy 12voltoi of 15W each for 2 hours each day using a total
of 120 Watt / h (Watt hours) every 24 hours. A TV around 21 "for 3 hours
consumes other 180 Watt / h. So it takes about 300 Watt / h daily.
A solar panel 80Wp would give the battery is the amount of energy when it is
sunny in the morning until noon. Enough to see to the south, without impeding,
(shadow).

163
The correct battery was a battery 12volti lead to deep discharge capacity of at
least 50AI (12V X 50AI = 600Wh, for discharged battery at 50% only to non-
damaged soon).
But as there is sunshine every day and some days we want autonomy from
the battery, so 150AI for 3 days autonomy. It would take course 3 panels
instead of one, so when you come back the sun after 3 days be enough time
to give back to the battery power for 3 days and not only for current, so that
there is still enough energy stored for 3 days autonomy. We can make our
system of autonomy for those days we simply increase the cost.
Sometimes, however, the lack of sunshine continues beyond the third day. In
order not to remain in the dark ..., in these cases we use petrol or diesel
generator combined with a quick charger for the battery, that through the
charger and the generator to charge the battery every morning with a few
hours of the generator.
There is no need in those few hours to charge the battery 100%, but the more
the better for the longevity of the battery. In this example we need 300 Watt / h
every 24 hours (ie 25 AH, after 25AI x 12V = 300 Watt / h), a 10A charger will
give us in about 3 hours from the generator. The charger should not be larger
than 1 / 10 of battery capacity. For example, if the battery is 150AI, the charger
should not be over 15A.
So we will have enough energy to the battery to the needs of the rest of the
day. This continues until there is sunshine in the battery to restore the
autonomy of the three (or more days depending on our system).
The cost of such a photovoltaic system is approximately 500 euros for a day of
independence and close to 1,500 euros for three days of autonomy. The cost
of the photovoltaic system is added to the cost of a small petrol or diesel
generator and a charger as possible, reaching a total of 500 euros.

The largest golf with solar!

The stadium was built in Taiwan for the World Games 2009. In 8844 the roof
installed photovoltaic panels capable of producing just over 1 Gigawatt / h per
year!
Besides its own needs, cover the needs for electricity of 80% of buildings in
the area! Very nice design and perfect example (aesthetically) correct
application of photovoltaics in building

Letter written in the year 2070


Some consider it excessive. We live in 2070 but to know ...
We are in year 2070. I am 50 years old but look 85. I have many problems
because I drink very little water. I think it remains for me a long time now.
Today, I am one of the most elderly in the society I live.
I remember when I was 5 years old, there were many trees in the parks,
164
houses had beautiful gardens could be underneath the shower about an hour.
Now we use towels with mineral oil to be washed.
• Before all women exhibit the beautiful hair. Now, should shave her head to
keep it clean without using water.
• Before, my father washed the car with the hose. Today is strictly prohibited
by law such use.
• Remember that there were many ads saying CAUTION WATER, but nobody
paid attention. People believed that water is inexhaustible.
Today, all rivers, dams, lakes and aquifers are irreversibly polluted or dried.
The surrounding landscape is no longer merely a vast desert. Gastrointestinal
infections, skin and urinary tract injuries are the leading causes of death.
The industry is paralyzed, and the unemployment rate is extremely high. The
seawater desalination plants is the main area apascholisis.Dinoun workers
drinking water instead of salary. The attacks on a jerry of water is constant
through the deserted streets.
The diet is 80% synthetic.
• Before, recommended to drink 8 glasses of water a day. Today, I can only
drink half a glass.
• Because we can not wash our clothes, we throw, which increases the volume
of garbage.
• go back to using tanks as the last century because the sewers do not work
anymore because of lack of water.
People are faced with fear: their bodies are sickly, wrinkled from dehydration,
pligiasmena caused by ultraviolet radiation can no longer filter the air because
of the ozone hole.
Because of dry skin, a young woman 20 years is 40. Scientists are doing
research, but there is no solution in sight. We can not construct water ...
Oxygen has also been reduced due to lack of trees, which reduces the
intellectual level of the younger generations. The morphology of spermatozoa
of a large number of people has changed, which makes many births of
children affected by failure of mutations and malformations. The government
requires us to pay for the air we breathe, 137 m3 per person per day. Those
who can not pay expelled from the "ventilated areas" that are equipped with
gigantic mechanical lungs that work with solar energy.
• The air is not very good, but at least we can breathe.
• The average age is 35 years.
• Some countries succeeded in preserving vegetation islands with clean
running water. These zones are closely supervised by the army.
• Water has become a rare species, a priceless treasure, much more than gold
or diamonds. But here, there are no trees because it hardly ever rains. And
when it starts to rain, it falls rather than acid rain.
• No longer seasons due to climate change (global warming) from human
activities in the 20th century that pollute the environment.
165
But we predict that they should take care of our environment, but nobody did
anything.
When my daughter asks me to narrate how it was when I was young, telling of
how the forest was beautiful.
By talking about the rain, flowers, pleasure to swim and fish in rivers and lakes
and to drink as much water as you want! And for the health of people ...
By asking:
- Dad! Because there is no more water?
So I have a lump in my throat ...
I can not stop me I feel guilty because I belong to the generation that
completed the destruction of the environment, not taking seriously the
numerous warnings.
I am the last generation that could change the course of things, but decided
otherwise. Today our children are paying dearly ... Frankly, I believe that life
on that land will be from now on because of environmental destruction has
arrived at a point where no return. How would you like to go back and
somehow I did not understand the whole human race ... At the moment we can
still do something to save our planet!
About this letter to those who can! You will only be the minimum for the
awakening of global consciousness and the need to save water. This one is
not a game, it is already our reality. Do it for your children. And if you have not
yet, maybe one day have. Do not leave a legacy to hell ... Let them life!
Reproduced: www.iqsolarpower.com
Solar homes
On rooftops, terraces and on land!
From July 1, 2009 is no longer the possibility of installing photovoltaic systems
up to 10 KWp and roof of the house, so the production and sale of electricity
from solar energy and by individuals (12323/NG 175/4.6.2009 Joint Ministerial
Decision - JMD).
The two main advantages that gives individuals are:
1. It requires complex processes such as permits from various agencies or tax
obligations as a profession start producing electricity or taxing the production
of electricity.
2. The purchase price of PPC produced electricity is 0.55 per kilowatt hour
(adjustable up to a year) while the price charged by the Electricity consumption
of the owner is about 5 times lower. These conditions apply until 2012, then
the price will begin to de-escalating by 5% annually and the contract is signed
for 25 years.
So the process is completed within 70 days or less and is only required to PPC
applications and approving small business from planning to give a simple and
quick process. The rest by the company that makes solar installation. To
participate in programmee require the existence or installing solar water
heater.
166
Allowed
The installation of photovoltaic allowed rooftops, terraces house or building,
but on land (even in non-project), I have some connections to the electricity
network.
For each 1 KWp installed capacity requires approximately 12 m at home or
around 18 m a flat surface (terrace or plot).
How much and what works
A KWp costs around 5,000 euros a final price with the cost of installation etc.
and produces approximately 1.200 KWh per year (slightly lower in northern
Greece, a little more to the south). So it pays to the owner about 660 per year.
40000 = 3ch20
So then with photovoltaic 5 KWp (costs 25,000 euros) revenue will be
approximately 3,300 per annum by installing 10 KWp (cost € 50,000) revenue
will be approximately 6600 Herault year. The damping is thus about 7-8 years.
Of course, these revenues would DEI cut the cost of power consumption of
the house (which as I said to charge a lower price, currently around 0.12 euro
avg) and the remainder will be deposited to the account holder. Besides the
attractive price of electricity produced, there is a subsidy to purchase
equipment. Even though some banks offer "green" or "ecological" etc. loans
with favorable terms. I would however prefer a smaller (hence cheaper) solar
system, despite a higher (and therefore more expensive) system with a loan
from a bank ...
Reduced the next electricity bill by 61.56 Euro! And also do a good
environmental ...
Since I like to sit in theory, but trying to apply theory to practice in this article
we will see how easily, with minimal cost and most importantly, without
compromising our daily practice:
1. Save 61.56 euro each electricity bill!
2. To cut 1,000 kilograms individually, each one of us, releasing carbon
dioxide into the atmosphere, which is equivalent to plant 20 trees outside our
house!
And this with some simple and smart moves the economy. Not with the
installation of photovoltaics. Anyway, before installing a photovoltaic system,
make sure to reduce power consumption requirements of the house as much
as possible
1st move: Changing the lights!
Suppose we have in our house a total of 10 ordinary light bulbs of 60W each.
These can be located on the roof of rooms, table lamps, spot on the kitchen
floor lamps in the living room, mirror in the bathroom, near the entrance door,
the balcony and beyond! Others may work 6-8 hours every night, others only
for 1-2 hours. Overall, the operating hours of all light bulbs, say about 40 hours
each night

167
For example:
6 hours for 2 bulbs of living, a total of 12 hours in the living room.
3 hours for 2 bulbs bath, a total of 6 hours for loutro.k.o.k.I
consumption will be 40 hours on 60W, a total of 2.400 Wh, or
otherwise 2,4 KWh every 24 hours. 4 months in power bills PPC we
consume 288 KWh for lighting.
At an average cost of 12 minutes per KWh (depending on the scale
of costs), the lighting cost us 34.50 euros 4 months in each
account. If you replace these bulbs with energy saving bulbs of
18W (with corresponding performance lighting 80W ordinary
incandescent light bulbs), consumption would be 40 hours on
18W, a total of only 720 Wh or otherwise 0,72 KWh per 24 hours or
86 , 4 KWh a 4 month period. At an average cost of 12 minutes per
KWh (depending on the scale of charges), the light will now cost
us 10.37 euros 4 months in each account.
Saved is 24.13 euros each electricity bill!
2nd movement: Heat water when we need it!
It is good to have a solar water heater. Whatever the case,
however, a bad habit that many have is to turn on the heater and to
forget for a long time ...
Depending on the heater (and the thermostat), an electric water
heater will have a specific time to heat the water temperature we
want. It is the one in which the orange LED goes out! If you leave it
open more hours, you only made is as follows: The water starts to
cool down a bit again until it falls below the temperature of the
thermostat to turn back the orange LED and to resume the
resistance to pull current to reheat the water temperature, which
anyway was at before! More power consumption is the same

168
result! No water will be warmer or more liters will warm as the
capacity in liters of each heater is given. And do not forget that the
electric water heater has the highest consumption in Watt from all
devices on a home: Typically 4.000 Watt! So turn on the heater just
before the hot water need. We go to the bathroom until the LED
goes out, or shortly thereafter. For washing dishes, etc. use
special small water heaters: No need to heat 200 liters, while we
only need 10!
And of course if we can install solar water heater.
If you leave the orange lamp to light again, sometimes for 10
minutes every time we eat, for no reason, until 2KWh every day
that 240KWh each electricity bill, or 28.80 Euros!
If we do everyday with the previous, will save approximately 28.80
Euro per account.

3rd movement: The stove is equivalent to power consumption by 30 TVs!

So watch the baking process the glass door and did not blink
constantly to watch better ... project.
Every time you open the oven door lost almost 1 / 3 of the heat. It
will then consume more electricity to xanafthasei temperature it
had before opening the door for a while (saving up 200Wh by
baking)!
When you realize that food is almost ready, turn off the switch
temperature a few minutes earlier. The temperature has been
developed, still cooks food for another 10-15 minutes (to save
300Wh by roasting).
The oven consumes about 2.500W per hour, while the microwave

169
800W. So not heated ready meals in the oven, but in the
microwave. 15 minutes in the microwave equivalent consumption
of about 500Wh, while the same result as the microwave would be
provided with 5 minutes or 60Wh (save about 450Wh by heating).
If you psiname oven 4 times a week and also use it to warm up or
defrost other 4-5 times we can save nearly 4.500Wh (4,5 KWh) per
week, ie 72KWh or 8.65 euros each electricity bill!
Conclusion:
We found that only these three movements, reduce consumption
513KWh or 61.56 Euro each electricity bill on a house like this
example!
In one year, the economy is over 1.500KWh involved avoiding
release of more than 1,000 pounds of carbon dioxide in the
environment. Both carbon dioxide produced by the PPC to provide
us with those above 1.500KWh each year. The equivalent result
would succeed in planting over 20 trees outside our house!
And they have no estimate at all using photovoltaics. If you install
and 1.200Wp in solar panels, saving and other 1.500KWh like to
plant another 20 trees yet!
There are many other ways we can reduce power consumption and
thus help protect the environment with a premium on saving
money:
1. Close your TV, DVD, PC etc. the main switch and not the red
button on the remote (or pending). 1 '
2. We often open for long hours on the door of the refrigerator.
Each time you do this, lost nearly 1 / 3 cooling and the motor will
consume extra power to bring back the temperature at the
previous level.

170
$ Place the refrigerator to cool in the house, away from radiators
and windows or signs facing the sun.
Can the savings from each practice are just a few euros. But these
add up and show a significant benefit in the end.
The main thing is that these changes do not alter the usual way of
living (though sometimes a change does not hurt if the benefit is
significant). So it is easier to implement because we do not have
the excuse that we are changing for the worse the way we live.
Let's just behave rationally, and nature will render us ..
The basics you need to know about the PV
The photovoltaic system with simple words and pictures
At various points on the website name, for example, photovoltaic
cells (cells) CIS earn 4.5 volts and 90 while the crystalline
miliamper 0.55 volts and 4500 miliamper. What does this actually
will ask a newbie ...
Watt, volt, ampere: Power, voltage, amperage
The Watt can be seen as the product of the Volt on Ampere. That
5V x 2A = 10 Watt. The term trend refers to the Volt, the average
intensity are talking about amps, while the average talk power in
Watt.
We can imagine the stream like water flowing in a pipe: Voltage
(volt) is the speed or momentum of the water in the tube. Intensity
(ampere) is the quantity or volume of water released. The
combination of these two features gives us the power (watt).
Attention to the cables as it can a water pipe to withstand large
volume of water runs with great momentum, so any combination of
voltage and current wants the right thickness of wire. Otherwise it
will melt or catch fire.

171
Even the power of a small battery can be done under certain
conditions, cause to burn our house! The more current will pass
through the cables and the greater length of wire, the thicker
should have.
Ask a special event if you do not know the proper cross section.
Login photovoltaic in series and parallel
Connecting the photovoltaic cells in series (with the + - alternating)
sum up the volts and connecting them in parallel (between the +
and - between them) add the ampere (1000 miliamper = 1 Ampere)
cells are interconnected, in order to achieve combination of volts
and amps that we (volts times amps equals watts: VxA = W).

Charge
In order to charge a battery from the sun, should we give about
20% more voltage (volts) from the nominal. Thus a 12V battery will
start charging a voltage above 14.4. A 3V battery with a voltage
above 3.6 klp.Me photovoltaics can be supplied directly to the
devices as a sunny, but not common. Usually loaded with the PV a
rechargeable battery-operated devices that get power from the
battery. The photovoltaic arrange to replenish daily consumption
in Watt that made the devices.
In the above diagram shows the wiring of a simple solar system.
The charge to ensure proper battery charging. The inverter
converts the 12 volt battery, 220 volt to be able to connect up the
devices require voltage 220V.
How a photovoltaic power generating?
A photovoltaic generating every day the nominative power over the
summer and 6 to 3.5 in winter. Thus, a photovoltaic 100Wp can

172
expect 550-600 Watt / h (0,6 KWh-kilowatt hours) in the summer
and about 350 Wh (0,35 KWh) in winter, every day on average.
That winter, it will produce 350 Wh EVERY day, but if you divide
the total monthly production of KWh (eg December) by 31 will give
us the number of 0,35 KWh.
Per 1.000 Watt / p solar, total annual output in kilowatt hours (KWh)
will be from 1100 KWh (northern Greece) to 1450 Kwh (southern
Greece). Thus, a 100 Wp panel would produce from 110 Kwh to 140
Kwh per year.
Funny pictures with solar
Solar Energy for the beach:

The Report on Renewable Energy and Photovoltaics


Completed on 20 April, the second report EnergyRES 2008 for photovoltaic
and renewable energy.
It was pretty big turnout. Our exhibit this year was the electric bike, which

173
caught the attention of thousands of visitors! Come on, and when the next
report energyRES 2009 with more exhibits!
Garden solar lighting
Photovoltaic system for the garden
A solar power system for lighting a garden differs from a normal system
powered by the electricity network that just is not connected to the electricity
network, but powered by electricity from solar energy. The heart of such a
system are the photovoltaic panels that convert solar energy into electricity

1. The energy accumulated during the day from the sun, stored for the
night in a special accumulator (battery) 12V, suitable for solar energy
applications. It could be used even as a large batteries for caravans or
sea craft. The battery has a capacity large enough to supply the lamps
with electricity for several nights, even if we have a few days without
any iliofaneia.Oi different from a normal system powered by the
electricity network. found in three points:
1. In fluorescent lights installed instead of incandescent 12V 230V.
2. Cables used in more cross links (thicker).

174
3. The system does not have the clock electricity, but an accumulator
(battery) which is recharged by a solar panel.
For every 4-5 lights require a panel of about 130Wp, an accumulator
(battery) capacity of about 150AI and a charge controller to battery.
Between the battery and lighting installed and insurance. The cost of
such a system is about 1200 Euros.
Because solar energy, such a system with 15 lighting means to
prevent release of 500 kilograms of carbon dioxide into the
atmosphere each year. Equivalents like to plant another 10 trees in
our garden!
The brightness of bulbs for energy-saving 12V 9W, for example,
corresponds to that of conventional incandescent lamps 40W, thus
ensuring very good lighting garden.
A key advantage of this solution is that the fixtures can be placed
anywhere, since only the solar panels need to be placed at a point to
see directly the sun most of the day.
In contrast to simple independent garden lights intended more for
decorative lighting.
Off-grid solar garden lights
The small autonomous solar lights used for decorative lighting, lamps,
because instead of using one or more led.
But they have other advantages such as:
1. No need wiring. Each lamp is built and solar cells and rechargeable
batteries needed.
2. Are cheaper. The average price of a solar lamp is about 20 Euros,
which means about 100 Euros Place 4-5 lights.
3. No need to install an electrician. The metal under the sink very
easily on the ground, in places, but to see the sunlight most of the day.

The more led shine in any light, so intense is the light.


In no case, however, can illuminate an area such as light bulbs and
7W 9W. It is intended more for decorative lighting or to illuminate a
hallway, etc.
In the photo above seems a mixed application of decorative garden
lighting led (blue and green) and light 12V-9W (white) with a total
power consumption only 70W per hour! The burning is a simple
incandescent bulb in a room
Solar garden lights (not only) that illuminate normal, not like the others
...!
This month I wanted to make solar garden lights! Not like these solar
lighting trade are looking to see if it is lit ...! These trade using one or
more led lights but they are only suitable for decorative lighting, not
functional.
175
The "lights" led have evolved over the years, so I looked for someone
who is strong and with the least possible power consumption.
I ended up in the press led luxeon 1W. One Watt may seem little but is
not! One luxeon led more than 10 times brighter than usual led.
Thus, the brightness of 8 lights will be similar like we had almost 100
of the simple solar lights! Such a super-led not just to replace the
small led to a typical solar garden light, why would not it supported the
electronic circuit or the battery. But better! Anyway I do not like the
shape and quality of these cheap solar lighting. Here we will make a
conversion kit that can be put into any luminaire as normal outdoor
lighting powered by the power of PPC. Only with this conversion kit
will not need cables to the garden or watch the installation of
electricity, nor would we have monthly bills or will need 2,000 euros for
the electrical and material! It will be a conversion kit that could find
application in other uses:
1. Lighting billboard advertising
2. Lights on the balcony
3. Indoor Lighting (warehouse, small room, Light Box, etc).
Construction
The only materials needed are:
1. The powerful luxeon led 1W
2. A three compartment three batteries with rechargeable batteries
2000-3000mA
3. Two small photovoltaic panelakia almost 6V
4. A bracket of the photovoltaic (I used a wall bracket for a small
speaker, but would do and a simple wooden pasalaki or a small piece
of sheet metal)
5. An electronic kyklomataki - night sensor 3,6 V

176
As shown in the photo above, assembly is easy:
1. The two outer wires of the board go in positive and negative terminals of the
battery.
2. The two internal wires of the board go to their respective poles led.
3. The positive and negative power of the photovoltaic go to the respective
poles of the battery to charge it from the sun.
When I say battery, I mean a three compartment three batteries with
rechargeable AA batteries of 1,2 V (with a capacity of at least 2.000AI).

I put them all in a waterproof plastic electrical box, which had opened a small
hole for projecting the photoresists of the electronic circuit board (PCB) and
another one to come out the wires going to the lamp and led to PV. The board
- night sensor, the photoresists understands the darkness to automatically turn
on the lamp. Similarly understands and daylight to turn off the light. The sensor
night was the hardest part, after the market offered only to 12V, while the kit
needs to 3,6 V. Okay, just looked and found how to convert a kyklomataki 12V
to 3,6 V (once I get some time to convert some friends and not electronic) ...
177
The photograph shows the final installation. The box containing the light kit
fastened to the back of the photovoltaic element. The lamp led light coming
into the outer space from a hole that opened at the top, as shown in next photo
(the kit could be put in and the light for not shown). Insulation gaps with
silicone to protect from the rain

His performance is more than adequate, and illuminate for many hours at
night, those was the peak hours of sunshine a day and a bit more!
If that is a summer day saw 6 hours of intense sunshine will glow for about 8-
10 hours a night. The winter count to work for about 6-7 hours a night.
The photovoltaic panels instead of inserted at the top of the lamp could be
placed lower, for example based on a piece of sheet metal in the base of the
lamp, or beside the lamp on a wooden or metal pasalaki.
Other uses of lighting kit
As mentioned above, lighting kit can be used elsewhere. With 3 kit (without
natural light metal) placed next to each other on an elongated plastic, wood or
aluminum base, can illuminate an advertising billboard. With 3 or 4 kits can
illuminate even a small room or store! In the latter case not even need the
board sensor-night, after we can turn on a switch (and thus greatly reducing
the cost).
The cost for the entire lighting kit
7.00 Euros luxeon led
12.00 Euro plate sensor night
178
28.00 Euro PV
Total 47.00 euros. Other cost me 9.00 euros in outdoor lighting. With less than
450 euros to say, I'll post 8 solar garden lights that do work! An electrician
would ask about 2,000 euros, not counting the electricity bill and the table or
the clock, like digging in the garden ...
I do and good for the environment. And if need be in no blackout, bring 2-3 of
these solar lights in the house ...!
Powerful solar garden lights
A simple and economic construction for strong solar garden lights with solar
Here you will see how a very simple way (and very economical) to illuminate
your garden or balcony with our free energy from the sun! The solution is so
simple that literally can implement each ...
Let's start with the problem: In ordinary commerce solutions have the following
problems:
1. There are cheap solar garden light, but shine less and a candle ....
2. There are some solar lights that are relatively strong but is very expensive
(around 100 euros each), since it requires several strong solar panelakia (one
on each lamp) which is expensive and often ugly because of their size.
3. Finally, there is the most expensive option (over 1,000 million) in ordinary
garden lights with energy saving bulbs instead powered by the electricity
network, connected to a central powerful - and expensive - a large solar panel
and battery (because of high consumption due to multiple lamps even run for
several hours each evening).
The best solution therefore would be the 3rd of these, provided they do not
require large solar panels and large battery (battery) is very expensive ... So
we need to reduce power consumption by using even lower power bulb. In the
photo below we see a spot that lights 12V 18 led by consumption and is only
1,3 Watt at 12V (four times lower than that of smaller energy-saving lamp)!

179
Then purchased four of these garden lights traded. All are appropriate, no
matter if it is solar lighting or usual for the electricity network. Simply place a
normal light bulb located in the the above spots such as the following photos:

So I prepared four fixtures. At the end located at the top of all the lighting and
the end result is flawless and professionally: As we see in the picture above,
180
the specific exit at the bottom of each lantern come two wires - one black and
one red (negative and positive respectively).
The cable connections for lighting, battery and the photovoltaic charge
regulator
All black (negative) wires connected to the lighting of the corresponding slot
loading control (marked with - minus). All the red (positive) wires connected to
the corresponding slot loading control (marked with a + co), as in the photo
below the two slots on the right to charge controller
:

Of the two slots in the messaies charge controller (again marked with plus and
minus), start the wires leading up to the respective poles of the battery as we
will see below (positive to positive terminal of the battery and the negative to
the negative terminal of battery) .
The two left jacks (which again marked with plus and minus on the charge
controller) are the two relevant wires photovoltaic panels to charge the battery.

The cables must enter a specific channel (eg, coils) to be protected from the
weather, as they have a battery with the governor placed in a waterproof box.
The thickness of the wires need not be very big. Cross-section of 2,5 mm is
sufficient, unless the lights or battery or solar panels are large distances
between them (eg more than 10 meters apart from each other).
The final result
The governor has the ability to automatically turns lights until dusk and to
switch off after 2 to 12 hours (adjustable from us). At the same time ensure
proper forisi and discharge the battery to protect it from premature wear.
The consumption of this system is 41,60 Wh (Watt hours) for 8 hours every
night (4 lights x 1,3 Watt X 8 hours). So we covered a small photovoltaic panel
of 10 Wp, which is a sunny day produces about 50 Wh (Watt hours).

181
When the battery is required need not be large: a small - and cheap - 12volti
lead battery with a capacity of 12 AH (ampere hours) gives us not only eating
one day, but also provides additional autonomy for two or three days without
sunshine. In Greece we have sunshine 300 days a year!

In the photo below appears and the actual outcome of these four lights:
Pretty impressive, especially for easy construction with minimal cost!
Cost
The photovoltaic panel costs 55 euros, 45 million the governor and four spots
28 euros (7 euros each). These lights cost 9 euros each, but as noted above,
all kinds of lighting is appropriate. A 12volti 12 AH lead acid battery (like those
used by bikes) costs 30 euros. Make a small car battery.
For 8 lights, doubling the battery capacity (or put second battery) and get a
second panel. The governor is the same, no further need for having resistant
up to 5 solar panels (ie up to 20 fixtures with these spots). The same is also
true for 12, 16 or 20 lights.
Wind and Photovoltaic
Connecting a wind turbine system with solar panels, creating a hybrid system
Photovoltaics produce electricity when there is sunshine. Wind turbines
produce electricity when the wind blows or there is sunshine or not.
And usually when it is cloudy (mostly in autumn and winter) the days of wind
are frequent.
It is always recommended, an autonomous photovoltaic system to be backed
by a wind turbine.
The size and power of the wind depends on many factors such as the point of
installation and whether it is exploitable wind resources, our needs, the size of
the solar system (if there), etc.
A small wind turbine of 400W (at 12,5 m / sec) can give us even more than
200 KWh per year (annual average wind speed 4,0 m / sec).
What should however be borne in mind is that wind turbines are not suitable
for urban environments. Be placed in a fairly large amount and that no higher
182
barriers around them within several meters. Which usually does not apply in
residential areas.
Articles on the wind turbines and wind energy

Soon another article on the construction of a horizontal axis wind turbine at


this time. When I get some time I will present the results from testing the wind
turbine vertical axis.
Here are the following articles on the vertical axis small wind turbine and other
wind energy constructions.
Construction on the wind:
1. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine: A wind turbine first!
2. Vertical axis wind turbine: The SECOND PART of the wind turbine!
3. Make yourself an anemometer: Easy and cheap to build step by step
anemometer to measure the wind speed ...
Educational Articles wind:
1. Comparison of horizontal and vertical wind axis: The first dilemma for
anyone who starts to build itself a wind ...
2. Wind turbine horizontal or vertical axis. Advantages and disadvantages of
yourself.
3. Calculation of wind power. How much energy is in the wind and how this
can turn into electricity?
4. Wind ... so Watt! So what? How will I know how much power production will
have;
The first wind turbine
Vertical axis wind turbine
This page is the first part of the wind turbine vertical axis. I chose to start first
with the construction of a vertical axis, mainly because it is easier to
manufacture than the horizontal axis wind turbine. Then of course I will go and
build a horizontal axis, which he will present again the same way ...
The heart of the construction is the motor. Ideally, the motor which could with
relatively low revolutions per minute to produce more than 12V to be able to
charge batteries 12voltes. Unfortunately, the vast majority of motors, but they
can do so at very high speeds, typically over 1,500 per minute.
That's why I use a motor that is used in wheels on electric carts, scooters, etc.
It is 250W at 36V, at about 400 revolutions per minute. So, with only 130
revolutions per minute will give the required 12V or more.
The motor that I brought from China and it cost me a total of 150 million
(mainly due to high traffic because it is heavy, but the office),.

183
The holes intended for the rays of the wheel on which should be incorporated
into the motor, I spent long screws 3mm thick to support the motor on a steady
basis, as shown in the previous and the next photo:

Then I opened the centers are a piece of plywood a hole one centimeter (as is
the shaft of the motor that is) and a nut fastened to the axle of the wheel on
the other side. Because I used plywood, put a disk wheel angle for support. If it
was the base metal and not plywood would not require payment (see next

184
photo).
Because the building was a test, I used wood, plywood for convenience. The
right is to use rigid metal plate for greater durability.
The next two photos shows the way in which it rotates: the axis is stable in the
lower base, mounted with nut. The metal body of the motor is what rotates
around its axis.

185
186
On the turntable will be placed below the cut pvc pipe to cause the rotation of
the air will receive on them.
Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
The construction of the wind
Upon completion of the lower part of the turbine including the motor and base
rotation, went to the construction of the upper wind turbine which is essentially
a place that welcomes the wind and spun from them. This rotation of the
turbine rotates and the shaft of the motor mounted at its base.
I bought a PVC pipe with a length of 140 cm and 30 cm in diameter and cut
them along the middle to get two parts of a length of 140 cm each.
These vidothikan on the turntable motor to the device shown in the figure
below:

The way the two screw segments of PVC pipe on the turntable that I had made
at the top of the motor, shown in the photo below
:

187
188
189
In the same
way I posted
and another
rectangular
piece of wood
on top of wind turbines to the whole structure more compact:

Having painted all parts of the turbine with a shiny black (gloss for less friction
of the wind), the result was what appears in the following photo:

Coming in the next section: Measurements and testing ...


Make your own anemometer with 10 Euro
How do we measure the speed of the wind The anemometer
Here we see that we can measure the wind speed using an anemometer that
can be made very easy and cheap materials!
Very useful, since even the cheapest handheld anemometers on the market
costing between 60 and 120 euros ...
The materials we need are:
1. A small spirit level
2. One quadrant

190
3. A piece of twine or more thin line length 30 cm
4. A ping-pong
The spirit level is used to place the protractor correctly and with precision
(horizontal) to the ground.
The thread started sticking in the center of the straight side of the angle (at 90
degrees that is). At the other end of the yarn in glue ball.
The following figure shows the integrated anemometer

Where it blows no wind, the ball does not move the yarn passes over the term
of 90 degrees of angle. When wind blows, as the wind speed, the ball moves
from its original position so the thread goes through some indication of the
angle that is less than 90 degrees.
From the table below can match marked degree with a fairly accurate estimate
of wind speed. If you want to convert the unit from meters per second (m / s) in
kilometers per hour (Km / h), just multiply by 3.6.
Degrees - Speed (m / s)
90 ° ------- 0.0 (no wind - calm)
85 ° ------- 2.6 m / sec
80 ° ------- 3.6 m / sec
75 ° ------- 4.5 m / sec
70 ° ------- 5.3 m / sec
65 ° ------- 5.9 m / sec
60 ° ------- 6.6 m / sec
55 ° ------- 7.3 m / sec
50 ° ------- 8.0 m / sec
191
45 ° ------- 8.7 m / sec
40 ° ------- 9.5 m / sec
35 ° ------- 10.4 m / sec
30 ° ------- 11.5 m / sec
25 ° ------- 12.8 m / sec
20 ° ------- 14.4 (almost stormy wind)
Below 20 degrees does not make sense to continue, because there is nobody
there to see! With winds over 20 m / s (very squally wind) better to be in an

192
underground bunker less than a turbine (especially if you have it fix itself ...

In the above left photo is calm, so that the thread passes from the sign 90
degrees. In right photo, the wind ysa pushes the ball to the right, so now the
thread enters the sign 80 degrees.
From the table we saw earlier, the sign of 80 degrees represents a wind speed
3,6 m / s (meters per second), or otherwise 13 km / h (kilometers per hour).
Wind horizontal or vertical axis
Compare advantages and disadvantages of each type
The first dilemma was whether to proceed with the wind horizontal or vertical
axis.
Horizontal axis (HAWT - Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines) are turbines which
rotate around a horizontal axis on the ground.
Is the usual picture of the wind we have most in our minds, as they have
prevailed for several reasons which I will mention below.
In the picture above we see such a horizontal axis wind turbine. The blades of
rotating around an axis that is horizontal to the ground.
It is clear that every moment must be oriented towards the wind.
Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT - Vertical Axis Wind Turbines) instead
revolve around an axis perpendicular to the ground.
Wind turbines vertical axis by means of the construction, "catching" the wind
from every direction.
In the next photo depicts a wind turbine vertical axis type "savonius", which is
the simplest in terms of its construction.
193
It consists essentially of a tube cut in half lengthwise, the two pieces placed
vertically as in the following plan (what we see when we look at the vertical
wind turbine vertical axis type "savonius" from above)
:

This type of vertical axis is called "savonius" and is the easiest to build (you
guessed it, is the type of turbine with lower performance) ...
Are there other types of vertical axis wind turbine, which improve performance
significantly (eg "darrieus"), but never reach the efficiency of a properly
designed horizontal axis wind turbine, which is why they have prevailed.
So let's try a comparison of two types of wind turbines, to see the advantages
and disadvantages in the Wind vertical axis and horizontal.
How much energy is in the wind?
Practical calculation
Here we see the simple formula with which we can calculate the force that can
provide a wind turbine. Resulting from the combination of kinetic energy is the
wind and the ceiling that we can turn it into a mechanical / electrical, as
described by the German scientist Albert Betz.
Kinetic Energy: 0.5 x mass x (speed squared)
The mass is calculated in Kg and the speed in m / s (meters per second). The
kinetic energy is in Joules.
The density of air at zero altitude is 1,23 Kg per cubic meter. So the mass of
air passing through the surface covering the blades of a turbine, resulting from:

Mass per second (kg / s) = Speed (m / s) x Area (m2) x Density (kg/m3)


Combining the above types, shows the strength of the wind in the wings of the
wind (in Watt):
Power (Watt) = 0.5 × area (m2) X 1.23 X three times the wind speed in m / sec

1.23 The case for wind turbines installed at the same level as the sea - as we
climb in altitude is changing, but not enough to severely affected by the
outcome.
This is the power of the wind. The Albert Betz calculated that the maximum but
194
we can convert the kinetic energy of wind into mechanical energy to drive a
rotor (as in a turbine) is 59.3%.
So here goes and the limit of 59.3% and the loss of wind (friction, cable, etc.).
So often the ultimate power to take from the horizontal axis wind turbines are
30-40% of the power of the wind calculated with the formula above. Vertical
axis wind turbines in the figure is 15-30%.
Example:
Suppose we have a wind turbine mounted at the height of the sea, with rotor
diameter of 5 meters (ie two and a half meters in each wing). We can calculate
the force that can give wind speeds of about 12 meters per second (m / s).
The area covered by the rotor is in p [(diameter divided by two) squared],
namely:
Area (m2) = 3,14 x (2.5 x 2.5) = 19.63 squares meters (m2).
Thus, according to the type of wind power:
Power (Watt) = 0,5 X 19.63 X 1.23 X (12CH12CH12) = 20.861 Watt
Taking into account the limit of Betz (59,3%), we see that the strength of this
wind turbine at wind speed 12 m / s can not exceed the 20,861 X 0,593 =
12.371 Watt.
In practice however, due to other losses, giving from 6.000W to 9.000W and
this is the best (well-designed and high wind)! If indeed it was a vertical axis,
would lower performance and power would be equivalent to 6.000W 3.000W
than most.
And turbine performance curves
The power rating indicates a wind turbine by itself does not tell us much about
the energy that can give us. Indicates only power that can give the wind to a
specific wind speed.
For example 400W to 12,5 m / s (meters per second). Ordinary wind but
around 4-6 m / s and very few hours time we have 12,5 m / s.
What you need to know is this: For wind speeds prevailing in the region to
install a wind turbine, how much power can give any wind turbines compare?
Some wind turbine is suitable for lower speed wind turbine and another the
opposite. It is good to look and performance curves for each turbine at various
wind speeds and of course we know the wind speeds prevailing in
establishment.

195
Each turbine has its own yield curves, for example above regarding small wind
turbine 400W. But we can see that the nominal power of 400W is reached in
wind speed of about 12,5 m / s which is valid for a few hours time.
Usually when windy, the wind speeds are between 3 and 7 m / s in most areas
that interest us. At these speeds, but as we see from the first curve, the wind
only produces about 50W of power!
If we know the average annual wind speed in the region of interest, then the
second curve we find a (very rough) estimate of the monthly production KWh
(kilowatt hours) of wind. One size clearly more useful than before.
196
For example, the annual average wind speed 4,5 m / s can expect the wind
around 18 to 25 KWh per month, depending on how good the location of
installation (obstacles, height, soil, altitude, air density , temperature, etc.).
Data on average wind speed, we can look at weather services (such as NA).
The yield curve of a wind turbine manufacturer helps to have an initial idea and
to facilitate comparisons.
Does not mean that if we calculate again the yield curve for the same wind
turbines installed in a location that we get the same results.
There are other factors that may affect the result (a different land, air density,
etc.).
Most manufacturers provide curves and estimated (annual or monthly)
production in KWh (kilowatt hours) for a wind turbine. This is much easier,
since this is the size that ultimately concerns us.
But it is calculated in specific circumstances ... And while removed our facility
from the ideal, the lower is the production of wind turbine (much lower).
Τεύχος 028 - Νοέμβριος Τεύχος 027 - Οκτώβριος Τεύχος 026 -
2009 2009 Σεπτέμβριος 2009

Τεύχος 025 - Ιούλιος Τεύχος 024 - Ιούνιος 2009 Τεύχος 023 - Μάϊος
Αύγουστος 2009 2009

Solar Cube: A system for providing potable water and electricity for emergency

197
The Solar Cube is a product of Swiss Company Spectra Watermakers has the
ability to produce electricity through integrated photovoltaic panels and wind
available and the ability to clean water from any source or desalination of
seawater. The Solar Cube is supplied ready for installation, which lasts only a
few hours and can be used to provide water and electricity to remote areas or
emergency situation. It comes in 3 versions:
• SSW 3500: Produces 3500 liters of water per day from seawater
• SSBW 6500: Produces from 3500 to 6500 liters of water a day depending on
the extent of salt water
• SFWS 15000: It produces 15,000 liters per day from any source not saltwater
removing viruses and bacteria without chemicals

IV curve of a typical crystalline silicon cell under standard test conditions


(PS_). Where:
• sc I → short circuit current
• oc V → open circuit voltage
• max P → maximum power
• max I → current at the point of maximum power
• max V → stress at the point of maximum power
The power output from the cell is almost directly proportional
the intensity of sunlight (for example, if
halve the intensity of sunlight will be halved and
output power). An important feature of the PV cell is
that the cell voltage does not depend on the size and
remains relatively constant with the change of light intensity.
However, the current in a device is almost directly proportional to
light intensity and size. OTHER One factor that adversely affects the efficiency
of photovoltaic cells is the resistance of the circuit. That is the inevitable
resistance s R (the English word series resistance) that interfere with the
movement of players within the semiconductor (in particular the front surface
layer) in contact with the electrodes. Further, because the resistance through
the passage has infinite value, because due to unavoidable manufacturing
defects are leakage current, equivalent circuit, as shown in the figure below,
and includes a parallel resistor sh R (the English word shunt resistance). While
LR is the external resistance (from the English word load resistance) and IF is
fotorefma, ie
electricity from the photovoltaic element excited by
A radiation. Usually the photovoltaic elements of the trade s R is less than 5 _
and sh R is greater than 500 _. However, significantly affect the voltage and
current LV LI flowing through the load circuit LR, resulting in a corresponding
reduction in yield point [11].

198
At this point it must be specifically mentioned another factor that affects
performance and is no less than the temperature. Basically it's the reason that
caused the interest in research on the hybrid (solar-thermal) collector systems
for heating water.
While the power output of a cell can be increased considerably by using a
monitoring mechanism to track
maintain the PV is directly perpendicular to the sun, or concentrating sunlight
using lenses or
mirrors. However there are limits to this process because of
complexity of the mechanisms and the necessary cooling
cells.
In particular the increase of temperature in cells caused a corresponding
increase in the endogenous concentration of semiconductor bodies, so that
more reunions bodies. This reflected stronger leakage current through the
diode resulting in a lower oc V
and FF (fill factor) by reducing the degree of
photovoltaics
The typical curve of variation in performance of photovoltaic silicon as a
function of temperature.
The scale of the ordinate gives the percentage of performance relative to the
apodositou in conventional temperature 20oC. The range of temperature on
the abscissa are logarithmic.
The scale of the axis of tension gives the percentage of performance relative
to the performance of the conventional temperature of 2 0 oC. The range of
temperature on the abscissa is
logarithmic. While the following shows the effect of temperature on
IV curves of a typical silicon cell. Observe that
power production is relatively stable at higher temperatures but the trend is
reduced (reduction of about 0,0023 Volts for each increase of a degree
Celsius).
Typical curve of variation in performance of silicon photovoltaic cells as a
function of temperature. The scale of the axis of tension gives the percentage
of performance relative to the performance of the conventional temperature of
2 0 oC. The range of temperature on the abscissa is logarithmic.
While in the following figure showing the effect of temperature on
IV curves of a typical silicon cell. Observe that
power production is relatively stable at higher
temperatures but the trend is reduced (reduction 0,0023 Volts
Any increase of about one degree Celsius) to 31% [1]. However, the most
common material used is silicon because of its low cost and the advanced
technology that accompanies it, due to widespread use in the electronics
industry. His performance can theoretically reach close to 28% but now has
exceeded 25% in laboratory scale failure to achieve higher efficiency losses
due to reflection, shading from the electrical contacts, lack of

199
absorption of radiation by a semiconductor, loss of cargo
before harvesting and the cornerstones thermodynamic-economic level
energy conversion. At research level is an attempt
reducing losses using different techniques [hile examined and
combinations of materials can theoretically yield more
50%
3.4.1 silicon solar cells
The material used widely in industry for PV
cells is silicon (Si). Silicon is a semiconductor
an indirect energy gap of 1,1 eV. Although these two properties
(Indirect and relatively small price gap) is not ideal for
photovoltaic conversion of solar radiation, silicon is
semiconductor dominated from the start but until today, as
material of solar panels. The reason is perhaps that the
pyritioechei already rich past 3-4 decades as the main material
provisions of semiconductor electronics. Therefore
properties are well studied and the material placed on
market in large enough quantities, with sufficient purity and perfection of
crystalline structure, using technological methods proven successful.

In order to silicon but also other crystalline semiconductor, satisfactory


properties for photovoltaic and generally
Electronic applications (high mobility, long diffusion length
and a long life of bodies, including bodies of minority-
prior to reconnecting them) must be very high
purity and crystal lattice disorder is not the structure.
The first phase of cleaning of the silicon is the
remelting and then convert the "metal"
silicon trichlorosilane gas (3 SiHCl) who is separated from
various impurities by fractional distillation. Metallurgical "
silicon has a purity of about 99.6% which is very good for
uses conventional techniques, but completely inadequate for
electronic applications.
Then, the trichlorosilane is reduced by hydrogen
Concentrate quality silicon "wafers" or "e", which
Melt and crystallized with greater purity (approximately 99.99999%), a
cylindrical single-crystal form, diameter about 10 cm. Since the cylinder cut
discs with a thickness of about 0,5 mm, which are carefully smoothed to
remove the defects of cut and then formed a pn diode diffusion of impurities.

The telikostadio sygkollisiton the electrodes on the front and back of the tablet,
the interconnectedness of finished components, coverage
front surface with a reflex coating to reduce reflection of light and tight
packaging within

200
The PV silicon elements can be distinguished according to the structure of the
basic
equipment or means of production. The different types are:
62
• (Single-crystal Silicon or c-Si). The basic material is
monocrystalline. The thickness of the material is relatively large
(300mm). The performance, with the type of cell,
ranging from 21% to 24%, while the form of PV
frameworks, ranging between 13% to 16%. Characterized
by high construction costs.
• PV elements of polycrystalline silicon (Mylticrystaline
Silicon or mc-Si). _ynatotita of large surfaces. Usually cut into square shape
data. They consist of thin layers with a thickness of 10 to 50 micrometers. On
the surface of the cell, there are different monocrystalline areas. The limits are
the positions of trapping bodies. So the smaller the total length of marginal
areas in a given dimension PV component, the better the electrical
conductivity of them. In general, the larger the size of single crystal regions of
multicrystalline photovoltaic modules, the higher their performance, ranging
from 17% to 20% in laboratory cell form and 10% small (calculator) to large
(under fixed or flexible format).
• PV hybrid components. The so-called hybrid combining
technology of amorphous and single crystal, exploiting the advantages of both
technologies. When combining the advantages of both was higher degrees of
performance per area needed. In contrast, however, construction costs are
quite expensive and the photovoltaic modules of amorphous silicon and of
course the photovoltaic modules of crystalline silicon.
Finally, in the following table shows the tabular attributes of different types of
PV silicon components for easier comparison of the.

201
The relatively large energy gap of gallium arsenide YOU result of his good
behavior in some extreme temperatures. This is a property of particular
importance also for centralized systems, where solar cells are often heated by
strong radiation they receive. Specifically, the performance of gallium arsenide
solar panels dropped to half compared to their performance in the usual room
temperature, when heated to 200 Co. The corresponding decrease in solar
modules of silicon (Si) are already in 120Co, while the most sensitive elements
of cadmium sulfide (CdS) in 80Co.
202
The highest yields of the gallium arsenide solar cells, have provided data on
eteroenoseon semiconductor alloy system 1 xx Ga Al As -, where x takes
values from 0 to 1. Experimental solar cells of this type measured yields about
24% which is very close to the theoretical maximum (31%).
66
3.4.2 Solar elements cadmium sulfide (CdS)
The cadmium sulphide (CdS) is a semiconductor with a direct and relatively
large energy gap (2,45 g E = eV), which is used to
optoilektrologikes successfully in many applications, such as the
Construction photocells, light amplifiers, fosforiston,
radiation detectors, etc. The cadmium sulphide behaves
usually as a semiconductor type n. _iladi bodies are most
the free electrons, without adding foreign
individuals-donors. Previously it was assumed that the operation of the
photovoltaic cells from cadmium sulphide, a front electrode made of copper,
due exclusively to cadmium sulphide, so prevailed
name as evidence of cadmium sulphide. Today it is known that
due to eteroenosi between the sulphide layer
cadmium and a thin layer of sulphide copper
formed by the action of cadmium sulfide in copper,
which as we have built the front electrode. The
composition of the layer that is usually attributed to the chemical formula
2 Cu S, but it is more correct to write x Cu S, where x
ranging from 1.96 to 1.99. The x Cu S is also a semiconductor with
indirect energy gap of 1,2 eV, and a character type p. _iladi
bodies are most holes without adding impurities.
The energy gap of x Cu S is quite favorable for
absorb photons of solar radiation. But it too
short diffusion length of minority actors, about 50 nm, and
thus the thickness of the layer must be correspondingly small
ie not exceeding 150 nm (ie 0.15 mm). Moreover, as
reported the energy gap of cadmium sulphide is relatively
great, so the layer of photon absorption is small.
The result is that the density produced in fotorefmatos
solar modules / x Cu S CdS ie Amperes of current per
unit area of the element is small, about half
compared to silicon solar cells. The quantities of solar modules / x Cu S CdS is
still small, but believed that there are significant mellontikesprooptikes they
can be made from relatively inexpensive materials and simple methods.
The solar modules / x Cu S CdS are quite satisfactory performance,
about 10%, but there are some doubts about the stability
, especially the influence of solar cells work 3.4.3 arsenious gallium (GaAs)
The arsenious gallium (GaAs) is a semiconductor with energy
gap of 1,43 eV. This value is the optimum for

203
photovoltaic conversion of solar radiation, with a theoretical
yield about 25%. Moreover, the energy gap is direct.
Therefore arsenious gallium (GaAs) combines the principle ideals
requirements for use as a solar manufacturing
photovoltaic cells. The research effort has
recent development is intense and it is believed that soon the
gallium arsenide will find important applications, especially in the solar
elements concentrated radiation, although the cost is
larger than silicon, about five times. Aggregating
However, photovoltaic systems, electric power generation by
unit area of solar cell is large enough, since
68
accept increased density of radiation, and therefore not
very important cost solar cell.
The relatively large energy gap of gallium arsenide has
as a result of his good behavior in some high
temperatures. This is a property of particular importance also
on centralized systems, where solar cells are often
heated by strong radiation they receive.
Specifically, the performance of solar modules arsenide
gallium drops by half, compared to their performance in
normal room temperature, when heated to
200 Co. The corresponding reduction in silicon solar cells (Si)
already observed in 120Co, while the most sensitive
elements of cadmium sulfide (CdS) for 80Co.
Larger yields than arsenide solar cells
France, have given information on semiconductor eteroenoseon
alloy system 1 xx Ga Al As -, where x takes values from 0
to 1. Experimental solar cells of this type
measured yields about 24% which is very close to
the theoretical maximum (31%) [1].
73
Figure 4.3: Typical solar thermal (PV / T) system.
Finally, as reported by various researchers using
systems PV / H not only to increase the degree
performance and the strength of materials. It is observed that
Prolonged exposure of photovoltaic cells at high
temperatures adversely affects the durability and strength
system [11] [14].
4.2 NEED FOR DEVELOPMENT T_N PV / H
The development of PV / H systems was not only for technical
reasons but for economic reasons. It is obvious that reducing
operating temperature of cells increases the efficiency and
hence the displacement of a market that is trading capacity. The

204
74
development of various technologies are inextricably linked
their economic potential.
According to studies conducted by the EPFL (Ecole Polytechnique de
Lausanne) in Switzerland showed that it is essential to thinking about
thermal applications. The prospective application of hybrid PV / T
devices will have a positive contribution to the broader market for PV
systems and is probably another way to broaden
use of PV, which would have the opportunity to
through use of hybrid PV / T devices without
need large subsidy [15].
According to studies done have shown that integrating
units of heat dissipation in PV significantly reduce the time
depreciation on investment. Features indicated by
Tripanagnostopoulos, Tselepi, Souliotis and Thun, in accordance with
investigating who did it, that the inclusion of an extraction unit
Heat can reduce the time to decay and 2.5 times
if it is incorporated into polycrystalline solar system
silicon (pc-Si) and up to 4.5 when it incorporated in
photovoltaic amorphous silicon (a-Si). This is
that the polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic
(Pc-Si) have nearly twice the cost per aperture area to
compared with amorphous silicon photovoltaic (a-Si)
[13.65]. A finding from the same study is interesting
is that while the use of a diffuse reflector increases
electrical and thermal performance affects little time
depreciation on investment.
In addition, as mentioned in the literature using hybrid
photovoltaic (PV / T) system performance
increases significantly while the cost of the total energy produced
cash gain of heat in water and air. In this way
presents the historical overview that follows and is divided into
two parts.
4.3.1 History of PV / T water systems (PV / T water)
The first work on the PV / T water was flat panels
by Martin Wolf [22], who dealt with a constant
silicon photovoltaic in series with heat sink without
concentrator using a battery to store the
energy. The investigation concluded the prospects and benefits
this technology. After researching the pioneer Martin Wolf
In 1976, the object of collectors FB / H-water was investigated by
many institutions such as MIT. The first demonstration of the project
was conducted by Professor Boer, who used 13 panels
PV / T water in his house in 1978. During the period 1974-1978

205
research on the photovoltaic and hybrid photovoltaic
water systems were at the University of Arizona (Arizona State
University). Much attention was paid to modeling these
systems for the applications in TRNSYS. This work
extended to flat panels FB / H, which is the
based on the PV / T model type used TYPE50
even today in 1978 in the laboratory Lincoln (MIT Lincoln laboratory) managed

to have three original panels PV / H


normal size. These three panels were manufactured by
the ARCO (ARCO kataskefasekai the PV / T air and water) and
Spectrolab (manufactured by Spectrolab PV / T air only). From TA
experiments conducted on these systems showed that the
results were lower than the original specifications
(6.5% electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency 40%). For this
why a second generation of PV / T collector was constructed,
consisting of PV / T water with the previous project, two
test developed PV / T air, and three newly developed PV / H
water (pipelines with dual flow design without glass cover, and
dual-phase freon where the PV / F evaporator serves as the
heat pump). The first two types of PV / T developed and
While the first built by MIT and the Spire
Corporation and the other by Solar Design Associates and Spire
Corporation under high supervision of MIT. Results
investigations and the final report issued in these
many publications [25,26,27]. In the laboratory Sandia, there have been many
research on the effects of heat on the electrical performance.
[28.29]. In 1980 he began studies in the laboratories of JPL and
Brookhaven for the further development of PV / T collectors.
Although most studies became in America, some
research efforts became in some other parts of
world. In Japan, Sharp has built two novel
flat PV / T collectors [30] and slavery on the
concentrators for PV / F was made by Nakata et al. [31]. In
Germany, Karl developed and tested by photovoltaic
krystallikopyritio (c-Si) with glass cover (along with
AEGTelefunken) and France have been several studies on the
PV / T systems with condensers [32.33].
_stoso in 1982 following the oil crisis created a large
worldwide interest in renewable energy
mainly to solar power. Yet in America
77
Experiments conducted on these systems appeared to
results were lower than the original specifications

206
(6.5% electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency 40%). For this
why a second generation of PV / T collector was constructed,
consisting of PV / T water with the previous project, two
developed experimental PV / T air, and three newly developed PV / H
water (pipelines with dual flow design without glass cover, and
dual-phase freon where the PV / T acts as the evaporator
heat pump). The first two types of PV / T and developed
While the first built by MIT and the Spire
Corporation and the other by Solar Design Associates and Spire
Corporation beneath the high supervision of MIT. Results
investigations and the final report issued in these
many publications in the laboratory Sandia, there have been many
research on the effects of heat on the electrical performance.
In 1980 he began studies in the laboratories of JPL and
Brookhaven for the further development of PV / T collectors.
Although most studies became in America, some
research efforts became in some other parts of
world. In Japan, Sharp has built two novel
flat PV / T collectors and slavery on the
concentrators for PV / F was made by Nakata et al. In
Germany, Karl developed and tested by photovoltaic
krystallikopyritio (c-Si) with glass cover (with
AEGTelefunken) and France have been several studies on the
PV / T systems with condensers
_stoso in 1982 following the oil crisis created a large
worldwide interest in renewable energy
mainly to solar energy. Yet in America
interest in renewable energy was not the same
intense. The first years of government Reagan (1981-1989) the
funds earmarked for renewable energy was
obviously limited. Most groups working on
the PV / T systems have stopped research with the exception of
SunWatt devoted to fixed systems PV / F low
Starting concentration of the growth of FB / F systems, SunWatt
built and installed over 100 PV / T water collector
from 1981 to 1989. Also during the early
80 were some individual efforts in Europe and more
particularly in Switzerland at the institute in a micro
University Niousatel (Institut de Microtechnique de l '
Universite de Neuchatel) and in Yugoslavia. While in
90s, Europe was moving towards renewable
energies mainly due to the global recognition of
problem of global warming.
In the Netherlands, research on the PV / T system began in

207
1989 to institute TNO in cooperation with the Foundation HES, which
extra weight given to the study of systems PV / T without
cover for heat pump applications. Another important
attempt was made to the University of Aitchofen (Eindhoven
University of Technology-EUT) where it was thesis
(1994-1998), and focused on the study of FB / F systems
glass cover. In 1999, the company Ecofys, TNO and the institution
University Aitchofen (EUT) did a survey in cooperation
the technologies and market PV / T systems the same
year, the research on the PV / T systems at the University of
Aitchofen moved to the center of the Netherlands Energy Research
interest in renewable energy was not the same
intense. The first years of the Reagan government (1981-1989) the
funds earmarked for renewable energy was
obviously limited. Most groups working on
the PV / T systems have stopped research with the exception of
SunWatt devoted to fixed systems PV / F low
Starting concentration of the growth of PV / T systems, SunWatt
built and installed over 100 PV / T water collector
from 1981 to 1989. Also during the early
80 were some individual efforts in Europe and more
particularly in Switzerland at the institute in a micro
University Niousatel (Institut de Microtechnique de l '
Universite de Neuchatelkathos in Yugoslavia. While in
90s, Europe was moving towards renewable
energies mainly due to the global recognition of
problem of global warming.
In the Netherlands, research on the PV / T system began in
1989 to institute TNO in cooperation with the Foundation HES, which
extra weight given to the study of systems PV / T without
cover for heat pump applications. Another important
attempt was made to the University of Aitchofen (Eindhoven
University of Technology-EUT) where it was thesis
(1994-1998), and concentrated on the study of PV / T systems
glass cover. In 1999, the company Ecofys, TNO and the institution
University Aitchofen (EUT) did a survey in cooperation
the technologies and the market for PV / T systems [21]. The same
year, the research on the PV / T systems at the University of
Aitchofen moved to the center of the Netherlands Energy Research
(Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands-ECN). In the ECN was
Important work on the design of different
systems [
In Germany, manufacturers Zenith, Solarwerk and Solarwatt
developed a prototype PV / T collector in the 90s, but

208
Unfortunately it was not possible commercial exploitation of this
collector [39]. The panels manufactured by Solarwatt
were designed to establish a demonstration program in
Malteser Krankenhaus, but instead of the PV / T collectors
Simple installed PV panels.
In _ania, a research program on the PV / T systems
produced by companies that manufacture solar Batec
collectors, the Racell manufactures PV systems, and the company
Advisers Esbensen Consulting engineers. These systems
tested and installed in 2000. However, given the small
dynamics of Danish renewable energy market, the Batec
decided to terminate its involvement with the development of PV / T and
Racell the continued effort in this katefthynsiSimantiki work on the PV / T
systems has been and
University of Patras
In Germany, manufacturers Zenith, Solarwerk and Solarwatt
developed a prototype PV / T collector in the 90s, but
Unfortunately it was not possible commercial exploitation of this
collector [39]. The panels manufactured by Solarwatt
were designed to establish a demonstration program in
Malteser Krankenhaus, but instead of the PV / T collectors
Simple installed PV panels.
In _ania, a research program on the PV / T systems
produced by companies that manufacture solar Batec
collectors, the Racell manufactures PV systems, and the company
Advisers Esbensen Consulting engineers. These systems
tested and installed in 2000. However, given the small
dynamics of Danish renewable energy market, the Batec
decided to terminate its involvement with the development of PV / T and
Racell the continued effort in this katefthynsiSimantiki work on the PV / T
systems has been and
University of Patras. These relate the experimental
Comparative studies on the PV / T systems with or without glass
cover, with or without diffuse reflector Also
economic viability of these systems is subject
many studies. In addition, Cyprus has a numerical study
thermosifonikoutypou on a PV / T system where
presented and an extensive bibliography about the
system modeled in collaboration with the University of
Patras.Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands-ECN). In the ECN was
Important work on the design of different
systems
In Germany, manufacturers Zenith, Solarwerk and Solarwatt
developed a prototype PV / T collector in the 90s, but

209
Unfortunately it was not possible commercial exploitation of this
collector [39]. The panels manufactured by Solarwatt
were designed to establish a demonstration program in
Malteser Krankenhaus, but instead of the PV / T collectors
Simple installed PV panels.
In _ania, a research program on the PV / T systems
produced by companies that manufacture solar Batec
collectors, the Racell manufactures PV systems, and the company
Advisers Esbensen Consulting engineers. These systems
tested and installed in 2000. However, given the small
dynamics of Danish renewable energy market, the Batec
decided to terminate its involvement with the development of PV / T and
Racell the continued effort in this direction [40].
Important work on the PV / T systems has been and
University of Patras. These relate the experimental
Comparative studies on the PV / T systems with or without glass
cover, with or without diffuse reflector Also
economic viability of these systems is subject
many studies. In addition, Cyprus has a numerical study
thermosifonikoutypou on a PV / T system where
presented and an extensive bibliography about the
system modeled in collaboration with the University of
Patras.
In Israel, developed a commercial collector PV / T without
glass cover. Initial focus was on trying to reduce
overheating of the PV is a very serious problem
desert of Israel. The winter of 1991/1992 such a PV / H
system Klil settled in a small town in Israel. The PV / F
collectors originally manufactured by a company Chromagen,
But from 2002 onwards, the production company went to the Millennium
Electric. From that time onwards was the Millennium Electric
exclusive rights for the production of PV / T. In 2004
Millennium Electric has launched in collaboration with the technology
University _anias (Technical University of Denmark) the
program MULTISOLAR. The program is a MULTISOLAR
subsidized by the European Union project to develop
PV / T systems in buildings built for the European market.
The programs for the development of PV / T system is not running
only in Europe but also in the world. University
Hong Kong (City University of Hong Kong), Professor Chow
created a potential model for the PV / T collectors where
used to calculate the efficiency water heaters
systems [43]. In China University of Technology (University
of Science and Technology of China) made a sensitivity analysis of

210
these systems [44].
Finally, in America the main programs made by companies
PowerLight and SDA. Specifically, the company PowerLight
aneptyxeta focused and PV / T systems without glass
cover, metal-based amorphous silicon cells (a-Si) for
Collectors pools. _stoso problems had to do with
production cost and reliability of products made
prevents the production of PV / T systems [45]. About
SDA focused on the development of PV / T collectors glass
cover. But commercial production is started ever since the
initial capital investment was too great to justify
than-expected earnings.

4.3.2 History of PV / T air systems (PV / T air)


The first application of FB / H air was in 1973/1974 by Professor
Boer in a house in Delaware University (University of
Delaware). Professor Boer until then considered Pundit
more straight FB having done many studies and experiments on
them. The PV / T air installed on the roof and
front of the house and 24 from the panels of the roof had cells
CdS/Cu2S [46].
After the original work of Professor Boer on the PV / H
air systems in the late 70s and early 80
What followed was the group Hendrie, the laboratory
Sandia and Brown University (Brown University) [25,27].
As already reported in 1978 by MIT Lincoln Laboratories and
the Sandia acquired together two level of originality
PV / T air collectors made by companies and ARCO
Spectrolab [25]. The PV / T collectors of the first generation of
the poor performance followed by those in the second
generation. The PV / T collectors had several second-generation
innovative ideas developed in the laboratories of MIT, but
due to the curtailment of funds did not have time to test.
At Brown University (Brown University) was constructed in
1982 a 33,5 m2 house with PV / T air system. But
82
funding ceased before use at home and go
useful conclusions [47].
The situation in the mid and late 80s were similar
with that of PV / T water systems. An exception was the work
of Komp and Reeser who studied systems PV / T with
concentrator and a glass lid. [48]. The number of publications
started to increase again in early 90.
In Japan, Ito and Miura made measurements on a partially

211
transparent photovoltaic systems mounted on top of
air collector without glass cover [49]. This plan
favored over the project when the wind was in the intermediate
space between the PV and the top cover. Because of
highest temperature occurs in the latter. Thermal
yield was around 40%, with an obvious dependence on
wind speed.
In 1994, the PV / T air collector Capthel, developed by
French company Cythelia [50].
Also in early 1990, in Israel, developed a PV / H
collector who also launched on the market with a unit
gain heat and water and air. [51]. But why
existence of unit gain heat air was clean to
cool the system (ie the absorbed heat is not the
used somewhere but eliminated in the environment).
The German company Grammer Solar and _aneziki company Aidt Miljo to
collaborate on developing a PV / T collector with a small
PV rate [40]. In this type of system only one
fraction of the absorber is covered by photovoltaic just
cover the energy consumed by the fan. This
system is mainly used in autonomous applications Inn
for dehumidification. The company also developed Grammer Solar
and took the market PV / T air collector where the absorber is
completely covered with solar panels. The first demonstration project
was in 1996 (to warm air ventilation installation
painting in Nuremberg).
In Canada, companies Conserval Engineering, Bechtel and CANMET
developed in cooperation of the PV system SOLARWALL. The system
was examined experimentally for heat and electricity
of performance before being used in various applications [52].
At the University of Patras were extensive research on the PV / H
systems and water and air without glass cover [41]. The
best performance was found to have the PV system is in
direct contact with the surface and the absorber tubes,
while a stream of air from the space underneath the surface
the absorber can provide warm air. Moreover, the heat
optimization of PV / T solar air collector, placing a foil
studied experimentally [53.54] and numerically. [55].
In America, the University of Miami (University of Miami), the
Sopian researcher did his doctoral thesis on a
I double-pass solar air collector, who continued this
work at the University of Malaysia (Universiti Kebangsaan
Malaysia) [56]. Furthermore investigated and PV / T air collector double
Passage of low concentration.

212
In Egypt, Hegazy omeletitis to compare
various types of PV / wind systems, I did a study
an emulation program, where the efficiency of PV / T collector
double pass caught the attention.
Finally, a job peirametriki Tiwari and Sodha was over
PV / T systems with and without glass cover. The two researchers
for dehumidification. The company also developed Grammer Solar
and took the market PV / T air collector where the absorber is
completely covered in solar panels. The first demonstration project
was in 1996 (to warm air ventilation installation
painting in Nuremberg).
In Canada, companies Conserval Engineering, Bechtel and CANMET
developed in cooperation of the PV system SOLARWALL. The system
was examined experimentally for heat and electricity
of performance before being used in various applications [52].
At the University of Patras were extensive research on the PV / H
systems and air and water without glass cover [41]. The
best performance was found to have the PV system is in
direct contact with the surface and the absorber tubes,
while a stream of air from the space underneath the surface
the absorber can provide warm air. Moreover, the heat
optimization of FB / T solar air collector, placing a foil
studied experimentally [53.54] and numerically. [55].
In America, the University of Miami (University of Miami), the
Sopian researcher did his doctoral thesis on a
FB / F double pass solar air collector, who continued this
work at the University of Malaysia (Universiti Kebangsaan
Malaysia) [56]. Furthermore investigated and PV / T air collector double
Passage of low concentration.
In Egypt, Hegazy omeletitis to compare
various types of PV / T air systems did a study
an emulation program, where the efficiency of PV / T collector
double pass caught the attention.
Finally, a job peirametriki Tiwari and Sodha was over
PV / T systems with and without glass cover. The two researchers
found that the glass cover almost doubles the usable
heat and electricity dropped by 10% sto9%
4.4 TYPES YVRI_IK_N (PV / T) SYSKEF_N
Hybrid PV / T systems consist of PV panels
with integrated thermal unit of heat gain, where
circulating a working medium. Therefore these systems
distinguished according to the average worker who move and
cool the modules. So we have: PV / T water systems
and air

213
The heat dissipation in air traffic requires simpler
cheaper device, but the cooling of photovoltaic less
efficient. When the ambient air temperature is
above 20 C o the PV / T air systems have limited
features (mainly natural ventilation in buildings and heating air
some industrial and agricultural processes). The release of
air in these provisions are either natural circulation or by
convection [53]. The natural circulation is
Easiest way to remove heat from the PV panels
and thus avoid unwanted heating of the heat dissipation with a circulation of
water is more expensive
process in relation to heat dissipation to air,
considered more practical in cases where the temperature
environment is higher than 20C o, because
water temperature of the network is below 20C o schedonolo year.

University of Patras School of Sciences


Physics Department Graduate Program
THE COMBINED USE OF APPLIED PHYSICS AND SOLAR
AIOLIKIS ENEGREIAS FOR COVERAGE OF BUILDING NEEDS
ENERGEIAKIN MSc Thesis
Theodore Makris EPIVLEP_N PROFESSOR I. TRYPANAG_STOPOULOS
Patras 2009

My parents, Catherine and John and my sister, Giota


____________________________________________________________ 1
1.1 Energy
problem ............................................... .............................................. 1
1.2 Renewable energy ..............................................
............................................ 2
1.3 Building the environment and energy
consumption ............................................ ............ 3
1.4 Incorporation of RES in buildings .............................................
4 ...........................................
1.5 Hybrid
systems ............................................... .................................................. ...... 4
1.6 Characteristics and types of hybrid
systems ............................................ ............. 6
1.7 A brief review of the work on hybrid systems, PV / Wind and
Thermal /
Wind ............................................... .................................................. ................
9
Solar Radiation 2
__________________________________________________ 13

214
2.1 The
Sun ............................................... .................................................. ...................
...... 13
2.2 Intensity of solar
radiation .............................................. ........................................ 14
2.3 Earth's
orbit .............................................. .................................................. ...............
14
2.4 Radiation a sun orbit the
Earth ........................................... ........................... 15
2.5 Prosptiptousa radiation on
Earth ............................................. ................................ 16
2.6 Calculation of solar radiation on inclined plane ...........................................
17
Photovoltaic Technology
3_____________________________________________ 20
3.1
GENKA ................................................ .................................................. ............
............... 20
3.2 History of the photovoltaic
cells ............................................. ........................... 20
3.3 Photovoltaic
effect ............................................... ............................................... 21
3.4
Fotorefma ................................................ .................................................. ........
.......... 22
3.5 Models photovoltaic .............................................. ............................... 23
3.6 Characteristics of photovoltaic
modules .............................................. .................. 25
3.7 Factors affecting the
performance ............................................ ........................ 26
3.8 Basic types of photovoltaic
modules ............................................. ........................ 27
3.9 modules ............................................... .................................................. .29

3.10 Installation of photovoltaic cells on


buildings ............................................ ....... 30
3.11 Advantages of photovoltaic
modules .............................................. .................. 31
Solar Water Heating Systems 4 ___________________________________
32
4.1 Introduction ................................................ ..................................................
..................... 32
4.2 Types of solar water heating

215
systems ............................................ ................... 32
4.3 Categories of solar
panels .............................................. ..................................... 36
4.4 Models of solar thermal
collectors ............................................. .......................... 40
4.4.1 Model steady state (steady-state model )...................................... .... 41
4.4.2 _ynamika models (Dynamic
models )......................................... .......................... 42
4.5 Storage of solar heat in tanks ............................................ ................ 43
Wind Energy
5_____________________________________________________ 45
5.1
General ................................................ .................................................. ...........
............... 45
5.2 History of wind
machines .............................................. .............................................. 45
Wind Speed 5.3 ............................................... ..................................................
.......... 46
5.3.1 Variation of wind speed with height ....................................... ......... 47
5.3.2 Effect of barriers on the flow of
wind ......................................... .................... 48
5.4 Types of wind
machines .............................................. .................................................. .49
5.5 Wind turbine
technology ............................................... .......................................... 51
5.6 Power A /
C. ............................................ .................................................. .........................
52
5.7 Small-scale wind
turbines .............................................. ................................. 54
5.7.1 _omika elements small A /
C ......................................... ....................................... 54
5.7.2 Short Blades A /
C. ......................................... .................................................. 55
5.7.3 Orientation of small A /
C. ......................................... .................................... 56
5.7.4 speed control of small A / C ........................................ ................. 56
5.7.5 Generators of small A /
C. ......................................... ............................................... 57
5.7.6 Towers support small A /
C ......................................... ...................................... 57
Experimental & PROCEDURE 6
______________________________________________ 59
6.1 The purpose of the experimental

216
procedure ............................................. ............................. 59
6.2 Circuits and
connections .............................................. ............................................... 60
6.2.1 Individual energy system with A / C. ...................................... ......... 60
6.2.2 photovoltaic system ............................................ ........................... 61
6.2.3 Solar water heating system ........................................... ............................
63
6.3 Specific parts of the
installation ............................................. ............................ 64
6.3.1 Wind
Turbine .............................................. .................................................. ..... 64
6.3.2
Photovoltaic .............................................. .................................................. ......
. 66
6.3.3 Thermal solar
collector ............................................ .................................... 68
6.3.4
Battery .............................................. .................................................. ..............
69
6.3.5 Charge
Regulator ............................................. ................................................. 70
.............................................. Converter
6.3.6 .................................................. ......... 70
6.3.7
Wind .............................................. .................................................. ............ 71
6.3.8
Pyranometro .............................................. .................................................. .....
.... 72
6.3.9
thermocouples .............................................. .................................................. ..
......... 73
6.4 Automatically download and record
measurements ............................................ ..................... 73
6.4.1 Automatic
recording ............................................. ........................................... 73
6.4.2 System
multiplexing ............................................. .............................................. 75
6.4.3 LoggerNet 3.1 Datalogger Support
Software .......................................... ........... 75
Experimental Results 7 ___________________________________________
79
7.1 Introduction ................................................ ..................................................
..................... 79
7.2 Meteorological

217
sizes ............................................... .................................................. 80
7.2.1 Ambient
Temperature ............................................. ................................... 80
7.2.2 Wind
Speed ............................................. .................................................. ... 82
7.2.3 Solar
radiation ............................................. ................................................. 83
7.2.4
Conclusions .............................................. .................................................. ......
85
7.3 Independent
Units ............................................... .................................................. ........ 85
7.3.1 Measurements of energy output and efficiency
PV ....................................... ....... 85
7.3.2 _iagrammata daily performance and power
PV ...................................... ....... 88
7.3.3 Measurements of energy output and efficiency A /
C ....................................... ....... 90
7.3.4 _iagrammata daily performance and power A /
C ....................................... ...... 94
7.3.5 Study thermosyphonic
Collector ............................................ .......................... 96
7.3.5.1 Experimental Determination of the average daily yield of
thermosyphonic
collector ................................................ ............................................ 96
7.3.5.2 Experimental determination of thermal losses
thermosyphonic
collector ................................................ ............................................ 98
7.3.5.3 _iagramma change in average daily gain and
coefficient of thermal losses thermosyphonic collector ...................... 99
7.3.5.4 Day charts operation thermosyphonic
Collector ................................................. .................................................. .........
......... 102
Combined use of A / C, photovoltaic and thermal collector 8____________
105
8.1
General ................................................ .................................................. ...........
.............. 105
8.2 Water heating using electric resistance ........................................... .........
106
8.2.1
Introduction .............................................. .................................................. .......
...... 106
8.2.2 Experimental results of heating water chrisiilektrikis

218
resistance ................................................. .................................................. .......
......... 106
8.3 Combination of A / C hybrid photovoltaic / thermal solar (PV / i
systems or PV / T
systems) ........................................... ............................................. 111
8.3.1 Daily charts yield hybrid PV / i thermosyphonic
System ................................................. .................................................. ...........
.... 114
8.4 Energy study to meet the energy needs of a house by
produced by energy systems ............................................. ....................... 116
8.4.1 energy produced by PV modules ....................................... ...................
116
8.4.2 energy produced by the A /
C. ....................................... ............................. 117
8.4.3 Generated energy from the water heater collector ....................................
118
8.4.4 Coverage of basic electricity needs in a house ........................................
118
Estimates-9 Conclusions
___________________________________________ 122
Bibliography
Annexes
A) Programme Datalogger
B) Correlation days
Thanks
This thesis was part of the Graduate Program in Applied Physics Faculty,
University of Patras, 2008-2009. I am particularly grateful to Mr John
Tripanagnostopoulos, Associate Professor, Department of Physics, to
supervise, help and useful suggestions he gave me to reach completion. I
thank Prof. Panagiotis Giannoulis and Associate Professor Athanasios
Argyriou, three members of my committee for their useful and constructive
advice throughout the course of my presence in Solar Energy Laboratory,
University of Patras. Thanks Manolis Souliotis, Researchers for their advice
and suggestions for the successful completion of this work. Also many thanks
to the candidate Dr. Panos Themelis and graduate student Panagiotis
Georgostathis for their valuable assistance and moral support throughout the
duration of my course at the Laboratory of Solar Energy. Finally, I would like to
thank the parents and my sister for moral and material support they gave me
all the years of my studies.
Summary
Renewable energy sources (RES), such as solar and wind energy can offer
alternative ways of producing energy. Every form of renewable energy has its
own characteristics and can be implemented either in large plants producing

219
electricity and thermal energy or smaller units such as buildings. Interestingly,
the combined use of these energy sources, especially to cover the electrical
and thermal demands of buildings. Purpose of this thesis is to study a system
consisting of a small wind turbine, photovoltaic panels and solar thermal
collector. Initially, reference to different RES systems that make up the
installation. Moreover, an analysis of meteorological data in the region,
followed by energy study of the behavior of hybrid
system. The main issue addressed is the provision of electricity for heating
water, where there is a surplus of electricity. Also discussed the prospect of a
combination hybrid / solar panels with A / C. Finally, the conclusions and
estimates about the behavior of the hybrid system to changes of wind speed
and solar
radiation on a daily and annual basis.
Keywords
Ananeosimes energy, solar, wind, thermal, wind, solar, solar panels, weather
data, building.
LIST SCHIMAT1N
Figure 1 Basic circuit design of hybrid circuit .................................... 6
Figure 2 Geometric representation of IT in the position of the
Sun ....................................... .15
Figure 3 Components of the total solar radiation received by a GT
body ..................... 16
Figure 4 flat surfaces inclined ....... 17   and angle of incidence ,
azimuth angle p
Figure 5 Mechanism of
photovoltaics ............................................. ......................... 21
Figure 6 Model
photovoltaics ............................................. .................................. 22
Figure 7 Characteristics of IV and IP of the photovoltaic
component ............................ 23
Figure 8 Change in the efficiency of photovoltaic cells on the basis of
Temperature ................................................. .................................................. ..
........................... 25
Figure 9 'iaforoi types of aggregate panels and the corresponding degree
concentration of solar
radiation .............................................. .......................................... 37
Figure 10 Area of turbulence around the area of individual
obstacle ................................................. ................ 48
Figure 11 Parts
turbine .............................................. ............................................... 51
Figure 12 Circuit autonomous power plant with A /
C ....................................... .. 60
Figure 13 photovoltaic
220
system ............................................. .................................... 61
Figure 14 Solar Collector
thermosifonikos ............................................. ................................ 62
Figure 15 Front and yield curve AIR-X
Land ........................................ ...................... 64
Figure 16 Hybrid PV / h water solar panels, with or without lens .....................
111
Figure 17 Hybrid PV / i thermosyphonic
system .......................................... ............................ 111
Figure 18 Combined order FB / i collector thermosifoniki normal solar
device ...... 112
LIST EIKON1N
Figure 1 Solar Integrated Device ICS (a) and water heaters system
(b) ................... 33
Figure 2 Thermal Solar Differential
Control ........................................... .............. 34
Figure 3 Flat plate
collectors ............................................. ............................................. 36
Figure 4 vacuum tube
collector ............................................. ............................................. 37
Figure 5 Hybrid PV / H solar panels and air-
water ....................................... .................. 38
Figure 6 Power curve A /
C. .......................................... .................................................. ........ 52
Figure 7 Air-X
Wind ............................................ .................................................. ....................
.. 55
Figure 8 The
wind .............................................. .................................................. .......... 63
Figure 9
modules .............................................. .................................................. .. 66
Figure 10 the water heater
system ............................................. ............................................ 67
Figure 11 Controller SCC 20
eco ............................................ .................................................. .. 69
Figure 12 Inverter AJ 275-
12 ........................................... .................................................. ......... 70
Figure 13 anemometer
A100R .............................................. .................................................. ...... 71
Figure 14 Pyranometro CM
3 ............................................. .................................................. ...... 71
Figure 15 automatic recording type
CR10X ............................................ ............................ 73
221
Figure 16 Unit Multiplexing (Multiplexer)
AM416 .......................................... ..................... 74
Figure 17 toolbar
LoggerNet ............................................ ................................... 75
LIST & IAGRAMMAT1N
Iagramma & 1 'iakymansi the average monthly ambient
temperature ............................. 80
Iagramma & 2 Maximum and minimum average daily temperature of each
month ............................. 80
Number 3 & iagramma values of wind speed at the speed ....................... 81
Iagramma & 4 'iakymansi the average monthly wind
speed ........................................ .82
Iagramma & 5 'iakymansi the average monthly solar
radiation ......................................... 83
& Iagramma 6 Change of average daily solar
radiation ........................................... .... 83
Energy & iagramma 7 curve PV modules (average
hourly) ..................................... 85
& 8 iagramma Monthly energy performance and efficiency of
PV ...................................... 86
Day 9 & iagramma energy behavior and performance of PV
with
consumption ................................................ .................................................. ....
........................ 87
Iagramma & 10 Daily energy behavior and performance of PV
without
consuming ................................................ .................................................. .......
................ 88
Energy & iagramma 11 curve A / C for a total of 269 days (average
hourly) .............. 89
12 iagramma & Performance A / C depending on the wind
speed ...................................... ...... 90
& Iagramma 13 total power output for each
month .......................................... ................. 91
& Simulation results iagramma 14 A /
C. .......................................... ................................ 92
& Simulation results iagramma 15 A /
C. .......................................... ................................ 92
Day 16 & iagramma behavior WTs moderate wind
speed ........................................ .... 93
Day 17 & iagramma conduct A / C high wind
speed ........................................ ... 94
& Iagramma 18 Average daily throughput collector
222
thermosyphonic ........................................... .99
& Change 19 iagramma night heat loss rate
the
temperature ............................................... .................................................. ......
............... 100
20 & iagramma Daily chart operation thermosyphonic collector .......................
101
21 & iagramma Daily chart operation thermosyphonic collector .......................
102
Change & iagramma 22 key parameters of the system thermosyphonic
during three days ............................................. ..................................................
103 ..
& Iagramma 23 iagramma heating water using electrical resistance
(a) ..................... 106
Iagramma & 24 'iagramma heating water using electrical resistance
(b) ..................... 108
Day 25 and iagramma mode hybrid PV / i sink without transparent
cover ........... 113
26 & iagramma Change electrical efficiency of hybrid PV / i collector with and
without
glass cover-yield hybrid PV / i thermosyphonic solar collector .........................
114
& Iagramma 27 Total monthly production of energy from PV
panels ................................ 115
& Iagramma 28 Total monthly energy production from the A / C during the
operation
of ................................................. .................................................. ....................
......................... 116
PREFACE
The collection and conversion of solar and wind energy into electricity and
Heat an alternative to the problem of saving energy from conventional
sources, contributing thus to reduce consumption of fossil resources and
environmental protection. To exploit the potential of solar and wind
technologies have been developed, the main of which are photovoltaics, solar
thermal panels and wind turbines. In this thesis the combined use of solar and
wind power to meet electrical and thermal needs of a building. For this
purpose was examined as to conduct an energy system consisting of a
photovoltaic array, a level thermosyphonic collector and a small wind turbine.
The photovoltaic panels and small wind turbine provide electricity for
consumption while the solar collector provides hot water use. Examine the
idea of heating the water in the storage tank of the solar collector by using
electric energy
where there is surplus energy produced by this
223
photovoltaic and A / C. The experimental measurements of parameters of
devices
a first step in determining the electrical and thermal
Conduct the installation base for the possible application to the building sector.

The work is divided into three parts, the first includes the bibliographic
Research on photovoltaic panels, solar water heating systems and wind
turbines, the second describes the technical specifications of plant and the
third party to present the experimental results of the tests.
The 1st Chapter is a reference to the development of renewable energy and is
a reference to the energy consumption of buildings at the European level. It
also presents the main types of hybrid renewable energy systems and a brief
background to work on those systems.
The 2nd chapter provides some basic information about solar radiation.
Refer to the components of solar radiation at the surface and calculated
theoretical prices.
The 3rd chapter includes the study of photovoltaic (PV).
Specifically, the theoretical data on semiconductors, the
photovoltaic effect, the types of photovoltaic cells, the function of a PV and
how to install PV in buildings.
Chapter 4 presents the main solar thermal heating systems
water. Refer to the types of solar collectors, while those considered
oisimantikoteres categories. It also provides some theoretical models
solar panels and analyze basic equations governing these models.
In the 5th chapter in the wind. Originally listed some
elements related to the wind potential and stisynecheia refer to
wind machines. In particular, theoretical data on the
wind energy and thermal energy as well as the types of
wind turbines of today. At the end of the chapter describes the parts of a wind
turbine with an emphasis on small wind machines.
In the 6th chapter describes the installation on which the experiments took
place. More specifically, the interconnecting circuits, devices and instruments
as well as data loggers.
The 7th Chapter presents the results of the energy produced and returns from
the individual plots of energy costs and returns for autonomous systems A / C
and PV modules as well as charts daily operation. Furthermore plots out the
average daily efficiency and thermal losses nightly rate for the heater system.
In the 8th chapter describes how the combination of solar and wind
energy to increase system performance. Specifically examines the idea of
heating water with electricity derived from solar and A / C and shows the
combined cases of the systems with hybrid photovoltaic / thermal collectors.
Also studied the degree of coverage in electrical and thermal requirements of
a house under the power produced by the system under study during the
224
period of experiments.
Finally in the 9th chapter presents the conclusions drawn from
work and presents possible future applications that can be done. A first report
on the issue which underpins this thesis has been carried out and presented at
the international conference Energy Performance and Environmental Quality
Buildings (EPEQUB) held on the island of Milos in the period 12-13 July 2007
under the title: Combined solar and wind energy systems for building
application.
EISAG1GI
1.1 Energy problem
Conventional energy sources are based on oil, coal and natural gas have
proven to be effective drivers of economic progress but also threatens the
destruction of the environment and anthropinisygeias. Torrential rain,
prolonged heat waves and fires are some of the phenomena resulting from the
high concentration of natural gas contribute to the "greenhouse effect". The
change of climate warming as a consequence of uncontrolled use of energy
resources is expected to be important, since the scientific community
estimates foresee an increase in average global temperature of up to 3.5 ° C
by 2100. Europe contributed 14% of total annual emissions of CO2 and Asia
by 25% and North America 29%. Emissions of CO2, the preferred gas
responsible for global warming (80%) from the broader energy OME (primary
production). The consumption of fossil fuels and especially
Oil contributes 50% to the total annual CO2 emissions in the EU The
electricity and steam accounts for 30% of CO2 emissions and
Chapter 1
The residential sector involved with the rate reaches 14%. Similarly, the
involvement
the energy sector in the emissions of other greenhouse gases
as CH4 and N2O are relatively small with 17% and 7% respectively.
The conference in Rio in the summer of 1992, identified the problem
planning direct actions and interventions. The main objective was
effort to maintain pollution levels by 2000 to those in 1990.
Although these workarounds and monitoring their implementation and found
comply with all governments. At the next conference in Kiato Japan in 1997
was an attempt for a new agreement, based on more drastic measures, but
never been unanimous.
1.2 Renewable Energy
The environmental impacts of mineral resources but also and
increasing demand for electricity have led the scientific community in
find other energy solutions, with special direction to the sector
renewable energy sources (RES). The potential of renewable energy are
important
since they can serve part of the global demand for electricity and reduce
225
conventional energy sources to provide heat, mechanical work or other energy
forms. Renewable sources such as biomass, wind, solar, hydro and
geothermal power can provide electricity utilizing the available natural
resources. The transition to energy systems based on renewable sources, it
seems increasingly likely, as the cost of these systems is reduced significantly
over time as opposed to the price of oil in recent years shows an increase.
Made it clear that the future development of energy sector based largely on
renewable sources and to a lesser extent gas, oil and coal.
1.3 Building Environment and Energy Consumption
The building sector is one of the major areas of consumption
energy and daily global primary consumption exceeding 7 million barrels, an
amount equal to the total production of
OPEC countries. In EU countries, the sector absorbs the buildings in average,
40% of total energy consumption. The country oscillation varies from 20% in
Portugal to 45% for Ireland and Greece stands at 30%. 2edomenou that
residents of urban centers in particular is experiencing 80% of his life inside
buildings are an obvious influence quality esoterikouklimatos both comfort
level and productivity level. Specifically, increasing ambient temperature and
the widespread use of electrical appliances in large urban centers have
contributed to a sharp increase in energy requirement in many cases is almost
double that required in non-urban areas.
In the European Union, the building sector (households and tertiary sector)
represents the greatest area of energy consumption by 40%. The final
consumption of buildings is around 350 Mtoe (1 Mtoe: metric ton
oil equivalent) per year. Most of the energy
buildings covered by gas with a quantity of 116 Mtoe, oil by 99 Mtoe, followed
by electricity and solid fuels by 91 and 11 Mtoe
respectively. Based on the above that accounted for about 1 Mtoe per year
per capita to meet the energy needs of buildings in Europe
The annual energy consumption of buildings in Greece are around 4.6
Mtoe and account for about 0.55 Mtoe per capita per year, the quantity
half of the corresponding consumption in Europe. The need for heating
dwellings account for 70% of total consumption and energy consumption for
household appliances, lighting and air conditioning accounts for 18% of the
total energy balance.
1.4 Incorporation of RES in buildings
The implementation of an integrated energy planning and integration
energy-efficient technologies in buildings is a prerequisite for full
exploiting the energy potential of each building in each location. The maximum

exploit this potential has resulted in a significant reduction in


energy needs of an entire building. To this end, the use
a combination of technologies and systems based on renewable
226
Energy is a prerequisite for improved energy and environmental conditions of
a place.
Today, there are many different energy systems that are
may be incorporated in buildings to partially or fully cover
energy needs. The main ones are:
Solar Systems (Photovoltaic energy systems)
Solar thermal (Solar thermal systems)
Wind Systems (Wind energy systems)
Geothermal Systems (Geothermal energy systems)
Cogeneration Systems (CHP systems)
systems use biomass (Biomass systems)
1.5 Hybrid Systems
As mentioned above, there are several alternative forms of energy under
which is capable of producing energy without a significant impact on
environment. One of the major problems these systems is the variation in
energy production. Systems such as solar or wind
systems depend on weather conditions, which affect the production of energy
as they change during the year. For this reason it is necessary to find solutions
to ensure reliability and quality of energy. To this end, hybrid energy systems
(hybrid energy systems) is an area that can offer greater energy efficiency.
These systems result from the combination of two or more
different but complementary sources of power. The size of
hybrid varies depending on application and can be classified according to type
of voltage transmission lines. In particular, hybrid systems
classified into the following categories:
1. Systems with transmission lines voltage (DC bus lines): At
systems, the individual parts associated with transmission lines
voltage and the electric energy stored in
batteries. It also requires the use of a charge controller to control
and protection of the battery as well as a voltage converter
DC / AC to AC power supply to appliances
consumption.
2. Systems with transmission lines alternating voltage (AC bus
lines): In this case the energy generated is fed
directly to existing mains. In this case it is
possible to store electricity in batteries using a
switching center.
3. Systems in coupled transmission lines and continuous
AC voltage (AC / DC bus lines): In this case,
individual power systems connected to the respective
transmission lines and a central computer system controls
power supply to both shipments and consumption to
battery.
227
Hybrid systems can be designed suitable for many applications
and different sizes. The main application of these systems is now
providing electricity to rural applications. 5stoso recent years
Hybrid systems have application in other areas such as the building sector
(Municipal buildings, hospitals, schools, hotels) in remote villages,
desalination systems and farms.
1.6 Types of hybrid systems and their characteristics
A common hybrid system usually consists of the following specific
systems:
1. A primary source of energy (eg renewable energy)
2. A secondary source that provides additional power to the system
under normal conditions and meet the required energy
where the primary source is off.
3. A system of energy storage (non-interconnected with the network
systems) to ensure tisstatherotitas energy supply.
4. A controller is charging.
5. The hardware installation (cables, security boxes, etc.)
6. These devices power consumption
Figure 1 Basic circuit design of hybrid systems
Today they have developed and manufactured a variety of hybrid systems
composed of different energy systems. The most important combinations
Hybrid systems are:
PV / diesel generators (PV / Diesel)
The combination of photovoltaic generator and a diesel generator
offers a simple solution and is suitable for areas with high solar potential.
Compared with the common ways of generating energy off-grid, the use of
kind of hybrid system can offer significant savings
energy. Surveys have been conducted with these systems have shown that
Energy savings can reach 80% compared with the small self
systems with diesel generators, taking into account the local climatic
conditions, and the design of the system.
Wind Turbine / Generator Oil (WT / Diesel)
The hybrid system that includes a turbine (D / C) and generator
Oil can be applied especially in areas where the average wind speed is
greater than 3.5 m / s. If the wind speed is
satisfactory, the wind provides the necessary energy while
Save this place for batteries. In periods of low
wind speeds, the diesel generator replaces the A / C in this offering
how a continuous supply of energy for consumption.
Photovoltaic / Wind Turbine (PV / WT) and PV / Wind
/ Diesel generators (PV / WT / Diesel)

Μετάφραση από τα Ελληνικά στα Αγγλικά


228
In some areas the use of wind and solar capacity may be
offer a satisfactory solution to the power sector. In the case
such a power source complements the other, leading to production
energy throughout the day.
While other hybrid systems that contain oil generator
subject design is the maximum utilization of renewable energy,
if such a hybrid situation is different.
Putting these systems is to ensure the quality and reliability
because there may be periods of time (low speed and wind
rain) in which it is possible to produce energy. For this reason
design and selection of such systems requires careful study. Surveys
performed in hybrid systems that include generator
Oil operated more efficiently than higher costs but
construction.
Other types of hybrid systems
Apart from the above systems, there are a variety of other hybrid
systems that pronounce energy solutions. As mentioned above, hybrids
systems consist of two or more energy systems. Today
constructed hybrid systems which are a combination of photovoltaic
generators, wind and biogas engines (PV / Biogas or WT / Biogas). Hybrid
systems are somewhat similar to those used
diesel generators. Important role in the performance of these systems is the
capacity storage tank of biogas and energy
management system.
Another type of hybrid system is one which includes
wind turbine and solar thermal systems. The thermal system of care for
heating hot water is required while the wind turbine provides electricity
energy. In the same category and systems include
geothermal systems with simultaneous presence of photovoltaic generators or
wind turbine. Finally there is the possibility of combining photovoltaic
generators or wind machines with small hydro systems for power generation.
Small hydroelectric generators are engines able to operate in conditions of low
water flow, which makes them ideal for applications in homes near rivers and
in conjunction with other renewable energy sources can offer a comprehensive
energy proposal.
1.7 A brief review of the work on hybrid systems, PV / WT and
Thermal / WT The idea of hybrid systems, especially for systems PV / WT and
Thermal / WT is not new as it is in the spotlight for more than one
decade. RES systems such as photovoltaic systems, wind machines or
Solar thermal systems can be alternatives for energy production. The
installation of a hybrid system of PV / WT requires a study on the criteria to be
met for the proper functioning of these systems. In a ytin the direction, Celik
(2002) proposed a technique for the application of hybrid systems, PV / WT
using meteorological data from weather simulation programs. The Ding and

229
Buckeridge (2000) presented a theoretical study of the desired hybrid system
with two or more renewable energy sources which show excellent stability.
Also Khan and Iqbal (2005) published a survey on the design and analysis of
hybrid system for a residential complex. The two researchers collected wind
speed data, solar radiation and consumption for a year, which was used to
study the hybrid system. Important role in the efficient operation of a hybrid
system is the size of the units making up the system. In this area, many
researchers have proposed various methods for the purification capacity of
each subsystem. The Rahman and Chehid (1996) presented the design of a
hybrid system of PV / WT for both stand alone applications and applications
connected to the mains. These proposed a technique that was designed to
reduce the cost of electricity, covering the required energy needs, taking into
account environmental factors in the design. Also Markvart (1998) described a
procedure for determining the size of photovoltaic and wind machine for a
hybrid PV / WT. Specifically, using solar and wind data in a specific region,
showed graphic correlation of the $ photovoltaic and wind system defining thus
the optimal combination of these systems to meet the energy needs. The
Elhadidy and Shaahid (1999 2004v) through a series of operations calculated
the optimal capacity of the batteries require a hybrid system for studying the
influence of changing the battery in energy production. Also Yang (2007)
developed a new model based on
which determines the size of a hybrid system of PV / WT which is based
Studying the required capacity of the batteries in an autonomous system.
To optimize a hybrid system of PV / WT developed
many computational techniques using linear and dynamic
programming, probabilistic approaches and iterative process. The Katti
and Khedkar (2007) developed an algorithm using mean values ories
wind speed, solar radiation and consumption in order to
efficient design of a system PV / WT. Along the same lines as
Koutroulis et al. (2006) published a paper, which is developing a methodology
the optimal design of a hybrid system of PV / WT using
genetic algorithms with application to housing. Moreover Shahirinial et al.
(2006)
compare results of two optimization techniques based on algorithms and
presented a method based on the probability of load loss (Loss of load
probability-LOLP) takes into account the cost of individual systems and the
level of autonomy.
The idea to develop hybrid systems that utilize wind
energy, while solar heating (Hybrid Thermal / WT systems) was
be utilized in the late 70s. The Manwell and McGowan (1981)
developed a theoretical model for predicting the monthly return on a
hot water heating system using a wind machine. They showed that excess
electricity from wind machine could be exploited by feeding a resistance to
heat water for use in a water storage tank. In the same vein, the Bell and

230
McGowan (1984) showed a techno-economic analysis for a system in a house
with
vertical axis wind turbine combined with a storage tank water
to cover both the energy needs of appliances and
produce hot water. Showed that the installation of such systems in areas with
high wind potential can cover a significant proportion of the energy
requirements of a house.
The Darkazalli and McGowan (1978) published the results presented
a hybrid system comprising a wind turbine, solar thermal
collector and a storage tank of hot water. Specifically studied the
system behavior as its parameters the diameter of
wind, and the area of the solar thermal panel. The Twidell et al. (1990)
published the results from the construction and design of a hybrid
system that uses wind and solar energy for space heating a dwelling in an
insular community. More specifically, a wind turbine and an array of solar
panels installed to eventually heat the
required quantity of water for heating houses. The Kilkis (1999
presented an integrated heating-ventilation-air conditioning (HVAC) in
combined with wind and geothermal heat pump (GSHP). The
HVAC system endeavored to achieve the appropriate climatic conditions within

residence while the wind fed the geothermal heat pump to produce hot water.
The study of this hybrid system showed that it could be a viable option for
areas with high wind potential, especially in locations with a Mediterranean
climate and the required electrical needs between winter and summer are
almost the same. The Y. Tripanagnostopoulos and S. Tselepis (2003)
published a work in which
combines a wind turbine, PV frames and hybrid photovoltaic panels to
to increase overall system performance. Showed a parallel study on the cost
of these systems. The Liliana Licea-Jimenez Sergio A. Perez-Garcia et al
(2004) presented a theoretical and experimental analysis for hybrid systems
consisting of different combinations or heat collector, solar and wind.
Furthermore applied these hybrid systems in a rural home. The Sateikis et al.
(2006) presented a study related to the implementation of a hybrid system with
wind and thermal solar panels on a house in a rural area of Lithuania. The
purpose of this study was to cover a percentage of the heat needs with the use
of the system by making the assumption that heating 1m2 required 0.25m2
area solar panels and wind turbine diameter of 0.40m. The results showed that
the percentage cover thermal needs may reach 55%, which is an important
step towards further development. The Y. Tripanagnostopoulos and M.
Souliotis (2008) presented a study on the combination of small wind turbines
and solar thermal collectors, for possible application in buildings.
Simultaneously, the combination of these systems with photovoltaic panels.

231
Conclusion from the literature study in hybrid systems, PV / WT
and Thermal / WT was observed how the investigation led to the development
of new techniques designed to achieve better performance of hybrid systems
with
while reducing system losses.
SOLAR RADIATION
2.1 The Sun
The sun is a typical star of mass 2 x 1030 Kg, with a diameter of 1.39 x 109 m
and
aged approximately 5 x 109 years. The surface temperature of the sun is
about
5800 K and the temperature inside is estimated to be 15,000,000 K. The
temperature resulting from the conversion of hydrogen to helium through
Reaction 1 4
 ⊕ + e ∩ → ∩1 2 4 . 〈  ∑  〉 emphasis It has been estimated that
for every gram
Hydrogen is converted to helium produced energy equal to U = 1.67 x 105
kWh. The
generated energy is transferred to the surface and then diffused into the
space in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
If one studies the spectrum of solar radiation will be noticed that
extends over all wavelengths. Specifically, the spectrum of solar radiation
can be divided into three parts: the UV spectrum (l <380nm), the visible
spectrum (380 nm <l <700 nm) and infrared spectrum (lambda> 780 nm).
Apart from electromagnetic radiation the sun emits a weak particle radiation
consists of charged particles, mainly protons and electrons, called solar wind.
Chapter 2
2.2 Intensity of solar radiation
The amount of energy received by a surface is directly dependent on the
intensity of
solar radiation. B The intensity of solar radiation is defined as the amount of
solar energy incident on 1 m2 surface in 1 sec ..
The radiated sunlight away radially from the sun to
time and varies inversely with the square of
The intensity of solar radiation is reduced before it reaches the surface of
Earth. The amount of reduction depends on many factors. The
important ones are the location and altitude of a place and
composition of the atmosphere at any time and significantly affect the
phenomenon of
absorption which reduces the intensity of radiation.
2.3 Orbit of Earth
A very important factor taken into account when drawing
solar system is the tilt and azimuth angle of the surface
232
Installation on the apparent movement of the sun as they relate to the strength
of solar radiation received by the point at which the facility is located.
The Earth orbits the sun along with a very elliptical orbit
small eccentricity, making one complete revolution every 365.25 days. The
point on the Earth's orbit closest to the sun at a distance of about 147
million kilometers, and is called the perihelion on January 2.
Unlike the point in its orbit where the earth is the greatest distance
about 152 million kilometers, and is called aphelion on July 3.
where d (km) is the distance of Earth from the sun, and n is the number of
days to January 1 correspond to n = 1 and 31 2ekemvriou correspond to n =
365.
2.4 Radiation a Sun
The effects of radiation and its final form than more
factors determined by the position of the sun in the sky. This is due to
different path that the radiation within the Earth's atmosphere
thus the air mass through which it passes.
The length of the path of radiation than sea level
characterized by scale air mass AM (air mass). The measure of air mass
associated with the zenith angle i and is defined as the ratio of the distance
traveled by the
radiation than sea level by random position of the Sun to
distance traveled by radiation if the sun was at its peak (Figure 2).
5s AM1 defined the position of the Sun corresponding to the minimum path
length
solar radiation in the atmosphere. Similarly AM1.5 is path
radiation with the sun at an angle of 450 from the zenith, on the corner of AM2
Sun equal to 600, etc. The maximum that can accept a surface
positioned on top of the atmosphere is perpendicular to the rays 1350 W/m2.
The
AM1.5 solar radiation intensity is 935 W/m2 and is equal to the average
maximum power
can not accept a body on Earth. Conventional price is
designated as a radiant sun and is the basis for comparison of radiation
accept a body.
Figure 2 Geometric representation of IT in the position of the Sun: (a)
theoretical.
(B) actual
2.5 Incident radiation on Earth
When sunlight penetrates the layer of Earth's atmosphere receives
the influence of several factors. Some of them, such as clouds reflect solar
radiation, while others, such as ozone, oxygen absorbing a part of it. Also
water droplets or dust in the atmosphere leading to the spread of radiation that
reaches the ground where a part of another absorbed and reflected. The
233
Complete TG solar radiation received by a body on the surface consists of
three components (Figure 3):
Direct radiation (direct radiation) b G: the radiation that comes
directly from the solar disk.
2iachyti radiation (diffuse radiation) diff G: The radiation from
reflections from the sky.
reflected radiation (albedo radiation) r G: the radiation
reflections from the ground
Figure 3 Components of the total solar radiation received by a TG
body on the surface
2.6 Calculation of solar radiation on inclined plane
The position of the sun in relation to an inclined plane can be described
using different angles (Figure 4). The angle of prolapse, i
, direct 
radiation at the surface is the angle between the vector position of the sun
and nd surface. This angle can be calculated by the following formula:
i ) cos cos sin sin cos cos ( (4)  -    +   =  HH
sp
where the angle of the  is surface with the horizontal plane, p
is azimouthiagonia level, s the azimuth angle of the sun given by
is the angle  South and H between the sun from the horizontal plane
(Figure 4).
Figure 4 flat surfaces inclined and angle , azimuth angle p
 Sunlight G   incidence receives a ramp on the surface as mentioned
above consists of three components. The direct radiation received by a level
depends on the angle of prolapse of solar radiation and diffuse and reflected
radiation received by the level does not depend on the orientation of the plane
to the sun only on the part of Heaven which "sees" the plane. For this reason it
is necessary to calculate the weightings for each component separately.
The calculation of the diffuse component of radiation based on the assumption

that spreads uniformly diffuse the sky. Based on the above


case the correction factor for diffuse irradiation d R is the ratio of
diffuse radiation incident on the slope d, TG to that in
horizontal d G .. The reflected radiation in the horizontal plane is the product of

soil area in the 〉 reflectance total solar radiation


in the horizontal plane G. As in the previous case are so essential
condition for calculating the rate that reflected the spread
isotropically ..

FOTOVOLTAIKI TECHNOLOGY

234
3.1 General
The solar cells are the major components of photovoltaic
frameworks (PV modules) to convert solar energy into electricity. Data
These are semiconductor diodes typically in the form of disk, which, when
accepting the
epiifaneia the sun, have a potential difference. The output
voltage ranges from 0.5 V to 1V, while the current density is between 20 and
40
mA/cm2 according to the material and the intensity of incident
radiation.
3.2 History of the photovoltaic cells
The technology of photovoltaic cells was largely developed after
mid-twentieth century, although the photovoltaic effect was observed by
Edmond Becquerel in 1839. The first report on the photovoltaic effect was
published in 1877 by two researchers at the University of Cambridge and the
Adams Days, and in 1883 built a photovoltaic element selenium similar to
silicon solar cells with a yield of less than 1%. Later, Chapin,
Chapter 3
Fuller and Pearson in 1954 built the first solar module pn junction with
yield 6%. In 1956 he marketed the first commercial modules at a cost of 1000
$ / Wp, made from crystalline silicon and return between 5-10%. Today, the
yield of crystalline photovoltaic cells has reached 25% for space applications
and those intended for Surface industrial and residential uses do not exceed
16%.
3.3 Photovoltaic effect
The solar cells as reported previously made from semiconductor materials
which can be monocrystalline, polykrystallka or even amorphous. Regardless
of the crystal structure, all solar cells containing a semiconductor diode that
spans the entire width of the element. Usually the path is created by contacting
a layer of type-n in a layer-p, or by contact between a semiconductor and a
targeted metal (diode Schottky). The operation of photovoltaic cells based on
the electrostatic potential barrier in the material receiving the radiation. Each
photon of incident radiation with energy equal to or greater than the energy
gap of the semiconductor has the ability to absorb a chemical bond and
release a pair of actors (one electron in the conduction band
and a hole in the valence band). From the resulting pairs of players, those that
are found in association pn accept the force of the electrostatic field of the
diode to reduce the dynamic power. This has meant that the movement of
electrons to the contact type-n and the hole in the contact type-p, creating a
potential difference between terminals of passage (Figure 5). The above
device behaves properly polarized diode as a source
electricity for as long as receiving the radiation. The process of creating a
235
potential difference of views in a component called a photovoltaic solar
phenomenon.
Figure 5 Mechanism of photovoltaics
3.4 Fotorefma
As mentioned above, the incidence of solar radiation on the surface
of photovoltaic cells causes stimulation resulting in the production
electricity. 5stoso, photovoltaic cells do not convert all
solar energy into electricity. Part of the radiation reflected from the
epifaneiatou solar and diffused to the environment, while the rest are absorbed
certain wavelengths. Photons the energy is less than the energy gap of the
semiconductor lost in the form of heat loss from the back of the item, while the
photons whose energy is greater than the energy gap of the semiconductor
material absorbed by the factor electricity.
3.5 Models of photovoltaic modules
The best-known model used to simulate the way
operation of a photovoltaic element, the model contains a diode and
shown in the figure below:
Figure 6 Model photovoltaics
The most important element of the above circuit is an ideal source
current volume, whose fotorefma ⊇ph I is proportional to the rate of solar
radiation.This idanikotitas passage, is the absolute temperature and e the
charge is the constant of Boltzmann, of the electron.
The parallel resistance of p R is the loss of solar cells,
while the series resistance of s R is the additional loss of the photovoltaic
point where a link to this load.
data
In the typical I-V curve is a point (,) mm VI in which the power
takes its maximum value (Figure 7). This point is called peak
power (maximum power point, MPP). The peak power of photovoltaic cells
given by:
I V (14) =m m m P
IV = The maximum power mmm P given by the manufacturers measured
under specific
steady (Standard Test Condition, STC), which correspond to
radiation 1000 W/m2, price airmass AM = 1.5 and temperature 25 oC.
Another feature size of the photovoltaic cells is
filling factor FF (fill factor). This factor is given by the ratio of
areas of the maximum rectangle that can be placed on the typical
curve I-V, to the area of the rectangle defined by the values and oc V
sc I (Figure 7) ..
3.7 Factors affecting performance
The coefficient of performance of photovoltaic cells is not constant but
influenced by many factors. One major factor is the creation of solar radiation.
236
In particular, two beams of radiation in the same power but different
wavelength drive a point in a different solar power generation. This difference
is mainly due to the appropriateness of photons over the energy gap of
semiconductor photovoltaic cells.
Another factor that strongly affects performance is the
temperature of the photovoltaic element. As shown by relation (16) trend
open circuit depends on various parameters of semiconductor, such as
energy gap and collecting the bodies. Increasing temperatures cause a
corresponding increase in the endogenous concentration of institutions so that
more reunions bodies, resulting in a decrease in conversion efficiency.
Figure 8 Change in the efficiency of photovoltaic cells on the basis of
temperature
3.8 Basic types of photovoltaic modules
The PV solar cells are constructed in many ways
but with different materials. Depending on the manufacturing technology, their
solar cells can be divided into two different groups. The first
group, which is commonly used in household, use the
thick film technology while the second group uses technology thin film. The
material predominantly used today for the manufacture of photovoltaic
information industry is silicon (Si). But solar cells
constructed by combining other materials such as cadmium sulphide (CdS),
arsenious gallium (GaAs), telourioucho cadmium (CdTe) and copper-indium-
selenium
(CuInSe2), copper-France-diseliniou (CuGaSe2), copper-indium-sulfur
(CuInS2) and others.
Below are the major types of photovoltaic cells.
1. Monocrystalline silicon (Single-Crystalline Silicon, Sc-Si)
The basic material of these is the photovoltaic
monocrystalline silicon. The thickness of these materials is relatively large,
approximately 300mm. The efficiency of photovoltaic monocrystalline silicon
in the form of frameworks ranging from 13-18% and characterized by
high construction costs.
2. Polycrystalline silicon (Multi-crystalline Silicon, mc-Si)
The manufacture of photovoltaic polycrystalline silicon is faster
and less costly than that of PV
monocrystalline silicon. These elements are cut into square
form consists of thin layers of thickness 10 to 50 micrometers. Generally
the greater the size of single crystal regions
polycrystalline PV performance is the higher. The
Photovoltaic this sort of performance from 10 to 14% in the
form framework.

237
3. Silicon film (Ribbon Silicon)
The film PV silicon film is made of fused
crystalline silicon. The thickness is about 3mm and performance
reaches 13%. Although the construction of these elements offers
50% reduction in the use of silicon, the manufacturing cost is very
high.
4. Amorphous silicon (Amorphous Silicon, a-Si)
Photovoltaic this type have lower yields than the
previous articles. It _________gia foil coating thickness
usually 10-4mm which is produced by depositing silicon on
a substrate of glass or aluminum thickness 1-3 mm. Performance
amorphous silicon photovoltaic ranging from 6-8% while in the lab
environment achieved higher yields reach 15%.
5. Photovoltaic thin layer (Thin Film
Photovoltaic)
In this category other than PV silicon thin layer information,
owned and FB parts made of other materials. The
important materials for PV is the union of these Cu2S/CdS, the
2iselinoindiouchos Copper (CuInSe2 or CIS), the Telourioucho cadmium
(CdTe)
and Gallium Arsenic (GaAs). The performance of the above
ranging from 10 to 25% and significant advantages
compared with silicon.
3.9 modules
The model of photovoltaic (PV modules) is similar to
model of a photovoltaic element, except that the parameters are
adapted to the number of photovoltaic cells that make up.
More specifically, what determines the parameters of the photovoltaic
generator
is the number of parallel and serial photovoltaic cells.
The form of the characteristic curve of the frame is not different from the shape

8. As in the case of solar cells, there is a point


,, (,) M m M m VI for which we have maximum power. The maximum power for
a framework that consists of s M of elements in series and p M of elements in
while provision is given by:
M M P (18) = M, m s p m P
Another characteristic of photovoltaic modules is the temperature
nominal operation (nomimal cell operating temperature, NOCT). H NOCT
Is the temperature of photovoltaic modules
NOCT The parameter values range 42 oC to 46 oC and is used to
determine the temperature of photovoltaic modules during the
operation of the base unit.
238
3.10 Installation of photovoltaic modules in a building
H integration of PV frame roof or the facade of a building may
happen in many ways. The solutions adopted at times
including the use of PV data to the position of other components in
building envelope or awnings. There are four main ways to
installation of PV on a building framework:
mounting brackets slopes: H position is offered
easy access to both the front and the back of the PV framework,
when you need to do and helps to maintain good ventilation and
cooling of photovoltaic modules, thus increasing performance.
However, the cost is relatively high because it requires the use
additional material and extra labor.
Installing the exterior of the building: In this case,
modules attached to the outer shell of the building
which protrudes from the roof or facade. This method offers
ventilated boxes
Direct mounting: The solar cells in this case
mounted on the outer roof arranged as
tiles. The solar cap protects the building, but not
fully waterproof and measures required for sealing. Cost
But this method is relatively low, because it requires little
additives.
Integrating PV frames on the building envelope: This method
is to replace entire sections of the building
modules. H application of this technique offers opportunities
to significantly reduce costs and save costs
components of the building being replaced by
photovoltaics.
3.11 Advantages of PV systems
Photovoltaic systems have both advantages and
disadvantages compared with conventional power technologies. The PV
systems are
may be designed for various applications and requirements
diaforesleitourgikes
and have the important advantage that they have no moving parts and
easily expandable. Also find themselves in their environmental
compatibility and energy independence as they are built
natural light and do not create any noise.
On the other hand, the cost of PV frames are very high compared
with conventional energy sources. This is a major limiting
factor for the development of this technology, but studies show that in the
coming years the costs will drop significantly. Finally, another major
disadvantage of PV frames are low efficiency conversion of sunlight into
239
electricity. Low conversion efficiency will not only lead to lower energy gains,
but is directly linked to the need to install a larger quantity PV frameworks to
meet the energy needs indicating an increase in the required installation area.
SOLAR WATER HEATING SYSTEMS 4.1 Introduction
The solar water heating systems can provide a large part in
quantity of hot water for domestic use while saving energy. The
quantity and temperature of hot water supplied by these systems,
depends on the type and size of system, location and climatic conditions. The
solar water heaters
using solar energy for direct or indirect heating of water using
solar panels and storing it in insulated containers

4.2 Types of solar water heating systems


The solar water heating systems fall into two categories: (a) systems
natural circulation and (b) in a forced movement. In
natural circulation systems, the circulation of the fluid heat gain
made with natural movement without external interference, and forced
circulation systems for water circulation
used electric pumps, valves and control systems. In the first
category thermosyphonic systems (Thermosiphon systems) and solar collector
integrated devices (Integrated Collector Storage, ICS) and the second
katigoriaanikoun solar thermal systems with differential control circuit.
Chapter 4
(Differential controller operated pump systems). In these systems, the
collectors
placed on the roof or the roof of the building connected to water tanks located
within the building and a differential thermostat takes care of starting or
stopping traffic as the temperature difference of water between the collector
and the tank.
The solar water heating systems can be classified into open
Circuit (Open Loop-Direct systems) or in closed circuit (Closed Loop-
Indirect systems) as a way of heating water. Open Systems
circuit consisting of a circuit in which circulates water that is heated directly by
the solar collector and is in direct contact with him, where then stored in a
tank. By contrast, in a closed circuit water is heated by conduction of heat
through a fluid (usually a mixture of water and antifreeze) circulating in a
separate circuit to the storage tank water (outer mantle, or coil). The main
systems are open loop solar collector integrated devices and systems
thermosyphonic a closed circuit. The various systems can be either open or
closed. The following describes the main types of solar thermal systems.
thermosyphonic system
Thermosyphonic systems (Thermosiphon systems) are more commonly
solar thermal water heating systems, consisting of a flat solar
240
collector in which the circulating fluid and heat gain and a
insulated storage tank (Figure 1). The entry of fluid gain
low temperature heat is from the bottom of the tank and
leaving the collector is driven to the top of the tank. The circuit
is independent and not in contact with tap water which is introduced
the water mains at the bottom of the tank and after heated extracted from
the top. The circulation of fluid inside the collector and transfer
heat obtained by the natural movement that is created when the solar
collector and the fluid containing the hot sun. The
hot water in the tube is lighter than cold water pipe
entry which creates a continuous flow of this density difference in two
segments. For this reason, the thermosyphonic systems the storage tank
placed on the highest point of the solar collector. Also some instruments
the reservoir is no electrical resistance heating hot water
if there is sufficient solar energy.
Solar Integrated Device ICS
In an integrated solar device (Integrated Collector Storage), the
solar collector is both a reservoir of water. The
reservoir is usually cylindrical to withstand the pressure of the network
water and the outer surface is painted with black paint or coated
with a special selective surface absorption of solar radiation. In
many cases, placed over a container in order to
output of each to be connected to the input of the following is increasing
thereby increasing the overall efficiency of the device. These devices, because

reservoir is both the absorptive surface of


significant heat loss. For this reason used in many
case of transparent insulating material, double transparent lids or
still use a vacuum between the absorber and glass cover.
ab
Image 1 Solar Integrated Device ICS (a) and water heaters system (b)
Solar thermal differential control
Solar thermal systems control differential (Differential controller operated
pump systems) consist of collectors, one or two thermal reservoirs
storage and distribution of a fluid pump. These systems
have a differential control system that records the temperature difference
fluid between the collector and the water in the storage tank. When
temperature of the fluid collector is higher than that of water in
tank, the pump is operated to circulate the fluid
to the temperature difference to be very small.
Furthermore, the differential control system interrupts the operation of traffic
if there is profit potential energy from the sun, while
conditions of low temperatures, initiates a valve, which supplies sinks
241
with hot water from the storage tank.
Also in these systems because the movement is not physically
circulation, the relative position of the tank-collector is not relevant functional
plefras.Eikona 2 Thermal Solar Differential Control
4.3 Categories of solar collectors
Solar panels are an important part of the solar system
water heating. There are many types of solar collectors, depending on how
operation and the use intended. Solar panels
divided into two main categories:
i. Liquid Collectors: Solar panels for the class,
used as a heat gain of fluid element (usually
water) and used primarily for heating water in homes and
pools.
ii. Air Collectors: Solar panels are used in air
Most applications for indoor heating. Equivalent to
Collectors of wet collectors are used as a means
gain heat the air.
Flat plate collectors (Flat plate solar collectors)
The flat solar collector is the most common type of solar
collector. The flat solar collector consists of a metal housing with
lens through which is a plate to fotoaporrofitiki
absorption of solar radiation. In flat-plate
Wet collectors (Figure 3b) is a network of pipes in contact with
absorbent surface. Its operation is based on heat transfer from
suction tubes to the plate and then the resulting liquid
raising the temperature. In flat panels air (Figure 3a) behind
absorptive plate is a conduit through which flows the physical transfer
fluid. The air collector compared with wet collectors
have lower performance due to the smaller amount of heat
transferred from the plate in the air and have the advantage of being
simpler in construction

() (b)
Figure 3 Flat plate collectors: (a) air and (b) wet
Vacuum tube collectors (Evacuated tube collectors)
The panels are composed of an articulated system pipes in the center
which is an absorbent surface in thermal contact with thin metal
conductor (Figure 4). Inside the tube is a vacuum created by reducing a large
degree heat losses of the collector. In such panels, the thermal operator
exhaust heat generated in the suction surface is either water or liquid phase
change as alcohol. The same category includes the vacuum tube collectors
using reflectors to concentrate solar radiation and the vacuum panels double
outer tube for better heat protection.
242
Figure 4 vacuum tube collector
Aggregated solar collectors (Concentrating solar collectors)
The aggregated solar collectors are used in applications requiring
higher temperatures than those achieved with standard flat panels. The panels
are classified as aggregated to the ratio of concentration is achieved, the type
of reflector used and the type of target achieved (for example a point or linear).
The figure below shows the main types of centralized solar panels.
Figure 9 'iaforoi types of aggregate panels and the corresponding degree
concentration of solar radiation
Hybrid photovoltaic / thermal solar panels (Photovoltaic / Thermal Solar
Collectors, PV / T solar collectors)
The hybrid photovoltaic / thermal solar collectors (Fig. 5) are
ability to provide both electricity and thermal energy. Hybrid PV / i
systems consist of PV panels behind which there
integrated thermal unit of heat gain which circulates the fluid. The
panels are divided in hybrid PV / i collectors of water and hybrid PV / i
air collectors, depending on the fluid using heat gain. The
these systems exploit the heat due to losses of photovoltaic modules due to
the limited conversion of sunlight into electricity, increasing thus the overall
system performance. Figure 5 Hybrid PV / T solar collectors, water and air
respectively
4.4 Models of solar thermal collectors
The efficiency of the solar collector depends on a number of technical and
operational
characteristics for proper modeling of the overall operation of the heat
solar collectors. All models have been developed fall into two broad
categories, depending on how close the operation panel. These models are:
Model steady state (steady-state model): This model
briefly describes the behavior of a collector at steady
situation, ie where there is significant variation
both in meteorological terms (radiation, temperature)
and in some functional characteristics of collector (supply and
fluid inlet temperature).
2ynamika models (dynamic models): The dynamic modeling approach to
instantaneous behavior of the panel, considering the transitional
apparently due to the heat capacity of component
material of a thermal solar system. In the category of dynamic
models and models under 'quasi' which take into account
some of the elements of a system thermochoritika.
The main difference between the two models lies in the consequences of
behavior
collector from the weather changes especially in conditions of actual operation.

243
When the total heat capacity of sub-systems is significantly higher
than the collector (most common case) the steady-state model
closely approximates the operation of the system. But when
is for systems with heat capacity comparable to that of the collector, the
dynamic model is that it is more efficient
4.4.1 Model steady state (Steady-state model)
.
According to the above relation in steady state, the useful
energy absorbed by the collector is a function of incident solar radiation
whereas the optical and thermal losses of the system. The optical losses of the
〈  collector expressed by the active product of permeability-absorption () eff
and heat losses are expressed by the rate of heat loss LU.

4.4.2 'ynamika models (Dynamic model)


As mentioned earlier, a dynamic model describes the instantaneous
performance of a collector to changing circumstances. Such models take into
account factors related to the operation of the collector and meteorological
factors such as diachytiaktinovolia the temperature of the sky, the wind speed
and long wave radiation.
The most well known potential model used for the evaluation of solar
collector based on the European standard EN 12975-2. This dynamic model
is an extension of the basic steady-state model, which is taken into account
the effect of additional factors such as heat capacity, speed of wind, diffuse
radiation, high radiation wavelength and the angle of incidence rate.
Another potential model is called the graded flow model (matched
flow collector model-MCF), which focuses on heat loss and capacities system.
According to this model, the absorber shows local capacities which are a
function of temperature. The goal is an accurate expression of heat loss in
circumstances where the flow is low and sharp fluctuations in temperature.
Finally, it is worth mentioning the model Dyncoll, whereby the absorber
the collector is divided into a number of nodes along the flow. This model
take into account the temperature distribution in the direction of fluid flow.
4.5 Storage of solar heat in tanks
The storage of heat is through thermal pools, which
separated depending on the geometry of their construction, the thermal
operator
used as a storage medium or the orientation. The thermal reservoir is an
important part of a solar water heating system and should be constructed so
as to serve the needs of the user but also to ensure the maximum output
power. The main parameters affecting the behavior of a solar tank and hence
the overall system performance is the size, of the heat loss through the walls
to the environment and the temperature stratification of the water in the tank.
The size of a solar thermal pool is determined by the ratio of the volume (V)
244
water content of the tank to the surface exposure (aa) of solar
collector. For normal applications to exploit the heat, the size of solar
dexamenonepilegetai maintaining a ratio of about 50-100 l/m2.
The heat loss to the environment of a tank depends on the shape
the tank's thickness and insulating properties of the materials. The total heat
loss of a tank expressed by the coefficient of thermal losses of Us, which is a
function of mass, the average temperature and heat capacity of water inside
the tank.
Important role in the operation of a solar tank is trying to achieve as
best possible temperature stratification of the water so
achieve maximum energy output. If used a
tank water of high temperature from the collector and the water
low temperature from distribution coexist in the same
tank with the upper first and second respectively in the junior division. The
Maintaining this layer is a temperature rating of the main
objectives in the design and construction of solar thermal tanks.
WIND ENERGY
5.1 General
Wind energy is the energy of the wind from moving
air masses in the atmosphere. The movement of air, the winds come from
changes and different from place to place values of atmospheric pressure.
Prices
such pressure due to different heating (energy absorption) of
atmosphere of each place in the sun.
According to estimates by meteorological agencies the power of wind
global scale is 3.6 x 109 MW while the usable energy in
various places in the world at 1% and is estimated to be approximately
175x1012 KWh.
5.2 History of Wind machines
Wind energy is one of the oldest forms of physical energy was used
very early in the production of mechanical work and played an important role in
the evolution of humanity. The importance of wind energy can be seen from
ancient times when
Chapter 5
originally used to move the first sailing ships which contributed to the
development of shipping.
The first machines utilization of wind energy was the windmills. Although it
appears that the ancient peoples of the East used windmills, the first mention
of such machines appear in works of Arab writers 9th AD century. The windmill
arrived in Europe from the Arabs and used in countries such as France and
England to work in the form of water wheels.
The windmill was first used in 1890 when wind
installed on a steel tower windmill P. La Kouros in 2ania with wings and
245
double-slotted flaps automatic transition to the direction of the wind. After the
First World War made experiments with windmills which looked like the wings
fins air propeller while in 1931 such a wind turbine installed in the Crimea, the
power output to be directed to the local area network. Actual wind turbines with
two blades in the U.S. and worked in England during the 1940s while in the
2ania J. Jual built a turbine with three blades interconnected with each other
and with an overhang at the front axle peristrofis.Meta the Second World War,
many expected that wind energy will synevallesimantika electricity production,
but development efforts waned until the 1970s after the first oil crisis (1973).
Thus, various types of wind turbines in early 1980 shipped.
5.3 Wind Speed
The movement of the wind follows the laws of fluid mechanics, which
governing the turbulent flow of a fluid. Therefore the wind speed is a special
variable size, which displays strong fluctuations even at small time intervals.
Following the theoretical analysis applied to turbulent fields, the instantaneous
wind speed is expressed as the sum of the average wind speed
Looking at the speed of a field area, it is important to record and
maximum wind speed. Usually, the statistical forecast
maximum wind speed of the average hourly wind speed for a time. The
example shows statistics analyzed by statistical methods and determine the
maximum wind speed associated with maximum stress on parts of a wind
machine and hence the time of life.
5.3.1 Variation of wind speed with height
The wind is changing with increasing height. In making such
recording a wind force. The thickness of the atmosphere in which case the
change of wind speed, the oriko layer extends from a few meters up to 2 km.
To calculate the average speed in an area with the change of
relations are used, which reduces the wind speed at a given level of reference
to any height. The literature suggested several analytical relations change in
wind with height. The main ones are:. The values of this parameter ranging
between 0.07 for ice and 0.47 for urban areas.
5.3.2 Effect of barriers on the flow of wind
Significant effect on wind speed is the presence of some
barriers, eg a tree or a house in the field of wind flow. Around one
barrier, and especially behind it, in the direction of the wind up parking
intense turbulence characterized as a shadow of the wind. The effect of
turbulence extends behind the barrier, a length of up to fifteen times the
amount
barrier and more than up to twice the amount (Figure 10). For this
floor installation in areas considered particularly wind machines set up the
flow field.
Figure 10 Area of turbulence around the area isolated barrier
5.4 Equipment Wind Machine
246
Wind machines are designed to exploit the greater proportion of
kinetic energy of wind. Wind Turbines (WTs) can be classified
under the direction of axes in relation to the flow of wind. The most
prevalent types of A / C are:
horizontal axis (Horizontal _ axis-head on): in which the axis
the rotor is parallel to the direction of the wind.
horizontal axis (Horizontal _ axis-Crosswind): in which the axis
rotation is parallel to the earth's surface but perpendicular to
wind direction.
_ vertical axis (Vertical axis): in which the rotation axis is
perpendicular to the flow of wind.
The A / C horizontal shaft can separate in relation to the cursor position as
to the supporting tower and wind direction. The A / C have a front runner
the tower is up-wind type and those having the cursor behind the tower
press down-wind. On the other hand, the most widespread B / C vertical axis
are
Darrieus-type machines and engines type Savonius.
The modern wind turbines are also classified according to the speed
rotating blades in tachystrofes and sluggish as the value of a dimensionless
size parameter known as lambda rotation (tip speed ratio). This parameter can
be calculated , the radius of the rotor  from the angular velocity of rotation of
the blade of the A / C / R and the wind speed W Still, turbines are classified
according to the mechanical effect of N supply in three categories.
1. Small A / C where the rated power is between:
N 50 W ≤ ≤ 10kW
2. Medium A / C where the rated 200kW N ≤ power is between: 10kW ≤
3. Large A / C when the power is rated:
N 200kW ≤
Finally a parametrow used for the characterization and classification
the A / C is the stiffness . ⌠ parameter (solidity) of the construction The
robustness
usually defined as the ratio of surface area of all the fins to the area of the
surface of the fins in the rotation.
5.5 Wind Turbine Technology
An A / C consists of the following parts (Figure 11):
Rotor (runner): The wings of the rotor are designed to turn the wind, turning
the generator. In particular large A / C to increase the speed of the generator
is properly connected gearbox.
Fins: The fins are part of the A / C on which lift up
the wind has resulted in torque in the axis of rotation resulting in the rotation.
Most A / C have two or three blades.
Shell: The shell is located on the tower and includes many
mechanical and electronic equipment of the most important of which is the box
247
Speed axes high / low speed, generator and brake.
Power generator: The generator is responsible for producing
electricity when the wind speed gain such an honor to
rotate the blades. The generators are divided into broad categories: (a)
current and (b) asynchronous machines.
Gearbox: The gearbox is part of the A / C shall be
increases the speed of the axis leading to the generator to produce electricity.
Steering and guidance: The horizontal axis wind turbines
require a mechanism that directs them to the wind. For this reason, the
fuselage of the A / C is usually based on a mechanical rotor which accepts
commands from an electronic monitoring system for wind direction.
System Protection: Modern A / C have mechanisms to disable
operation for safety reasons when the intensity of wind speed is very
high.
Support Tower: The tower raises the fuselage of the A / C at high altitude to
advantage of the high wind speeds. The tower support requires considerable
planning and should have a high level while be robust to withstand the
dynamic loads due both to the operation of A / C and the weather conditions.
Figure 11 Parts turbine
5.6 Power A / C
The rate of mechanical strength of the wind available to exploit
depends on wind velocity WV, the , the rotor radius R and the design of the
 angular speed of the propeller impeller. Energy
seconded by wind (power output of the A / C
The characteristic parameter for the efficiency of A / C is the aerodynamic
Power Factor p C, which expresses the extent to which convert energy
contained in the wind. The coefficient p C depends on , the wind speed WV,
the angular speed of the propeller  the parameter $ feed fins. , the type
of generator, the shape and angle  The maximum power factor is known
as the Betz limit and corresponds to the value, max
The output of A / C as mentioned above depends on the speed
wind and wind each machine has a typical power curve. The curve defines the
efficiency of wind versus wind speed (Figure 6) and is characterized by the
speed boot ci V A / C, rated r V operating speed and speed off co V A / C. The
rate of departure is that the speed at which the turbine starts to generate
power while the nominal operating speed is the speed at which the turbine
produces rated power. Finally, the speed off the price of wind speed at which it
ceases to operate for safety reasons.
5.7 Small Wind Power
Small wind turbines refer to systems that have
Wind turbines have diametrodromea from 0.58m to 8m and are usually in
towers with a height ranging from 10meos the 40m.
248
Small A / C are divided into three subcategories according to their rated power

exit which is:


(A) Micro wind turbines with N ≤ 1kW, rated power 50 ≤
(B) Mid-range wind turbines with 5kW, N ≤ a rated power 1kW ≤
(C) Mini wind turbines with a N ≤ 10kW rated power 5kW ≤
5.7.1 'Legal elements of Small A / C
A little A / C is generally composed of a rotor with blades, an engine, a
supporting tower and a circuit composed of the necessary
wiring, an energy storage system (battery) a charge controller and a voltage
converter. As the large A / C, small A / C split into horizontal and vertical axis,
the number of fins vary.
The highest percentage of resident small A / C held horizontal axis
generators, particularly those which have three blades and operate more
efficiently than those with more blades due to better
aerodynamic design. On the other hand, the small A / C vertical shaft,
although the benefits have not particularly popular because of low
performance and greater cost than the A / C horizontal shaft.
5.7.2 Short Blades A / C
The wings are the part of the wind which sets in motion the path of A / C
which in turn drives the generator to produce electricity. The
design of these blades is determined by the size and aerodynamic
characteristics of A / C and the material construction.
It is observed that the mechanical strength of the blade to the mounting
decreases with the increase of their number. Small A / C with three blades
run more smoothly, due to the constant value Joined torque than the rotary
motion of the A / C. While the turbines are of a lower noise level and are more
economically efficient. For these reasons especially, A / C with three blades
are the most common design choice for most manufacturers of small wind
turbines, while others continue to use two or more than three blades.
Fins small anemogennitrioneinai mainly made of synthetic
materials such as fiberglass with foam core, polyester reinforced with glass,
wood and stainless iron. These synthetic materials have the advantage of high
resistance to weathering and high ratio of stiffness-weight blade. In addition
these materials are resistant to corrosion and act as insulators in the passage
of electricity.
5.7.3 Orientation of Small A / C
Most small horizontal axis wind turbines
using the''tail''in order to move into the
wind direction. The ouriaio department use in
correlation with the mechanisms of turning large A / C,
which can not be placed in a small A / C, especially
the cost, weight and dimensions. Shown in Figure 7 a
249
small A / C with three blades with the ouriaio
part.
Figure 7 Air-X Wind
5.7.4 Speed Control Short A / C
Although, that high wind speeds lead to higher output
energy, can often cause damage. To
Protection of A / C and security of its people-site, small A / C have different
mechanisms of braking and speed control
rotation. In recent small wind systems used two types
control techniques, passive control techniques and active control techniques.
The first category is the control stall (stall control). Check with the basis of this
technique based on curvature of the blade when the wind speed increased
significantly. In particular, when the wind speed exceeds a
pre-construction price of the curved blades because of the large
aerodynamic resistance to the change in the angle of attack between
tonpterygion and wind. This results in the diversion of A / C from the wind
while reducing the speed of the rotor. Many A / C, low power diverted from the
direction of the wind carried the curvature of the fuselage of the A / C in large
wind speeds.
Active control techniques based on the control blade pitch
(Pitch control). In wind turbines diathetounafton control, an electronic
system constantly monitors the power output, which when it becomes too high,
given the direction the rotor blades to turn a corner and under. In this position,
the speed is reduced significantly by protecting the A / C. When conditions
return to normal levels, the flaps return to their original position.
5.7.5 Generators of Small A / C
Most small A / C using artificial emission step permanent magnet generators
(Permanent magnet generators). The operation of permanent magnet
generator based
the reaction is the rotor (runner) permanent magnet of A / C in a
electromagnetic field.
The above type of generators subject to asynchronous machines, which
means
that can not be directly connected to the alternating (AC) network. This is
because of the instability is produced in voltage and frequency. For this reason

converters are used to stabilize the voltage to either


storage of electricity or connection to the alternating current
network.
5.7.6 Small Support Towers A / C
As the large A / C so small towers used to support the
lifting the body of the machine in the air. The towers are as reported
This should be tall enough so the wind be at higher
250
the turbulent zone near the ground but at the same time resistant to withstand
forces received from the wind.
The towers of small A / C are classified into two categories according to the
Construction characteristics: (a) Lattice towers and (b)
towers with a single tube. Lattice towers use a system
tubes forming a grid tower, which is fixed to the ground
specially constructed cables in three different points of the address. Also on
Such towers have the possibility to change the amount of which is
one of the reasons for the high construction costs. On the other hand, the
towers
single-pole construction method are simple and have the advantage of being
visually more pleasant than the towers of the former kind.
The towers supporting small anemogennitrionmporoun be categorized
according to
at the natural frequency of flexible and rigid. In rigid Towers
resonant frequency is greater than the frequency of rotation of the wing while
the
Hose Towers eigenfrequency of the tower is less than the frequency
rotation of the blade.
EXPERIMENTAL & K & IKASIA
6.1 The purpose of the experimental procedure
This chapter will be a description of the installation, operation
and monitoring of energy production units with which to negotiate
this work.
The main objective of the experimental procedure is to study all the
parameters
required to operate the system. 5s will therefore be described in
individual circuits and electronic systems required for the disposal of
energy produced. The purpose of the experiment is to study the energy output
of each
main system by making up the hybrid system as well as
analysis of meteorological quantities that affect system performance.
Also one of the most important parts of the experimental procedure is
create conditions for long-term self-recording data, which is
necessary for the study of the hybrid system. For this reason, we refer
in the process of recording and data acquisition using autonomous data logger

CR10X's Campell Scientific.


Chapter 6
6.2 Circuits and Connections
6.2.1 Individual energy system with A / C
Figure 12 shows the small wind turbine used in this
work. All cables Ms. connections shown in the figure are characterized by
251
blue or red, which conventionally express positive and negative voltage. Such
as
seen from the figure, the electrical output of the A / C led to a switch positions.
The
Item 1 of the switch corresponds to a closed circuit position 2 corresponds to
open
circuit and box 3 represents a short-circuiting the ends of the A / C leads to
blocking the fins of A / C. It is worth noting that there is extreme pole of
A / C which is connected to the negative end.
After the switch, the positive output led to a 30 A safety and leads to
positive terminal of the battery while the negative side before katalixeiston
negative pole
Battery driven through a resistance Ri = 0.001 5. The reason is inserted
resistance is to create suitable potential difference in order to record
the automatic recording CR10X. This potential difference corresponds to
produced by the turbine electricity after being divided by the price
resistance Ri.
To measure the output voltage of A / C and the battery voltage
using the potentiometer as shown in the figure below. The negative and
positive edge of both the A / C and battery were connected to the
potentiometer
to divide the trends and be suitable for measuring the recording
CR10X. Using the voltage divider was required as the threshold
measurements
automatic recorder is 2.5V. To construct the voltage divider selected
resistors with values R1 = 1k5 R2 = 1M5, and in order to achieve conversion
ratio 1:1000.
Then the poles of the battery went through a safety and a 25 A
resistance Ri = 0.001 5-voltage converter (inverter). Converter voltage
Battery (Vmpat. = 12 V) is converted into alternating voltage of 220 V in order
to
power the load. The total load, which consumed the
action consisted of a power transformer 9 W as well as a
device with multiple loads. The use of the transformer as a load was to
verify the operation of cargo a distance using a computer (remote
desktop connection).
Figure 12 Circuit autonomous power plant with A / C
6.2.2 photovoltaic system
Figure 13 shows the stand-alone PV system used in this
work. The connections of autonomous PV system has similarities
connections with the previous paragraph. The connection of photovoltaic
frames were also to operate under a common trend. The edges of the frames
driven by two position switch, to isolate the frames where
252
required, and a resistor Ri = 0.001 5 in the charge controller (controller). This
electronic device regulates the output voltage to the eventual
storage system. While endeavor to maintain an upper and lower limit
battery voltage, to protect, _________tin interrupting power supply to and
with it. The above provision is not necessary for the circuit of A / C and the
same
has an integrated charge controller.
Figure 13 photovoltaic system
Then the positive and negative edge of charge controller connected via
A security of 25 in the respective pole of the battery. Light poles
transported to the battery converter (inverter) in order to feed the load. Such
as
in the previous circuit, the total load consisted of a transformer
This time, 8 W power and a device with multiple loads. To measure the trend
photovoltaic and battery voltage divider used similar
that of the previous scoring loop, and this time conversion ratio
1:1000.
6.2.3 Solar water heating system
The solar heating system consists of a flat solar water heater
collector (Figure 14). As shown in Figure from entering the reservoir
connected to mains water and the entrance of the container properly adjusted
tap to extracting water. Furthermore, within the circuit
guise of collector placed a mixture of distilled water with antifreeze to
protection of induction by low temperatures.
Figure 14 Solar Collector thermosifonikos
To measure the temperature of the water reservoir placed
thermocouples at three different positions as shown in Figure 14. In addition,
two
thermocouples were placed in tubes at the entrance and exit of the collector to
measure the temperature of the water-antifreeze was needed to study the
system. All thermocouples were connected to the CR10X logger automatically
for continuous price recording 24 hours. Finally, it was placed within the
reservoir electrical resistance of 3 kW power to heat water when needed

6.3 Individual items of plant


6.3.1 Wind
For energy production from wind turbines was used
company Southwest Windpower particular model AIR-X Land nominal
power 300 Watts.
This model has three blades with a diameter of 1.17 m, weight of 6 kg and
length
body of A / C is 0.675 m. These dimensions define a sphere of operation with
a diameter of 1.24 m the A / C is located at a height of 3 m on a tower
253
supporting an external diameter of 4.5 cm. This model has a starting speed of
3 m / s and a nominal speed of 12 m / s maximum output of 400 Watts.
Figure 15 Geometrical dimensions and energy curve AIR-X Land
The A / C has three-phase generator with stator permanent magnet attached
to
circuit converting the direct current produced. The rotor of the A / C is
constructed from twelve arcuate shape magnets of iron (Fe)-doped boron (B)
and Neodymium (Nd). The blades of the A / C is made from thermoplastic
rubber doped carbon for durability in extreme operating conditions.
The A / C system has a passive aerodynamic brake when winds blow high
intensity. In particular, when the wind speed approaching the value 15 m / s
due to elastic fins bend backward, thus altering the angle of attack between
the wing and the vector of wind speed reducing thereby the angular speed of A
/ C. For larger values of wind speed, the aerodynamic effects of passive brake
is inadequate leading to the closure of the A / C electronically by connecting
the edges with the help of a switch. The model AIR-X Land has built load
controller (controller) to control the output voltage so as not to exceed a
predetermined limit. This limit, factory is set to 14.1 V and can be changed
from 13.8 V to 17.8 V. H can change the output voltage via a screw located at
the rear of the fuselage of the A / C if turned in the direction of clockwise from
lower to higher price. The A / C does not have an electronic system with which
to rotate the wind direction. This accomplishes with the help of aerodynamic
designed "tail" of. Also, model AIR-X Land has a passive control system speed
A / C in order to protect the system from high-intensity winds. The passive
system is based on the curvature of fins, while the diversion from the direction
of the wind due to aerodynamic design when the wind speed exceeds a
certain value.
6.3.2 Photovoltaics
The system used to produce energy from the sun is
four modules of polycrystalline silicon (pc-Si) with an inclination 45th compared
to the horizontal plane and towards the south. Photovoltaic Kyocera is the
company under the name KC 50T, 54 Watt rated power each. Each frame
consists of 36 solar cells connected to a series, with an area of 0.01 m2 and
an output voltage of 0.6 V.
The four boxes total area of 1.6 m2 is connected to the parallel provision
to work with a common trend, offering maximum power. The characteristics
operation of each frame shown in the table below.
electrical efficiency under _ standard test conditions (STC)
Rated maximum power output (Pmax) 54.1 W (+10% / -5%)
Rated maximum voltage (Vmpp) 17.4 V
Nominal peak (Impp) 3.11 A
Open circuit voltage (Voc) 21.7 V
Short-circuit current (Isc) 3.31 A
254
Maximum system voltage 600 V
Open circuit voltage deviation of -8.21 x 10-2 V / oC
Deviation short circuit current 1.33 x 10-3 A / oC
Table 1 Characteristics of operating data PV modules
Figure 9 modules
6.3.3 Thermal solar collector
The thermal system used in this work is
thermosyphonic type ECONOMY company under the name ECO 120. The
water heater system has a dimension in height 2.01 m, width 1 m and length
1.82 m, weight 112 kg. O collector inclined 440 degrees relative to the
horizontal plane and has
south.
Figure 10 the water heater system
The water tank is mounted horizontally and is
two concentric cylinders fabricated from stainless steel. Among
cylinders is the thermal exchanger and an insulating layer of polyurethane 80
mm thickness and density of 35-38 Kg/m3. The interior fitted with 3 kW
electrical resistance of stainless steel while the upper portion of the vessel are
two bleed valves for safety reasons.
The solar collector consists of copper tubes in parallel alignment on
where there is a selective surface copper absorption coefficient a = 0.90% and
emissivity e = 0.11%. At the bottom is insulated with rock wool 40 mm thick
with the lid on top of the collector is made siilikoni.
The data associated with that thermosyphonic system:
Volume of water contained in _ the tank: 90 lt
exchanger fluid volume: 12 lt _
Open device: Length: 1.93 m, _ width: 0.925 m
Surface opening: a A = 1.785 _ m2
Water Content / collecting _ surface: 73.95 lt m-2
6.3.4 Batteries
For energy storage batteries used in liquid electrolyte
each circuit separately.
In the circuit that includes the modules used in battery
lead the company closed Banner particular model 968 01. The
This model was chosen because it has the appropriate characteristics
application to power systems with a size similar to the system for
consideration. More specifically, the battery is 968 01 12 V nominal voltage
and capacity is 180 Ah for 5 hours and 230 Ah for 20 hours. In the circuit that
includes the A / C, used lead acid battery enclosed in the company's brand
Mura Mura Clean 12MC 220. The battery voltage is 12 V and a capacity of 195
Ah referred to for 10 hours and 220 Ah for 20 hours at 25 oC

255
6.3.5 Charge Regulator
For the connection of PV to the battery used in a controller
charger (controller) to determine the output voltage to 12 V and the
check the battery charge. The model used (Figure 11) is the
company Conergy codenamed SCC 20 eco.
This device allows the passage of a maximum current 20 A for a system
12 V / 24 V according to a predetermined voltage storage element and having
minimum consumption of no more than 4 mA. There is also an electronic
system
protection cut off the battery when the voltage exceeds the 13.5 V.
Figure 11 Controller SCC 20 eco
Converter 6.3.6
The converter (inverter) is an electronic device that converts the voltage
Battery 12 V DC to 220 V AC, to implement a common electrical
devices. For the purposes of the study, two converters for each system
separately. Both the circuit includes A / C and for that includes modules
chrisimopoiithikandyo sine wave inverters company STUDER codenamed AJ
257-400 (Figure 12) rated 275 Watt. This model is designed for appliances
that operate on household electricity of 230 V / 50Hz with an efficiency of over
93%. Also, the converter has a visual and audible buzzer if abnormal operation
such as low battery voltage of the battery, overheating, etc. Figure 12 Inverter
AJ 275-12
6.3.7 Wind
For the measurement of wind speed anemometers used two types
UEFA company's North Wales codenamed A100R (Figure 13). The
anemometer was calibrated and record the wind speed was a direct
conversion frequency electrical pulses in wind speed using appropriate
conversion factor (lan = 0.79). This model is
Made of stainless steel and composite plastic capable of operating in various
weather conditions. The A100R is possible to measure wind speed up to 75
m / sec in a temperature range from -30 oC to +70 oC and 1% accuracy for
wind speeds between 10 m / sec - 55 m / sec and 2% for wind speeds greater
than 55 m / sec.
'
Figure 13 anemometer A100R
6.3.8 Pyranometro
The pyranometro used to measure the total radiation is
The company Kipp & Zonen codenamed CM 3 (Figure 14). Recording
intensity of solar radiation was converted to voltage output units pyranometrou
solar irradiance (Wm-2) through an appropriate rate (lpyr = 94.37). The
thermal detector model CM 3 is able to measure levels of total solar radiation
up to 4000 W/m2 with an error of about ± 15 W/m2 with a response time less
than 18 sec. It is also able to function well in a wide range of temperatures (-10
256
oC to +80 oC) and with stability better than 1% per year.
Figure 14 Pyranometro CM 3
6.3.9 thermocouples
For temperature measurement thermocouples used copper-
konstantanis (CuNi-type T) are associated with the recording system. The
T type thermocouples are able to measure temperatures of -185 oC to +300
oC to within ± 0.5 oC between -40 oC - 125 oC and ± 0.004 oC x T inter
+125 OC - +300 oC T where the value of reading the temperature of the body.
6.4 Automatically download and record measurements
6.4.1 Automatic recording
For registration and storage of measurements of various parameters
used an automatic recording (data logger) Campbell Scientific company
Instrument under the trade name CR 10X (Figure 15). This model has 12
analog inputs (differential or 6) with resolution 13 bit, two pulse inputs, three
sensor excitation outputs (for sensors requiring a tendency to produce signal)
ports and eight digital I / O. It also has real time clock with an accuracy of
about ± 1-2 minutes per month.
The CR 10X can be programmed to measure both meteorological
parameters as electronic parameters with periods from tenths of seconds up to
several hours. Additionally, the data logger has the ability to perform functions
incorporate statistical analysis of the measurements are averages of any such
period, average hourly values, standard deviations, etc. Apart from
measurements of the sensors the logger stores the values of five additional
parameters. These are the code separation price, the code name system, the
year the Julian date and time. Figure 15 automatic recording type CR10X
The memory type is CR 10X EEPROM for the operating system and SRAM
for storing data. The automatic recorder has an internal memory of 128 KB
SRAM and 128 KB FLASH CR 10X (EEPROM) with an option to FLASH
memory units with capacities of 2 MB 4 MB 16 MB. In the event of power the
EEPROM and SRAM memories do not lose the stored values and derive the
energy required by an independent Lithium battery, which has a shelf life of
four years.
The CR 10X supports all forms of communication including
satellite link and the link through radio network. The most common method of
communication is the connection to a computer through the RS 232 interface
and the interface SC929 Campbell Scientific.
6.4.2 System multiplexing
In CR 10X is possible to connect various input expansion cards. One of them
is the unit multiplexing (Multiplexer) which enables making more proportional
(or differential) measurements from a limited number of CR 10X. The model
used is the company's AM416 Campbell Scientific.
Figure 16 Unit Multiplexing (Multiplexer) AM416
The AM416 is placed in an aluminum housing giakali abduction
257
heat and has 4 rows with 16 host ports on each. This model can measure
analog 32 (or 16 differential) external signals and is one of the seats available
for measuring differential automatic recorder.
6.4.3 LoggerNet 3.1 Datalogger Support Software
A) Software Support
Communicating with the automatic CR 10X recording made with a
program LoggerNet 3.1. The LoggerNet is a software package through which
Users have the ability to organize, develop and recover
data from a network of automatic recording company Campbell Scientific.
The program was designed based on an updated architecture,''user-
Server''(client-server). O server works in the background ensuring that the
datalogger communication with individual system components. Also, it is
responsible for data storage and retrieval from memory CR 10X when
required. Also, the software is designed so that some applications can run on
any computer which is connected to the main computer networks that support
the protocol TCP / IP. Such networks are 2iktya Local Computer (LAN), the
2iktya Wide Area (WAN) and Internet
B) Toolbar
When LoggerNet software installed on your main computer appears
main toolbar (Figure 17) through which is the organization and execution of
applications.
Figure 17 LoggerNet toolbar
The toolbar consists of 10 cards relating to
programming the CR10X, communication with the computer, collecting
data etc. Specifically, the tabs are:
1. EZSetup: The EZSetup is the first application that runs when the
LoggerNet software running for the first time. It is designed in such a way
so the user with successive steps can create a simple
network by automatically recording. This process includes
arrangements relate to each other by the type of record
be used to link the port with the main computer
speed data transfer and fixing the point
storage of data.
2. Setup: In this tab the user has the ability to define
parametroupou the details needed to run
the CR10X. In addition to basic connection and communication
this tab can be set to the time of the automatic recorder, the
way communication system with the user to send the program
the CR10X etc.
3. Connect: This tab is the most important parts of the software
package LoggerNet 3.1. Provides the ability to connect the datalogger to
Get with the program. It also provides tools through
programs are transferred to the memory of the recorder, adjust the
258
hours of recording, data are collected and monitored
connect the datalogger to a terminal box. It is also possible that both
price monitoring measurements and the graphical
representation in real time.
4. Status: This tab contains tools useful for representing
statistics relating to communications between the recorder
and users at all levels. It also provides a virtual representation of
devices are connected to the network claiming errors
communication while suggesting ways to correct them.
5. Edlog: This application is used for writing program
that determines the kind of measurements, the positions of
sensors in the automatic recorder, the period of
measurements and the time integration of data. The above
process occurs through an editor in conjunction with embedded
commands available to the program each time changing the parameters of
commands. The Edlog used for writing programs in the models
CR7, CR500, CR510, CR10, CR10X, CR21X and CR23X.
6. Short Cut: This tab creates programs for the dataloggers
Campbell Scientific company in four simple steps. Tool Short Cut
is mainly aimed at users who need simple programs and
simultaneously without having much experience in programming.
7. CRBasic: The CRBasic is an application for writing programs for
Recorders CR5000, CR1000, CR9000, and CR200. Aimed at users
with extensive experience in writing programs that require flexibility and
control the operation of the datalogger. For the preparation of the required
knowledge
SCWIN programming language based on language
Programming Visual BASIC.
8. View-Split: The View and Split are two tools for analyzing data.
Specifically, the tool View enables the user to see
aggregated data and the graphical representation. The
View can handle different types of data files (. DAT,. PRN,
. CSV) files like CSI (. DLD,. CSI,. PTI,. FSL,. CR2,. CR5,. CR1,. CR9).
The Split is a complementary tool to View and used in
analysis of data collected. Can produce statistically
perform relatively complex calculations and create
reports''filtering''data in accordance with the time and conditions
experiments.
9. RTCM (Real-Time Monitor and Control): This tool allows RTCM
creating graphics in real time as the datalogger
collect the data.
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
7.1 Introduction
259
In this chapter we present the results of measurements
during the period 12/09/2007 and 30/09/2008. Such as
mentioned in the previous chapter, measurements were made using the
automatic
CR10X data logger and include price trends, currents, temperature, speed
wind and solar radiation intensity. The minimum period for measuring
automatic recorder was set at twenty seconds yielding average values every
ten minutes. The measurements are presented on average hourly and monthly
rates depending on the case.
By means of these measurements were made calculations and graphs
associated with the operation and efficiency of both autonomous entities
making up the plant and the hybrid system. We present
graphs showing the variation of basic meteorological quantities from
which depends on the operation of the facility.
Kefalaio7
8.2.2 Experimental results of heating water using electricity
resistance
The study on the conversion of surplus electricity to
thermal tests were performed using electrical resistance to the
calculate the amount of energy required to raise the average
water temperature in the tank 2T (° C). For the purpose of the experiment
placed in the middle of the reservoir thermosyphonic manifold vacuum
resistance, power 3 kW. The peiramatikidiadikasia consisted of two each time
stages of heating different average water temperatures and a period
peace between them.
Graph 23 shows the change in water temperature at different
parts of the vessel in three different time periods. In areas where
measured the water temperature corresponding to the bottom, the middle and
upper
within the container. Originally put into service the electrical resistance for a
time
within 1 hour (time 10:00-11:00) for the region defined
from points AB (Figure 23), then the system was allowed to settle for a
within 1 hour (11:00-12:00 time-zone B-C) and then entered into
up again the resistivity again for a period of 1 hours (12:00-13:00 -
Area C-D).
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
260
70
80
90
100
9:00
9:50
10:40
11:30
12:20
13:10
14:00
14:50
15:40
16:30
17:20
18:10
19:00
19:50
20:40
21:30
22:20
23:10
0:00
Time (Hours)
Temperature (° C)
TANK Low TANK Middle TANK Up Ta TANK Mean
A B
C D
E
F
G
'Iagramma 23 iagramma heating water using electrical resistance (a)
In the first stage of the initial average temperature of water (
A) was 27.62o
while the = i Mean TC - maximum final average temperature after the first
period
heating value reached 47.67o
(point E) = f Mean TC - increased by
1 20.05 oC. = T Α Then during the period of calm (region B-C) system
The average water temperature showed a slight rise of
1.34oC taking the final= T Α price 49.01o
(Section F). = r Mean T C - In this
long as the temperatures corresponding to the middle and upper container
261
a decline, which exisorropithike by warming water
small portion of the container. The third phase of the process begun with the
average temperature
of water is 49.01o
(Section F) = r Mean TC - leading to get price
71.73o
C (Section G) shortly = Tf after the end of the heat reflecting an increase
22.72oC. = T Α at 2
After stopping the electrical resistance temperatures
water in the middle and upper container following a downward trend while
The water temperature in the lower end continues to grow. The behavior of
temperature in the low part of the receptacle is thermal inertia of the system
the change in temperature. The change in temperature can
synechizetaimechri
a thermal equilibrium in which the three temperatures are equalized. The
energy spent during the first stage of the procedure for lifting the
Α average water temperature at 1 20.05oC, was 3 kWh while the same
quantity =T
energy spent in the third phase of the experiment to raise the average
= T Α water temperature at 2 22.72oC. The fluctuation in temperatures
system during the three phases of the experiment are shown in Table 1.
Home
temperature
Change _T
(1 phase)
Change _T
(2 stage)
Change _T
(3 phase)
Final
temperature
TTANK-Low 27.70 +0.92 +2.81 +5.19 37.94
TTANK-Middle 27.66 +22.22 -1.26 +32.42 82.10
TTANK-Up 27.50 +37.02 -1.33 +27.17 91.90
TTANK-Mean 27.62 +20.05 +1.34 +22.72 71.73
Table 1 Temperature changes in the water container (s)
Similar to the previous experiment carried out with different but
heating time (Figure 24). This time, the electrical resistance was
operated for a period of 15 minutes (19:25-19:40 time-area
A-B), then the system was left to stand for a period of 45 minutes (time
19:40-20:25 long-range B-C) and then came up again the electrical
Resistance again for a period of 15 minutes (20:25-20:40 time-area
C-D).
262
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
19:19
19:39
19:59
20:19
20:39
20:59
21:19
21:39
21:59
22:19
22:39
22:59
23:19
23:39
23:59
0:19
0:39
0:59
1:19
Time (Hours)
Temperature (° C)
TANK Low TANK Middle TANK Up TANK Mean Ta
A B C D
E
F
G
'Iagramma 24' iagramma heating water using electrical resistance (b)
In the first stage of the initial average temperature of water (
A) was 30.21o
while the = i Mean TC - maximum final average temperature after the first
263
period
heating value reached 35.79o
(point E) = f Mean TC - increased by
Α 1 5.58 oC. = T Then during the period of calm Α (region B-C) system, the
average water temperature showed a slight decrease of 0.07 oC after final
price 35.72o =T
(Section F). = r Mean T C - The third phase of the process
began with an average temperature of water is 35.72o
(Section F) = r Mean T C -
ending to get the price 41.73o
C (Section G) shortly = Tf after the end of
heat reflecting an increase of 2 6.01oC. = T Α The electrical resistance of 3
kW has worked in both phases for a period of 15 minutes consuming energy
equal to 5.58oC = T Α 0.75 kWh each time causing elevation of mean water
temperature 1 6.01oC for each phase = T Α and 2 respectively. The
fluctuation in temperature of the system during the three phases of the
experiment are listed below.
List price change _T
(1 phase)
Change _T
(2 stage)
Change _T
(3 phase)
Final Price
TTANK-Low 30.17 +0.06 +0.26 +0.28 30.77
TTANK-Middle 30.19 +5.07 +0.11 +7.16 42.53
TTANK-Up 30.28 +11.6 -0.59 +10.59 51.88
TTANK-Mean 30.21 +5.58 -0.07 +6.01 41.73
Table 2 Temperature changes of water in the tank (b)
From these experiments and for both phases of the use of electricity
resistance to heat water appears to raise the average temperature of Nero
from different values of the initial 10oC required to spend an average energy=
T Α average water temperature in 27.04min using resistance = equal to
1.352 kWh for a period of operation t 3 kW.
8.3 Combination of A / C hybrid photovoltaic / thermal solar systems
(PV / F systems or PV / T systems)
Under the combination of wind and solar energy to meet
energy requirements of a building can use hybrid photovoltaic /
solar thermal systems could increase the overall efficiency of
installation.
It is known that most of the absorbed solar radiation
photovoltaic cells is not converted to electricity but heat, which
contributes to the increase in temperature resulting in a decrease in electrical
264
performance. Solar systems have the potential to provide both electricity and
thermal energy are hybrid photovoltaic / thermal systems. These systems as
reported in a previous chapter consists of PV panels with integrated thermal
unit of heat gain of FB, where a heated fluid circulating $, while cooling the PV.
These hybrid devices can be used to heating the water at low temperatures
(up to 40oC) to achieve at the same time maintaining low temperatures in the
PV modules. In Solar Energy Laboratory, University of Patras have developed
various types of PV / H systems using water or air as a fluid heat gain to
improve their overall energy efficiency. The main types of hybrid PV / i
appliances water (PVT / WATER) can carry an additional lens (PVT + GL) to
increase efficiency or thermikistous be uncovered to have no reduction in
power efficiency. Figure 16 shows the combinations of the above hybrid PV / h
water collectors.
Figure 16 Hybrid PV / h water solar panels, with or without lens
The subject is the basis of the work Y. Tripanagnostopoulos, M. Souliotis, Th.
Makris, P. Georgostathis 2007 "Design and performance of hybrid PV / T solar
water heaters"
Hybrid photovoltaic / thermal water can be linked to bin
store water for daily operation on natural flow by replacing flat
thermosifonikous PV panels and frames (Figure 17).
Figure 17 Hybrid PV / i thermosyphonic system
Moreover, under the working Y. Tripanagnostopoulos, 2006: "Cost effective
designs of
Building intergrated PV / T Solar systems "to avoid the operation of hybrid PV /
i panels of high temperature and thus reducing the electrical efficiency of both
the temperature and the optical loss resulting from the use of additional glass
cover, the these devices can be combined efficiently with thermal solar
collector. In this case the hybrid PV / i collector is mainly for cooling and solar
water preheating, while the main water heating is achieved with solar thermal
equipment. Figure 18 shows the layout thermosifonikis device combining the
hybrid PV / i device device Figure 18 Combined PV / i thermosifoniki solar
collector device
8.3.1 Daily charts yield hybrid PV / i thermosyphonic
System This section presents charts indicative of the performance and daily
functioning of the hybrid PV / i developed the Solar Energy Laboratory,
University of Patras. Graph 25 shows the change of key parameters during the
daily operation of PV / i collector while Figure 26 shows the change in the
electrical efficiency of PV frameworks in relation to temperature and thermal
efficiency of PV / h units collector and without glass cover.
0
5
10
15
265
20
25
30
35
40
6:00 7:30 9:00 10:30 12:00 13:30 15:00 16:30 18:00 19:30 21:00
Time (0res)
Temperature (oC)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
Solar radiation (W m-2)
Average water temperature Ta Wind Speed Radiation
'Iagramma 25 Day function hybrid PV / i sink without transparent cover
n el = -0.0003 T pv + 0.0989
n el =-0.0005T pv + 0.1229
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Temperature (oC)
PV electrical efficiency
PVT Glazed
PVT Unglazed
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
266
0.6
0.7
-0.02 -0.01 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
, T / G (W-1K m2)

Thermal performance of PV / T
PVT GL PVT UNGL
'Iagramma 26 (a) Variation of electrical efficiency of hybrid PV / i collector with
and without
glass cover (b) Performance of hybrid PV / i thermosyphonic solar collector
8.4 Energy study to meet the energy needs of a house
the output of the power systems
In this section we calculate the amount of energy produced at the time
during the experiments and then consider the extent of coverage of energy
needs a home of a middle class family.
8.4.1 Generated energy from PV under
The total energy produced by the PV framework during
experiments and a total of 396 days was 194.60 kWh while the corresponding
amount
energy used by the surface of PV was 3187.87 kWh. Furthermore, the
average yield
converting the above period was 6.1%. The following diagram appears
produced from the PV and the incident energy from the sun for each month.
0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330
360
Months
Energy (kWh)
PV Sun
8.4.2 energy produced by the A / C
The A / C as mentioned in the previous chapter after 269 days
deactivated due to mechanical problem. For this reason, and to calculate the
267
energy would be produced from the A / C when running for the remaining days
saw an average mode. On this basis, the energy produced by the A / C in the
actual operation time was 25.78 kWh, while the amount of energy estimated to
be produced by simulation was 11.30 kWh, total 37.08 kWh. The average
conversion efficiency during the operation of A / C was 5.7%. Also the amount
of wind energy accepted by the A / C on the surface to define the fins was
620.82 kWh. Graph 28 shows the energy produced by the A / C during the
operation.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Σεπ. Οκτ. 07 Nov 07. 07 _ek. Ιαν. 07 08 08 Fev.08 Μαρ. Απρ. 08 May. 08
Months
Energy (kWh)
A / C Blowing
'Iagramma 28 Total monthly energy production from the A / C during the
operation
8.4.3 Generated energy from the water heater collector
The calculation of the energy produced by the water heater collector is
piopolyploki a process and depends on the average water temperature in
container levels of radiation-site. For the solar potential
Greece is considered that 1 m2 solar collector can deliver maximum power
700 W.
In the present work for calculating the useful energy we felt in the middle
operating temperature value 40o
= Mean T C. This takes into account the temperature
This and the equation of efficiency resulting from experimental measurements
(Figure 18) estimated that the total energy system was learned from
1686.04 kWh while the system accept energy from the sun equal to 3120.58
kWh. To
Note that these results emerged from the analysis of 305 days from
all days of the experiment (396 days) and during that showed
sometimes technical problems.
8.4.4 Coverage of basic electricity needs in a house
This section will be a study on the coverage of basic electrical and
268
thermal needs of a house assuming two scenarios of energy consumption.
The
study will be based on energy output of the systems under study in this
work. The total electric energy produced by the A / C and frameworks such as
PV
showed in the previous paragraphs are a total of 231.68 kWh in 396 days
corresponds to 213.55 kWh / y, while the heat from the water heater system
estimated to be 1686.04 kWh a total 305 days, corresponding to 2017.72
kWh / y.
To calculate the monthly consumption of electricity in a home
electrical installation must take into account the strength of each device and
the hours
operation during the month. Table 3 shows the average consumption
energy to serve the basic needs of a home.
In the first case (house # 1) is assumed to be operating all machines
shown in Table 3. It is estimated that the consumption in autumn and spring is
327.7 kWh, summer is 413.00 kWh in winter 416.4 kWh. Therefore, the annual
electricity consumption of household No1 is 4454.4 kWh, representing an
average daily consumption equal to 12.20 kWh. The experimental results of
the annual electricity output from the A / C and photovoltaic modules of the
test facility is 213.55 kWh and 0.585 kWh / d. This means that the device
studied can cover 4.79% of annual electricity needs of the house
No1. In the second case (house No. 2) examines the hypothesis that home
No. 2 is about 50% less consumption at home No1. This can be done with the
use of certain appliances such as air conditioner, the
dishwasher and avoid unnecessary consumption of electricity for lighting and
heating. By doing this at home No2 consumption will be for the winter months
208.20 kWh per month and the spring and autumn months 163.5 kWh per
month. Thus, the annual electricity consumption of the house No. 2 is 2230.20
kWh, representing an average daily consumption equal to 6.11 kWh. This is an
economic power consumption and can be considered reasonable and close to
the average household consumption. Then cover the electrical energy needs
of the house No. 2 on the basis of annual power output from the A / C and the
PV panels will be 9.58%.
Electric
Power
(KW)
Hours
day
Consumption
per month (kWh)
Refrigerator 0.32
24 (40% power
269
year)
92.20
Color TV 6 0.20 36.00
Washing 0.50 0.5 7.50
Vacuum cleaner 0.65 0.12 2.30
Toaster 1.00 0.1 3.00
Air conditioner 0.86
10 (10 days
summer months)
86.00
Electric oven 2.60
0.5 (power 25%
year)
9.80
Mixer 0.15 0.10 0.50
Ventilation kitchen. 0.20 1.00 6.00
Electr. Iron 1.1
0.3 (power 50%
time)
5.00
Electr. Kitchen 3.7 0.4 54.4
Water Heater
oil;
E consumption
0.77 8 (winter only) 89.00
Dishwasher 1 1.20 36.00
75.00 Lighting
Table 3 Electricity consumption household
For the thermal needs of a house in hot water with solar
assumed that the family consists of four members, with a daily consumption of
hot
40lt water per person. Furthermore it was assumed that the average daily
temperature
water reservoir of the solar collector increases from 30oC to 60oC,
ie changes in 2T = 30 ° C..
Under these assumptions it was estimated that the energy required for
elevation of 160lt at 30oC is equal to 19857 kJ or 5.52 kWh. On this basis,
annual
thermal needs of a family of four is 2014.8 kWh. This amount of energy
as shown by the above experimental data can be covered by the
thermosyphonic manifold of the experimental device. This is not surprising
as the collector thermosifonikos studied is a commercial model
intended for applications in homes.
270
ESTIMATES - CONCLUSIONS
9.1 Considerations and conclusions
The study of the performance of devices exploiting solar and wind
potential for energy production is the main research topic
this work. The aim was combined use A / C, PV and thermal collector
to increase the overall efficiency of such a facility.
The measurements of meteorological parameters showed that the average
temperature
environment at the site systems were 21.93oC an average intensity
solar radiation 434.21 W m-2 while the wind speed was low-
modest, with mean equal to 2.99 m s-1.
From the study of plant experimental equipment showed that the total
energy output of PV frameworks for a period of 396 days was 194.60 kWh
the average performance of PV during the experiment is 6.10%. In
if the A / C, the energy produced during a period was 269 days
25.78 kWh, while the output energy was calculated using prosomoiosi,
due to the failure of A / C for a period of 127 days was 11.30 kWh. The
average
Chapter 9
performance of A / C for the period of operation was 5.65%. On the other
hand,
thermosifonikos collector functioned without any particular problem during
experiments, the maximum daily throughput takes the value nd, max =
71.42%. The
heat yielded the solar collector during the measurement was
1686.04 kWh We also examined possible combinations of the studied systems
to
increase the efficiency of the installation. Initially we studied the case
heating water in the container thermosyphonic collector power
derived mainly from the A / C because it allows 24-hour operation in relation to

FB frames. It was estimated that raising the temperature of water from various
temperature levels at 10oC need to spend energy equal to 1.352 kWh
using electrical resistance of 3 kW. Furthermore, we studied the prospect of
implementing
hybrid photovoltaic / thermal (PV / h) first collectors to maintain
PV efficiency at high levels due to cooling and the other for the operation
energy lost in the form of heat loss due to the low overall
PV performance data. Based on a series of works published by the
Solar Energy Laboratory, University of Patras presented proposals
application of hybrid PV / i-type collector thermosyphonic replacing the system
thermosyphonic collector PV-frames as well as the idea of combining
thermosyphonic collector hybrid PV / i system to preheat water before
271
introduced into the system where thermosyphonic place and the main heating.
Finally we studied the coverage rate in electric and thermal needs two
houses with different daily consumptions by the energy produced by the
period of experimentation. More specifically, it was estimated that the first
house
with an average daily consumption of 12.20 kWh rate to cover electrical needs
were
4.79%, while the second home with daily consumption 7kWh, which
approximates
highly reality, the coverage rate was 9.58%. On the other hand,
found that the thermal needs of a family of four could
covered by a collector thermosyphonic similar to that establishment.
A coverage rate of the electrical needs of 10%, resulting
more for a house that responds to a large extent in fact,
very important and this can be seen from the following reasoning.
The electricity consumption in our country at the national level is estimated to
be approximately
70000 GWh in the year. As mentioned at the beginning of work, the building
sector consumes 40% of annual electricity consumption of a country. The
percentage of the levels of Greece indicates that the building sector consumes
28000 GWh. It is obvious that the establishment of a unit similar to that studied
(A / C power 400W and PV power under 220W) in 75% of homes in Greece
could be energy savings of about 2100 GWh per year, serving more than 3%
of total electricity. A replacement power through the use of these small units of
renewable energy can help stinexoikonomisi 399 tonnes of carbon dioxide
annually into the environment.

NATIONAL TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY


School of Electrical and Computer Engineering
AREA INFORMATION TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS AND MATERIALS
TECHNOLOGY
Characterization of dielectric material properties: Effect on the Environment in
calcitic Cement

DIPLOMATIC WORK Demetrios G. Stergialis

Advisor: Professor Constantine Dervis NTUA

Greece, October 2005

DIPLOMATIC WORK Demetrios G. Stergialis

272
Advisor: Professor Constantine Dervis NTUA

considered by the three selection committee October 18


... ... ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ..
Mr. Dervis P. P. Bourgas Kingdom
Professor NTUA NTUA Professor Professor NTUA

Athens, October 2005

This paper investigates the dielectric behavior of crystalline calcite cement


produced by the dispersion and grinding well crystallized marble. Prepared two
types of cement with different particle size. The characterization of crystalline
and continuous mass of cement based on XRD. The size of particles of
cement was characterized by laser granulometry. We studied the compression
of the cement formed tablets with or without admixture of Fe2O3 pigment
format, as well as a sample of solid marble.
Measured the dielectric properties of the material, so the complex dielectric
constant k * consisting of the real part (k = relative dielectric constant) and
imaginary (k), and the loss tangent (tand). Using the equivalent circuit of
parallel-conduction capacity (Cp-G). The dielectric spectroscopy records the
change of dielectric properties of a material with the frequency. Became more
detailed analysis of dielectric quantities, and export equations in the frequency
domain by Laplace transformation of the corresponding time domain, with an
emphasis in complex nature of the dielectric epitreptotitas.
Using a suitable pair got measurements of''Cp - G''for a logarithmic scale of
frequencies from 20 Hz to 1MHz. Shows that the dielectric characteristics are
influenced by particle size and compression. Trying to take measurements at
variable temperature, we observe that while changing the humidity. In order to
isolate the humidity factor the temperature build a special humidity control
device, so we measured the same type as before, performed at room
temperature, varying humidity for a few tablets and a solid sample of marble.
From these measurements show that an increase or decrease the relative
humidity results in all cases to increase or decrease respectively of the values
of n and Mr. But the change at a time may depend on such factors as the
nature of the sample (tablet or solid marble), the size, the presence of
contaminants and whether we are in the process of climb or descent of
moisture.
Keywords

Insulating materials, Dielectric spectroscopy, epitreptotita Complex, producing


273
losses, Calcite, CaCO3, Compressed cement, temperature, relative humidity.

Thank you very much Professor, School of ECE, Mr. Dervis for his valuable
help during the preparation of my thesis.
Especially my thanks to Dr. G. proposed Mergos for cooperation in the course
of the experiment and the contract of employment.

CONTENTS
Introduction ................................................. ..................................................
............................ ... ... 9

Chapter 1: Dielectric Materials - Sizes - Measurements


1.1 Dielectric
Materials ... ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .
... ... ... 10

1.2 Dielectric
sizes ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ........................... . .
.. 11
1.2.1 Force between
charges ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ............................ ....... 11
1.2.2 Complex relative dielectric
epitreptotita ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .............................. ... 11
1.2.3 An alternative view of complex dielectric
constant ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 12
1.2.4 loss tangent ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
.... ... 13

1.3 Electric and dielectric properties of electrical insulation materials ... ... ...
... ... ... ... .... ... .14
1.3.1 Specific conductance volume (s) and specific surface conductivity (in)
... ... ... ... .. ... .. 14
1.3.2 Energy absorption in insulating
materials ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. ... 15
1.3.3 Desirable properties of insulating
materials ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .... 15
1.3.4 The dielectric
mechanisms ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ............................. .... 16

1.4 Dielectric
measurements ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
274
.... ... .18
1.4.1 Parallel plates with
dielectric ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 18
1.4.2 Comparison of serial and parallel equivalent
circuit ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..... 20
1.4.3 Dielectric
spectroscopy ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..... ... .. 21
1.4.4 Dielectric - Spectroscopy in the time ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 22
1.4.5 Dielectric - Spectroscopy in the frequency ... ... ... ... ... ... .... 28

Chapter 2: Materials - Equipment - Procedure


2.1 Selection of equipment: the
calcite ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .... ... 31

2.2 Production and sample


preparation ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..... 32
2.2.1
Feedstock ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..
. ... ... ... ... 32
2.2.2 Friday solid samples and two types of
cement ... ... ... ... ... ....................... ... ... 33
2.2.3 Distribution of grain
size ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 34
2.2.4 Study of crystal
structure ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .... ... 35
2.2.5 Mixture of
Fe2O3 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .
35
2.2.6 Construction of cylindrical pellets ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ... ...
... ... ... ... .... ... 38

2.3 Instrumentation and experimental ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ............ ...
... ... ... 40
2.3.1 HP 4284A Precision LCR Meter (measuring bridge
LCR) ... ......... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 40
2.3.2 WEISS KWP64 (Temperature Controlled Test
Chamber) ... ... ... ..................... 41
2.3.3 The vacuum
system ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ............................ .......... ...
.. 42
2.3.4 HP 16451B Dielectric Test Fixture (cell
counting) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..... 45
275
2.3.5 Device Control
Moisture ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .... ... ... ...... 47

2.4 Experimental procedure ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
... ... ... ... ... ... ... 49

Edit measuring
2.5 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .................................. ................... 50

Chapter 3: Effect of grain size and compression on the dielectric


3.1 Experimental
Results ... ... ... ... ... ........................ ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .52

3.2 Proposed theoretical


model ...... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .54

3.3
Conclusions ................................................ ... ... ... ... ... ... ..........................
..... ... ... ... ...... 58

Chapter 4: Effect of environment on the dielectric


4.1 Measurements by changing the
temperature ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .59

4.2 Measurements by changes in


humidity ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .66

4.3 Comments - Conclusions from the study of changes in


humidity ........................................ .86

Introduction

The aim of this paper is to study changes in epitreptotita, induced in a solid


insulating inorganic (calcite), where finely chopped to take the form of thin
cement, nearly spherical particles moving from the area of microcrystals to
that of crystallites. Thus identified and correlated the dependence of
dielectric properties of the frequency by a narrowing of the crystalline
grains and explored the side-surface phenomena.
For this purpose, tablets manufactured by two different types of cement
276
grain diameter. In some specimens contained a small proportion of cement
impurity Fe2O3, in the form of pigment with much smaller grains. This was
done to investigate the effect of a semiconductor on an insulating dielectric
properties, such as calcite. Also used samples of solid calcite. All tablets
and solid samples dried in an environment of high vacuum to remove
gases or water may have been absorbed into the surface. Then followed
the process of dielectric measurements carried out with an LCR bridge and
the appropriate cell.
Then extended the study of the phenomenon where changing
environmental conditions. Specifically, we investigated the effect on the
dielectric properties of the changing temperature and humidity
environment. Therefore, the cell of dielectric measurements as the case
was placed either commercially available or room temperature in a
laboratory-built controlled humidity chamber.
The remaining work is divided into four chapters. The first chapter
describes the nature and properties of dielectric materials, dielectric
defined sizes and sets out how the dielectric measurements by equations
in the frequency and time. The second chapter describes in detail the
original source material and the construction of the samples, then the
instruments and devices used for measurement and finally the process of
receiving and processing the measurements. Measurements under
constant environmental conditions, showing the effect of grain size and the
compression in the dielectric characteristics are the subject of the third
chapter. Dependence on environmental factors studied in the fourth and
last chapter.

CHAPTER 1: Dielectric Materials - aggregates - measurements

1.1 Dielectric Materials


When an electric field (USA) can be maintained with zero or nearly zero
power losses in a stock, then it is characterized as a dielectric, or electrical
insulator. In fact, the dielectric insulator is not ideal, since a number of
electron passes. Because the process of change polarity of the material,
part of the electrical energy is lost as heat.
Dielectric material is therefore one that has the ability to store energy when
the external imposition of U.S.; When applying a constant voltage across
the parallel plates, reinforcement of a capacitor with dielectric between
them, then store more energy. This means that the dielectric increases the
capacity of the capacitor energy storage, neutralizing some of the charges
the electrodes that will help shape the overall EM field intensity between
the reinforcements. The capacity measured in the presence of dielectric
depends on the electrical loads of material and related to the dielectric
constant. Applies the formula:
277
where C, Co are the capacities in the presence of dielectric and vacuum,
respectively, and ER is the relative dielectric constant of the material.
Dielectric materials used in the manufacture of capacitors. It is most
appropriate to prevent the creation of electrical currents through the mass,
while maintaining the potential differences in the parts of electrotechnical
devices and installations.
Note: A dielectric insulator is called when the properties are such that it can
be used for the insulation of electrical installations. Specifically, the relative
dielectric constant of an insulating material should be close to 1, while a
dielectric generally can reach 10. Words dielectric and insulation are often
used as synonymous around, but at first we focus on the properties of the
material physically, and the second to its use in practical applications.

1.2 Dielectric sizes


1.2.1 Force between charges
The electric force between the load of material is given as known by the
following formula:

where SC: dielectric constant of empty space.


If material is inserted between the load power is reduced and then apply
the formula:

where e = absolute dielectric constant or epitreptotita given by: with ER:


relative dielectric constant or relative epitreptotita.

1.2.2 Complex relative dielectric epitreptotita (ER)


This figure describes the interaction of materials with the U.S.; Is equal to
the Complex dielectric epitreptotita divided by the dielectric constant of
vacuum, so apply:

where IF = 8.854 ∙ 10-12 F / m is the dielectric constant of vacuum.


The ER is an indication of how much energy can be stored in the material
imposed by the U.S.; and is called relative dielectric constant. For the gap
is ER = 1, while for gaseous insulating materials are ER ≈ 1. But for the
most liquid and solid insulation is: 1 ≤ ER ≤ 10. For semiconductors we
have: 10 ≤ ER ≤ 20, while the metals are: ER → ∞.
The ER is the loss of material and an indication of how weak polar
expected to show the material to the external imposed U.S.; We note that
loose material have an incidence where the dominant mechanism of
polarization of the material is able to follow the changes applied in this field.
The ER volume is always positive and practical much less than ER.
Ultimately, the ER takes into account the mechanisms of dielectric losses
278
and volume conductivity of materials.
k⋅ Note: The ER also found the symbolism k * = k - j called Complex
dielectric constant. The real part k = ER called the relative dielectric
constant, and also is k = ER.

1.2.3 An alternative view of complex dielectric constant


When alternating voltage applied to a capacitor containing a dielectric, the
total measured current will flow from the load (Icharge) flowing through the
capacitor and is related to the capacity of the proposed structure and the
current losses (Iloss), which in turn is related volume resistance of the
material. The losses are modeled as a conductance (G) connected in
parallel with an ideal capacitor.
Use, then the parallel equivalent circuit capacity, conductivity (CG):

Figure 1.1: Equivalent circuit capacity while conductivity

The total current flowing through the sample capacitor (Icharge) and
through resistance losses (Iloss) are:

where G = h ∙ Co ∙ ER and ER = ER-j ∙ ER


The complex dielectric constant of ER consists of the real part (ER), which
is assigned the storage of electrical charges in an ideal capacitor and the
imaginary (ER), which attributed the losses of electrical charges through
the conductance (G) of the test insulation system.

1.2.4 loss tangent


When the relative dielectric epitreptotita Complex designed in vector format
(where ER *= ER), the real and imaginary component of the equivalent
circuit in question must have a lag 90th. The vector sum angle d with the
real axis of ER.

Figure 1.2: Vector diagram of complex dielectric constant

The expected levels of relaxation for any material derived from the ratio of
stored energy emitted in a time period. Per cycle frequency is:

For highly insulating materials, the vector of ER close to that of ER, while
tand → 0. Thus, when the extent of vector error eerror measuring devices
do more than measure the ER of the measured material, the total
measured derror angle can be negative.

Figure 1.3: Vector diagram of measurement of complex dielectric constant


taking into account the error vector
279
Since then Iloss → 0 has the geometry of the measuring electrode is such
as to strengthen the trade Iloss, to be recorded by a high precision LCR
bridge over a wide range of frequencies. This is achieved either by
increasing the surface area of reinforcement, either by selecting the
appropriate materials for the construction of the cell measurements.

1.3 Electric and dielectric properties of electrical insulation materials


The main dielectric properties of insulating materials are:
1. volume resistivity and surface
2. epitreptotita Complex, which includes the dielectric constant and
electrical loss of the material expressed by tand.
These properties are not fixed for each material, but varies with frequency,
temperature, direction of the material mix, the pressure and the whole
structure of the material. For example, the dielectric constant of a mixture
depends on the proportion of ingredients. Some materials give different
values of dielectric properties when measured in different directions
(anisotropic materials).
• Properties in the volume of material, eg forbidden gap energy states and
conductivity Surface ρs = R / d, and volume: rv = R ∙ s / d.
• The volume resistivity is great for insulators and low for metals.

1.3.1 Specific conductance volume (s) and specific surface conductivity (in)
These two types of conductivity are shown in solid insulating body and
force it to <to. The specific surface conductivity (in) is significantly affected
by humidity and surface contamination of the body. It is responsible for
creating the current creep, relatively constant quantity. The distribution of
density, but this power is not uniform, because the bodies preferably follow
certain conductive paths of leakage or cracks on the surface of the body.

1.3.2 Energy absorption in insulating materials


When insulation material is under the influence of U.S.; even absorb some
energy from the field, so there is an undesirable loss of energy, which is
converted primarily into heat. If not eliminated the heat from the material to
the environment rapidly, causing an increase in temperature of the material
leading to malfunction, the occurrence of possible failures and / or
premature destruction of electrotechnical devices containing them.
More specifically, under constant voltage energy absorption due to creation
of current leakage in insulating body, so the heating effect due to the Joule.
Alternating fields have an extra energy absorption and heating of the body
caused by the periodic polarization and depolarization in accordance with
280
the different mechanisms of polarization. The energy loss per period and
per unit volume is:

where
• Em: maximum EM field intensities U.S.;
• ER, SC: dielectric constant of the body and the gap respectively
• tand: loss tangent, or rate of absorption or dielectric loss
The loss tangent is the behavior of the material circumstances field
frequency, temperature, etc. The angle d shows the time a head in which
the dielectric monitor the change in the field in a capacitor, compared to the
operation of the capacitor dielectric was whether the gap. In particular, in a
capacitor the dielectric medium is an insulator, the value of loss tangent
equal to the ratio of energy absorbed from the field to the energy stored
and retrieved from the reinforcement of the capacitor in each period.

1.3.3 Desirable properties of insulating materials


At constant scope is important that there is little value in sizes and, while
the alternating field looking for materials with low ER and tand at
frequencies of direct interest. The dielectric strength equal to the maximum
EM field intensity which bears the insulator. This figure has significance in
choice of materials for applications in High Voltage provisions. Apart from
cost and heat resistance, a crucial criteria for the evaluation of insulating
materials and their selection in various applications is the electrical
properties, ie sizes: S, a, ER, and tand Ed.
Other properties of insulating materials gained great importance in specific
applications are: thermal conductivity, mechanical strength, chemical
stability, hygroscopicity, resistance to radiation, density, viscosity of the
liquid insulation, resistance to heat, resistance biological effects of insects
and microorganisms. Many of these properties of insulating materials have
stable prices, but depends on other factors such as frequency of the field,
temperature, time and moisture of the body.
The sizes and ER tand change significantly with frequency. The humidity
effect on the worst properties of insulating materials, which appear through
the hygroscopicity is the tendency of material to absorb moisture from the
environment. The thermal conductivity is defined as the possibility of
abduction of heat generated in the material due to electrical losses. For
most insulating materials specific thermal conductivity is almost constant
for temperatures from 20-100th C. Depending on the use of insulation
giving more importance to one or another capacity.
For instance, the electrical insulation is the most high dielectric strength to
avoid electrical breakdown. Capacitors to seek the use of a suitable
dielectric insulating material to obtain high capacity and ensure the storage
of large cargo to their weapons. So, apart from high dielectric strength,
281
dielectric materials must have a high ER and the possibility of forming thin
thicknesses. Also to avoid large losses in DC or low frequencies is
necessary for the dielectric material has high resistivity. For the same
reason, in high frequency applications, the material must have low
dielectric constant (ER).

1.3.4 The dielectric devices


In time-varying systems have simultaneous occurrence of electrical and
magnetic field. The electromagnetic wave propagated in space with speed:,
has the energy content in a wide range of wavelengths (lambda = c / f) and
of course with increasing frequency, the smaller the wavelength.
Many of the issues relating to the distribution of wave, related to the
dielectric constant materials. For example during the transition to a wave
from free space within a material shows a change of complex impedance
on the surface, so that part of the incident energy is reflected and the
remainder filtered and transmitted through the material. Within the
hardware speed and wavelength decrease. In a loose material expected in
the introduction to a loss of energy, while the transfer of internal wave
damping is the intensity of the wave.
A material can develop several dielectric mechanisms expected to
contribute to shaping the dielectric constant. Dielectric materials exhibit a
spatial distribution of electrical loads that can be altered by the imposition
of foreign U.S.; These loads Poland to offset the U.S., namely the positive
and negative charges oriented in opposite directions. There are different
mechanisms of polarization, the main ones being: the Ionic, the bipolar, the
atomic and electronic.
• Electronic polarization effect on any person or molecule as the center of
mass of the electron cloud surrounding people will shift from the U.S.; This
effect is extremely fast and can be observed by optical frequencies.
• The ionic polarization refers to materials whose molecules form ions and
are separated by weak U.S.; or low temperatures. Apart from the electric
polarization induced by such molecules a U.S., will also occur and flexible
shifts loads (nuclei and electrons). This means that these types of
molecules are polar compounds, which can be polarized by infrared
frequencies.
• Bipolar polarization refers to materials that contain molecules with
permanent dipole moments, the lines statistically evenly distributed due to
the action of heat. Under the influence of the U.S., the dipoles oriented in
most instances, so there is a linear dependence of the P E of US. The ionic
and dipole polarization is quick enough devices and can be followed in
frequency by the order of MHz or GHz.
• The interfacial polarization occurs mainly in insulation materials consisting
of different dielectric materials such as paper (cellulose) immersed in oil.
282
The mismatch caused by different dielectric materials under the influence
of a US, tipping motion of positive and negative charges on the interfaces
of materials, thus forming a dipole species. This phenomenon is slow and
can be seen in the frequency range of validity. The cargo from station to
station may also help to create polarization. It's a slow process, strongly
dependent on temperature and it is usually solid.
• In conclusion, the dielectric polarization is the result of relative
displacement of positive and negative charges in a material. During this
process, the US is not able to get the load to escape from the material,
which would cause electrical conductivity.

Each of the dielectric polarization mechanisms associated with a


characteristic resonance frequency (sharp increase of dielectric constant at
a given frequency) and relaxation frequency (gradual decrease in dielectric
constant with increasing frequency). As the frequency increases, the latest
dielectric polarization mechanisms are eliminated, leaving only the fastest
to contribute to the phenomena of energy storage (ER). Similarly, the loss
rate (ER) is increased at each critical frequency. The resonance is usually
associated with the electronic or atomic polarization. The phenomena of
relaxation developed during the orientation and polarization associated with
switching ion dipole or spatial loads the volume of material.

1.4 Dielectric measurements


1.4.1 Parallel plates with dielectric
The capacity of a pair of parallel charged plates increases when we
introduce a dielectric material. As known, the capacity is inversely
proportional to the U.S.; between the plates and the presence of dielectric
reduces the active U.S.; (Effective). We also know that the dielectric is
characterized by the dielectric constant of ER and the capacity is multiplied
by this factor. About the capacity is:
while the air is:

Figure 1.4: Parallel plates charged Restricted:,


When the dielectric is placed between charged plates, the polarization of
the instrument produces a U.S.; opposite direction to the U.S.; generating
loads of plates. The dielectric constant ER set to indicate the reduced
amount of active U.S.; (effective).
In the dielectric we have two types of losses:
i) ohmic losses: Is there a difference between the volume resistance (Rv)
and surface resistance (Rs). The total resistance is:. The ohmic losses are
283
being felt with increasing temperature insulator, often remarkable.
ii) Dielectric losses: It is the result of a change of polarity of incremental
parts of the dielectric due to changing the direction of the field in each
period. This change causes vibrations that produce heat due to friction, so
part of the power lost to heat. The amount of losses is: where tand is the
loss factor and is a measure of dielectric losses, depending on the
frequency.

1.4.2 Comparison of serial and parallel equivalent circuit


The electrical equivalent circuit used to simulate a parallel plates capacitor
can be formed by a resistance and a capacity connected either in series or
parallel. Usually done using a parallel equivalent circuit. However, it is
sometimes desirable to represent a capacitor at a given operating
frequency, with a capacity in series with a resistor.
The vector diagrams of current and voltage for the two equivalent circuits
are:

Figure 1.5: Vector diagram of current and voltage


Then, give the necessary definitions sizes to determine the analytical
equation linking the size of the serial equivalent circuit and Complex
dielectric constant and tangent loss arising from the parallel equivalent
circuit.
Rs, Cs - Rp, Cp - oh, tand, cotth - G, Xp: parallel inductance - ER, ER - Co
Relationship between serial and parallel items:

,
Substituting we find the relationship between serial and parallel capacity
sizes:

For resistors RS, RP force:

So the real and the imaginary part of dielectric constant is:

Once the link for Complex dielectric constant is:

The last expression describes the Complex dielectric constant using the
serial equivalent circuit. In practice, it is the result obtained for the material
284
does not depend on the form of equivalent circuit used.

1.4.3 Dielectric spectroscopy


The dielectric spectroscopy records the change in dielectric properties with
frequency and temperature of a material. This study specifies the ability of
insulation material, since it takes into account the occurrence of relaxation
phenomena in the operating conditions of the test materials. These events
alter the dielectric relaxation behavior of the material and allow the storage
of more electricity in volume.
At this point a more detailed analysis of dielectric quantities, and export
equations in the frequency domain by Laplace transformation of the
corresponding time domain, with an emphasis in complex nature of the
dielectric epitreptotitas.
The measurement methods of dielectric spectroscopy (dielectric response
methods) are based on electrical interactions between known quantities.
Usually, the insulating materials of high voltage (which exhibit some
polarization mechanisms, so it is dielectric) is isotropic and homogeneous,
at least on macroscopic scales. Also, the macroscopic polarization vector P
and the intensity E of U.S.; the same direction and connected with the
relationship:

where x: is the electrical susceptibility of the material. This example


illustrates all types of polarizing a dielectric and are dimensionless, pure
number, while the gap is zero.
The SD = 8.85419 ∙ 10-12 As / Vm, is the dielectric constant of vacuum, a
number that connects US units (V / m) with units of the electric
displacement. So we learn that all the polarization processes reduce
electrical loads to the electrodes, just apply a voltage. The above equation
shows that the polarization P will change or disappear if the US changed or
reset. Any dielectric (x> 0) any reduction of a C leading to a gradual
depolarization or relaxation. In this way, the dielectric properties are
dynamic quantities that can be quantified in the time domain or frequency.

1.4.4 Dielectric - Spectroscopy in the time


The electric displacement D, to be made between electrodes with vacuum
insulation is parallel to the intensity of the U.S.; (E), according to the
formula: D = E ∙ SD. For: USA produced by time varying voltage is: D (t) =
IF ∙ E (t).
The D represents the positive and negative electric charges per unit area,
which is induced on the surface of electrodes. These loads are the source
of all dynamic routes U.S.; The D, E are usually produced by a voltage
source connected to the electrodes under consideration. For the
electrostatic field we have no time delay between the two sizes. For
285
chronometavlita fields E (t) follows the displacement current from the
source voltage to maintain the density of cargo at the electrodes. The
stream is equal to dQ / dt, where Q total load for each electrode. When the
vacuum is replaced by isotropic dielectric, the electric displacement D is
increased by the amount of macroscopic polarization becomes:
D (t) = IF ∙ E (t) + P (t) = IF ∙ (1 + x) ∙ E (t)
The vectors P, D parallel to E for isotropic materials. The equation
separates the two types of displacement. The time dependence of P (t) is
the same as the E (t) since the different polarization processes have
different time delays in E, caused by time-dependent behavior of the
susceptibility x = x (t).
To study the time delay in applying U.S.; the dielectric time to, whereas for
t> to the intensity of the U.S.; constant. The dielectric can then be
characterized by time-dependent susceptibility x (t) and the polarization P
(t) as a response in time domain. For t <to the susceptibility and the
polarization is zero. Below is the polarization of the proceedings at the time
and is as follows:

Figure 1.6: Polarization of dielectric time domain


X (t) and P (t) represent the artificial emission step functions. The factor l (t)
is used to show the unit step function for the U.S.; Eo. In the above figure
the first part of the function is simplified to an ideal unit step function to
interpret the very rapid polarization processes. So we have an
instantaneous polarization P (t = to) = P ∞, which includes not only
electronic but also other very fast polarization processes. The ratio of P ∞ ∞
associated with the frequency domain. This part, at least for the usual
measuring equipment can not be recorded either in the time nor that of
frequency. Since all processes are finite polarization intensity and stabilized
after a long time, the polarization becomes finally a constant value of P (t
→ ∞) = Ps. The step response of these polarized written:

where g (t) dimensionless, monotone increasing function, so: if ER = 1 +


x, then:

From the theory of circuits can compute the time dependent polarization P
(t) for any form of time-dependent excitation R (t) of the specimen as it is
known that specific solutions for unit step excitation. This is done using the
convolution integral or Dahamel and the result is:

where f (t) dielectric response function is given by:


286
The f (t) is monotonous decreasing function and is described in this
dielectric. The polarization P (t) produces the bulk current polarization
(absorption or load) in one piece if the US R (t) applied suddenly. Until now,
there has even seen any''pure''constant conductivity equal, representing
the movement of free charges and the dielectric not included in the
polarization.
According to the Maxwell field equations R (t) produces a total current
density j (t), which can be written as the sum of the currents shift and
vacuum polarization, thus:

, Where E ∞ = 1 + x ∞

The polarization current (or absorption or load) ipol (t) of the specimen is
recorded as:

Co, where the geometric capacity of the specimen, d (t): d function,


resulting from the sudden application of stepped voltage time t = to.
Equations (1) and (2) are the first, basic equations for measuring the
dielectric response function f (t) or the characterization of dielectric
materials in the time domain. To do this, a continuous unit step voltage VC,
which is stable with no waves, suddenly applied to the sample previously
been discharged.

Note: The dimension of f (t) → 1 / s, and its size is related to Co, ie


<geometric capacity>> that either the capacity gap between electrode
system which placed the dielectric or the <<capacity of high frequency>> of
the dielectric in time to where he started the current measurement.
The transition from relation (1) to (2) is easy. The current charge contains
three terms:
The 1st term is associated with the inherent conductivity of the specimen
and is independent from any kind of bias.
The 2nd term with the function d can not be recorded in minutes in the time
domain, the fast polarization processes.
The 3rd term representing all types of polarization that are activated by
applying voltage.
The ipol can be ignored if it is a constant quantity, which occurs when due
to the dc term, or when very small. If the unit is short-circuited to t = tc be
measured idepol (depolarization) by the following schedule:

287
Figure 1.7: Voltage and current in polarization in the time

Sudden zero of Vc unit step voltage is negative at the time t = tc and


neglecting the 2nd term in relation (2) (very short pulses of current) we
have for t ≥ (to + Tc):

where TC: The life of a stepped voltage


and idepol: opposite polarity current

The 2nd term relationship (3) fails only if the charging period TC is large
enough to complete all procedures polarization. The idepol is proportional
to f (t) as the dc conductivity equal the dielectric is not taken into account,
but can easily be calculated from the difference between ipol and idepol.
Thus, the relation (3) is a second basic equation for measuring f (t) of the
dielectric material in the time domain.
However, if the charging period TC is weak and will be able to burn the 2nd
term so there is a phenomenon''memory''in the dielectric polarization
phenomena that are not completed. In this figure the peaks of power
associated with the d (t) in relations (2) & (3) is not included for obvious
reasons.
Practical measurements of ipol idepol and made a two electrode technique
and the results depend on the properties of insulating materials and
geometry of the insulation system.

Figure 1.8: Circuit for measuring currents and ipol idepol time domain

The two resistances above represent a small circuit protection resistors,


which do not affect the recorded currents. If the sample contains an
insulation system, which can be subdivided into different subsystems, and
ipol idepol can be determined by the selected arrangement of electrodes.
1.4.5 Dielectric - Spectroscopy in the frequency
The transition from time domain to frequency domain is analytically using
Laplace transforms and Fourier in equation (1). The ideal step response of
the overall current density of f (t) which takes into account the
instantaneous polarization processes are:

where j (t) → j (p), E (t) → E (p), E (t) → p ∙ E (p), f (t) → F (p)

288
Considering the convolution of the last term of relation (4) the operator p as
Laplace, we get

Once on Complex frequency is: p = i ∙ h then the relation (5) becomes:

Therefore F (z) is the Fourier transform of f (t) or of complex susceptibility


since:

The frequency range is from 0 ≤ h ≤ ∞. From the relations (6) and (7) we
get the total current density:

The bulk of this power comes from Complex electric displacement D (z)
which is proportional to the relative dielectric Complex epitreptotita ER * (y)
according to the formula:

where:

In fact, these measurements of dielectric response in frequency domain, it


is hardly performed though the range of frequencies become too high.
Usually in engineering, electric power is measured only by a pair of
values''C-tand'', ie only the frequency of operation. But there are
sophisticated laboratory instruments, covering several broad bands. From
relation (8) that such bodies can not distinguish the contribution to the flow
of''pure''constant conductivity equal, than that of dielectric loss x (y). This
means that the measured relative dielectric epitreptotita ERM Complex * (y)
is different from the relative dielectric Complex epitreptotita ER * (y) from
the relations (9) & (10). The ERM * (y) is defined as follows:

Thus the dielectric loss factor tand (y) is given by the formula:

289
The real part of relation (11) represents the capacity of a specimen, while
the imaginary part represents the losses. Both the real and the imaginary
part depends on the frequency. This does not appear, however, whether a
measurement''C-tand''becomes a frequency. After aging the materials will
change these quantities in different ways in different regions of the
spectrum, new diagnostic tools to monitor and detect this effect.
Equation (7) shows the interchange between the time domain and
frequency domain. Consequently, the real and imaginary part of complex
susceptibility x (y) can be converted to the dielectric response function f (t)
and vice versa. The two regions ranging from 0 → ∞, but in practice for
each conversion, only the results of a finite measurement is available.
Ultimately, it should be noted that all dielectric quantities more or less
dependent on temperature and it is necessary to take into account in any
comparison or measurement of these quantities.

CHAPTER 2: Materials - Equipment - Procedure

2.1 Selection of equipment: the calcite


In this work, as mentioned, an inorganic solid insulation which is finely
chopped to take the form of thin cement (powder), nearly spherical particles
moving from the area of the microcrystals to that of crystallites. The
material under consideration and the total of the morphology can be
accessed by a system of two phases: one phase as the spaces between
grains are filled with air and the other phase as CaCO3 cement grains are
produced from high quality marble (calcite) .
The solid CaCO3 is polymorphic and occurs in three crystalline Torrid
types: calcite (calcite), Aragonite (aragonite) and vaterite (vaterite). The
calcite is thermodynamically the most stable type of CaCO3 at room
temperature and pressure, followed by aragonite and vaterite fee which is
the most unstable. Some industrial applications include the use of paints
and pigments to improve the mechanical properties of tires, abrasive, as a
coating material to finish the paper and as a means of purifying water by
neutralizing the acidic water. Also occurs as a natural ingredient in a variety
of biological systems.
The calcite is low-cost Ionic 0.35eV.± insulator with a wide energy gap that
typically ranges in 6 The calcite crystal is a natural diplothlastiko material
that can be cut to cut, and polished to precise levels forming angles
between them, creating optical axes that are used commercially on a
polarization dependent optical applications.
The dielectric properties of continuous mineral calcite is important for
applications radar penetration into the soil. The calcite cement (due to high
relative dielectric constant) has been used experimentally with other
290
powders such as dielectric, Al2O3 and TiO2 to produce pulse compression
devices. These waveguides covered periodically with layers of dielectric
and air. Thanks to the good insulating properties of the calcite used as filler
microparticles (with SiO2 or dolomite) from epoxy resin materials for dry-
type transformers of medium voltage (20kV) and high density insulation
(XLPE).

Figure 2.6: Marble mortar and pestle

A quantity of cement A was dissolved in acetone and left to dry, but adding
contamination. This was to be pure cement A, which has undergone the same
treatment as that with the addition of cements and cement serve as reference
for them. This material is referred to as "cement-treated A.

Figure 2.7: Cast stainless steel. From left to right: a plunger (diameter 16mm),
matrix, base and ancillary to the release sample.

Figure 2.8: General view of the hydraulic press oil.

(A) (b)
Figure 2.9: The two ways of positioning the mold in the press, (a) to compress
the cement and (b) the export of the produced tablet.
Legend: (1) Piston (2) Matrix (3) Base (4) Cement CaCO3, (5) Auxiliary
release point sample (6) Level of support.

2.2.6 Construction of cylindrical pellets


Using a hydraulic press of Figure 2.8 and the mold of Figure 2.7 depressed
small quantities (approximately 1.2-1.5g) of each type of cement to formatted
discs diameter cylindrical 16mm and thickness 3mm approx. The indication of
pressure in the oil press was 100-120bar. In practice, this pressure is
expressed as a force on the plunger of the press, which pushes the plunger of
the mold and finally the pressure is transferred to the cement. Because the
surface of the piston of the press is larger than the surface of the mold
(diameter Dp = 35mm versus Dx = 16mm), the pressure is transferred to the
powder is increased by the ratio of peak area, ie the square of the ratio of
diameters. Therefore in our case the pressure in the mold appears almost five
times the pressure of the oil. In particular, apply:

291
So the pressure on the cement for oil pressure Poil = 120bar is Px = 575bar
about.
The fabrication process is as follows: the desired amount of cement is weighed
and placed in the mold, placed under the plunger of the press and subjected to
mechanical pressure for about 20min. At the appropriate amendment to the
assembly of the mold (see Figure 2.9-b) re-enter the press in order to
smoothly and carefully unpacked to get the final tablet.

Figure 2.10: The left (white) tablet consists of treated cement A, while the right
(pink) from cement mixing A with 0.1% by weight pigment Fe2O3.

2.3 Instrumentation and experimental

In performing the experiment used the following instruments:

2.3.1 HP 4284A Precision LCR Meter (measuring bridge LCR)


We used the LCR measuring bridge to measure the capacity and conductivity
of both the sample and air. The instrument is an HP 4284A universal bridge
LCR measurement and is suitable for the control of incoming parts on a
production line, quality control, production and laboratory research use. The
HP 4284A is used to measure the parameters of equivalent circuit LCR,
semiconductor materials and devices in a wide range of variable frequency
(from 20 Hz to 1 MHz) signals with experimental level 5 mV to 40 Vrms
(Option 01).
The HP 4284A provides measurements of capacity, loss factor (CD) a basic
accuracy of 0.05% to 0.0005% capacity and the loss factor and analysis of 6
digits in all test frequencies (the analysis of the loss factor is 0.000001).
The HP-IB card is a card connecting to a computer and can be used to install
an automatic test system features completely new components and materials
are handled exclusively by the computer

292
Figure 2.11: The bridge LCR (1) and CS (2) for control

2.3.2 WEISS KWP64 (Temperature Controlled Test Chamber)


Using the thermal chamber of changing the temperature and noticed that
affected the prices of dielectric properties. The device KWP64 WEISS
company consists of a chamber and a control system, which means it can be
regulated temperature. The operating temperature range of the device is from
-75 to 130oC. The temperature setting an accuracy of ± 0.5 oC and the rate of
temperature change is roughly 2.5 oC / min during the phase of cooling and
3.0 oC / min during the heating phase. It is about a room temperature, but as
is normally used as a device for heating at temperatures higher than the room,
often incorrectly referred to as "oven".
The device can be used either to keep the temperature constant at a certain
level, or to make a certain change in temperature curve determined in
advance. The treatment must be done via the check box on the front surface
or on a computer via serial communication (RS232C) and the corresponding
software
.

293
Figure 2.12: The temperature control chamber WEISS KWP64
2.3.3 The vacuum system
The test samples were placed in a vacuum environment to afygranthoun. The
vacuum system consists of two pumps connected to a cell. Among them there
are pipes and valves. Two pressure sensors (gauges) are in different parts of
the system.
The conditions of low pressure created with the help of two-stepped rotary
pump with oil (Figure 2.13). The pump is equipped with an eccentric cylindrical
rotor to rotate, which scans the gases through the cylinder (stator) containing
it. The air is prevented from passing by the area of high pressure at a vacuum
system of two blades (vanes) located at opposite ends of the rotor. The entire
device is immersed in oil that lubricates the moving parts and act as sealing
means. This type of pump is the most common today for creating a vacuum at
pressures of up to 10-2 to 10-3 mbar.

Figure 2.13: The interior of a rotary pump oil.

For lower pressures, which are classified as high vacuum (High Vacuum), the
air does not respond adequately to try and push compression by pistons and
rotors. At such low pressures the gas molecules act as individual particles
rather wandering inside the pump rather than as a continuous fluid. The most
common type of pump is the high vacuum diffusion pump, invented in 1913.
The pump that uses a vapor stream (jet vapor), hydrocarbons produced by
boiling or synthetic oils that momentum moving in randomly moving molecules
leads to the area of high pressure pump. Since the pumps are operated only at
294
low pressures, the exit must always be connected to the input of a mechanical
pump support (usually rotary).
In this way the system operates high vacuum laboratory, shown in Figure 2.14.
But there is the possibility to operate using only a rotary switch through a
switch, bypassing the diffusion pump. This procedure was followed in our
experiment, as there was no requirement to ensure high vacuum conditions for
drying pellets.

Figure 2.14: The system vacuum. The various components are: 1) vacuum
chamber, 2) diffusion pump, 3) The rotary pump, 4) the switch switching 5)
The control and power

295
Σχήμα 2.15: Διάγραμμα του συστήματος δημιουργίας κενού

2.3.4 HP 16451B Dielectric Test Fixture (cell counting)


In cell measurements installed in each sample (solid calcite or tablet),
measuring the thickness using the vernier. The HP 16451B is a test device for
measuring dielectric material connected by a bridge and LCR can be used for
frequencies up to 15MHz. The HP 16451B is accompanied by quadrupolic
wire offset temperature changes at the edges for temperatures between 0 and
55oC. Specifically, the cell is equipped with a quadrupolic coaxial cable
(Figure 2.17), electrodes of protection and a micrometer to measure the
distance between the electrodes. The cable can be connected directly to
quadrupolic probe body and the regulation becomes tripolar probe electrodes
protection. The instrument is accompanied by three types of electrodes:
electrodes with a large plate with a small plate and electrodes on samples
sublimed thin metal layer.

Figure 2.17: Diagram showing how to connect the terminals of the quadrupole
wire electrodes of the cell

In all types of electrodes, the bottom electrode (unguarded electrode) was


grounded while the upper electrode (guarded electrode) was an outer ring
which also grounded (guard electrode). This was to achieve stability of the
electric field between the plates, and the field lines between internal and
external ring at the top electrode should not be taken into account in the
measurements. We used electrodes of type A, which was larger than the
tablets. For this reason it was necessary and the reduction of area at this
tablets. We note that the cell were placed electrodes B, which have a smaller
size than tablets, because the electrodes introduce large noise in the

296
measurement results in low frequencies. This may be due to the fact that when
the ring is grounded to the upper plate in contact with the tablet, it is possible
to enter the grains of calcite cement in the gap between the electrode and the
ring. The result is that it appeared a kind of jumper, which led us to falsify
measurements for the dielectric constant
.

Σχήμα 2.18: Τα δύο είδη ηλεκτροδίων του κελιού μετρήσεων

3.5 Humidity Control Device


A change of humidity under steady ambient temperature using the following
device was constructed in the laboratory: A system with a stirrer hot plate on
which is placed a glass jar containing deionized water. The cap applied
properly in the mouth of the container has been punctured in three places. In a
no thermometer shows the temperature in the reservoir and the second tube is
placed in PVC, are pumping through which nitrogen gas. The third hole is also
finished tube of PVC, which ends in a glass chamber used to control the
humidity chamber. The chamber is closed on one side with a transparent
membrane. Mid containing the cell measurements. Still contains a gauge
humidity and temperature.
When the water in the tank is heated and mixed condense inside. With the
nitrogen water vapor are transferred to the control room humidity on the effect
of increasing, but changing the temperature. Interrupting the supply of nitrogen
and allowing ventilation of the chamber through the transparent membrane
increased moisture returns to the low prices it was originally. In this way we
can get moisture values greater than the air reaching the value of 90 to 95%.

Figure 2.20: The setup used for conducting peiramatos.1) bridge LCR, 2) glass
jar with water and shaker, 3) a heated plate, 4) control humidity chamber
297
containing the cell measurements, 5) nitrogen cylinder.

To carry out the experiment and taking the appropriate size and graphics used
on computer. Well designed software in the language C, which enables the
device exclusively by the computer through the card contact HP-IB.
2.4 The experimental procedure
Before the measurements, solid samples and the film dried in a vacuum
environment (3 • 10-2mbar for about 15min), to ensure the removal of gas or
water that may have been absorbed into the surface. The process of thermal
curing is not preferred because the surfaces of CaCO3 crystals can be
influenced by temperature. This phenomenon is probably related to surface
emissions CO2, which if started would reduce the energy gap on the surface
of calcite.
In the first experiment the cell containing the tablet was placed on a laboratory
bench, without control of environmental conditions. Therefore, measurements
were made under conditions of facilities. The results described in Chapter
Three. Subsequently, measurements were performed in oven Weiss, a
temperature cycle. Can physical capacity of the furnace to reach a
temperature range of -75 to 130 ° C, but due to the limited range of operating
temperatures of the cell measurements (0οC to 55oC) changing the
temperature only by 5οC up to 50oC. Determinant of no further use of the
furnace in our measurements was the fact that with increasing temperature
although there are changes in the dielectric properties of the tablet, but there
was a smooth transition back when he returned to normal. Also noticed that
with the change of temperature in the oven, changed and humidity inside the
oven. For more details on the results of the measurements we got to talk to the
fourth chapter. For the next experiment was done using laboratory device
described above. This provision achieve the change of humidity regardless of
the temperature inside a glass booth, since we are mainly interested in the
dielectric response for the change of humidity of the tablet.
The measurements are made as follows: first, place the tablet in the cell and
measure the thickness using the vernier it has and get measurements of Cp
and G sizes of material across the spectrum of available frequencies (20Hz -
1MHz). Repeat the measurement for different values of temperature or
humidity. Finally, remove the tablet by placing electrodes at exactly the same
distance than that which had existed when the tablet, and determine once Cpo
size and conductivity of air, which was neglected by the very low price. We
confirmed experimentally that the value of the capacity of air Cpo remains
constant regardless of temperature and humidity so we can calculate the real
(k = Cp / Cpo) and the imaginary part (k = G / oCpo) of dielectric constant, and
loss tangent (tand = k / k).
The parameters used for measurements were:
i) Logarithmic scale spectrum
298
ii) Frequency range: fstart = 20 Hz fstop = 106 Hz
iii) Measurements of Cp - G (capacity-conductivity parallel)
iv) Average price per avg = 8 count
v) time between measurements tbm = 5
vi) Integration factor: long (internal regulation of body)

2.5 Edit Measurement


The calculation of complex dielectric constant of the forms k = Cp / Cpo and k
= G / oCpo can only be measured if the material covers the entire area
between the plates (electrodes measurement) of the capacitor. In our case,
however, the surface Sx of the measured tablet is less than the Sol area of the
plates, so that a region of space between the plates is occupied by air.
Therefore, the capacity measure establishes two parallel capacities, with a
surface area Sx containing our material (dielectric constant demand k) and an
area of SA = Sol-Sx containing air (dielectric constant 1). The capacities are
given respectively by the relations
Then the total measured capacity shall be the sum of:

and the capacity gap is normally:


So the calculated in the usual way relative dielectric constant is

The above relation is transformed to:


gives us the value of the relative dielectric constant of our material.
Similarly, the formula for calculating the imaginary part is that the conductance
G and capacity gap Cpo mentioned in the same area, which does not happen
in our case. To apply the formula should be measured instead of the
conductivity G can use the equivalent capacity Geq would have occupied if the
tablet across the surface between the plates. Since conductivity is proportional
to the surface (G = SS / d), the ratio of conductivity is equal to the ratio of the
areas and apply:

and the imaginary part of complex dielectric constant is given by

Therefore it is the loss tangent:

When measuring a sample of circular disk of radius rx = 19mm, and the fact
that panels have circular shape with rol = 8mm, valid relations:
and
When the measured material is dry calcite sample, change the numerical
values of the above. The sample is rectangular with dimensions 31mm ×
299
55mm. Using AUTOCAD program is that the area of the sample located
between the plates is Sx = 1019mm2, while the surface area of air is SA =
115mm2. Thus we have finally:
and

CHAPTER 3: Effect of grain size and compression on the dielectric

3.1 Experimental results


This chapter presented and discussed the results of measurements made
without changing environmental conditions, namely temperature and humidity
room (temperature :20-25oC, relative humidity :35-40%). Based on these
results prove the effect of the size and degree of compaction of the grains in
the dielectric properties and proposed a model for the interpretation of the
phenomenon.
The samples were characterized as to their epitreptotita Complex (real and
imaginary) in the frequency domain. According to these results (Figure 3.1)
samples of cement and tablets show dielectric relaxation at low frequencies
(20Hz <f <10kHz). In other words, the relative dielectric constant (k) increases
almost exponentially as the frequency decreases, while t remains very stable
at high frequencies (f> 10kHz). This phenomenon is observed for the solid
mineral calcite. Here, k values remained constant at around 7.8 and the rate of
loss was low, about 0.05, regardless of frequency. It is thus the importance of
the phenomena at the interface between the compressed grains.
Also, according to the results of t versus frequency f, the power losses of the
samples (except solid) increases exponentially at low frequencies. The current
losses are higher for samples containing fine cement B, compared with the
coarse cement samples A.
Furthermore, to study the possible dependence between the relative
epitreptotita and spaces in the volume of material examined various conditions
of compaction calcite each time with different density. Specifically, we have the
density of uncompacted cement''''positioned in a container, expressed as
mass per unit volume. The compressed density''cement''is reached when the
container is hit or talantothei under specific conditions, so the cement to fill the
least possible volume in it without the imposition of mechanical stress. The
density of pellets is expressed as mass per shell volume, which is the space
occupied by the shell of the tablet, including all internal gaps, cracks or
resources. Finally we have the density of solid marble, which was measured
for a large collection of samples.

300
100
Relative dielectric constant K'

1000
10

100
loss K''

Σχήμα 3.1: Πραγματικό (πάνω) και φανταστικό (κάτω) μέρος της μιγαδικής
διηλεκτρικής σταθεράς του ασβεστίτη. Τα σύμβολα εξηγούνται στον παρακάτω
πίνακα.
10
301
Συνθήκες συμπίεσης ασβεστίτη Σύμβολα
Στερεός ορυκτός ασβεστίτης x
Κονία τύπου Α Μαύρα σύμβολα
Κονία τύπου Β Λευκά σύμβολα
Ασυμπίεστη Κονία Κύκλος • 
Συμπιεσμένη Κονία Τετράγωνο  
Δισκίο σχηματισμένο υπό πίεση 600bar Ρόμβος ♦ ◊
Δισκίο σχηματισμένο υπό πίεση 800-1000bar Τρίγωνο  

K' (1MHz)
9

2
d (g/cm^3)
1
0,00 0,50 1,00 1,50 2,00 2,50 3,00

Figure 3.2: Relative Dielectric Constant versus density solid calcite sample
(triangle) samples of cement A (square) and B (triangle) under different
conditions of compression.

The values of dielectric constant measured at a higher frequency of 1 MHz


were designed on the basis of density (Figure 3.2). For all samples there is a
linear dependence between the relative dielectric constant and density of the
material. Only solid rock shows deviations from linearity, having dielectric
constant higher value than that which would be the density. These
discrepancies could probably be attributed to the phenomena of crystal
differentiation seen from the XRD spectrum before and after grinding the solid,
and the lack of demarcation between the surfaces of grains (and hence the
corresponding induced phenomena).

3.2 Proposed theoretical model


The effect of the conductivity of the interface in general dielectric properties of
302
a system of spherical particles, each with a specific surface conductivity (SS)
was originally studied by O'Konski. Other researchers have extended models,
showing that in addition to loads of polarization in regions across the
electrodes, an electrically neutral overall cloud particles produced in the
remaining volume of the material. This theoretical approach is taken seriously
into account in the recent literature of nanodiilektrikon.
Figure 3.3 shows the main dielectric parameters for the case of crystal grains
that are only in an alternating electric field. The maximum surface conductivity
corresponds to lower frequencies (fL), where the epidermal field carrying the
bodies along the surface, inducing a polarity between the charged ends of the
grains. The granules are large dipoles, as shown qualitatively in Figure 3.3-a.
The effective relative dielectric constant of cement may thus exceed the value
corresponding to a continuous solid calcite (εc). At higher frequencies (fH),
which found low surface conductivity, and dipole formation occurs (Fig. 3.3-b)
and active relative dielectric constant can be approximated by finding the
relative values of kc and kair (kair = 1 ) and the percentage of the volume of
material occupied by the grains. This is in agreement with the results above.

−−−−−−−−− −−−−−−−−−

+
+
+ σs σs
p ~ V(fH)
V(fL) ~ κ′ c
κ′
E (fL) - -c - κ′ a ir ∼ 1 E (fH)
σ a ir ∼ 0
+ + + + + + + + ++ + + + + + + + +

(a ) (b ) Figure 3.3:
Grain calcite located in an alternating electric field. (A): Low frequency: dipole
formation due to redistribution of surface load. (B): High frequency: the time
required for the redistribution of surface load is greater than the period of the
electric field, so it presents a surface polarization phenomena.

The dielectric response of calcite grains may be associated with higher density
electronic statements surface with composite materials (composites), which
contain small particles inside the volume. Electronic statements of imported
303
surface due to the fact that the microcrystalline calcite abruptly terminate the
perfect periodicity of the hexagonal crystal lattice on the surface. In this case,
there are solutions of the equation Schrödinger, corresponding to the
introduction of energy levels inside the forbidden gap insulator at fantastic
prices kymatodianysmatos k. These wave equations are aposvenymena
waves, depleting exponentially with depth from the surface of grains. Are
spatially localized, in contrast to Bloch waves propagated within the
microcrystals in a perfect microcrystalline

304
(a) (b)
Figure 3.4: Diagram of dynamic energy of a grain nanodiilektrikou located in
an alternating electric field. (A): Saving energy on the surface protects the
volume of material from the field of low frequency. (B): At high frequencies,
the energy absorbed in volume, causing a tilt of the energy bands.
The overall distribution of electrons needed to render the surface fully
electrically neutral can only be made when the band of surface states are
partially complete. The''neutral''your level of Buddha, is the level to which the
completeness of the statements of a surface electric neutral surface. When
there are empty statements of energy beneath the Buddha, then the surface
has a positive net charge, and if there is full statements on the Buddha, then
the surface acquires a purely negative charge.
For the crystalline grain size of less than 1μm, the process of absorbing power
to the surface or volume, which is shown in Figure 3.3, can be modeled
according to the potential energy diagrams, as shown in Figure 3.4. At low
frequencies (Figure 3.4-a) the electricity supplied alter the occupancy of
surface states in the polar ends of the molecule, thereby inducing surface
stripping bodies. The high and low occupancy of surface conditions (ES-) and
(ES +) respectively at opposite ends of grain determine the amount of
electricity that is stored on the surface of the grain from the field, as AL = (ES-)
- (ES + Vapp ..⋅ ) = q The levels of occupancy of surface states-ES and ES +
at opposite polar ends of each grain will be modified by the presence of
oxidation, absorbed gases and vapors of water.
The proposed mechanism of energy absorption in surface states may be true
in most practical cases the existence of electric field. Indeed, given the small
size of grain prices in the internal field can be extremely high even for small

305
changes in occupancy levels of surface conditions. For example, 100nm grain
diameter and distance between the levels of occupancy of surface conditions,
CI = (ES-) - (ES +) = 1eV, the internal field can rise to the price 0.1MV/cm,
which could cause pre- degradation phenomena (prebreakdown) in most
insulating materials.
Thus, for frequencies below 10kHz in this case, dipole moments developed
due to surface polarization, since the surface of the grain behaves as a non-
equipotential. The electric fields at higher frequencies do not allow the
redistribution of surface load, so the electricity is stored in the volume of
grains, as seen from the slopes of the energy bands in the diagrams of Figure
3.4-b, where for example DE = = not = DEc DVap.⋅ q

3.3 Conclusions
Although the mineral calcite solid showing dielectric constant behavior
independent of frequency, the heap properties are dependent both on the size,
and the density of compaction. At high frequencies, the range of 1MHz, the
relative dielectric constant determined solely by the density compression. At
low frequencies k has a relaxation, which can be attributed to the slow surface
polarization mechanisms.
The current losses in the breeze increases exponentially with the low
frequencies. Prices are higher for samples finest cement, indicating that the
surfaces can control the overall conductivity. The nanoparticles can absorb
electricity or to their surface (low frequencies), or through its bulk (high
frequency) and can be modeled using the dynamic chart generation.

CHAPTER 4: Effect of environment on the dielectric

4.1 Measurement of temperature change


Initially, after placing the tablet into the measuring cell, which was placed in the
oven, we measured the sizes''Cp - G''for a logarithmic scale of frequencies
from 20 Hz to 1MHz and changing the temperature in two different ways. First
was measured at ambient temperature, about 20 ° C and then received 10
consecutive measurements per unit temperature increase to a value of 50 ° C
and gradually reduce the temperature to 20 ° C to. The change in temperature
lasted about 5min. Then repeat the process again. Then we took a single
measurement of the capacity of air, because it changes with changing
temperature. In this way, finally got the first cycle of temperature. Acting in a
similar manner, except that in this case we went down to the 5 ° C, and held a
second round temperature. All measurements were made on the same tablet
consisting of cement type A. An example of the table gives the measurements
as the computer and the values of K, K and tand, calculated in accordance
with those mentioned in the previous section appears below
306
F (Hz) Cp (F) G (Ω-1) Geq (Ω-1) Cpo (F) K'm K' K'' Tanδ

307
20 2.55E-11 7.92E-10 4.47E-09 6.04E-12 4.23E+00 19.22757 5.89E+00 3.06E-0
30 2.23E-11 1.02E-09 5.77E-09 4.33E-12 5.15E+00 24.38845 7.07E+00 2.90E-0
40 2.05E-11 1.28E-09 7.25E-09 3.66E-12 5.60E+00 26.93313 7.88E+00 2.93E-0
50 2.07E-11 1.78E-09 1.00E-08 3.61E-12 5.75E+00 27.77601 8.84E+00 3.18E-0
60 1.89E-11 1.93E-09 1.09E-08 3.47E-12 5.43E+00 25.99843 8.30E+00 3.19E-0
70 1.83E-11 2.24E-09 1.27E-08 3.39E-12 5.41E+00 25.8528 8.50E+00 3.29E-0
80 1.77E-11 2.46E-09 1.39E-08 3.51E-12 5.06E+00 23.88446 7.87E+00 3.30E-0
90 1.74E-11 2.76E-09 1.56E-08 3.59E-12 4.84E+00 22.67678 7.67E+00 3.38E-0
100 1.70E-11 3.06E-09 1.73E-08 3.58E-12 4.76E+00 22.21661 7.68E+00 3.46E-0
200 1.52E-11 5.31E-09 3.00E-08 3.66E-12 4.14E+00 18.70414 6.51E+00 3.48E-0
300 1.42E-11 7.33E-09 4.13E-08 3.70E-12 3.83E+00 16.95902 5.93E+00 3.50E-0
400 1.35E-11 9.25E-09 5.22E-08 3.73E-12 3.63E+00 15.82604 5.57E+00 3.52E-0
500 1.30E-11 1.12E-08 6.30E-08 3.75E-12 3.48E+00 14.972 5.34E+00 3.57E-0
600 1.26E-11 1.30E-08 7.31E-08 3.76E-12 3.36E+00 14.324 5.16E+00 3.60E-0
700 1.23E-11 1.47E-08 8.31E-08 3.76E-12 3.28E+00 13.84844 5.03E+00 3.63E-0
800 1.20E-11 1.65E-08 9.28E-08 3.76E-12 3.20E+00 13.41041 4.91E+00 3.66E-0
900 1.18E-11 1.82E-08 1.03E-07 3.77E-12 3.13E+00 12.99674 4.82E+00 3.71E-0
1000 1.16E-11 1.98E-08 1.11E-07 3.79E-12 3.06E+00 12.61701 4.68E+00 3.71E-0
2000 1.03E-11 3.44E-08 1.94E-07 3.79E-12 2.71E+00 10.61742 4.07E+00 3.84E-0
3000 9.55E-12 4.64E-08 2.62E-07 3.79E-12 2.52E+00 9.566113 3.66E+00 3.83E-0
4000 9.10E-12 5.64E-08 3.18E-07 3.79E-12 2.40E+00 8.890349 3.34E+00 3.76E-0
5000 8.78E-12 6.50E-08 3.67E-07 3.79E-12 2.31E+00 8.416508 3.08E+00 3.66E-0
6000 8.55E-12 7.25E-08 4.09E-07 3.80E-12 2.25E+00 8.062063 2.86E+00 3.54E-0
7000 8.37E-12 7.87E-08 4.44E-07 3.80E-12 2.21E+00 7.804952 2.66E+00 3.41E-0
8000 8.22E-12 8.50E-08 4.79E-07 3.80E-12 2.17E+00 7.572908 2.51E+00 3.32E-0
9000 8.11E-12 9.00E-08 5.07E-07 3.80E-12 2.14E+00 7.404366 2.36E+00 3.19E-0
10000 8.00E-12 9.53E-08 5.38E-07 3.80E-12 2.11E+00 7.240793 2.25E+00 3.11E-0
20000 7.51E-12 1.34E-07 7.53E-07 3.80E-12 1.98E+00 6.505476 1.58E+00 2.43E-0
30000 7.30E-12 1.61E-07 9.08E-07 3.80E-12 1.92E+00 6.206827 1.27E+00 2.04E-0
40000 7.19E-12 1.83E-07 1.03E-06 3.80E-12 1.89E+00 6.037197 1.08E+00 1.79E-0
50000 7.11E-12 2.02E-07 1.14E-06 3.80E-12 1.87E+00 5.924745 9.57E-01 1.62E-0
60000 7.06E-12 2.19E-07 1.24E-06 3.80E-12 1.86E+00 5.842386 8.64E-01 1.48E-0
70000 7.01E-12 2.37E-07 1.34E-06 3.80E-12 1.85E+00 5.772104 8.00E-01 1.39E-0
80000 6.98E-12 2.49E-07 1.40E-06 3.80E-12 1.84E+00 5.729783 7.35E-01 1.28E-0
90000 6.96E-12 2.56E-07 1.44E-06 3.80E-12 1.83E+00 5.705861 6.72E-01 1.18E-0
100000 6.93E-12 2.73E-07 1.54E-06 3.80E-12 1.83E+00 5.655879 6.47E-01 1.14E-0
200000 6.81E-12 3.70E-07 2.09E-06 3.79E-12 1.79E+00 5.481054 4.38E-01 8.00E-0
300000 6.75E-12 4.39E-07 2.47E-06 3.79E-12 1.78E+00 5.40821 3.46E-01 6.40E-0
400000 6.73E-12 4.80E-07 2.71E-06 3.79E-12 1.77E+00 5.365782 2.84E-01 5.29E-0
500000 6.71E-12 5.21E-07 2.94E-06 3.79E-12 1.77E+00 5.338222 2.47E-01 4.62E-0

308
600000 6.69E-12 5.55E-07 3.13E-06 3.79E-12 1.77E+00 5.318412 2.19E-01 4.12E-0
700000 6.68E-12 5.71E-07 3.22E-06 3.79E-12 1.76E+00 5.307745 1.93E-01 3.64E-0
800000 6.66E-12 6.05E-07 3.41E-06 3.78E-12 1.76E+00 5.291557 1.80E-01 3.39E-0
900000 6.64E-12 6.28E-07 3.54E-06 3.78E-12 1.76E+00 5.277371 1.66E-01 3.14E-0
1000000 6.63E-12 6.32E-07 3.57E-06 3.77E-12 1.76E+00 5.274313 1.50E-01 2.85E-0

Σε όλες τις μετρήσεις παρατηρούμε ότι οι καμπύλες των κ΄ , κ΄΄ και tanδ
παρουσιάζουν την ίδια γενική μορφή συναρτήσει της συχνότητας, εκτός ίσως από
μικρές διακυμάνσεις στα πρώτα δύο ή τρία σημεία. Οι διακυμάνσεις αυτές οφείλονται
κυρίως στην αστάθεια που παρουσιάζει η μέτρηση του Cpo στις πολύ χαμηλές
συχνότητες.
Χαρακτηριστική κ΄ ∼ f : Μορφή υπερβολής. Στις χαμηλές συχνότητες η τιμή της
σταθεράς κ΄ ήταν αυξημένη, ενώ όσο η συχνότητα τείνει στο άνω όριο συχνότητας
που θέσαμε, δηλαδή το 1MHz, προσεγγίζει μια σταθερή τιμή.
Χαρακτηριστική κ΄΄ ∼ f : Μορφή υπερβολής. Στις χαμηλές συχνότητες είναι μεγάλη
η τιμή της σταθεράς κ΄΄ , ενώ στο άνω όριο συχνότητας του 1MHz, προσεγγίζει το
μηδέν.
Χαρακτηριστική tanδ ∼ f : Όλες οι καμπύλες εμφανίζουν μία κορυφή σε κάποια
συχνότητα, ενώ στις μεγάλες συχνότητες τείνουν προς το μηδέν.
Από τα παραπάνω προκύπτει ότι γνωρίζοντας τη μεταβολή των κ΄, κ΄΄ ως προς
τη θερμοκρασία ή την υγρασία σε μία δεδομένη συχνότητα,π.χ 1kHz ή 10kHz, έχουμε
αντιπροσωπευτική εικόνα για το τι συμβαίνει και στις υπόλοιπες συχνότητες. Για την
tanδ δεν συμβαίνει αυτό, επειδή η συχνότητα κορυφής είναι μεταβλητή και επομένως
καμία συχνότητα δεν είναι αντιπροσωπευτική ολόκληρου του φάσματος.
Για το λόγο αυτό στα Σχήματα 4.1 και 4.2, δείχνουμε μόνο τη μεταβολή
των κ΄, κ΄΄ σε μία ορισμένη συχνότητα για τις διάφορες τιμές της
θερμοκρασίας.
Παρατηρούμε ότι στο πρώτο πείραμα, το κ΄ και το κ΄΄ αρχικά μειώνονται
τόσο με την αύξηση όσο και με τη μείωση της θερμοκρασίας (από 20 στους
50 και ξανά 20οC). Στο δεύτερο κύκλο αύξησης της θερμοκρασίας (από 20
στους 50 και ξανά πίσω μέχρι τους 40οC) δεν παρατηρούνται αξιόλογες
μεταβολές στα δύο μεγέθη, που έχουν πάρει σχεδόν σταθερή τιμή.
Στο δεύτερο πείραμα αρχικά παρατηρούμε το ίδιο φαινόμενο, δηλαδή
μείωση του κ΄ και κ΄΄ με την μεταβολή της θερμοκρασίας (από 20 στους 50
και πίσω στους 5οC). Μόλις η υγρασία αρχίσει να αυξάνεται πάλι, τα μεγέθη
αυξάνουν και επανέρχονται στις αρχικές ή και μεγαλύτερες τιμές. Όταν η
θερμοκρασία ξεπεράσει την τιμή του περιβάλλοντος τα μεγέθη αρχίζουν
ξανά να μειώνονται και ο κύκλος επαναλαμβάνεται με τον ίδιο τρόπο.
Παρατηρούμε ότι έχουμε δύο διαφορετικούς τρόπους μεταβολής των κ΄ και
κ΄΄ με τη θερμοκρασία, ανάλογα με το αν το κατώτερο σημείο του
θερμοκρασιακού κύκλου είναι στην τιμή του περιβάλλοντος ή κάτω από
309
αυτή. Μια υπόθεση που εξηγεί αυτό είναι ότι κατά τη θέρμανση ο φούρνος
αφαιρεί υγρασία από το θάλαμο σε θερμοκρασίες υψηλότερες από του
περιβάλλοντος, ενώ κατά την ψύξη κάτω από τη θερμοκρασία
περιβάλλοντος η υγρασία εισάγεται ξανά. Για να ελέγξουμε αυτή την
υπόθεση, τοποθετούμε το υγρόμετρο στο φούρνο και εκτελούμε τον ίδιο
θερμοκρασιακό κύκλο καταγράφοντας την σχετική υγρασία του θαλάμου.
Τα αποτελέσματα παρουσιάζονται στο διάγραμμα του Σχήματος 4.3 και
φαίνεται ότι επιβεβαιώνουν την παραπάνω υπόθεση.
Δοκιμάζουμε κατόπιν να κάνουμε τα διαγράμματα κ΄ και κ΄΄ ως προς τη
σχετική υγρασία του θαλάμου. Αυτά φαίνονται στα Σχήματα 4.4 και 4.5.
Παρατηρούμε μια τάση αύξησης των τιμών, όταν αυξάνει η υγρασία και
αντιστρόφως. Επειδή όμως ταυτόχρονα αλλάζει και η θερμοκρασία, δε
μπορεί να ληφθεί ασφαλές συμπέρασμα.
Βλέπουμε λοιπόν ότι οι διηλεκτρικές ιδιότητες του υλικού εξαρτώνται τόσο
από τη θερμοκρασία, όσο και από την υγρασία, οπότε είναι επιθυμητό να
παρατηρήσουμε την εξάρτηση από κάθε παράγοντα ξεχωριστά. Δεδομένου
ότι ο φούρνος WEISS του εργαστηρίου δεν έχει τη δυνατότητα μεταβολής
της θερμοκρασίας υπό σταθερή υγρασία, καταφεύγουμε στη διάταξη που
περιγράφηκε στο προηγούμενο κεφάλαιο. Όλα τα υπόλοιπα πειράματα
επομένως εκτελούνται σε θερμοκρασία περιβάλλοντος, μεταβάλλοντας την
υγρασία και περιγράφονται στην επόμενη παράγραφο.

4.2 Μετρήσεις με μεταβολή της υγρασίας


Όπως προαναφέραμε πήραμε μετρήσεις του ζεύγους ‘‘Cp – G’’ για λογαριθμική
κλίμακα συχνοτήτων από 20 Hz έως 1MHz από το κάθε δισκίο. Η διαδικασία που
ακολουθήσαμε ήταν η εξής:
• Τοποθέτηση του δισκίου στο κελί μετρήσεων μέσα στο θάλαμο ελέγχου
υγρασίας.
• Λήψη αρχικής μέτρησης για τις εκάστοτε συνθήκες υγρασίας και θερμοκρασίας
του περιβάλλοντος.
• Επιβαλόμενη αύξηση της υγρασίας και διαδοχικές μετρήσεις των ίδιων μεγεθών
ανά 5 έως 10 μονάδες ποσοστιαίας αύξησης της υγρασίας, μέχρι ένα άνω όριο
των 90%.
• Μείωση της υγρασίας στο θάλαμο και λήψη μετρήσεων πάλι ανά 5 έως 10
μονάδες ποσοστιαίας ελάττωσης της υγρασίας μέχρι να επανέλθουμε στην
υγρασία περιβάλλοντος.
• Αφαίρεση του δισκίου και μέτρηση της χωρητικότητας του αέρα μόνο για την
τιμή υγρασίας περιβάλλοντος, δεδομένου ότι το μέγεθος αυτό είναι ανεξάρτητο
από την υγρασία.

310
Πήραμε μετρήσεις από τα ακόλουθα δείγματα: δισκίο (60) αποτελούμενο από
κονία τύπου Α περιεκτικότητας 0.1% Fe2O3 σε μορφή πιγμέντου, δισκίο (55)
αποτελούμενο από κονία τύπου Α περιεκτικότητας 0.00625% Fe2O3 σε μορφή
πιγμέντου, δισκίο (68) αποτελούμενο από κονία τύπου Α, δισκίο (41) αποτελούμενο
από κονία τύπου Β, δείγμα στερεού ασβεστίτη.
Σε τρεις περιπτώσεις επαναλάβαμε το πείραμα και δεύτερη φορά επειδή είτε το
εύρος της υγρασίας που επιτεύχθηκε ήταν μικρό, είτε έγιναν πολλές αυξομειώσεις τη
πρώτη φορά. Στα ακόλουθα σχήματα αυτό αναφέρεται ως δεύτερος κύκλος υγρασίας.
Στις επόμενες σελίδες παρατίθενται τα αποτελέσματα των μετρήσεων σε
συνάρτηση με τη συχνότητα. Για κάθε δείγμα εικονίζονται οι καμπύλες των κ΄, κ΄΄ και
tanδ πρώτα στη φάση ανόδου της υγρασίας και μετά στη φάση καθόδου της υγρασίας.
Στη συνέχεια εμφανίζονται οι τιμές των μεγεθών αυτών σε συνάρτηση με την
υγρασία για τη χαρακτηριστική συχνότητα του 1kHz. Στα διαγράμματα αυτά έχει
σημειωθεί το αρχικό (initial) και το τελικό (final) σημείο του κύκλου υγρασίας.
Παρατήρηση: Στα διαγράμματα του κύκλου υγρασίας, εμφανίζονται σημεία
που δεν αντιστοιχούν σε γραφικές παραστάσεις σε συνάρτηση με τη
συχνότητα. Αυτό συμβαίνει διότι τα διαγράμματα συναρτήσει της
συχνότητας εικονίζουν μόνο τις περιόδους σταθερής ανόδου και καθόδου
της υγρασίας του θαλάμου, ενώ στα υπόλοιπα εμφανίζονται και οι τυχόν
αυξομειώσεις που συνέβαιναν κατά τη διάρκεια του πειράματος.

311
4.3 Σχόλια – Συμπεράσματα από τη μελέτη μεταβολής της υγρασίας

Παρατηρούμε σε όλα τα σχήματα που έγιναν σε συνάρτηση με τη


συχνότητα, τις ίδιες γενικές μορφές καμπυλών, όπως αυτές που
περιγράφηκαν στην παράγραφο 3.1. Είναι εμφανής όμως η επίδραση της
απορρόφησης υγρασίας από το κάθε δείγμα. Συγκεκριμένα, κατά την άνοδο
της υγρασίας του θαλάμου αυξάνονται οι τιμές του πραγματικού και του
φανταστικού μέρους της σχετικής επιτρεπτότητας σε όλες τις συχνότητες.
Αντίστοιχα όταν η υγρασία μειώνεται, τότε μειώνονται και οι τιμές των
παραπάνω μεγεθών.
Για το πραγματικό μέρος, η μεταβολή είναι πολύ πιο έντονη στις χαμηλές
συχνότητες, ενώ στις υψηλές όλες οι καμπύλες πλησιάζουν πολύ μεταξύ
τους. Αυτό σημαίνει ότι η μεταβολή της υγρασίας επιδρά στα φαινόμενα
χαλάρωσης που παρουσιάζονται στις χαμηλές συχνότητες και αυτό μπορεί
να δικαιολογηθεί από το γεγονός ότι τα μόρια του νερού είναι πολικά.
Σχεδιάζοντας το φανταστικό μέρος σε λογαριθμική κλίμακα, λαμβάνουμε
φθίνουσες καμπύλες που είναι παράλληλες και σχεδόν ισαπέχουν μεταξύ
τους. Αυτό σημαίνει ότι η υγρασία συνεχίζει να επιδρά με τον ίδιο τρόπο και
στις υψηλές συχνότητες όπως και στις χαμηλές.Όσον αφορά την
εφαπτομένη απωλειών, τα πράγματα διαφοροποιούνται. Στις περισσότερες
καμπύλες εμφανίζεται μια κορυφή στις μεσαίες συχνότητες (συντονισμός), η
οποία σε συνθήκες χαμηλής υγρασίας είναι μετατοπισμένη προς τις
χαμηλότερες συχνότητες και σε κάποιες περιπτώσεις ούτε καν διακρίνεται.
Όσο όμως η υγρασία αυξάνει, η συχνότητα συντονισμού μετατοπίζεται
προς υψηλότερες τιμές και το πλάτος της μεγαλώνει. Κατά τη μείωση της
υγρασίας ακολουθείται η αντίστροφη διαδικασία, δηλαδή τόσο το πλάτος
όσο και η συχνότητα του συντονισμού μειώνονται. Στις υψηλές συχνότητες,
όπου το πραγματικό μέρος (κ΄) είναι περίπου σταθερό, η μορφή της
εφαπτομένης είναι παρόμοια με αυτή του φανταστικού μέρους (κ΄΄).
Τα παραπάνω ισχύουν ως γενικές παρατηρήσεις, για όλα τα δισκία που
μετρήσαμε ανεξάρτητα από το είδος της κονίας ή της πρόσμιξης σε Fe2O3.
Για το δείγμα στερεού μαρμάρου όμως παρατηρούμε ότι κατά την αύξηση
της υγρασίας έως το 70% περίπου, η αύξηση των τιμών, ιδιαίτερα του κ΄,
είναι πολύ μικρή έως αμελητέα. Με την περαιτέρω αύξηση της υγρασίας τα
κ΄, κ΄΄ και tanδ αυξάνουν, αλλά όχι σε τόσο μεγάλο βαθμό όσο στα δισκία.
Κατά την αντίστροφη πορεία όμως, η μείωση των τιμών και για τα τρία
μεγέθη είναι συνεχής μέχρι η υγρασία να φτάσει την τιμή που έχει σε
συνθήκες περιβάλλοντος. Αυτό μπορεί να εξηγηθεί αν θεωρήσουμε ότι το
στερεό δείγμα απορροφά πιο δύσκολα την υγρασία σε σχέση με τα δισκία,
που περιέχουν πολλούς μικροσκοπικούς πόρους αέρα μεταξύ των
συμπιεσμένων κόκκων. Αντίστοιχα, όταν η υγρασία του χώρου μειώνεται,

312
υπάρχει μια καθυστέρηση στην απομάκρυνση του νερού από το δείγμα. Για
αυτό το λόγο οι τιμές των διηλεκτρικών μεγεθών μειώνονται με αργότερο
ρυθμό.Τα παραπάνω γίνονται περισσότερο κατανοητά εάν δούμε και τα
διαγράμματα που έγιναν συναρτήσει της υγρασίας για το 1kHz. Ειδικότερα
για το στερεό δείγμα φαίνεται πιο καθαρά η υστέρηση των τιμών των
διηλεκτρικών μεγεθών σε σχέση με τη μεταβολή της υγρασίας. Αυτή είναι
όμως η γενική τάση και για τα υπόλοιπα δείγματα, δηλαδή οι τιμές π.χ. του
κ΄ για την ίδια τιμή υγρασίας είναι κατά κανόνα μεγαλύτερες στη φάση
καθόδου παρά στη φάση ανόδου. Αυτό οφείλεται κατά πάσα πιθανότητα
στην υστέρηση της απορρόφησης ή της απομάκρυνσης του νερού από το
υλικό σε σχέση με τη μεταβολή της υγρασίας του χώρου. Επομένως η
υγρασία του υλικού είναι χαμηλότερη στη φάση της ανόδου σε σχέση με τη
φάση καθόδου και αυτό προκαλεί αντίστοιχη υστέρηση στη διηλεκτρική
απόκριση.Η προηγούμενη παρατήρηση δεν ισχύει πάντα για χαμηλές τιμές
υγρασίας. Μια πιθανή εξήγηση είναι ότι απαιτείται περισσότερος χρόνος για
να πέσει η υγρασία από μια χαμηλή τιμή σε μια ακόμη χαμηλότερη και στο
χρόνο αυτό προλαβαίνει να απομακρυνθεί περισσότερο νερό από το
δείγμα. Εξαίρεση αποτελεί το δισκίο με τη μεγάλη συγκέντρωση πιγμέντου
(0.1% Fe2O3), το οποίο παρουσιάζει βρόχο υστέρησης αντίθετης φοράς με
τα υπόλοιπα. Είναι πιθανό η παρουσία του οξειδίου να επηρεάζει την
απορρόφηση νερού από το δισκίο. Ωστόσο ο κύκλος της υγρασίας είναι
σχετικά μικρός (μέγιστη τιμή 65%), οπότε δεν είναι δυνατό να ληφθεί
ασφαλές συμπέρασμα. Όσον αφορά την εφαπτομένη απωλειών κάθε
δείγματος, έχουμε βρόχο της ίδιας μορφής με τα άλλα δύο μεγέθη. Η
εξαίρεση εδώ είναι το δισκίο κονίας Β, όπου η μορφή είναι εντελώς
διαφορετική. Από το διάγραμμα ‘ tanδ – f ’ προκύπτει ότι το δισκίο αυτό
παρουσιάζει έντονο φαινόμενο συντονισμού και η διαφορετική κάθε φορά
θέση της κεντρικής συχνότητας ως προς τη συχνότητα αναφοράς 1kHz δεν
επιτρέπει την κατασκευή ενός αξιόπιστου βρόχου υγρασίας. Πάντως το
φαινόμενο επαναλαμβάνεται και για τους δύο κύκλους υγρασίας με
παρόμοιο τρόπο. Ίσως το μικρότερο μέγεθος κόκκων επιτρέπει την πιο
εύκολη εισαγωγή και εξαγωγή νερού από το εσωτερικό του δισκίου.
Συμπερασματικά, μπορούμε να πούμε ότι κάθε αύξηση ή μείωση της
σχετικής υγρασίας του χώρου οδηγεί σε όλες τις περιπτώσεις σε αύξηση ή μείωση
αντίστοιχα των τιμών των κ΄ και κ΄΄. Όμως το ποσό της μεταβολής κάθε φορά
μπορεί να εξαρτάται από παράγοντες όπως η φύση του δείγματος (δισκίο ή στερεό
μάρμαρο), το μέγεθος των κόκκων, η παρουσία πρόσμιξης και το αν βρισκόμαστε
σε φάση ανόδου ή καθόδου της υγρασίας.

313
Βιβλιογραφία

1. Κ.Θ. Δέρβος, ‘‘Μονωτικά υλικά υψηλών τάσεων’’, Εκδόσεις ΕΜΠ,


Αθήνα 2005.
2. Κ.Θ. Δέρβος, ‘‘Εισαγωγή στα ημιαγώγιμα υλικά και βασικές διατάξεις’’,
Εκδόσεις ΕΜΠ, Αθήνα 2000.
3. Κ. Καγκαράκης, ‘‘Μαθήματα στα ηλεκτροτεχνικά υλικά – 1’’, Συμμετρία,
Αθήνα 1994.
4. C.T. Dervos, J.A. Mergos, A.A. Iosifides, ‘‘Characterization of insulating
particles by dielectric spectroscopy: Case study for CaCO3 powders’’,
Materials Letters, 59 (2005), 22, pp. 2842-2849.
5. N. Harris, ‘‘Modern Vacuum Practice’’, McGraw-Hill.
6. A.K. Jonscher, “Dielectric relaxation in solids”, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.,
Vol. 32, pp.R57-R70, (1999).
7. A. Priou, Ed. “Dielectric Properties of Heterogeneous Materials”, Progress
in Electromagnetic Research, Elsevier, New York, (1992).
8. D.S. McLachlan, M. Blaszkiewics and R.E. Newnham, “Electrical
resistivity of composites”, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., Vol. 73, pp.2187-2196,
(1990).
9. T.J. Lewis, “Interfaces are the dominant feature of dielectrics at the
nanometric level”, IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul., Vol. 11, No.5,
pp.739-753, (2004).
10. M.F. Frechette, M.L. Trudeau, H.D. Alamdari and S. Boily, ‘‘Introductory
remarks on nanodielectrics”, IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul., Vol. 11,
No.5, pp. 808-818, (2004).
11. R.M. German, “Particle Packing Characteristics”, Metal Powder Industries
Federation, Princeton, N.J., (1989).
12. C.T. Dervos, Ef. Thirios, J. Novacovich, P.Vassiliou and P. Skafidas,
“Permittivity properties of thermally treated TiO2”, Material Letters,
Vol.58, pp.1502-1507, (2004).
13. K. Maex, M.R. Baklanov, D. Shamiryan, F. Iacopi, S.H. Brongersma and
Z.S. Yanovitskaya, “Low dielectric constant materials for
microelectronics”, J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 93, pp.8793-8841, (2003).
14. G. Maier, “The search for low-ε and ultra low-ε dielectrics: How far can
you get with polymers? Part 1: Background” IEEE-EI Magaz., Vol.20,
No.2, pp.6-17, (2004).
15. G. Maier, “The search for low-ε and ultra low-ε dielectrics: How far can
you get with polymers? Part 2: Materials, structures, properties” IEEE-EI
Magaz., Vol.20, No.3, pp.6-24, (2004).
16. C. Brosseau and P. Talbot, “Effective permittivity of nanocomposite
powder compacts”, IEEE Trans. Electr. Insul., Vol.1, No.5, pp.819-833,
(2004).

314
17. Th. Skoulikidis, and P. Vassiliou, “Corrosion and conservation of building
materials of monuments; the Acropolis case”, Corrosion Reviews, Vol. 17,
Nos.5-6, pp.295-332, (1999).
18. Th. Skoulikidis, “Evaluation of the cleaning methods”, (2002).
www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk/gr/cleaning.pdf ,
19. ASTM D150, “Test methods for A-C loss characteristics and permittivity
(dielectric constant) of solid electrical insulation materials”, American
Standards for Testing Materials.
20. Application Note 1217-1 “Basics of measuring dielectric properties of
materials” Hewlett-Packard Company, (1992).
21. Agilent 16452A Liquid Test Fixture, Operation and Service Manual,
Agilent Part No. 16452-90000, Japan, (2000).
22. C.T. O’Konski, “Electrical properties of macromolecules V. Theory of
ionic polarization in polyelectrolytes”, J. Phys. Chem., Vol. 64, pp. 605-
619, (1960).
23. W.C. Chew and P.N. Sen, “Dielectric enhancement due to electrochemical
double layer: Thin double layer approximation”, J. Chem. Phys., Vol. 77,
pp.4683-4693, (1982).
24. A. Many, Y. Goldstein and N.B. Grover, Semiconductor Surfaces, North-
Holland, Amsterdam, (1965).
25. E.H. Rhoderick, “Metal-Semiconductor Contacts”, Clarendon Press,
Oxford, (1980).
26. C.T. Dervos and W.S. Truscott, “Physical processes for contact charge
transfer”, J. Electrostatics, Vol. 6, pp.137-147, (1985).
27. C.T. Dervos, P.D. Bourkas and E.A. Kayafas, “High frequency current
oscillations in solid dielectrics”, J Phys. D: Appl. Phys., Vol.22, No.2,
pp.316-322, (1989).
28. “HP 4284A Precision LCR Meter Operation Manual’’, HP Part No.
04284-90020, Japan (1996).
29. “HP 16451B Dielectric Test Fixture Operation and Service Manual’’, HP
Part No. 16451-90050, Japan (1993).
30. “Operating Instructions Cold Heat Test Chamber type: KWP”, Weiss
Umwelttechnik GmbH, Germany (1999).
31. Χ.Δ. Παρασκευάς, ‘‘Η διηλεκτρική φασματοσκοπία ως μέγεθος
πρόβλεψης της γήρανσης μονωτικών ελαίων μετασχηματιστών’’,
Διδακτορική Διατριβή, ΕΜΠ, Αθήνα 2005.
32. J.M. Novakovic, ‘‘Μη ηλεκτρολυτικές επικαλύψεις Νικελίου για
εφαρμογές ηλεκτρικών επαφών’’, Διδακτορική Διατριβή, ΕΜΠ, Αθήνα
2004.

__Για τον υπολογισµό της ενεργειακής απόδοσης (εκτιµώµενη πρωτογενής


ενέργεια), για τον νέο ...... Συµπαγείς λίθοι, µάρµαρο, γρανίτης,. ασβεστόλιθος ...
διάκενο 6 [mm]. 2,8. 3,26. 3,2. 3,72. Ένα ειδικό πρόγραμμα μεταλιγνιτικής
315
περιόδου, με στόχο τη διερεύνηση της δυνατότητας παραγωγής ενέργειας από
άλλες πηγές (υδρογόνο, βιομάζα, βιαέριο), καθώς και τη δημιουργία
εργοστασίων που θα παράγουν εξαρτήματα για αιολικά πάρκα, φωτοβολταϊκά
και θερμομονωτικά πάνελ και ηλιακά συστήματα υψηλής τεχνολογίας, ώστε η
Δυτική Μακεδονία να παραμείνει ενεργειακό κέντρο της Ελλάδας, προτείνει
μιλώντας στη “Μ” ο πρόεδρος του Συνδέσμου Βιομηχανιών Δυτικής
Μακεδονίας Δημήτρης Χαλάτσογλου

MEΛΕΤΗ ΕΓΚΑΤΑΣΤΑΣΕΩΣ / ΑΠΟΔΟΣΕΩΣ ΦΩΤΟΒΟΛΤΑΙΚΟΥ


ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΟΣ
ΒΑΘΜΟΙ ΟΧΛΗΣΗΣ ΓΙΑ ΠΑΡΑΓΩΓΗ ΗΛΕΚΤΡΙΚΗΣ ΕΝΕΡΓΕΙΑΣ
Α/Α ΔΡΑΣΤΗΡΙΟΤΗΤΑ ΚΩΔΙΚ ΒΑΘΜΟΣ ΟΧΛΗΣΗΣ
ΟΣ ΥΨΗΛΗ ΜΕΣΗ ΧΑΜΗ ΠΑΡΑΤΗΡ
ΕΣΥΕ ΛΗ ΗΣΕΙΣ
274 Σταθμοί παραγωγής 401.0α Το σύνολο - -
ηλεκτρικής ενέργειας
με στερεά καύσιμα
πλην βιομαζας
275 Σταθμοί παραγωγής
ηλεκτρικής ενέργειας:
α. Με αέρια καύσιμα 401.0β ≥ 300 <300 MW - Εγκατεστημέ
(χωρίς συμπαραγωγή) MW νη θερμική
ισχύς
β. Με υγρά καύσιμα 401.0β ≥ 200 <200 MW - Εγκατεστημέ
MW νη θερμική
ισχύς
γ. Με συμπαραγωγή 401.0β ≥ 300 >5 MW >2 Εγκατεστημέ
θερμικής ενέργειας από MW <300 MW MW νη θερμική
αέρια καύσιμα ≤ 5 MW ισχύς
276 Σταθμοί παραγωγής ηλεκτρικής ενέργειας από ΑΠΕ

α. Σταθμοί 401.0γ - > 5 MW > Αποδιδόμ


ηλεκτροπαραγωγής από 0,5 ενη
γεωθερμική ενέργεια M ηλεκτρική
W ισχύς
≤5
M
W
β. Σταθμοί 401.0γ - > 5 MW > Αποδιδόμ
ηλεκτροπαραγωγής με 500 ενη
χρήση βιομάζας ή kW ηλεκτρική

316
αγροτικών ≤ ισχύς
παραπροϊόντων 5
M
W
γ. Σταθμοί 401.0γ - > 0,5 MW ≤ Αποδιδόμ
ηλεκτροπαραγωγής με 0,5 ενη
χρήση βιοαεριου M ηλεκτρική
W ισχύς
δ. Σταθμοί 401.0γ - - > Αποδιδόμ
ηλεκτροπαραγωγής από 0,5 ενη
φωτοβολταϊκά M ηλεκτρική
συστήματα W ισχύς
ε. Σταθμοί 401.0γ - > 700 kW > Αποδιδόμ
ηλεκτροπαραγωγής από 20 ενη
ανεμογεννήτριες kW ηλεκτρική
ισχύς

700
kW
στ. Μικροί 401.0γ - - - Αποδιδόμ
υδροηλεκτρικοί ενη
σταθμοί (<=10 MW) ηλεκτρική
ισχύς
277 Σταθμοί 401.0δ Το σύνολο
ηλεκτροπαραγωγής από
πυρηνική ενέργεια

Αρμόδιες Αρχές
Τα έργα και η δραστηριότητες υπάγονται σε κατηγορίες (Α1, Α2, Β3, Β4) ανάλογα
με την όχληση τους στο περιβάλλον. Σύμφωνα με την κατηγορία τους, αρμόδια
υπηρεσία για την Έγκριση Περιβαλλοντικών Όρων ( ΕΠΟ ) είναι το ΥΠΕΧΩΔΕ, ή
η οικεία Περιφέρεια, ή η οικεία Νομαρχία.
Η αντιστοίχηση κατηγορίας - αρμόδιας υπηρεσίας είναι η παρακάτω,
Α1 -->ΥΠΕΧΩΔΕ
Α2-->ΠΕΡΙΦΕΡΕΙΑ
Β3--> ΣΤΗΝ ΠΕΡΙΠΤΩΣΗ ΕΡΓΟΥ Β3 ΣΤΕΛΝΕΤΑΙ ΣΤΗΝ ΠΕΡΙΦΕΡΕΙΑ
ΠΡΟΜΕΛΕΤΗ ΩΣΤΕ ΝΑ ΑΠΟΦΑΣΙΣΤΕΙ ΑΝ ΤΟ ΕΡΓΟ ΘΑ ΕΞΕΤΑΣΤΕΙ ΑΠΟ
ΤΗΝ ΠΕΡΙΦΕΡΕΙΑ Ή ΑΝ ΘΑ ΕΞΕΤΑΣΤΕΙ ΑΠΟ ΤΗΝ ΝΟΜΑΡΧΙΑ.
B4 --> ΝΟΜΑΡΧΙΑ

317
«φωτοβολταϊκά συστήματα» νοούνται οι εγκαταστάσεις παραγωγής
ηλεκτρικής ενέργειας μέχρι 20kW από ηλεκτρικές γεννήτριες φωτοβολταϊκών
συστοιχιών με τα συνοδευτικά τους έργα (οικίσκοι κ.λπ.), που προορίζονται να
υποστηρίξουν κατασκευές κεραιών.

Tην αρτιότητα του γηπέδου, η επιφάνεια του οποίου δεν επιτρέπεται να είναι
μικρότερη των 500 μ2.

Τις αποστάσεις των εγκαταστάσεων από τα όρια του γηπέδου, οι οποίες δεν
επιτρέπεται να είναι μικρότερες από 2,50 μ..

Το ποσοστό κάλυψης που δεν επιτρέπεται να υπερβαίνει το πενήντα τοις


εκατό (50%) της επιφάνειας του γηπέδου, το ύψος του συντελεστή δόμησης
του γηπέδου που δεν επιτρέπεται να υπερβαίνει το 1,20 και το συντελεστή
κατ’ όγκο εκμετάλλευσης που δεν μπορεί
να υπερβαίνει το 5.

Το ύψος της συμπαγούς περιφράξεως του γηπέδου, εφόσον τούτο απαιτείται


για λόγους ασφαλείας του κοινού και των εγκαταστάσεων. Το ύψος αυτό δεν
επιτρέπεται να υπερβαίνει τα 4,50 μ..»

Άρθρο 36 Ρυθμίσεις για την Εφεδρική Αγορά Ενέργειας


1.α. Στο άρθρο 15 του ν. 2773/1999, όπως ισχύει, προστίθενται παράγραφοι 5, 6
και 7 ως εξής:
«5. Κατά παρέκκλιση των διατάξεων της παραγράφου 4 και προκειμένου να
διασφαλίζεται η δυνατότητα άμεσης διαθεσιμότητας ισχύος παραγωγής
ηλεκτρικής ενέργειας και επαρκών περιθωρίων ισχύος για τα έτη 2009 και
2010, ο Διαχειριστής του Συστήματος δύναται να συνάπτει συμβάσεις
διαθεσιμότητας ισχύος με νέους αεριοστροβιλικούς σταθμούς παραγωγής
ταχείας εκκίνησης, ονομαστικής ισχύος στην άδεια παραγωγής ηλεκτρικής
ενέργειας έως 150 MW, οι οποίοι εντάσσονται στο Σύστημα έως την
1.12.2009. Στους σταθμούς αυτούς χορηγείται οικονομικό κίνητρο υπό τη
μορφή Εγγυημένου Εσόδου, με το οποίο διασφαλίζεται το ελάχιστο καθαρό
έσοδο που ο σταθμός δύναται να λαμβάνει, συνολικά, από τη sυμμετοχή του
στον Ημερήσιο Ενεργειακό Προγραμματισμό (ΗΕΠ), την Αγορά Εφεδρείας και
το Μηχανισμό Διαθεσιμότητας Ισχύος, αφαιρουμένου του μεταβλητού κόστους
του σταθμού και ιδίως του κόστους καυσίμου. Αν ο σταθμός τεθεί σε εμπορική
λειτουργία έως την 1.7.2009, το ύψος του Εγγυημένου Εσόδου ανέρχεται στο
ποσό των εβδομήντα χιλιάδων (70.000) ευρώ ανά MW διαθέσιμης ισχύος
και έτος. Για σταθμό που τίθεται σε εμπορική λειτουργία μετά την 1.7.2009
και έως την 1.12.2009, το ποσό αυτό μειώνεται αναλογικά ανά ημέρα, κατά
τρόπο που την 1.12.2009 το Εγγυημένο Έσοδο να ανέλθει σε πενήντα πέντε
χιλιάδες (55.000) ευρώ ανά MW διαθέσιμης ισχύος και έτος. Το ανωτέρω

318
Εγγυημένο Έσοδο χορηγείται για τρία (3) έτη από τη θέση του σταθμού σε
εμπορική λειτουργία. Σύμφωνα με τα στοιχεία που έδωσε ο Γενικός Γραμματέας
του υπουργείου, Κ. Μουσουρούλης:-Ένα μέσο νοικοκυριό καταναλώνει 5.000 -
7.000 κιλοβατώρες το χρόνο.
-Ένας φωτοβολταϊκός σταθμός ισχύος 1 κιλοβάτ παράγει κατά μέσο όρο 1300
κιλοβατώρες το χρόνο. Δηλαδη τα 20 κιλοβάτ παράγουν 1300χ20=26000
26000χ0,50= 13000ευρώ

Ιδια Κατανάλωση απαιτειται για τις αναγκες του σταθμος 4 κιλοβάτ ή


4χ1300= 5200 κιλοβατώρες το χρόνο επι 0,11=572ευρώ ανα έτος

ΚΑΘΑΡΗ ΘΕΣΗ 13000-572= 12428 ευρω /20 κιλοβατ παραγωγη -Συνεπώς,


οι ανάγκες του νοικοκυριού καλύπτονται με φωτοβολταϊκό ισχύος 5 κιλοβάτ,
που κοστίζει περί τις 25.000 ευρώ και για την εγκατάστασή του απαιτείται
επιφάνεια 80 τ.μ.
Δηλαδη α 20 κιλοβατ κοστίζουν 100.000 ευρώ επένδυση
1Kw αγοραζεται 0,50Ευρώ
Δυνατότητα εγκατάστασης φωτοβολταϊκών, με τις συγκεκριμένες
προϋποθέσεις και κίνητρα, θα έχουν και μικρές ή πολύ μικρές επιχειρήσεις,
που απασχολούν έως δέκα εργαζόμενους και κάνουν τζίρο μέχρι 2 εκατ. ευρώ.

Πιο αναλυτικά, σε ό,τι αφορά τη διαδικασία για εγκατάσταση και λειτουργία


του φωτοβολταϊκού: Θα κοστίζει 300 - 500 ευρώ, θα ολοκληρώνεται το πολύ
σε 70 ημέρες και θα περιλαμβάνει πέντε βήματα: κατάθεση αίτησης για
προσφορά σύνδεσης στη ΔΕΗ, έγκριση εργασιών μικρής κλίμακας από την
Πολεοδομία, υπογραφή συμβάσεων σύνδεσης και πώλησης της ενέργειας με
τη ΔΕΗ και ενεργοποίηση της σύνδεσης.

Απαραίτητη προϋπόθεση για την ένταξη στο πρόγραμμα είναι η ύπαρξη


σύνδεσης κατανάλωσης ηλεκτρικού ρεύματος στο ακίνητο στο οποίο το
σύστημα εγκαθίσταται.

20 χ 4= 100κιλοβατ ή 12428 χ 4 = 49712 ευρω

1. ΚΡΙΤΗΡΙΑ ΠΡΟΣΤΑΣΙΑΣ
Σύμφωνα με την υφιστάμενη νομοθεσία, υπάρχουν κάποιες περιοχές
εντός των οποίων οι οικοδομικές δραστηριότητες ή οποιουδήποτε
άλλου είδους δραστηριότητες που πιθανόν να προκαλέσουν
αλλοίωση του φυσικού και πολιτιστικού περιβάλλοντος,
απαγορεύονται αυστηρά. ορίστηκαν οι παρακάτω περιορισμοί:
Περιοχές Natura: Δημιουργήθηκε ένα επίθεμα που οριοθετεί μια ζώνη 200
m από τα όρια των περιοχών Natura συμπεριλαμβάνοντας και την ίδια
την περιοχή, όπως αυτό ορίζει το ΥΠΕΧΩΔΕ, ώστε να μην επιτραπεί η
χρήση των συγκεκριμένων ζωνών για την εγκατάσταση φωτοβολταϊκών.
319
Χώροι Παγκόσμιας Κληρονομιάς: Δημιουργήθηκε ένα επίθεμα που
οριοθετεί μια ζώνη 3 km από τα όρια των περιοχών Παγκόσμιας
Κληρονομιάς (που αναφέρεται στο Απολιθωμένο Δάσος)
συμπεριλαμβάνοντας και την ίδια την περιοχή. Είναι μια μεγάλη σε έκταση
ζώνης προστασίας που το επιβάλλει ωστόσο η υφιστάμενη νομοθεσία και
οι διεθνείς κανονισμοί.
Λοιποί Αρχαιολογικοί Χώροι: Οι αρχαιολογικοί χώροι του νησιού,
κυρίως της Ερεσσού και της Άντισσας όπως και το Βυζαντινό
μουσείο του Υψηλού, παρουσιάζουν μεγάλο αρχαιολογικό
ενδιαφέρον. Προκειμένου να ικανοποιηθεί το παραπάνω κριτήριο, τέθηκε
με βάση την νομοθεσία, μια ζώνη προστασίας 500 m από τα όρια, που
περιλαμβάνει και τις ίδιες τις περιοχές.
Προστασία Οικισμών: Έγινε κατηγοριοποίηση των οικισμών ανάλογα με
τον πληθυσμό τους, γιατί σύμφωνα με το υφιστάμενο νομοθετικό πλαίσιο,
για οικισμούς όπου ο πληθυσμός τους υπερβαίνει τα 2000 άτομα η
χωροθέτηση των φωτοβολταϊκών οριοθετείται σε απόσταση πέρα
των 500 m. Για οικισμούς με πληθυσμό μικρότερο των 2000 ατόμων, η
κατάλληλη απόσταση είναι πέρα των 250 m από τα όρια. Οι αποστάσεις
αυτές, αποσκοπούν στην αποφυγή οχλήσεων από αντανακλάσεις του
πάρκου στους οικισμούς.
Κριτήριο Προστασίας Κύριου Οδικού Δικτύου: Δημιουργήθηκε μια
ζώνη προστασίας 500 m γύρω από το κύριο οδικό δίκτυο. Το
υφιστάμενο νομοθετικό πλαίσιο παρουσιάζει κενά κι έτσι η συγκεκριμένη
ζώνη τέθηκε αυθαίρετα αλλά σύμφωνα με αυτά που ισχύουν για τους
οικισμούς, ώστε να αποφεύγονται πιθανόν αντανακλάσεις από την
εγκατάσταση προς το οδικό δίκτυο. Για να δημιουργηθούν οι Ζώνες
Αποκλεισμού, πρέπει τα επιμέρους επιθέματα που περιέχουν τις
απαγορευμένες περιοχές για χωροθέτηση φωτοβολταϊκών, να
συνδυαστούν (συνενωθούν) μεταξύ τους. Έτσι δημιουργήθηκε ένα
μοναδικό επίθεμα αποκλεισμού, όπως φαίνεται και στο παρακάτω
Διάγραμμα 3.
Διάγραμμα 3: Δημιουργία Ζώνης Αποκλεισμού από τα επιμέρους Επιθέματα

320
3. ΚΡΙΤΗΡΙΑ ΚΑΤΑΛΛΗΛΟΤΗΤΑΣ
Η χωροθέτηση φωτοβολταϊκών συστημάτων, προϋποθέτει την ύπαρξη
κάποιων συγκεκριμένων γεωμορφολογικών χαρακτηριστικών καθώς και
διάφορων οικονομικών και κατασκευαστικών κριτηρίων. Έτσι λοιπόν:
Καταλληλότητα Δικτύου Μέσης Τάσης: Για να δημιουργηθεί μια ζώνη
καταλληλότητας γύρω από το δίκτυο ηλεκτροδότησης, τέθηκε μια μέγιστη
απόσταση από τα όρια του δικτύου στο 1 km. Δηλαδή, αυτό που
εξυπηρετεί στην εγκατάσταση των φωτοβολταϊκών, βρίσκεται εντός
αυτού του 1 km. Η απόσταση αυτή ορίστηκε θεωρώντας ότι
οποιαδήποτε δραστηριότητα πέρα από αυτό το όριο θεωρείται
οικονομικά ασύμφορη γιατί θα χρειαστεί κατασκευή δρόμων και
τοποθέτηση στύλων της ΔΕΗ.
Καταλληλότητα Ολικού Οδικού Δικτύου: Το οδικό οδικό δίκτυο,
περιλαμβάνει τους κύριους αλλά και τους δευτερεύοντες δρόμους του
νησιού της Λέσβου. Έτσι δημιουργήθηκε μια ζώνη καταλληλότητας από
τα όρια των δρόμων αυτών, έως και σε απόσταση 3 km . Η απόσταση αυτή
θεωρήθηκε ως ιδανική, ώστε να μην επιβαρύνει το όλο έργο με περαιτέρω
οικονομικό κόστος.
Κατάλληλες Χρήσεις Γης: Από τις υφιστάμενες χρήσεις γης, αυτές που
θεωρήθηκαν κατάλληλες για την χωροθέτηση του φωτοβολταϊκού πάρκου
χωρίς να προκαλείται οποιαδήποτε αλλοίωση του φυσικού περιβάλλοντος,
είναι αυτές με χορτολίβαδα, θάμνους και η άγονη γη.
Κατάλληλες Κλίσεις Εδάφους: Ένα άλλο σημαντικό επίθεμα, αποτελούν
οι κατάλληλες κλίσεις εδάφους. Θεωρήθηκε ότι οι κατάλληλες κλίσεις, αυτές
που μας προσδίδουν την μέγιστη επιθυμητή ακτινοβολία και κατά συνέπεια
μέγιστη απόδοση των φωτοβολταϊκών, είναι μεταξύ 40 – 60 μοιρών.
Σύμφωνα πάντα με το θεωρητικό υπόβαθρο, η κλίση που προτείνεται για
την εγκατάσταση φωτοβολταϊκού με σταθερή οριζόντια βάση, είναι αυτή του
γεωγραφικού πλάτους της περιοχής. Αφού η περιοχή μας έχει ενδεδειγμένο
γεωγραφικό πλάτος κοντά στις 39 μοίρες, τότε η επιλογή κλίσεων που
έχουμε κάνει, δεν παρεκκλίνει πολύ και θεωρείται αρκετά αποδοτική.
Κατάλληλο Υψόμετρο: Ως κατάλληλο υψόμετρο για την εγκατάσταση
του φωτοβολταϊκού πάρκου, θεωρήθηκε αυτό των 200 μέτρων, κοντά
δηλαδή στο μέσο υψόμετρο του νησιού. Το κριτήριο αυτό τέθηκε γιατί
θεωρήθηκε ότι είναι ιδανικό και αποφεύγονται ίσως πιθανές
αντανακλάσεις προς το έδαφος.
Κατάλληλος Προσανατολισμός Κλίσεων: Ο κατάλληλος
προσανατολισμός κλίσεων, είναι ένα απαραίτητο επίθεμα, που
δημιουργήθηκε με βάση το θεωρητικό υπόβαθροόσο αφορά το βόρειο
ημισφαίριο, ο ενδεδειγμένος προσανατολισμός φωτοβολταϊκών
στοιχείων με σταθερή βάση, είναι ο νότιος. Για το λόγο αυτό
θεωρήθηκαν ως κατάλληλες οι προσανατολισμένες κλίσεις: Νότιες,
Νοτιο–Ανατολικές και Νοτιο–Δυτικές, για την μέγιστη απόδοση των

321
φωτοβολταϊκών με σταθερή οριζόντια βάση. Το επίθεμα των
κατάλληλων προσανατολισμένων κλίσεων, προέκυψε από την επεξεργασία
του επιθέματος των κλίσεων που έχουμε δημιουργήσει από το ΤΙΝ.

322
ΠΕΡΙΟΧΗ ΝΕΣΤΑΝΗ ΑΡΚΑΔΙΑΣ
Δικτύου Μέσης Τάσης > 1κλμ ΝΑΙ
Ολικού Οδικού Δικτύου ΚΥΡΙΟΙ ΚΑΙ ΔΕΥΤΕΡΕΥΟΝΤΕΣ
Χρήσεις Γης ΧΟΡΤΟΛΙΒΑΔΙΚΟ
Κλίσεις Εδάφους> 40-60 μοίρες 40
Υψόμετρο 200μ 200
Προσανατολισμός ΝΑ ΝΑ
ΑΡΧΑΙΟΛΟΓΙΚΟΙ ΧΩΡΟΙ ΟΧΙ
ΠΑΡΑΔΟΣΙΑΚΟΙ ΟΙΚΙΣΜΟΙ ΟΧΙ
ΝΑΤUΡΑ 2000 ΤΚΣ & ΖΕΠ ΟΧΙ
ΝΑΤUΡΑ 2000 TKS ΟΧΙ
ΝΑΤUΡΑ 2000 ΖΕΠ ΟΧΙ
ΚΑΤΑΦΥΓΙΟ ΑΓΡΙΑΣ ΖΩΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΟΧΙ
ΘΗΡΑΜΑΤΩΝ
ΑΙΣΘΗΤΙΚΑ ΔΑΣΗ ΟΧΙ
ΓΗΠΕΔΟ ΜΕΓΑΛΥΤΕΡΟ ΤΩΝ ΝΑΙ
500μ
ΣΥΔΕΣΗ ΜΕ ΔΙΚΤΥΟ ΔΕΗ ΟΧΙ
ΑΠΟΣΤΑΣΗ ΑΠ ΟΙΙΣΜΟ ΝΑΙ

323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
"... The Nestani is the first station encountered by the traveler
Pausanias to enter the Arcadia from the Argolid, following the path of
scale and way before in Malevi. The wider horizon removed from
around the mountains: Scallops (1634 m .), 'Artemision (1771 m), or
Lyrkeio Goupato (1648 m), Armenia (1739 m) and provouno the
(branch) Alisio (Barberis) (1030 m). West in depth facing the mountains
Menalon (1981 m). (In ancient times, MENALO They felt Ostrakina).
There are other peaks, Aydin - Roino (1849) Top Chrepa 1559m)..
closer to the horizon are the nearest mountains or hills: Panigyristra
(743 m) Skalorachi, Koutroulis Gkavezos, SIP (1141 m), Agiannis the
extension until the blocked (a branch of the scallops) and Stochos.Sta
southern horizon is light and view to the Tripolitsa, celebrated by the
Turks and Twenty of the Revolution, while the western skyline
xagnantefoume Mainalo (top Xrepa h.. Ostrakina 1559 and 1981 m).
centered on the town of Arcadia and to the north, a distance of 15 Hilmi
(3 hours walking) is the Town Nestani (ex ÔóéðéáíÜ) province
Mantineias. Going from Tripoli to Nestani pass from Chania purpose
than Mantineiako Basin Vineyards) to get the closed lower basin.
Nestani the right and left of the Argon field, the plain of, (who once
called the Swamp). at an altitude of 636 meters.'s population, once it
reaches 3400 people, but now is reduced to 1 / 3, with continued
reduction due to internal and external migration. With the Argolid
contact imionikous three streets : Scale (Doors) Prinou (Karya) and
Tournikiou. The transportation of highway continues to the Sagas. But
331
now there is a tunnel Artemision, which shortened the communication
and connection with the Argolid and Athens. Also, The new main road
street Nestani - Karya built in 1984 by the MOMA Peloponnese
Elevation Nestani (weighted average) 655 m.
Area of 22 sq. km. km
Arable land 17.5 km ²
Residents in 1961, 1850 and 1971, 2209. Area, hilly ... "
I would like here to point out an omission of the author, probably
unintentionally: The man who personally handled the issue of opening
the road Nestani - Karia, of course, was the commander of the IV
Infantry Division, Major General C. Demosthenes Verros. Yes, my
father was conceived, organized and oversaw the work of the MOMA
(MOMA machine unit was then opened many roads in Greece at the
time). Trying to convince my father to write us, but for the moment,
modest, expects recognition of his work and silence. Maybe someday (I
hope my father is alive then), honored for his contribution to this ... We
said in earlier post that the way Nestani-Karyes Argolis (you know, the
graphic ¨ Kolokotronitsi "the telly" Joy of Coffee "), opened the MOMA.
He was the inspiration of my father, Demosthenes (then General) and
was his own personal supervision and his mochtho.Tin day after
Easter, I got a friend a ride and went to admire the route.
I knew that there's more coming out resources. We met four if I
remember correctly to run enough water. And of course, goes all lost. I
wondered, perhaps as a municipality should do something about it
rather than eat with the Metropolis? Perhaps we can all finally
volepsoume? And water bottling plant and water to the monastery and
to calm down?
4. HEALTH AREAS - RESULTS
To create the patch of Soil Suitability Zones, including the common
areas of individual patches, must be combined patches

332
As seen from the maps below, the appropriate areas for siting the plant, are
scattered throughout the island, most of them located in the northeast and
southwest of the island. The maps that follow show the final proposed sites
based on land use and occupation of land. Watching them carefully, we see
that most proposed sites are covered with grassland and a few
thamnous.Oson to the area they occupy, we see that most sites have an
area of more than 500 acres, which is positive because the optimal
performance of the facility is directly related the area of the region.
Thick slavery in the solar ...
Suppose, say suppose that a new, say from Corinth, using the off plan
property of his grandfather and some of his own funds with small loans are
considered a business opportunity to encourage the Government to establish
a photovoltaic installation. Logical is not it? Let us see the continuity. She
took her new history seriously the government and starts with aspirations to
joining the small and medium sized business of energy. Watch now (but
carefully) what is to happen to the poor man who believed the Greek state
and tell me whether or not the heavy work of "Native Greeks" even the
(otherwise simple) story of photovoltaics.
Deite six "steps of death 'aspirations and expectations of each new or old
businessman who trust the Greek state and the incentive to advertise that,
ultimately, the sole purpose of creating impressions for political exploitation.

* Step One: You need to go to Tripoli to find the Tax Office Paleontology (!!!)
and ask for an opinion that there are no findings of paleontology at the site in
order to be able to create the unit ... (Similar paper is to equip each person in
all regions of the country)

* Step Two: We go to the Tax Office Antiquities of Corinth to get a piece of


paper that says the land is archaeological ...

* Step Three: We go to Patras and take the tax office there Antiquities paper
that there are no antiquities in the depths of the land of ... Will you tell me
how to justify these services are functioning and how volepsoume "our
children" in the state. Right. You are right ...

* Step Four: You should go to the Canal District to request permission to


create the desired unit.

* Step Five: Here things are made from gray, brown and very dark. Why
should I go to Planning permission for solar plant that will create unzoned
city. Moreover, such units are in fact out of plan and not in the draft next
homes, schools and hospitals. But come the Poledomia Corinth (and all
services Planning of the country) have not gotten instructions for licensing
photovoltaic units outside the city plan. We know it's going to get instructions,
a joint ministerial decision of the Ministers of Public Works and Ministry of
333
Development to be issued in 2006 (!!!) when given the number 3468 into law
that is supposed to help in every way those who want to become operators of
alternative energy and specifically solar. Know but expect the decision for 40
months! The same stakeholders. Just wait ... and please Forces service them
find a solution. And here is starting bachalo ... Why do the planning agency
(normally also) that the service is convenient to cover their backs. Other
Housing are asking for environmental permits as factories (thereby reversing
the opinion of the European Union that photovoltaics do not harm the
environment). Others consider solar factories and factory buildings and seek
appropriate papers and studies. Other applications are frozen because they
do not know what to do ... So our new from Corinth wait (along with perhaps
hundreds of others concerned) when it will decide by the Ministry of
Development Ministry to clarify the situation.

* Step six (desperation): The new Corinth frustrated by this situation is trying
the option of also gave the government not to lose the (voter) customer ... It
starts to get permission to install the unit in a large building available within
the project according to the motives of the 3734 Act in force from January
2009 to strengthen (supposedly) related diotikes and other initiatives. What
comes across though? On the Planning Agency to request an environmental
permit because the PV is 21 kilowatts. But you know what is going to tell an
environmental permit to be approved by the Ministry? More or less the unit
should be set up around the moon ... and asks the man. Well, do not tell the
EU that photovoltaics do not harm the environment? Have said Yes to the
European Union. But these are koutofragkoi. We anticipate Ellinares in our
legislation that impacts on the environment not only solar panels up to 20
kilowatts. Since there is more danger and death throughout the world ...
These we believe and if you likes. Furthermore we will set up shops with
"adeioules" and other products trading ... How dare the koutofragkoi also tell
us how we are doing the "work" we ... george.kraloglou @ capital.gr

exactly on this issue have become the first communications while not
subsidizing the purchase of the system has two well.
- Does not open books TEVE etc, is off the electricity bill
- Sell 0.55 euros per kilowatt hour when the parks to sell medium and large
0.45 0.41
- Maximum deployment 10KWp

Incentives to 10KW photovoltaic roofs


ME financial incentives and simplification of planning, and tax obligations, the
Ministry of Development seeks to promote the installation of photovoltaic
systems on roofs of buildings and land outside the plan. In parallel, seeking
to use small geothermal fields for domestic use and for use by farmers as
greenhouses. Introducing institutional measures in the form of Joint Ministers
resolutions, Development Minister Costis Hatzidakis noted that by facilitating
334
the use of Ananeosimon Energy Sources in plant small, green energy is part
of everyday society, affecting all stages of their energy behavior and leading
the "revolution in green energy." Like announced in a press conference, Mr
Hatzidakis, the Secretary of State John Bougas and Secretary General
Kostis Mousourouli for installing photovoltaic systems on roofs of buildings:
Allow the sale of energy generated in the electricity network to 55 cents per
KWh, while the PPC charge residential users average 11 minutes per KWh.
This price will remain stable until 2011. They will then be reduced by 5%
annually until the end of 2019.I process will be offset by the value of the
energy consumed by. If the value of the energy is higher than that needed by
the household, consumers will receive a refund from the PPC, or long term,
by which a private supplier.
Every household, or any building (with the display as a producer manager or
other occupant is chosen by the owners) can install a system to power 10
KW, with procedures in relation to the PPC will not require more than 70
days.
The parties, who may be individuals or very small firms employing up to 10
people and have a turnover of up to 2 million annually, are not required to
issue planning permission, but to take the planning a simple adoption out of
the small scale. Also not required to provide records to the tax authorities to
exchange power with PPC or licensing by the Energy Regulatory Authority
and the Ministry of Development.
Estimates of the Ministry of Development, the cost of a 5 KW power plant is
about 25,000 euros (5,000 euros per KW). Required surface about 80 m
produced approximately 6.5000 KWh per year. The consumption of an
average household is 5.000 - 7.000 KWh per year, which means that covered
much of its needs. However, this cost should be added additional cost 800-
1500 EUR on procedures and association studies.
PPC reserves the right not to approve the installation if it finds that it "raises"
the network, while the grounds for the application of the measure would not
address non-interconnected islands.
Furthermore, Joint Ministerial Decisions adopted to address issues relating to
the installation of photovoltaic unzoned land and plots. The JMD inter alia
provides for the abolition of all projects, with mandatory planning permission
to install solar power to 20 KW and conditional, and older, and not perfect
and plots, ie in less than 4 acre property and 80% coverage rate.
In terms of geothermal systems, as announced by Mr. Bougas officially
proclaimed seven new geothermal fields in Thymiana Chios (2 fields), Sikies
Arta, Damasta Fthiotida, Lihada Evia, Nea Apollonia, Thessaloniki and
Antirrio. Furthermore, for the first time we held competitions for promotion
and research, even in areas with non-declared areas.
As an incentive for installing geothermal systems showing the simplification
of procedures and the rapid depreciation of the estimated average cost of
13,500 euros in 6 to 8 years, compared with the cost of installing a
conventional heating system, which is home to 100 square meters reaches
335
4600 euro and charged with annual maintenance costs.

Questions and answers about the PV rooftop

EOS and 400 MW is estimated to have reached the egkatestimeni power of


small photovoltaic systems to be installed on roofs of buildings. Here are
questions and answers for photovoltaic rooftop:

What areas of the country and what buildings can be installed photovoltaic
systems in accordance with the program of the Ministry of Development;
The program consists of systems to 10 kW, which will be installed in the attic
or roof (including shelters terrace) of buildings used for residential housing or
microenterprises. The program covers the entire country except the non-
connected with the continental system of islands.
Who can install solar system are there conditions?
Right to membership in the program are individuals, not traders and natural
or legal persons traders, classified as micro enterprises (up to 10 people and
up to 2 million per annum turnover) that they hold the space in which installed
photovoltaic system.
For the case of photovoltaic systems in public areas of the building, allowed
the establishment of a single system.
Right to membership in the program are the owners of property represented
by horizontal transmission after the agreement of all owners or one of the
main horizontal property after granting use of public areas from the rest, the
responsibility of the parties.
A prerequisite for joining the program is a link consumption of electricity in
the building where the system is installed.
Furthermore, when the property is installed the system used for housing, is a
prerequisite part of the thermal needs of the building for hot water to cover by
using renewable energy (eg solar thermal, solar water heaters).
How does an agreement of all co-owners or allocation of space in a co-
owner?
Practically unanimous decision of the General Assembly or by written
agreement of all co-owners of the building.
In the old building with no regulation how to install solar?
Again practically unanimous decision of the General Assembly or the written
agreement of all co-owners of the building.
If someone owns the rights to the roof reconstruction (ypsoun), you can
install only the solar system?
No, because the right does not entail a right of exclusive use of the terrace,
which was reconstructed until the floor above, is jointly-owned and shared.
Someone has the right to exclusive use of the terrace. You can install only
the system?
Yes, unless prohibited by explicit provisions. In this case the system will be
connected to the counter (clock) PPC home and the revenue collected by
336
him.
What are the procedures to be followed?
To connect the system and sell the energy producer is addressed in the local
PPC signing two respective conventions, one for the installation of the meter
essentially one for the sale of energy.
What happens in regard to taxation?
H low power photovoltaic systems ensures that the generated energy
equivalent to that required to meet the energy needs of the owner of the solar
system. Consequently, there are, for the main solar system, tax liabilities for
the disposal of such energy to the grid.
The citizen producer - consumer will not have tax or insurance requirement
(open book, invoicing, insurance, etc.) or a trader or not.
What happens in relation to Planning? What does work permit small scale?
To install a photovoltaic system requires approval out of the small scale
within the meaning of Article 7 paragraph 1 of Law 3212/2003 (GG A'A 308)
as whenever applicable and statutory instruments issued kat'A authorized to
access. The conditions of establishment will be defined by a circular of the
Ministry.
What is the rate
All the costs are included in the so-called cost per installed kW which is about
5,000 per kW (with good market research can be reduced to 4.000 per kW).
It not only involves the likely cost to insure the equipment against sabotage,
etc. In most cases the equipment is covered by a guarantee of more than 10
years.
What about the electric meter?
We installed a new clock with double meter for output from the facility
operation and disposal. The cost borne by the watch manufacturer, as in all
cases connection to the electricity network, and does not exceed 500.
How is offsetting the value of sold electricity bills with PPC?
The sales proceeds of all energy generated in the network, reducing the
amount of the total electricity bill will be presented to credit electricity bill and
collected by the main system. If the owner of the system is to manage the
building, then the system will be connected to the shared counter (clock) of
PPC and revenue collected by the trustee and distributed according to the
co-owners.
There are installers of solar systems?
The Ministry of Development will be based on the parameters of the technical
people involved in photovoltaics. The integration will be based on a simple
application, but in any case the certification is an important advantage of the
free market.
Is there adequate systems in the market?
Operating around 200 companies. It is important that it is implemented and 5
Greek production units with a production capacity of panels 200 MW.
There is a grant?
Nope. Price sold the electricity network (55 per KWh) is very favorable and
337
does not require grants. Moreover, in this way the citizen enters the process
of preparing documentation, evaluation, authorization, auditing, etc.

Photovoltaic power 400 MW by 2010

EOS and 400 MW is estimated to have reached an installed capacity of small


photovoltaic systems to be installed on roofs of buildings. According to
calculations by the relevant departments of the Ministry of Development,
coordinated by the Secretary-General responsible for Energy Kostis
Moussouroulis in principle goal is the installation of photovoltaic systems in
homes. This is because there are limitations associated with the ownership
and use of the roof of the flats, which are certainly at least the first phase
would create complications. Moreover due to the limited efficiency of these
systems is not feasible to meet the needs of all residents of an apartment
building and therefore provided that only one will be the owner of each
system and the connection to the case of apartment buildings will address
the shared clock.
However, given that the building stock of the country is estimated at about
3.2 million buildings, of which half are houses, it is estimated that by the end
of 2010 is feasible goal of positioning systems corresponding to
approximately 400 MW. This power represents a typical thermal power plant.
The program presented by Development Minister Costis Hatzidakis will be
activated in the summer they will be first published in the Gazette, the joint
decision of the Ministries of Economy, Public Works and Development.
According to Mr Hatzidakis this decision will be ready by the end of May. In
addition to preparation is the decision of the YPECHODE defining terms of
aesthetics, coverage issues insulation to avoid burdening the microclimate of
sites where you install these systems. Also, the decision of the Ministry will
not allow the installation of photovoltaic on a stairway ends in traditional
settlements and listed buildings, unless authorized by building special
conditions governing the settlements and the buildings are.

Without planning permission the installation of residential photovoltaic


The conditions for the long-awaited installation of solar roofs in buildings and
on land in unzoned areas signed late yesterday by the Ministry. Main point of
the two decisions opened the way for the implementation of small
investments in solar projects is that they require planning permission and
therefore becomes important time savings.
As I have said yesterday, the Ministry for the installation of small photovoltaic
systems on roofs of buildings and roofs only need a work permit small scale
to connect the systems with PPC such person shall furnish the certified land
use plan (topographical, housing plan). As for limitations, the main one is that
it is permitted to install solar onto the staircase or the elevator shaft. The
installation of solar should be within the volume of housing along the slope
and is half a meter from the edge of. If placed in a solar roof, you should be
338
delineated around the parapet of up to 1.20 m for aesthetic reasons.
As for the photovoltaic project in other areas, divided into three categories,
depending on the power:
- A photovoltaic power of less than 20 KW does not require building permits
(Instead carry out small-scale operations) and no restriction integrity of the
site
- In plants 20 - 150 KW, photovoltaics are installed only on buildable land
without planning permission
- On premises over 150 KW required building permit and even / developable
land.
Finally, as required by specific land for renewable energy sources (RES), the
installation of photovoltaic cells is not permitted in national parks, forests,
land of high productivity or regions with special status of land use, which
prohibit such egkatastaseis.Oi two decisions come in response Common
Ministerial Decision (JMD) for residential solar and small enterprises, signed
earlier this month. According to JMD, citizens wishing to install solar on the
roof of his house does not have to open books, to issue invoices, while being
taxed on income it gained from its operation. The person signing the
agreement to sell power to PPC and then auditing is off by PPC to the energy
consumption of each home's needs
Workshop: Chamber of Commerce Athens-PPC

The current status and future of the electricity market in Greece


Athens, February 11, 2009

The electricity market in Greece


Regulatory Framework, Competition and Security of Supply

Dr. Evangelos Lekatsa


Chairman of the Board HTSO

Twelve years after the entry into force of Directive 96/92/EC and eight years
after the theoretical release of the electricity market in our country realized
today that there was, until now, the real competition in the production and
supply of electricity to eligible customers only the passage of the 3175/2003
and 3426/2005 which are slightly modified by Law 2773/99. These laws
failed to rectify the shortcomings highlighted today by all sides, but were
designed to meet the varied interests associated with the monopolistic
structure of the electricity sector in Greece. In the summer of 2003,
Parliament passed the new Directive 2003/54/EC, which both repealed
Directive 96/92/EC and also created the conditions for accelerating the

339
process of liberalization of electricity markets in the European Union. In this
presentation analyzes the main problems arising from the requirements of
Directive 2003/54/EC and provides some thoughts on a rational rules that
can lead to an effective and undistorted functioning of the electricity market
in Greece. It should be noted here that the European Commission has
prepared the text of a new, third, a directive, which will replace the 2003/54.
The new Directive, which provides three ways of effective separation of
monopoly activities (transmission and distribution) from competitive
activities (production and marketing) has been discussed twice in the
Council of Ministers of energy and once in Parliament and almost ready to
be introduced to Parliament for final adoption.

It is important to understand that electrical systems have some unique


characteristics that can not be ignored when designing a new deregulated
market:
Electricity demand vary within¬ wide limits within the diurnal cycle, but also
within the yearly seasonal cycle. Since there is no economically viable
solution to the storage of large quantities of electricity required to meet
substantial power reserve margin to be always able to cover the varying
load. The current grid system of our country eg has an average load of
around 7500MW, but maintains an installed capacity of about 11700MW to
be able to face the summer because of air conditioning, peak of 10,500 to
11000MW, lasting little, less than 50 hours per year. It should be noted here
that the other is the value of power when the load exceeds 10000MW, so
the reserve margin is very small, and another, much smaller, the value of
power when the load is less than 5000 MW, ie when there is a large margin
of spare power available. (See Figure 0)
For most applications of¬ electricity as there is no substitute goods, the
cost of blackouts on the economy, public health and national security are
too big. This, in today's technological culture, we make the short-term basis
determined demand for electricity is highly inelastic good.
In addition to the inelasticity¬ of demand and possible supply of electricity
to depend on unpredictable factors such as weather conditions. This is
particularly great impact on systems which support the generation of a very
large proportion of the hydro and wind production.
The time required to install¬ new electrical generation capacity is very high
in recent years has grown more often because of excessive environmental
controls and restrictions imposed. In the best case, installing a new power
plant requires at least three years. If the decision is already taken when
construction prices in the electricity market have received warning that rising
no shortage of available power and therefore the system needs
strengthening, then the minimum period of three years is sufficient time to
indicate increases in prices and crisis, because tight power market.
¬ Finally, we note that electricity as a commodity is a homogeneous

340
product. This means that where, through a network has the same qualitative
characteristics (eg voltage and frequency) for all consumers regardless of
what is produced energy. So the competition between producers is limited
Σχ.0: Διακύμανση Φορτίου: Θέρος
only at the price of the product without quality criteria exist.
2007- Ιαν. 2009

I. ΘΕΜΑΤΑ ΑΓΟΡΑΣ

1. Το μοντέλο της Ελληνικής Αγοράς Ηλεκτρισμού

341
b1,Q1
In Greek
Π αραγω γοί
wholesale market for Electricity Participants:
Inject The Electricity System¬ Manufacturers and Importers.
¬ The Apomastefontes Electricity from the System Suppliers, Exporters and
Consumers Aftopromithefomenoi.

The Inject submitted for each hour the next day's offerings in the form of
pairs of MW Qi quantity and price in a bi € / MWh. These offers are
classified in ascending order, forming a stepped curve of total bids of the
injected Figure 2. It should be noted that injected into the system compete
with each other and this competition leads to the first selection of the
cheapest deals and also the formation of the System Marginal Price (OTS),
ie the price at which all transactions are in the wholesale market. On the
other hand Apomastefontes energy from the system to buy power OTS and
compete (in Lianemporiki market) trying to attract end users by offering
them with attractive tariffs. It is obvious that gradually these two markets will

ΧΟΝ
be interconnected in the sense that the OTS one will affect the rates offered

342
another.

The Daily Energy Planning (IEP) is the first stage of the wholesale market
and has designed the best 24-hour programming of units of production
system taking into account the available energy imports so as to cover a
daily basis) the demand electricity consumers, b) the demand for energy
exports from the country and c) to ensure the most economical way for the
necessary ancillary services. Through the wholesale market transactions
are made in all electricity and ancillary products thereof (Auxiliary Services)
to be produced, consumed, used and / or move the market in each hourly
period of the day.
Solving the IEP specifies how each unit for each hour of the day of
distribution, based on the daily, hour to hour, offers plants to maximize the
Social Surplus (sum of the surplus of the producer and consumer surplus in
Figure 2.) or, more simply, to minimize the total stated in the bidding of
injected, the cost of electricity incurred to satisfy the energy balance, the
need for ancillary services and constraints of the Transportation System
(see Figure 2) . The price at which cleared the purchase of energy required
IEP Price Limit System (OTS), resulting in algorithmic optimization of the
IEP and is a single price at which the suppliers buy energy they expect to
absorb the system and customers which, uniform price paid also injected
into the system manufacturers and importers. Calculate the OTS is shown
with very simplified way in Figure 2 below:

Please note that certain quantities of energy injected offered at zero price in
order to be sure the production and injection into the system. These offers
are called Non-priced offers (MTP) and is usually the amount of energy from
renewables, mandatory Hydroelectric Production, Technical few thermal
units and imports.
Then, the System established by the relevant program of load distribution
units in the system and, based on the program, which can be adjusted
depending on the conditions of the system and availability of production
units in real time gives the necessary mandates for energy production and
provide the necessary ancillary services by plants. In this second phase are
recorded for each unit and each hourly allocation period, the amount of
energy (MWh) that would produce each unit under the command of
distribution, the amount of energy (MWh) actually produce each unit as
recorded in the corresponding energy meters, and the quantities of ancillary
services (MW) provided by each unit as recorded by the System Manager
Energy Control System.
The final phase of the wholesale market include the subsequent liquidation
of the deviation of the market within the calculated limit value of the
deviation (OTA). The OTA estimated a posteriori, taking into account for
343
each hour of allocation, the actual produced ischeis production units, the
actual state of the transmission and the actual load of consumers in the
system.
2. Login wholesale and Lianemporikis market.

In the wholesale market is competition between Inject (producers and


importers). This occurs every time, OTS from this market is expected to
show large variations between the hours of the night minimum load and
peak time (noon in summer and night in winter). These variations of OTS
both reflect the fact that during the peak load used more and more
expensive, in terms of variable cost units and the other reflecting the fact
that during the peak load (peak) running out of room available capacity in
the system. Therefore reflect the relative poverty of the good supply
electricity. In a well-designed wholesale market fluctuations such OTS (eg
between 20 € / MWh during the hours minimum and 140 € / MWh at peak
times) are normal and expected.

In Lianemporiki market Apomastefontes Manufacturers and Exporters buy


electricity from the wholesale market in the OTS in order to resell the
selected users or to export. It is obvious that the Lianemporiki market
competition among suppliers is at their offerings to consumers through
appropriate, depending on the consumption behavior of each category of
consumer tariffs. In this case, namely Lianemporikis market, competition
among suppliers will be to offer alternative pricing proposals (menu) to
consumers. It is important to note here that both the repealed Directive
96/92/EC and the current Directive 2003/54/EC speak for Eligible
Consumers and not for select suppliers or manufacturers.

It is known that consumers do not want to be exposed to sharp fluctuations


(hourly or seasonal) of OTS (see Fig.3). If however some consumers decide
to take that risk then they have the right to become Suppliers of themselves
by buying electricity on the OTS directly, ie without the mediation
intermediate supplier-the wholesale market (see horizontal hashed
aftopromithefomeno consumer in Figure 1). From this premise that
competing in Lianemporiki Market Vendors should provide consumers with
pricing proposals (menu) such that both are not much more expensive than
the average OTS and to be sufficiently larger than the average of the OTS
to ensure a net fair reward for the risks they (the suppliers) take to the
consumer.

In a mature market Lianemporiki should therefore expect that offered


consumer tariffs will automatically average price of OTS. The two words,
markets are interdependent.

344
It has been shown internationally that if the two markets are interconnected,
that can, under certain conditions lead to disastrous results. In a fully
competitive wholesale market, and its tariffs Lianemporikis Market
management and long-term fixed at constant prices, an increasing disorder
in the wholesale market price eg due to increases in fuel prices, when they
transferred to Lianemporiki market could lead to bankruptcy of the suppliers
involved in Lianemporiki Market. At the same time does not give a
consumer a signal of a crisis (see this California).

In Greece, the monopoly, the normal as a point of trying to maintain its


monopoly in the market can not, despite its dominance, while preventing the
entrance of new Inject (manufacturers or importers) and new entry
Apomastefonton (exporters or suppliers) of electricity. OTS high prices will
create space for new entrants Inject while hindering the survival of suppliers
Lianemporiki market. Unlike low prices OTS will make it impossible for entry
and survival of new producers in the wholesale market while creating
opportunities for suppliers to many flowering Lianemporiki market. Precisely
for this reason the values of OTS will tend gradually as the market matures,
the intermediate level that reflects the actual cost of electricity in the country
and allow the survival and the new producers and new suppliers .

In Greece, however, while the wholesale market is rudimentary with a


dominant presence (covering over 90% market share) integrated, the former
monopoly company, which controls entirely the OTS and the Lianemporiki
market remains 100% monopoly on invoices , therefore, studied and
proposed by the Regulatory Authority and approved by the minister
responsible development without taking into account fluctuations in the
wholesale market OTS. That the two markets are interrelated, while none of
them was sufficiently liberalized.

To remedy these shortcomings and mature wholesale, but the market


should Lianemporiki:

Regulated tariffs inϖ Lianemporiki Market include:


• A clause depending on the level of wholesale market prices, whether out
of fuel prices, or described by mean are shaped, daily and hourly basis, the
System Marginal Price or, more generally, the average declared, basis of
tenders, the Tender Cost of injected (see eskiasmeno area in Figure 2). Let
us note here that the adoption of nutrient Cost of tender injected as a basis
for determining a clause in the regulated tariffs Lianemporikis Market, would
create an incentive for the monopoly (dominant) Company to abandon its
policy of expansion of other competitive non-priced bids and to reveal how
this actual cost of producing electricity in the country.

345
• The cost of monopoly and thus regulated the activities of the Transmission
and Distribution
• Marketing costs plus a reasonable profit of Suppliers
To realized a long program ofϖ establishment of modern cash hourly
measurements. Hourly measurements will allow the creation of hourly
billings by which the market would pass to consumers directly to the
appropriate signal to the latter, if they choose such a pricing, be pushed to
more rational use and reduce demand during times of peak.
To introduce tariffs to protectϖ producers and suppliers, consumers
against fluctuations in the OTS.
To provide an analysis of theϖ variable cost component of the energy
produced by source of primary energy sources.

3. The Value of Power

The original design of the wholesale market in Greece has not provided a
payment of production beyond the remuneration of injected energy in OTS.
It is known however that electricity is a product which is consumed at the
same time produced. This instant consumption of this product are given
special (instantaneous) value not only to itself the power (in MWh), but in
power (MW) which is available to ensure the validity and the necessary
spare capacity to have continuous supply of safe consumption.

The lack of specific provision for payment of the power available in both the
original Act 2773/99 and the Original code administration and Power
Exchange resulted in a long passive investment rather than the observed
abundance of applications and licensing production to construction. By law
3175/2003 was a first attempt to remedy this problem. Article 23 § 10 of that
Act provided that the offers of producers would "reflect" not now "to the
variable cost of units," but "at least the variable cost of units. Hoped that this
way the producers will give values greater than the variable cost of the units
to cover part or in whole, the fixed investment cost is the cost of power. In
the international literature has shown that where there is competition, bids
are pushed down is made to the variable cost of units.

In Greece today were not created ripe conditions for competition, but the
formerly vertically integrated firm to prevent entry of new producers make
daily offerings to the variable cost of units so as to produce low OTS.
Therefore, the change in the law 3175/2003 was successful. This, when it
became apparent in 2004, led the RAE to propose the establishment of an
interim mechanism to recover the value of the power available with the
introduction of evidence available capacity (ADI). In each ADI by decree,
was given initial value of 35.000 € / MW-year. Each supplier is required to
have sufficient ADI to meet the needs of its customers. The ADI will

346
purchase from the producers, who thus will receive the value of the ADI.
The establishment of the ADI in the original price of 35.000 € / MW-year,
created from 2006 onwards, an interest of investors. Furthermore, tendered
HTSO for the construction of the first units of the combined cycle natural
gas as provided by law 3175/2003.

The mechanism of tax effect of ADI is the main disadvantage of a


mechanism for collecting money on an annual basis, while the wholesale
electricity market is a market that operates on an hourly basis. For this
reason a mechanism that can express the power shortage that may occur in
the system for a few hours one day or for a specific seasonal period. It is
therefore evident that the stability of the price to 35.000 € / MW-year and
created some appropriate signals to producers for new investment,
however, yielded no similar incentive to consumers to reduce their
consumption during the peak hours so The problem of power shortage.

This leads to the conclusion that it is necessary, apart from the introduction
of 35000 € / MW-year (or 70000 € / MW-year in the newly established units
for flexible edge) to establish and further back-up power market mechanism
by which it becomes an hourly basis, the power shortage and given the
appropriate signal to the side of consumption.

II THE WEAKNESSES OF THE MODEL OF MARKET

The model developed Market summarized above, apart from the problem of
the value of the force that created the problem of long-term investment
standstill, there are some other fundamental weaknesses:

1. Offers Not priced

There is a wide range of power (which can reach up to 5800MW, see Figure
4) provided a daily priority, ie outside competition. Tenders were invited to
the Code Management System Non-priced deals. In fact it offers equivalent
power zero (see Figures 2 and 4)
Energy from renewables (mostly wind) should be consumed immediately
because the storage would be cost effective. For this to happen with
certainty, the energy supply from RES as not invoiced is Offer, ie, offered at
zero price.
Similarly to zero offered by Compulsory Hydroelectric Production (due to
irrigation and irrigation needs or due to flood risk) and the Technical
Minimum Thermal non-flexible plants, given the weakness of these units to
cease their operation during night-time minimum load.
Finally a zero value offered amounts imported energy as importers have
already acquired rights to interconnector transmission lines and entered into
binding contracts with manufacturers - Suppliers abroad.
347
The introduction of non-priced bids (MTP) is required by the Code
Administration and Power Exchange, but has so far not implemented the
priced Bid led to excesses. As shown in Figure 4, the non-priced Bids, in
some cases reached a total of 5800 MW by setting this way most of the
energy demand outside the competition!
Besides the arbitrary change from time to time "Mandatory Water" has other
implications as shown in Figure 4. Suppose that at some time with load Lo
and Mn priced offers MTPo we Otsu threshold and even the next hour that
are not priced offers increased (MTP1> MTPo) due to increases in
"Mandatory Water. Then, despite the fact that the load increases in L1> Lo
the resulting OTS less OTS1 <Otsu. The phenomenon of greater load to
shorten the System Marginal Price is - therefore - common in the Greek
market and shows that there is a possibility, which manages the water to
manipulate the limit.
From the above analysis of non-priced Bid concluded that, initially, it is
necessary to reduce the "Mandatory Water 'to what is Mandatory and the
reduction of the Minimum Technical Thermal Units, or change the codes by
removing the concept Technical Least of thermal units by creating tough
competition with bids accepted even below cost during the hours of
minimum load, as in many other markets. We must also consider whether it
would be preferable imports to be paid not to the OTS, but

the bid price (pay as bid), which will heal over more severe problem of non-
priced Bid.
Finally, a second phase, when production from renewables has become
very large, should revise the code so, and the production of renewable
energies is the basis of competition ie priced deals.

2. The asymmetries of the Market

Greek Market Power beyond the asymmetry is due to the existence of a


very large dominant production company and a few are currently too small
competing companies (see Sch.5) are created and other collateral problems
strevlonounton competition

348
€/MWh

CAP
One of the problems created by the fact that each of the small
companies is a unit of a disguised technology (eg combined or
Open Cycle Natural Gas), while the dominant firm has numerous
production units with a wide variety of technologies and fuels
(lignite, oil, natural gas, hydropower, etc.). To understand the
349
advantage of dominant companies over small competitors we
believe in Figure 6, two points A and B, of which A has low variable
costs, and B has a relatively high variable costs so that it is usually
limit plant.

Under the rules of the wholesale market and two points A and B will
pay in the OTS. As is readily apparent from Figure 6, Unit B,
marginal unit, receives the value offered by this system to electricity,
which covers the variable costs of assuming the offer is exactly
what the cost. So this unit has room to recover investment costs
and a profit and gain. Instead, the unit A, with low variable costs
equal to the bid, which forms the unpaid-OTS-a surplus sufficient to
cover not only the variable and fixed costs plus profit. If the points A
and B are the same company then a portion of the profit of the unit
A can be used to subsidize the unit B to be covered and fixed cost.

The conclusion drawn from this analysis is that the company has
numerous production units of various technologies has the potential
to subsidize the excess of low-cost variable cost base units, high
variable cost units. Instead, a production company with a single unit,
or more than one, but the same technology units do not have that
option.
This shortcoming can be remedied in two ways. Whether the
measures and incentives for small competitors to gain a similar
range as those plants or forcing the dominant firm to separate
accounts of the plants in a manner that will prevent cross-subsidies
between them.
Finally, it should be noted here that in all the countries which tried to
liberalize the electricity market, asymmetric measures taken to
reduce the initial intrinsic asymmetry in the electricity sector.

1. Issue price of gas


There is a disparity in the offers units with natural gas fuel to an
extent undermined the normal order of precedence of units based
on the degree of their reimbursement. The following table F.A units
of the Greek system are listed in order of increasing degree of
efficiency, or decreasing order of specific fuel consumption.
But the offers of units in the daily market are such that the order is
reversed (see Figure 7). The distortion must partly be due to
different price for the natural gas units and partly to the different
behavior of commercial producers

350
Συσχέτιση Δηλούμενων Προσφορών στον ΗΕΠ και ΕΚΚ
120,0000
Δηλούμενη Προσφορά ΗΕΠ σε €/MWh σε

100,0000

80,0000

60,0000

40,0000

20,0000

0,0000
0,00 2,00 4,00 6,00 8,00 10,00 12,00
Σχ. 7: Ειδική Κατανάλωση Καυσίμου σε GJ/MWh

In the first case the differences in prices for natural gas should be limited so
as not to lead to such distortions. For example, if a generator of electricity is
the prime natural gas purchase contract should be taken to streamline the
contract dispute, either through full liberalization F. Gas, or, if that is not
directly applicable, by imposing administrative measures on the natural gas
monopolist that he would provide the natural gas at the same price to all
producers of electricity. In the second case must be explored trading
behavior of participating producers so as not to favor situations of market
manipulation or distortion of competition.
A measure neutralization of both reasons of market distortion is any plant
considered to be a separate cost center to reflect the total cost, the
investment costs and fuel costs, operation and maintenance. From this
analysis it appears that the revenue from the Daily participation in energy
planning and revenue from the evidence are available, the drive power is

351
sufficient to cover these costs, or if a natural gas plant subsidized by
"cheaper" units of the same manufacturer.

4. Managing water resources

Often in the past Done supply large quantities of hydro designated as


"Mandatory Water. The drought of 2007 has helped to demonstrate that the
"Mandatory Water" may be substantially less (eg no one complained when,
due to the depletion of stocks in the lakes decreased significantly the
"Mandatory Water").

Also observed the phenomenon offers are made at a price below those of
peak thermal units thus are led to wastage of water resources. We need to
establish the possibility of a trigger (24-hour) reduction in energy intake of
water resources to cure the problem.

5. Import-Export

Imports, to meet long-term projects that have been agreed and based on
the trading market, interconnections are made with zero. This method
allowed for a (mostly in the summer of 2007) while imports are costing more
and the maximum permissible value (CAP) offers the Greek market (150 € /
MWh) were on no, do not create Limit Pricing System hurting realized these
imports, and it gave the right signal to the daily wholesale market, and
suppliers - Consumers, namely Lianemporiki Market. We must consider the
possibility that the imported quantities of electricity sold in the daily market
price of their offer (pay as bid). If this is flawed or is not desirable from a
regulatory perspective, then, alternatively, should be introduced that offers
imported quantities will not have a value less than the price paid by the
importer abroad. In this case you should describe the procedures for
verification of that claim.

As for exports should be noted that the last 2 years due to very tight
production tools, the System Operator is obliged at certain times not to allow
exports for safe operation of the system. The administration, however, the
export ban is inconsistent with the EU's objective to establish a single
internal electricity market. The correct solution would be to tight production
facilities in the Greek system to speak with an increased price limit system
in order to avoid any interest to buy electricity from the Greek market in
order to export.
352
6. Minimum Specifications

Large thermal units (mainly steam turbine) of the Greek system can not
produce stable with an output below a threshold. This limit is called the
Minimum Technical Unit. These same units have the flexibility to switch
when the system load is high, and off when the load is low. Based on the
above describe certain of these units, the night when the load is low, forced
to produce the technical minimum power despite antioikonomikotita
function. This raises the issue of the Technical Minimum. This problem has
many aspects to be reviewed in conjunction with the problem of integration
of available units in the Daily Energy Planning (Unit Commitment). This
trend should be towards the competitive intensity and therefore stronger
variation of the System Marginal Price (OTS) between the hours of low and
high load hours. Sharp decline, for example, OTS noted in low-load hours in
the Italian system so the night be unwarranted imports from Italy and further
exacerbate the least technical of the Greek System.

7. EIA Units

The state, through a series of laws (2244/94, 3468/2006 ....) and to promote
environmentally acceptable units of Renewable Energy, both units were
excluded from the daily competition by allowing them to pre- all units of
other technologies (Non-priced offerings) and also established special
preferential market prices of energy produced from renewables (eg 80 € /
MWh for wind power and 450 € / MWh for solar), while on the third
introduced further motivated by subsidized programs.

8. UPLIFT

All plants involved in the Greek electricity market receive 35.000 € / MW and
year for each MW of available force. With 10.000 MW available in the
system, the amount paid by suppliers annually for this purpose is the order
of 350 million € / year. This amount does not appear in public during the
liquidation of the wholesale market and would normally create an additional
amount (UPLIFT) to be added to the OTS. Generally, any additional
amounts in nature (UPLIFT) created (eg due to pricing of renewable energy
in a predetermined management fixed price) would increase the final OTS.
353
Otherwise, the OTS does not mirror the actual cost of production and does
not give a real signal to consumers to reduce their consumption and
investors to build new plants in the system.

III LEGAL FRAMEWORK

The current legal framework for liberalizing the electricity market based
primarily on the Law 2773/99, which established under Directive 96/92/EC.
The Directive 96/92/EC modified but not repealed by Directive 2003/54/EC
later. Downstream of Directive 2003/54/EC, Laws 3175/2003 and
3426/2005 is not abolished, as were, Law 2773/99, but:

• the amendment in a few spots to adapt it to only some of the requirements


of the new Directive 2003/54/EC.
• left unchanged concepts that existed in Directive 96/92/EC but is
incompatible with the newer Directive 2003/54/EC. Result of this is to
remain in the Greek concepts such as laws the term "autoproducer" which is
now incompatible with the current EU law.
• integrating the predicted HTSO Manager Distribution Network - an
integration that have been done by July 1, 2007 but was never even
discussed to materialize.
• institutionalize the participation of PPC forever equity HTSO by 49%
(whereas the original Law 2773/99 provided for a gradual reduction of this
rate as new producers enter the market).

That said, should, whatever final form it will take the 3rd package for the
Liberation of Market Power, to become as soon as possible following
legislative changes:

1. Eliminate the definitions were in 96/92/EC and transferred to the Greek


law 2773/99, 3175/2003 and 3468/2006, etc. and there is the Directive
2003/54/EC, which completely abolished 96/92/EC.
2. To ensure the independence of DESMIE from PPC to adhere to the
provisions of Directive 2003/54/EC and repealing forever participation of
PPC in 49% of the share capital of the Hellenic Transmission System
Operator.
3. To review the rules of law 3426/2005 which provides for the integration of
the Hellenic Transmission System Operator Distribution Network.
4. The System Operator must have financial independence and self-reliance
and have the necessary human and financial resources and adequate
facilities for maintenance and expansion of the transmission so that it can
fulfill its tasks as described in Directive 2003/54 / EC.
5. Correct the Codes towards the restoration of the System Marginal Price
at the proper and correct fluctuating price levels to reflect the true marginal
cost of production system in each hourly period. Highlights: Besides the
354
issues of imports, Water Management, Technical and Least UPLIFT,
mentioned above, should be specified and handled Aichmiakon Units, which
must be integrated into the Grid system, without causing major distortions in
the energy market.
6. To establish the relationship between regulated tariffs and market
lianemporikis OTS and to distinguish between tariffs on key components
(Clause Production Cost + UPLIFT + Transport + Distribution + Marketing)
to be transparent the costs of monopoly segments of the transportation and
distribution.

IV. PROCEDURAL MATTERS

1. The new draft law should include all articles of the Directive 2003/54/EC,
followed by the corresponding articles of the draft. This will ensure the
completeness of the transposition into Greek law. Any failure to transpose
the directive of an article in the draft law could be justified.

2. After thus transposing Directive 2003/54/EC on the bill will be added to


bill the articles mentioned in article removal or maintenance of the existing
laws now 2773/99 (eg Article 34 on security personnel PPC to be
maintained in the new law) since the removal or retention is consistent and
compatible with the spirit of Directive 2003/54/EC.

3. Finally, the new draft law should be independent text that the reader has
no need to back to older existing laws.

4. Should the market trends to be monitored continuously with the


introduction of various indicators with which to monitor the degree of
conformity of the electricity sector to the requirements of Directive
2003/54/EC.

A major indicator of the degree of liberalization a market index, Herfindahl -


Hirschman Index (HHI) index is defined as the sum of squared market
shares of all players competing this. In the case of absolute monopoly owns
100% of a market then this indicator takes the maximum value, ie 1002 =
10,000

In practice the market is:


Monopolistic where IHI = 10,000ϖ
too concentrated when IHIϖ > 5000
Centralized when IHIϖ > 1800
Sufficiently competitive whenϖ 1000 <IHI ≤ 1.800 and

355
Fully competitive when IHI ≤ϖ 1.000

The index is Herfindahl - Hirschman for the wholesale market in Greece has
been calculated in the above table for 2007.

With an index Herfindahl - Hirschman 8301 equal to the wholesale electricity


market in Greece is too centralized. To diminish this index below 5000
(which is to begin to define the release) will be the largest player in the
market, reducing its stake from 90.96% to 70% (where 702 = 4900). To this
end, measures to contain the currently existing unequal situation.
Also noted that even worse is the situation in the field of Lianemporikis
Market (retail market) where, despite the fact that 100% of consumers from
1.7.2007, Eligible Consumers, PPC still has 99.9% market (HHI ~ 10000).

Athens, February 2009


AGORA_ILEKTRISMOU_EVEA_FEV_2009.doc

Light on the mystery of the construction of the pyramids?

The MIT team building experimental model pyramid to verify the theory of
cement
It is a theory that causes indigestion in dominant class of archaeologists.
Argues that some of the huge boulders of large pyramids of Egypt may have
made from synthetic material, the first concrete history. Do not have a say
latomithei and have put in place by armies of manufacturers. Such a
breakthrough will save millions of tiring worker-hours are supposed to go
into the construction of the enigmatic buildings on the Plateau of Giza.
"It may be used less sweat and more brains," said Linn W. Hobbs, professor
of materials science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "Maybe
the ancient Egyptians were not only left us mysterious monuments and
mummies. You found cement, 2,000 years ago to begin to use the Roman
building projects they did."

356
This is an idea that could change dramatically in the history of science of
engineering. Believed for a long time that the Romans were the first to use
cement in building large scale, although such technology is likely to come
from the Greeks. A team of scientists performing material experiments with
pieces of limestone and natural materials association materials should be
readily accessible to the ancient Egyptians. The experiments are designed
to show that the boulders on the highest points of the pyramids may have
been there from a fluid material channeled into wooden molds.

In the MIT Hobbs and two colleagues teach a course on materials used by
humans throughout history. During the years of work, undergraduate
students have the program rebuild from rubble articles like Samurai swords,
bells of Middle America and yet it enjoys a 18-meter bridge constructed of
plant fibers such as those manufactured by the Incas. Now in the laboratory
of Hobbs made a model of a pyramid on a small scale, a structure
composed of limestone latomimeno and artificial boulders made of materials
like cement and mud from the broken limestone that has been enriched with
kaolinite (mineral derived from weathering of feldspar, hydrated aluminum
silicate), silica and natural desert salts like those used by ancient Egyptians
for mummification.

The MIT pyramid will contain only about 280 blocks, compared with 2.3
million who make up the largest of the pyramids. The material resembles
the original gel, but eventually becomes hard like rock. Although the
purpose of the seminar in which the pyramid is constructed to learn the
science of innovation in engineering, the project can demonstrate that the
ancient, at least theoretically, could have built the blocks of the pyramids of
similar material, which could be purchased from dried river beds, desert
sand and quarries .. "Too much too swollen and too many published
research based on the idea that every boulder is carved the pyramid and
not prepared." Manufacturers of Giza koniortopoiousan soft limestone and
mixed with water, hardening the material with natural binders, it was known
that the Egyptians used for the famous blue shiny decorative statuettes
manufactured. Such blocks could have been put in place by workers
pouring wet cement on top of the pyramid, a much less impressive picture of
what is known through Hollywood epic films such as 'Ten Commandments'
noisy misbehaving half naked with thousands of workers to toil with loops,
ropes and rollers to move the giant carved rocks. The Barsoum, professor of
materials engineering, said microscope, the radiographic and chemical
analysis zest stone from the pyramids "suggest that a small but significant
percentage of blocks at the highest points of the pyramids were made from
concrete." He insisted that it believes that the majority of blocks of the
pyramid of Cheops were carved as the archaeologists claim. But 10 or 20
percent of blocks were probably made from some kind of cement, where it

357
was extremely difficult to put in full sculptured boulders.

To illuminate the place where they worked, the Egyptians used a system of
shiny plates: they functioned as mirrors, reflecting the rays of the sun.

From the material it was made concluded that the Egyptians probably did
not know how mirrors are made. The plates should be well-polished
material, for example, bronze. A funeral objects found many bronze pieces
that were used as mirrors. Used were also torches that burn oil, which are
removed upon completion of work.
The Pyramids of Giza
Year Built: 2528 BC
Of the seven wonders of the world, only the pyramids of Giza are up to
these days. " Although it has damaged much of the white limestone of the
shell and the surrounding temples were destroyed completely, the height
and size of these huge buildings still impress visitors. The building is
considered one of the greatest achievements in history, and so far the
methods used by ancient craftsmen for the construction of this issue is
causing much controversy. Indeed there are more than 80 pyramids in
Egypt have been built in a period of about 1000 years, but those of Giza are
the largest and most representative because of the stability of their
construction. The Pyramids of Giza were built by three kings of the 4th
Dynasty, by Khufu (aka Cheops), the Khafre (Chephren), and Menkaure
(Mycerinus). The Pyramid of Khufu (2551-2528 BC) is the largest and best
known as the Great Pyramid. For over 4000 years was the tallest
construction in the world

358
. Each pyramid was placed in a fenced area with a temple on the east side.
There was even a temple near the river, which is connected to one another
in a long trail decorated with various reliefs

359
Preparations for the selected location
Very important was the choice of a suitable site for the construction of each
church. The location of Giza apparently chosen because of its strategic
position of the valley Nilou (west side), where the West is the sunset and
death. Moreover, the limestone used in the shell, providing a solid result for
the massive expense of building and also has plenty of material for the
manufacture of solid core. Work on site started in selected infrastructure
projects (excavations, soil formation, etc.). The Egyptians appear to have
used simple tools such as spirit levels on the square smoothing the ground
and thread level. With these tools were able to obtain highly accurate: the
level of the sidewalk around the pyramid of Cheops differs by only 2 cm.
Although the area around the base of the pyramid, dug back and forth to the
feeling of another level, the natural stone inside the perimeter was left intact
to form a solid nucleus at the lower of the tomb.
When the foundation was ready, could begin construction of an exact
square which was the base of the pyramid. Each pyramid was carefully
aligned so that the sides to "see" with the four main orientations. Initially, the
east as the west side was aligned to the north with the help of
constellations. The