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BULETINUL TIINIFIC

AL
UNIVERSITII TEHNICE
DE CONSTRUCII
BUCURETI

NR.3/2008

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CUPRINS
STUDII
Informatizarea sistemului de management al calitii, propunerea unei aplicaii
soft Planul de control al calitii execuiei - Ana Alexandra Galan --------------------------- 4
Raionarea geotehnic a unui perimetru din zona Slatina - Simona Opriescu --------------11
Consideraii privind fora remanent la manevrarea macazurilor cu ace flexibile
Stelian Potoac-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 23
Asupra cinematicii micrii plane a solidului rigid Mihail Alexandrescu,
Mina Denisa Fono, Emil Alexandrescu---------------------------------------------------------------- 30
Rezultate de ncredere ale ncercrilor pentru determinarea rezistenei
termomecanice a epruvetelor din aliajul al 6061 - Indira Alexandrescu ------------------------ 42
Reducerea emisiilor la motoarele ecologice pentru camioane si utilaje
de constructii (II) Laureniu Srbu------------------------------------------------------------------- 48
Consideratii privind folosirea facilitatilor GIS in estimarea vulnerabilitatii
acviferelor - Daniel Dogeanu---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 56
Unele aspecte privind etapele de dezvoltare ale unei aplicaii de cadastru
general i carte funciar - Ana Cornelia Badea ------------------------------------------------------ 65
O nou soluie pentru limitarea polurii apelor subterane - Nicolae Ioan Alboiu,
Ioan Bica, Alexandru Dimache -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 75

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

Informatizarea sistemului de
management al calitii, propunerea
unei aplicaii soft Planul de control
al calitii execuiei.

Computerization of the Quality


Management System, Proposal for a
Software
Application
Named
Control Plan of Execution Quality

Dana Alexandra Galan - manager calitate S.C.SOMMERING INSTAL S.R.L.

O zon important din activitatea de realizare a


unei lucrari de instalaii pentru construcii o
reprezint activitatea de execuie, care poate fi
controlat numai parial printr-un program de
genul celor existente, de aceea n cadrul tezei se
va prezenta un program special conceput pentru
asigurarea i controlul calitii execuiei.Acest
lucru nseamn aplicarea cerinelor sistemului
de management al calitii la nivelul acestui
proces esenial n activitatea unei ntreprinderi
de instalaii pentru construcii.

An important area in the activity of performing


a work of installations for constructions is
represented by the execution activity, which
can be controlled only partially by a program.
For this reason, as part of the dissertation, a
program will be presented, specially conceived
for providing and controlling the quality of
execution. This fact means the application of
the requirements of the Quality Management
System at the level of this essential process in
the activity of a building enterprise.

Pentru un control eficient, am conceput baza de


date reprezentnd analiza unei lucrri de
execuie a instalaiilor (Sanitare, Termice,
Electrice, i Reele exterioare) pe faze de
lucrri, avnd drept scop realizarea unui
program n colaborare cu Matrixrom, care a
elaborat partea de programare, pentru
elaborarea Planurilor de control al calitii
lucrrilor, sub forma unui soft-ware.
Programul realizat are ca baz procesul de
planificare, urmrire i control a fazelor de
execuie, adic ntocmirea i urmrirea planului
de control al calitii lucrrilor executate.
Dar programul conceput are n meniu mai mult
dect realizarea planului de control al calitii,
acesta furnizeaz i datele de identificare ale
lucrrii, adica :

For an efficient control, I conceived the data


base that represents the analysis of a work of
installation execution (Sanitary, Thermal,
Electrical and External Networks) by stages of
work, having the purpose of accomplishment
of a program in cooperation with Matrixrom,
which realized the programming part for the
elaboration of the Plan of control of works
quality, as a software.
The program is based on the planning,
following up and control process of the
execution phases, i.e. the drawing up and
following up of the plan of control of the
quality of the executed works.
But the accomplished program has in its menu
more than the accomplishment of the quality
control plan.
It furnishes,
the work
identification data i.e.:

-Denumire lucrare;
-Amplasament;
-Beneficiar;
-Unitatea executanta;
-Proiectantul;
-etc.

Programul poate prezenta o lucrare, sau toate


lucrrile n curs de execuie realizate n cadrul
organizaiei.

The program may present one work, or all


works in execution carried out within the
organization.

Name of work;
Location;
Beneficiary;
Contractor;
Designer;
etc.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

n fiierele existente, constituite ca baz de


date se poate interveni prin adugarea sau
excluderea diverselor faze care nu sunt
adaptabile lucrrii n curs.

Furthermore, within an objective, named in the


program Cards, it is possible to carry out
quality plans for the activity of execution of
sanitary,
electrical,
thermal-ventilation
installations, or water-sewerage external
networks, files which exist in the data base, or
they can be realized for any installation
specialty (automatic control, feeble currents,
cold), for which specific execution stages may
be set up.
In the existing files, created as a data base, one
might intervene by adding or excluding
various stages that are not adaptable to the
current work.

n exemplul de mai jos prezint programul pe


scurt.

In the example below I succinctly present the


program.

1. Se selecteaz una din ramurile din arbore.

1. One of the branches of the tree is selected.

n programul creat pot exista fiiere care se


refera la una sau mai multe lucrri

In the created program files related to one or


more works may exist.

2.Pentru fiecare lucrare iniiata, care urmeaz a


fi controlat cu ajutorul programului, se
creeaz un fiier separat :

2. For each initiated work, which is to be


controlled by means of the program, a
separate file is created:

De asemenea n cadrul unui obiectiv, denumit


n program Fie, se pot realiza planuri ale
calitii pentru activitatea de execuie instalaii
sanitare, electrice, termo- ventilaii sau reele
exterioare apa-canal, fiiere care exist n baza
de date, sau se pot realiza pentru orice
specialitate de instalaii (automatizri, cureni
slabi, frig ), pentru care se pot stabili fazele de
execuie specifice.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

Fiecare lucrare de execuie poate avea la baz


un proiect pentru fiecare specialitate din
domeniul instalaiilor, iar pentru fiecare
specialitate exist un fiier n program care
este denumit plan de control al calitii
lucrrilor executate, n domeniul instalaiilor
specialitatea
3.Se introduce numele noului plan dup care
se selecteaz din planul model tipul de
formular corespunzator.
Acesta poate fi oricare din planurile deja
create sau se poate crea un plan de la zero.

Each execution work may be based on a


project for each specialty in the field of
installations, and for each specialty there is a
file in the program named control plan of
the quality of the executed works, in the field
of (specialty) installations

Daca se elaboreaza un plan nou, cu activitati


total diferite de cele prevazute in planurile
model se selecteaza optiunea Creare plan
nou:

If a new plan is elaborated, with its activities


fully different from those provided in the
sample plans, the New plan creation option
is selected:

3.The name of the new plan is entered and then


the suitable form type is selected from the
sample plan.
This can be any of the already created plans or a
plan that can be created by starting from zero.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

4.n cmpul planurilor se adaug pe rnd


fiecare operaie/faz prin apsarea butonului
<Adugare_ Operaie>, sau Diferitele operaii
existente se pot modifica apsnd butonul
<Modifica Operaie>

4.In the field of the plans, each


operation/stage is added in turn by pressing
the button <Add_Operation>, or the varied
existing operations may be modified by
pressing the button <Change operation>

La coloana nregistrri vor fi selectate tipurile


de procese verbale care s-au completat pentru
respectiva faz de execuie, denumit n
program operaie

In the recordings column the types of protocols


that were filled in for the relevant execution
stage, named in the program operation, will
be selected

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

Tipurile de procese verbale sunt toate introduse


n program ca baz de date la rapoarte
nregistrri ( ca n imaginea de mai sus ).
5.Se completeaz toate cmpurile considerate
necesare pentru nregistrarea unei operaii.

n cazul Rapoartelor daca se selecteaz una


din cele patru existente se va modifica
cmpul "Cale Proces Verbal", pentru ca
acesta s fie n conformitate cu tipul
procesului.
6.Daca se dorete modificarea uneia dintre
operaii/faze, se acioneaz n zona ce se
gsete la intersecia dintre coloana NrCrt i
linia rezervat operaiei pe care dorii s o
modificai. Apoi se selecteaz butonul
<Modifica Operaie>. n noua fereastr se
recompleteaz cmpurile dorite i se apas
butonul <Modifica>.
La fel se procedeaz i n cazul n care se
doreste tergerea unei operaii, diferena
const doar n selectarea butonului <terge
Operaie> n locul butonului <Modifica
Operaie>. Odat finalizat forma planului
de control se acioneaz butonul <nchide
Fereastra>.
Astfel o data elaborate planurile calitii i
completate cu toate procesele verbale
nregistrate, se asigura cerinta de planificare
a activitatii de executie .

The types of protocols are all entered in the


program as a data base for the recordings
report (as in the image above
5. All the fields deemed necessary for the
registration of an operation are filled in.

In the case of the Reports, if one of the four


existing ones is selected, the field Protocol
Way will be modified, so that the latter
should be consistent with the type of the
protocol.
6.
If the change of one of the
operations/stages is desired, action is to be
taken in the area located at the crossing
between the column Crt. No. and the line
reserved for the operation you wish to modify.
Then the button <Change Operation> is
selected. In the new window the desired fields
are filled in and the button <Change> is
pushed.
The same procedure is used when an operation
is to be deleted. The difference is only made by
the selection of the button <Delete Operation>
instead of the button <Change Operation>. Once
the form of the control plan is finished, the button
<Close Window> is pushed.
As such, once the quality plans are elaborated and
added with all the recorded protocols, the execution
activity planning requirement is fulfilled

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

Schema de prezentare a programului Planul de control al calitii lucrarilor


executate
Start

Initializare
lucrare noua

Iniializare aplicaie
-Denumire obiectiv executie.
-Precizare date referitoare la : beneficiar, destinaie imobil,
amplasament, proiectant, etc.

Creearea
fisierelor tip
pentru planurile
calitii

-Se introduce numele noului plan,dupa care se selecteaza


din planul model tipul de formular corespunzator.
-In funcie de lucrare, se completeaza cate un plan al
calitii, pentru fiecare specialitate de instalatii.

Completare
procese
verbale de
receptie lucrari

-Se selecteaza tipurile de procese verbale de la coloana


nregistrari (din meniu ).
-Tipurile de procese verbale sunt introduse in program ca
baza de date la rapoarte nregistrari

NU
Finalizare
planificare
(conform
model)

-Completarea tuturor tipurilor de planuri conform fazelor de


execuie din baza de date .

DA

Creearea unui
plan al calitii
pentru alta
specialitate de
lucrari.
Editare procese
verbale pentru
aprobare
Finalizare
planificare

-Cand este cazul se completeaza planuri ale calitii pentru


alte specialitaii decat cele din fisierele model.
-Se completeaza toate campurile considerate necesare
pentru nregistrari opertaii
-Fiierele completate pot fi semnate, aprobate si apoi
prezentate Inspectoratului de Stat pentru Calitate in
Construcii sau / i arhivate pentru Cartea construciei
-Planurile calitii lucrarilor executate sunt finalizate.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

Presentation chart of the program Plan to control the quality of the executed
works
Start

Initializing a
new work
Creating the type
files for quality
plans

Filling in the
works
acceptance
protocols

Initializing the application


- Name of the execution objective;(par 1)
- Specifying data related to: beneficiary, building destination,
location, designer etc.
- The name of the new plan is introduced and then the appropriate
form type is selected from the model plan (par.3)
- Depending on the work, a quality plan is filled in for each
installation specialty.
- The protocol types are selected from the recordings column (from
the menu).
- The protocol types are entered in the program as a data base to
recordings reports ( par.4 )

NO

Planning
completing
(according
to model)

- All the plan types existing in the data base related to the work shall
be filled in.

YES

Creating a
quality plan for
other specialty
of works

Editing the
protocols for
approval
Planning
finishing

10

- When applicable, quality plans for other specialties than the ones in
the model files will be filled in.
- All the fields considered necessary for the operations to be recorded
will be filled in.
- The completed files may be signed, approved and then submitted to
the State Inspectorate for Quality in Constructions and / or archived
for the Building Book.
- The quality plans of the executed works are finished.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

Raionarea geotehnic a unui


perimetru din zona Slatina

Geotechnical Mapping of a Perimeter


within Slatina Area

Simona Opriescu, ef lucr.ing., Universitatea tehnic de Construcii (Technical University of Civil Engineering
Bucharest), Catedra de Geotehnic i Fundaii (Geotechnical and Foundations Department),
e-mail: simona_opritescu@yahoo.com

1.Introducere

1.Introduction

Raionarea geotehnic se efectueaz cu scopul de a


facilita caracterizarea geotehnic preliminar a unei
zone dar i de a permite comparaii pentru
evidenierea unor modificri ale caracteristicilor
geotehnice ale terenului de fundare survenite n
timp ca urmare a schimbrii condiiilor de mediu.
S-a dorit realizarea unor zonri geotehnice pe
adncimile uzuale utilizate pentru fundarea direct.
Aceste zonri sunt bazate pe interpretri i
prelucrri a unor date geotehnice de laborator.
Pentru extrapolarea datelor cunoscute la zone n
care informaiile geotehnice sunt sumare s-a
aplicat, prin contribuii originale, metodologia de
prognozare propus de prof. Andrei Silvan, bazat
pe elaborarea de amprente i diagrame de stare,
metodologie validat pe plan naional, obinnduse rezultatele unei proiectri preliminare. Zonarea
geotehnic s-a materializat n final prin ntocmirea
unor hri de rspndire pe suprafa, dar la niveluri
diferite de adncime, a indicilor geotehnici de
baz.

Geotechnical mapping is made with the purpose of


facilitating
the
preliminary
geotechnical
characterization of an area, but also of enabling
comparisons with a view of outlining certain changes
in the geotechnical characteristics of the foundation
ground occurred in time as a result of the change of
environmental conditions.
Making several geotechnical zonings on the current
depths used for shallow foundation has been the aim
of this study. These zonings are based on
interpretations and processing of certain laboratory
geotechnical data. For the extrapolation of data
known for areas in which the geotechnical
information is reduced the forecasting methodology
proposed by prof. Andrei Silvan has been applied,
through original contributions, based on the
elaboration of prints and state diagrams, a nationally
validated methodology, obtaining the results of a
preliminary design. The geotechnical zoning has been
finally materialized by drawing several surface
location maps of the geotechnical basic parameters,
but at different levels of depth.

2.Generaliti
2. Generalities
Teritoriul ales pentru realizarea raionrii
geotehnice este cuprins ntre localitile Slatina
i Blteni la nord, Schitu, Stoicneti la est,
Dneasa la sud i rul Olt la vest. Teritoriul face
parte, ca unitate morfologic, din cmpia nalt,
ocupnd interfluviul Olt-Vedea.
Pentru perimetrul studiat singurele formaiuni
care afloreaz sunt cele din pleistocen inferior
(qp1), pleistocen mediu (qp2), pleistocen
superior (qp3), holocen inferior (qh1) i holocen
superior (qh2).
n perimetrul cercetat s-a dispus de un numr de
180 foraje cu adncimi cuprinse ntre 5 i 25 m,
pe o suprafa de aproximativ 530 km2.
Beneficiind de o hart topografic a zonei

The territory chosen for the geotechnical zoning is


comprised between the localities of Slatina and
Blteni to the North, Schitu, Stoicneti to the
East, Dneasa to the South and the Olt River to
the West. The territory is part, as a
morphological unit, of the high plain, occupying
the Olt-Vedea interfluve.
For the studied area the only formations that crop
out are the ones for the early Pleistocene (qp1),
middle Pleistocene (qp2), late Pleistocene (qp3),
early Holocene(qh1) and the late Holocene (qh2).
In the investigated area a number of 180 boreholes
have been used, with depths between 5 and 25m,
on a surface of about 530 km.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

11

Slatina, scara 1:50000, n care erau trecute mare


parte din forajele executate, s-a msurat, n
coordonate locale, poziia fiecrui foraj. Au fost
selectate forajele identificate pe harta
topografic (aprox. 140 de foraje) i transferate
pe harta geologic scara 1:200000. Pentru a
realiza suprapunerea s-a msurat, pe harta
topografic, poziia unor repere uor de
identificat(confluenele Oltului cu afluenii si
Iminog i Drjov i poziia relativ a unor
localiti: Drgneti Olt, Dneasa)(fig.1.)
Din aceste foraje au fost prelevate probe pe care
s-au efectuat, n laboratorul geotehnic ISPIF,
analize de identificare i ncercri mecanice
(edometrice i de forfecare direct). Din analiza
fielor de foraj se constat c pn la 5-10m
formaiunile
ntlnite
sunt
predominant
argiloase, cu cteva excepii n care pietriurile
apar chiar de la suprafa sau de la adncimi
mici. n majoritatea forajelor, dup stratele
argiloase urmeaz un strat de nisip cu pietri.
n forajele mai adnci, maxim 25-30 m, se mai
ntlnesc, dup stratul de nisip cu pietri,
formaiuni argiloase de diferite grosimi.
Deoarece foarte multe dintre foraje au fost
executate la 5-10m adncime, nu au existat
suficiente
date
pentru
caracterizarea
perimetrului pe o adncime mai mare de 4 m.
Zonarea geotehnic a perimetrului Slatina s-a
realizat pe adncimile uzuale utilizate pentru
fundarea direct, bazat pe interpretri i
prelucrri a unor date geotehnice de laborator.

Benefiting of a topographical survey of Slatina


area, on a scale of 1:50000, in which most of the
executed boreholes were located, the position of
each drilling has been measured, in local
coordinates. The boreholes identified on the
topographical map (about 140 drillings) have
been selected and transferred on the geological
map, on a scale of 1:200000. In order to achieve
the superposing, the position of certain easy to
identify marks (confluence of Olt with its
tributaries, Iminog and Drjov and the relative
position of certain localities: Drgneti Olt,
Dneasa) (fig. 1) has been measured, on the
topographical map.
From these drillings samples have been taken on
which identification analyses and mechanical
tests (oedometer and shear box tests) have been
carried out in the ISPIF geotechnical laboratory.
From the analysis of the borehole logs one may
discover that down to 5-10 m the formations
are mostly clayey, with a few exceptions in
which gravels appear immediately below the
surface or at shallow depths. In most of the
drillings, below the clayey layers there is a layer
of sand and gravel.
In deeper drillings, at maximum 25-30 m,
below the layer of sand and gravel, clayey
formations of various consistencies can also be
found. Because a lot of drillings have been
executed at 5-10 m depth, there were not
enough data to characterize the area on a depth
greater than 4 m. The geotechnical zoning of the
Slatina area has been made on the current
depths used for shallow foundation, based on
the interpretation and processing of certain
laboratory geotechnical data.

3.Prognozarea parametrilor mecanici


3.Forecasting of Mechanical Parameters
Pentru ndesirea punctelor de pe hart n care se
cunosc caracteristicile mecanice s-a recurs la
extrapolarea acestora printr-o metod de
prognozare elaborat de prof.dr.ing. Silvan
Andrei (1980) i validat pe plan naional de
nenumrate studii efectuate de-a lungul anilor.
Metoda de prognozare a fost aplicat folosind
ca instrumente: amprenta de tip A, diagrama
de analogie, diagrama de stare, metoda de
interpolare kriging i programul Surfer.

12

In order to increase the points on the map in


which mechanical characteristics are known,
the extrapolation of these points has been made
through a forecasting method prepared by
prof.dr.eng. Silvan Andrei (1980) and nationally
validated by a series of studies made along the
years. The forecasting method has been applied
using as instruments: the A type print, the
analogy diagram, the state diagram, kriging
interpolation method and the Surfer software.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

5 Km

Fig. 1. Suprapunerea forajelor peste harta geologic a zonei Slatina


Superposing of drillings over the geological map of Slatina area

n principiu metoda de prognozare elaborat de


prof.dr. Ing Silvan Andrei, precizeaz c dou
sau mai multe pmnturi cu aproximativ aceai
compoziie granulometric, aceleai limite de
plasticitate, aceeai umiditate i aceeai
densitate n stare uscat, ar fi normal s aib
acelai comportament n cazul supunerii lor
unor ncercri mecanice identice. Aceeai teorie
permite
prognozarea comportamentului
mecanic al zonei respective n viitor, prin
urmrirea modificrilor de umiditate i stare ale
pmnturilor, care ar putea surveni.
Deoarece metodele practice de identificare a
pmnturilor n laboratoarele cu profil
geotehnic nu iau n calcul analiza mineralogic
i analiza chimic a respectivelor pmnturi,
soluia propus trebuie utilizat cu pruden.
Totui, avnd la dispoziie date dintr-un areal
restrns, cu aceeai structur geologic, se poate
considera cel puin apropiat comportamentul
mecanic a dou pmnturi cu caracteristici
fizice i de stare asemntoare.
Dintre
aceste
caracteristici,
compoziia
granulometric i limitele de plasticitate pot fi
reunite sub o mrime unic numit arie relativ,
utilizndu-se relaia recomandat n Ghid
pentru sistematizarea, stocarea i reutilizarea
informaiilor
privind
parametrii
geotehnici(2001)[7]:

Basically, the forecasting method elaborated by


prof.dr.eng. Silvan Andrei specifies that two or
more soils with almost the same grain size
distribution, the same Atterberg limits, the same
water content and the same dry density, would
be normal to have the same behaviour when
subjected to identical mechanical tests. The
same theory enables to forecast the future
mechanical behavior of the respective area, by
supervising the changes of water content and
condition of soils which are likely to occur.
Because the practical methods for identifying
soils in geotechnical laboratories do not take
into account the mineralogical analysis and the
chemical analysis of the respective soils, the
proposed solution must be carefully used.
However, having at hand data from a limited
area, with the same geological structure, the
mechanical behavior of two soils with similar
physical and state characteristics can be deemed
at least the same.
Out of these characteristics, the grain size
distribution and the Atterberg limits can be
gathered together under a single measure called
relative area, using the relation recommended in
Guide for the systematization, storing and
reuse of information regarding geotechnical
parameters (2001) [7]:

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

13

Ar= [(185+Ip)*(wL+0,5*X2: +45)]/7854


n care Ar este aria relativ, Ip este indicele de
plasticitate, wL este limita de curgere, X2 este
procentul particulelor cu d<0,002mm, iar 7854
reprezint aria cercului de referin din
reprezentarea amprentei. Aceast relaie poate
scuti de reprezentarea grafic a amprentei i
este folosit numai n cazul pmnturilor
coezive.
Metoda de interpolare Kriging poate fi aplicat
atunci cnd se cunosc valorile unui parametru z
n n puncte din diagrama de stare (w, 100/d),
nvecinate punctului P n care se dorete aflarea
valorii zp a aceluiai parametru. Estimarea
valorii parametrului necunoscut n punctul P, zp
se face ca o medie ponderal a valorilor
cunoscute n punctele de contur nvecinate:

in which Ar is the relative area, Ip is the


plasticity index, wL is the humidity limit, X2 is
the percent of particles with d<0,002mm, and
7854 is the area of the reference circle from the
imprint representation. This relation can be
exempted from plotting the print and is used
only for cohesive soils.
The Kriging interpolation method may be
applied when the values of a z parameter are
known in n points of the state diagram (w,
100/d), adjacent to point P in which it is
desired to find out the value zp of the same
parameter. The estimation of the unknown
parameter in point P, zp is done as a weighted
mean of the values known for the adjacent
marginal points:

Zp=wizi
unde :
zp reprezint valoarea estimat a parametrului
considerat n punctul P
zi este valoarea aceluiai parametru n punctele
i
wi este coeficientul de pondere al punctelor i
fa de punctul P
Se admite c influena valorilor parametrului zi
este invers proporional cu distana Dpi dintre
puncul P i punctele i.
Surfer este un program care folosete datele
originale dintr-un fiier xyz i genereaz puncte
de date calculate pe o suprafa. Schema de
interpolare estimeaz valoarea suprafeei n
zonele unde nu exist date, bazndu-se pe datele
cunoscute. Surfer foloseste aceast gridare
pentru a genera harta schiat. Cele mai multe
metode de gridare din Surfer folosesc o medie
ponderat a algoritmului de interpolare.
nseamn c, pentru un punct de dat, cu ct
acesta este mai aproape de nodul unui grid, cu
att ponderea lui este mai mare n stabilirea
valorii z a respectivului nod. Surfer ofer o
mare list de metode de gridare i de opiuni:
metoda Kriging, interpolare liniar,
regresie
polinomial, metoda Shepard. Diferite metode
de gridare pot da rezultate diferite cnd
interpreteaz datele originale.
14

where:
zp is the estimated value of the considered
parameter in point P
zi is the value of the same parameter in points
i
wi is the weight coefficient of points i with
respect to point P
It is admitted that the effect of the values of
parameter zi is in inverse ratio to the distance
Dpi between point P and points i.
Surfer is a software that uses original data in a
xyz file and generates points of data computed
on a surface. The interpolation scheme
estimates the value of the surface in areas where
there is no data, relying on known data. Surfer
uses this gridding to generate the drafted map.
Most of the Surfer gridding methods use a
weighted mean of the interpolating algorithm.
This means that, for a data point, the more this
is closer to the nodes of a grid, the more its
weight is greater in establishing the z value of
the respective node. Surfer offers a large list of
gridding methods and options: the Kriging
method, linear interpolation, multinomial
regression, the Shepard method. The various
gridding methods can give different results
when interpreting original data.
In the diagram of the nature of soils, the

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

NATURE DIAGRAM
DIAGRAMA NATURII
3.00

2.50

2.00
logd90

1.50

1.00

2.50

3.00

3.50

4.00

4.50

5.00

Ar

Fig.2. Diagrama naturii pmnturilor pentru toate datele avute la dispoziie


Diagram of the nature of soils for all available data

Ar=2-2.5;;Ar=2.5-3;Ar=3-3.5Ar=3.54;Ar=4-4.5;Ar=4.5-5;Ar = 5-5.5
S-au reprezentat, n diagrama naturii
pmnturilor, ariile relative Ar pentru toate cele
180 de foraje i pentru toate adncimile
respective. (fig.2) Pentru ntregul evantai de
date s-au obinut apte arii relative dar, dup
cum se observ i din reprezentarea grafic,
ultimele dou domenii de arie relativ (Ar= 4.55 i Ar=5-5.5) sunt
foarte slab
reprezentate.(fig.2)
Din fiierul iniial, cuprinznd toate datele din
fiele de foraj, au fost selectate acele foraje la
care au existat determinri de forfecare direct
n condiii neconsolidate-nedrenate i ncercri
edometrice. Au fost alei parametrii ,c i M2-3
i grupai n trei fiiere. n fiecare fiier n parte
s-au calculat ariile relative Ar dup formula din
ghid i s-au ordonat cresctor dup Ar datele din
aceste trei fiiere. S-au obinut pentru i c
cinci domenii de Ar: 2-2.49; 2.5-2.99; 3-3.49;
3.5-3.99; 4-4.49, iar pentru M2-3 patru domenii
Ar: 2.5-2.99; 3-3.49; 3.5-3.99; 4-4.49
Acolo unde nu au existat date pentru procentul
particulelor cu d<2 (X2 %) s-a utilizat
corelaia: X2 =1,047Ip+0,63, stabilit pe baza
datelor lui Croney.
Pentru fiecare parametru mecanic i pentru
fiecare domeniu de arie s-au calculat coeficienii
de analogie ai naturii pmntului, care s-au

relative areas Ar for all 180 boreholes and for all


respective depths (fig. 2).Seven relative areas
have been obtained for the entire range of data,
but, as it can be noticed from the graphical
plotting, the last two domains of relative area
(Ar= 4.5-5 and Ar=5-5.5) are very poor
represented(fig.2) ).
From the original file, comprising all the data in
the borehole logs, a selection of those drillings
has been made for which the results of shear box
tests in unconsolidated-undrained conditions and
oedometer tests have been available. Parameters
, c and M2-3 have been chosen and grouped into
three files. In each file the relative areas Ar have
been calculated by the formula in the guide and
have been ordered in sequence by the Ar data in
these three files. For and c five domains of Ar
have been obtained: 2-2.49; 2.5-2.99; 3-3.49;
3.5-3.99; 4-4.49, and for M2-3 four Ar domains:
2.5-2.99; 3-3.49; 3.5-3.99;4-4.49.
Where there were no data for the percent of the
particles with d<2 (X2 %) correlation: X2
=1,047Ip+0,63 was used, established based on
Croneys data.
For each mechanical parameter and for each
domain of area the analogy coefficients of the
nature of soil have been computed, which were
of

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

15

ncadrat n valori de pn la 20, deci coeficieni


relativ buni. Au fost create din aceste domenii
14 fiiere, care au fost transferate n programul
Surfer n vederea prognozrii parametrilor
respectivi.
ntr-o prim etap s-au transcris datele din cele
180 de fie de foraj ntr-un fiier baz de date.
n programul Surfer pentru fiecare parametru i
fiecare domeniu de arie relativ a fost creat cte
un fiier care cuprinde coordonatele diagramei
de stare: umiditatea (w)- coordonata X i starea
de ndesare (V100 =100/d )- coordonata Y;
coordonata Z este reprezentat de valorile
parametrului mecanic, respectiv , c sau M2-3.
n continuare, s-au separat forajele pe dou
adncimi: 2m respectiv 4m, iar datele au fost
grupate n dou fiiere. Prognozarea s-a fcut
pentru aceste dou adncimi.
Prognozarea s-a bazat pe un sistem de
interpolare prin metoda kriging, intrnd ntr-un
grid cu valorile w% i V100 din locaiile
forajelor de la adncimile de 2m i 4m unde
trebuie prognozai respectivii parametri
mecanici. n felul acesta au fost completate cele
dou fiiere , pentru 2m, respectiv 4m, cu
parametrii , c i M2-3.
n figurile 3, 4 i 5 sunt reprezentate gridurile
dup care s-au prognozat unghiurile de frecare
intern (), coeziunile (c) i M2-3 pentru aria
relativ de 3-3,49.
V100(cm3/100

values of up to 20, which have been relatively


good coefficients. Out of these domains 14 files
have been created, which have been transferred
to the Surfer software with the view of
forecasting the respective parameters.
In a first stage the data from the 180 borehole
logs have been copied into a database file.
In the Surfer software for each parameter and
each domain of relative area a file that
comprises the coordinates of the state diagram
has been created: water content (w)- coordinate
X and the density state (V100 =100/d )coordinate Y; coordinate Z is plotted by the
values of the mechanical parameter, ,c or M2-3
respectively
Further on, the boreholes have been separated
into two depths: 2m and 4m respectively, and
the data have been grouped into two files. The
forecast has been made for these two depths.
The forecast has been based on an interpolation
system through the kriging method, entering in
a grid with values w% and V100 from locations
of boreholes from depths of 2m and 4m where
the respective mechanical parameters must be
forecasted. In this way the two files have been
completed, for 2m, 4m respectively, with
parameters ,c and M2-3.
In figures 3, 4 and 5 are shown the grids by
which the internal friction angles (), cohesions
(c) and M2-3 for the relative area of 3-3,49 have
been forecasted.

68.00

66.00

99.00
19.00

64.00

78.00

59.00

28.00

31.00
49.00
49.00
76.00
21.00 65.00
28.10 77.00
55.00

4.00

62.00

72.00
50.00
87.00
76.0082.00
60.00
39.00
62.00
27.00 66.00
40.00
67.0049.00
52.00 37.00
63.00
52.00

19.00
60.00

43.00

58.00

9.00
71.00
100.00
48.00

56.00

64.00
14.00

16.00

63.00
18.00

20.00

22.00

24.00

26.00

W%
Fig.3. Gridul de interpolare a coeziunii c (kPa), n diagrama de stare a pmnturilor,
pentru argile cu aria relativ Ar= 3-3,49
The interpolation grid of cohesion c (kPa), in the state diagram of soils, for clays with a relative area of Ar= 3-3,49
16

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

V100(cm3/100g)
11.83
66.00

20.55
21.00

64.00

5.22

16.32
19.28
13.98
27.90
18.07
16.00 23.83
13.78
16.20
25.00
20.22
24.42

62.00

19.00
60.00

16.92

58.00

22.33

5.00
26.05
15.10
8.55 6.38
9.95
25.70
27.00
25.62 6.189.12
9.00
19.7218.20
10.50 9.66
17.48
21.25
22.60
27.00

21.68
23.83
23.55
56.00

12.67
14.00

12.55

16.00

18.00

20.00

22.00

24.00

26.00

W%

Fig.4. Gridul de interpolare a unghiului de frecare intern (), n diagrama de stare a pmnrurilor, pentru argile cu
arie relativ Ar=3-3,49
The interpolation grid of the internal friction angle (), in the state diagram of soils, for clays with a relative area of
Ar=3-3,49

V100(cm3/100g)

91.00

68.00

66.00
83.50

64.00

62.00

100.00

77.00

91.00
125.00

125.00

60.00
167.00

100.00
125.00
111.00
143.00

143.00
143.00
91.00
100.00
200.00
125.00
167.00
125.00

58.00

125.00
111.00

56.00
12.00

14.00

16.00

18.00

20.00

22.00

24.00

26.00

W%
Fig.5. Gridul de interpolare pentru modulul edometric, M2-3(daN/cm2), n diagrama de stare a pmnturilor, pentru
pmnturi cu arie relativ Ar= 3-3,49
The interpolation grid for the oedometer modulus, M2-3(daN/cm2), in the state diagram of soils, for soils with a relative
area of Ar= 3-3,49
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

17

4.Validarea metodei de prognozare

4.Validation of the Forecasting Method

Pentru validarea rezultatelor obinute prin


metoda de prognozare prezentat mai sus, au
fost alese date din mai multe foraje executate de
ISPIF tot n zona Slatina (Tabel 1.)
Acolo unde au existat determinri de i c ,
pentru forajele respective, s-au fcut prognozri
de

i c prin metoda de prognozare


prezentat. Au fost comparate valorile
determinate cu cele prognozate prin metode
analitice de prelucrare statistic.
Prin prelucrarea statistic analitic, respectnd
principiile de calcul din STAS 3300/1-85, se
obin valori normate i de calcul pentru
parametri determinai i pentru parametri
prognozai. Pentru o mai bun comparaie ntre
valorile prognozate i cele determinate s-au
separat cinci domenii de arie relativ i s-a fcut
o prelucrare statistic analitic pentru fiecare
domeniu n parte.
n tabelul 1 este redat o sintez a tuturor
prelucrrilor statistice, care ofer o
comparaie mai clar ntre valorile determinate
de calcul i cele prognozate de calcul pentru cei
doi parameti geotehnici tan i c.
Se observ c pentru tan erorile n procente
sunt cuprinse ntre 12% i 21% iar pentru c ele
se ncadreaz ntre 15% i 24%. Bineneles c
aceast metod poate fi aplicat doar cu titlu
informativ preliminar sau, cum este cazul de
fa, pentru o raionare geotehnic.

In order to validate the results obtained through


the above presented forecasting method, data
from various boreholes performed by ISPIF in
the Slatina area have been chosen. (Table 1.)
Where determinations of and c were present,
for the respective drillings, forecasts of and c
have been made through the forecasting method
presented. The determined values have been
compared to the forecasted ones through
analytical methods of statistical processing.
Through the analytical statistical processing,
according to the computation principles from
STAS 3300/1-85, characteristic and design
values have been obtained for the determined
parameters and forecasted parameters. For a
better comparison between the forecasted values
and the determined ones, five domains of
relative area have been separated and a
statistical analytical processing has been used
for each domain.
In table 1 a synthesis of all statistical processing
is shown that offers a more precise comparison
between the determined design values and the
forecasted design ones for the two geotechnical
parameters tan and c.
It can be noticed that for tan the errors in
percents are comprised between 12% and 21%
and for c they are between 15% and 24%.
Obviously this method may be applied only
with preliminary informative title or, as in the
present case, for a geotechnical zoning.
Tabel 1. Valori de calcul pentru tan i c (kPa)
Design values for tan and c (kPa)

Arie
ghid
Guide
area
(Ar)

Valori de
calcul
Design
value
tan ( det)

Valori de
calcul
Design
value
tan ( progn)

Valori de
calcul
Design
value
c det (kPa)

Valori de
calcul
Design
value
c progn (kPa)

Eroare pentru
tan (%)
Error for
tan (%)

Eroare pentru
c(%)
Error for
c(%)

2,5-2,99

0.260309

0.216283

38.09174

50.42744

16.91275

24.46227

3-3,49

0.192799

0.22168

46.85487

55.72394

13.02827

15.91608

3,5-3,99

0.222122

0.253868

38.83731

47.58261

12.50484

18.3792

4-4,49

0.182026

0.223979

40.00375

49.6172

18.73102

19.37523

4,5-4,99

0.182445

0.231014

40.30084

51.28113

21.02426

21.41196

18

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

5.Calculul presiunilor acceptabile pentru


terenul de fundare n diferite ipoteze

5. Computation of allowable bearing


pressures for the foundation ground in
various hypothesis

Cunoscnd pentru toate cele 140 de foraje,


suprapuse peste harta geologic, parametrii
mecanici obinui prin ncercri i respectiv prin
prognozare, s-au calculat, la adncimea de
fundare 2m, presiunile acceptabile n diferite
abordri,
respectnd
prevederile
din
STAS3300/2-85.:
-presiunea convenional
-presiunile acceptabile la stri limit de
deformaii i la stri limit de capacitate
portant.

Knowing for all 140 boreholes, superimposed


on the geological map, the mechanical
parameters obtained through tests and
forecasting, at the foundation depth of 2m, the
allowable bearing pressures in various
approaches have been computed according to
the provisions of STAS3300/2-85.:
-conventional pressure
-allowable pressures at deformation and bearing
capacity limit states.

6.Hri geotehnice

6. Geotechnical maps

Dup ce pentru fiecare foraj la adncimile de


2m i 4m
au fost prognozai parametrii
mecanici i s-au putut calcula presiunile
acceptabile n diferite abordri, s-a trecut la
realizarea hrilor pentru parametrii geotehnici
i pentru presiuni.
Utilizndu-se datele de mai sus, cu ajutorul
programului Surfer pot fi realizate diferite tipuri
de hri geotehnice. Astfel au fost realizate hri
cu indici fizici: Ic, Ip, hri litologice, hri ale
ariilor relative Ar,
hri ale parametrilor
mecanici: M2-3, pentru adncimile de 2m i 4m,
harta suciunilor w15, harta presiunilor de
umflare pu, harta nivelurilor hidrostatice NH,
precum i hri cu capaciti portante i presiuni
convenionale, pentru adncimea de 2m.
Metoda folosit pentru realizarea hrilor este
interpolarea liniar n care drept coordonat X
se ia chiar coordonata X a forajelor respective,
coordonata Y, coordonata Y a forajelor iar
coordonata Z una din caracteristicile fizice sau
mecanice ce vor face obiectul hrii respective.
Hrile realizate fac parte din categoria hrilor
generale i analitice, scara 1:200000, conform
principiilor generale privind metodologia de
zonare geotehnic a teritoriului Romniei
(P136-95)[11]

After mechanical parameters have been


forecasted for each drilling at depths of 2m and
4m and allowable pressures in various
approaches have been computed, the maps for
geotechnical parameters and pressures have
started to be devised.
Using the above prsented data, with the help of
the Surfer software various types of
geotechnical maps have been achieved. Thus,
maps with physical indexes have been made: Ic,
Ip, lithological maps, maps of relative areas Ar,
maps of mechanical parameters: M2-3, for depths
of 2m and 4m, map of suctions w15, map of
swelling pressure pu, map of hydrostatic levels
NH, as well as maps with bearing capacities and
conventional pressures for the depth of 2m.
The method used for drawing the maps is the
linear interpolation in which coordinate X is
exactly coordinate X of the respective
boreholes, coordinate Y, coordinate Y of the
drillings, and coordinate Z, one of the physical
or mechanical characteristics that shall make the
object of the respective map. The maps form
part of the category of the general and analytical
maps, scale 1:200000, according to the general
principles regarding the methodology of
geotechnical zoning of the territory of Romania
( P 136-95) [11].
In figures 6, 7, 8, 9 the maps are represented at
2m for Ar, pconv, ppl, pcr

n figurile 6, 7, 8, 9 sunt reprezentate hrile la


2m pentru Ar, pconv, ppl, pcr.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

19

Pentru a face hrile ct mai intuitive i mai uor


de interpretat s-a ales pentru fiecare hart o
culoare i o succesiune de nuane pornindu-se n
toate cazurile de la nuanele cele mai nchise,
corespunztoare valorilor mici, pn la nuanele
cele mai deschise pentru valorile maxime ale
parametrilor. imagini de ansamblu asupra zonei
cercetate. Variaia acestor indici poate iei mai
bine n eviden n cadrul unei hri, permind
descrierea din punct geotehnic intr-o manier
mai complex a zonei investigate.

In order to make the maps as intuitive as


possible and easy to interpret, for each map has
been chosen a color and a sequence of tones
starting in all cases from the darkest tones,
corresponding to small values, up to the lightest
for
maximum
values
of
parameters.
Making of the maps of geotechnical, physical
and mechanical indexes enables forming an
overview image of the researched area.
Variation of these indexes can be better outlined
on a map, enabling the description from the
geotechnical standpoint of a more complex
manner of the investigated area.

18.00
18.00

18.00

16.00

P conv (kPa)

16.00

650.00

14.00

600.00

12.00

14.00

12.00

550.00

Ar

16.00

14.00

4.50

12.00

4.00

10.00
10.00

10.00

3.50

Blnesti

Blnesti

500.00
8.00

3.00

6.00

2.50

8.00

8.00

450.00
6.00

6.00

400.00
Drgnesti-Olt

Dneasa

2.00

4.00

Drgnesti-Olt
2.00

4.00

350.00

4.00

Dneasa

2.00
2.00

2.00
2.00

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

Fig. 6. Harta ariilor relative (Ar)


Map of relative areas (Ar)

20

4.00
4.00

6.00
6.00

8.00
8.00

Fig.7. Harta presiunilor convenionale la adncimea de


2m n kPa, la adncimea de fundare 2m, limea fundaiei
B=2m
Map of conventional pressures at the depth of 2m in
kPa, at the foundation depth of 2m, foundation width
B=2m

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

18.00

18.00

Pcr (kPa)

Ppl (kPa)
16.00

16.00

2200.00
1050.00
14.00

2000.00

14.00

950.00
850.00

12.00

1800.00
12.00

1600.00

750.00
10.00

1400.00
10.00

Blnesti

550.00

8.00

1200.00

Blnesti

650.00

1000.00

8.00

800.00

450.00
6.00

6.00

600.00

350.00
Drgnesti-Olt

250.00

4.00

Dneasa

2.00

2.00

4.00

Dneasa

2.00

6.00

8.00

Fig.8. Harta presiunilor plastice la starea limit de


deformaii n kPa, la adncimea de fundare 2m i
limea fundaiei B=2m
Map of limit pressure for plastic failure at the limit
state of deformation in kPa, at the foundation depth of
2m and foundation width B=2m

400.00

Drgnesti-Olt
4.00

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

Fig.9. Harta presiunilor critice la starea limit de


capacitate portant n kPa, la adncimeade fundare 2m
i limea fundaiei B=2m
Map of ultimate pressures at the limit state
of bearing capacity in kPa, at the foundation
depth of 2m and foundation width B=2

Les cartes de distribution des paramtres gotechnique dun primtre dans la zone de Slatina
Resume
Les cartes de distribution gotechnique seffectue avec le but de faciliter la caractrisation gotechnique prliminaire
dune zone, mais aussi de permettre des comparaisons pour mettre en vidence certaines modifications des
caractristiques gotechniques du terrain de foundation survenues dans le temps comme suite des changements
denvironnement.
Le primtre soumis la zonation gotechnique est situ au sud-est de la ville de Slatina. On a realis la zonation
gotechnique pour les profondeurs usuelles utilises pour la fondation directe. Cette zonation est base sur des
interprtations des dates gotechniques de laboratoire. Pour lextrapolation des dates connues aux zones ou les
informations gotechniques sont sommaires, on a appliqu, par contributions originelles (la mthode dinterpolation
kriging et le programme Surfer), la methodologie de prognose propose par prof. Andrei Silvan, base sur llaboration
des empreintes et diagrammes dtat, mthodologie valide au plan national, obtenant des rsultats utilisables pour un
dimensionnement prliminaire. La zonation gotechnique sest matrialise par le dressement des cartes de surface,
aux diffrents niveaux de profondeur, des indices gotechniques de base, qui permettent la formation dune image
densemble sur la zone recherche

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

21

Bibliografie
References
[1].

ANDREI, S. (2000). Prognozarea parametrilor geotehnici, A 9-a Conferin Naional de Geotehnic i Fundaii,
Cluj-Napoca, vol.I

[2].

ANDREI, S. (2004). Principii de sistematizarea, stocare i reutilizarea informaiilor privind parametri geotehnici, A
10-a Conferin Naional de Geotehnic i Fundaii, Bucureti

[3].

ANDREI, S., ATHANASIU, C., (1981). Influena alctuirii i strii asupra proprietilor pmnturilor, A 4-a
Conferin Naional de Geotehnic i Fundaii, vol.I, Iai

[4].

ANDREI, S., MANEA, S.,(1995). Moisture and volume changes in unsaturated soils, 1st. International Conference
on unsaturated soils, vol. II, Paris

[5].

ANDREI, S., MANEA, S., JIANU, L., (1999). Forecast of geotechnical parameters of transportation
infrastructure, Proc.12 th. Conf. Europ. SM&GE, vol.I, Amsterdam

[6].

P 136-95 Principii generale privind metodologia de zonare geotehnic a teritoriului Romniei, MLPAT

[7].

GEO44-01. Ghid pentru sistematizarea, stocarea i reutilizarea informaiilor privind parametrii geotehnici,
Buletinul Construciilor nr.24/2003

22

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

Consideraii privind fora


remanent la manevrarea
macazurilor cu ace flexibile

Considerations Regarding the


Residual Force During
Flexible Switch Point Operation

Potoaca Stelian, conf.univ.dr.ing., Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti, Catedra de Ci Ferate


associate Professor, Ph.D., Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest, Department of Railways
e-mail: spostoaca@cfdp.utcb.ro

1. Modul n care
manevrarea acelor

se

realizeaz

Exist diferite feluri de fixtoare de


macaz, dar cele mai bune rezultate s-au
obinut n cazul folosirii fixtorului de
macaz cu cleme. Din acest motiv, acest tip
de fixtor, are o larg rspndire.
Fixtoarele, n instalaiile de centralizare
electrodinamic, se acioneaz cu ajutorul
electromecanismelor.
Fixtoarele
de
macaz sunt dispozitive cu care se
manevreaz i se nzvorsc alternativ
acele n poziie lipit de contraace.
Dup felul aparatului de cale, fixtorul de
macaz cu cleme poate fi: simplu, dublu,
dublu compus, etc. n oricare dintre
variante acesta are n compunere, n mod
obligatoriu, un fixator de vrf.
Fixtorul de vrf (fig. 1) are ca pri
principale o bar de acionare, dou cutii
de nzvorre i dou cleme de fixare.
Clemele de fixare sunt legate articulat de
ace, iar cutiile de nzvorre sunt legate
rigid de contraace.
Modul n care se face manevrarea i
fixarea acelor n cazul fixtorului de
macaz cu cleme rezult din fig. 2. ntr-o
curs complet de 220mm a barei de
acionare a fixtorului se disting trei faze
caracteristice:
a). Pe prima parte a cursei barei de
acionare (60mm), denumit curs de
deszvorre, acul din dreapta rezemat
de contraac nu se deplaseaz (deoarece
partea respectiv din captul clemei de
fixare nu se afl n canalul barei de

1. Ways to Manipulate the Switch


Points
There are varoius point locks, but the best
results have been obtained in the case of
clamp locks. That is why this type of lock
is widely used.
In
electro-dynamic
interchanging
arrangements, locks are manipulated by
means of electro-devices. Switch locks are
devices used to manipulate and
alternatively lock the joint points to the
stock rails.
Depending on the track tampers, the clamp
lock may be: simple, double, doublecompound, etc. Regardless of the type, it
compulsorily comprises a point lock.
The main elements of the point lock (Fig.
1) are a drive bar, two locking boxes and
two linking clamps. The linking clamps
have a hinged link to the points, and the
locking boxes are rigidly linked to the
stock rails.
The way in which points are manipulated
and locked, considering the clamp locks,
can be seen in the Fig. 2. During a 220mm
complete stroke of the drive bar, three
characteristic stages may be distinguished:
a). On the first part of the drive bar (60
mms), called unlocking stroke, the right
point supported by the stock rail does
not move (because that part at the end
of the locking clamp does not belong to
the drive bar channel), and the left point

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

23

acionare) iar acul din stnga deprtat


de contraac este obligat s execute
aceeai curs ca i bara de acionare
(deoarece partea respectiv din captul
clemei de fixare se gsete n canalul
barei de acionare);

which is far from the stock rail is forced


to complete the same stroke as the drive
bar (because that part at the end of the
locking clamp lies in the drive bar
channel);

b). n partea a doua a cursei barei de


acionare (100mm), denumit cursa de
manevrare, ambele ace i clemele
respective se deplaseaz cu aceeai
cantitate ca i bara de acionare (pereii
laterali ai cutiei de nzvorre permit
aceast micare deoarece prile
respective ale capetelor clemelor de
fixare
se
gsesc
n
canalele
corespunztoare ale barei de acionare);

b). In the second part of the drive bar


stroke (100mm), called operation
stroke, both points and the respective
clamps move with the same quantity as
the drive bar (the side plankings of the
locking box allow this movement
becaude those parts of the ends of the
linking clamps belong to the
correspondent strokes of the drive bar);

c). n ultima parte a cursei barei de acionare


(60mm), denumit curs de nzvorre,
acul din dreapta se deplaseaz cu aceeai
cantitate ca i bara de acionare, iar acul
din stnga rezemat de contraac rmne
nemicat (acest ac a ajuns lng contraac
la sfritul cursei anterioare).

c). In the last part of the drive bar stroke


(60 mms), called linking stroke, the
right point moves with the same
quantity as the drive bar, and the left
point, supported by the stock rail
remains still (this point reached the
stock rail at the end of the previous
stroke).

Fig.1. Prile principale ale fixtorului de vrf


The main elements of the point lock

24

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

Fig.2. Modul n care se realizeaz manevrarea i fixarea clemelor acelor n cazul fixtorului de macaz cu
cleme
The way in which clamps of points are manipulated and locked, in the case of clamp locks

2. Msurtori de fore remanente i


analiza statistic a unui set de
msurtori

2. Residual Force Measurement and


Statistic Analysis of a Series of
Measurements

Societatea VAE APCAROM Buzu,


productoare de aparate de cale, face, la
fiecare macaz produs, o serie de
msurtori dup asamblarea uzinal de
prob. Diagramele forelor remanente din
bara de acionare, rezultate n urma unor
msurtori tensoelectrice efectuate pe o
durat de 2,5 min pentru mai multe
manevrri complete continue ale acelor,
ntr-un caz particular, sunt redate n fia 1.
Modul n care se realizeaz manevarea
acelor a fost descris la punctul 1.

At every switch it manufactures, the trade


company VAE APCAROM Buzu, a track
tamper manufacturer, makes a series of
measurements after the trial plant makingup. Residual force diagrams from the drive
bar,
issued
after
tenso-electric
measurements for a duration of 2.5 min for
more continuous complete operations of
the points, in a particular case, are
rendered in the 1st index card. The way in
which point operation is made was
described under the 1st point.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

25

Prin fora remanent se nelege fora


transmis de bara de acionare barei de
traciune, prin articulaia dintre ele, n lipsa
procesului de manevrare a acelor (mai
concret dup ncheierea procesului de
manevrare complet a acelor). Aceast
for nu se manifest pe ntreaga bar de
acionare, ci numai ntre canalul din bara
de acionare aferent vrfului clemei de
fixare a acului complet deslipit de contraac
i articulaia dintre bara de acionare i
bara de traciune.

By residual force, we understand the force


transmitted by the drive bar to the draw
bar, by the joint between them, by lack of
the point operation process (more
precisely, after ending the process of
complete point operation). This force does
not develop on the entire drive bar, but
only between the stroke of the drive bar
adjacent to the top linking clamp of the
point completely unsoldered from the
stock rail and the joint between the drive
bar and the draw bar.

Fora efectiv remanent din bara de


acionare se limiteaz, de ctre productor,
la valoarea maxim de 75 daN. Scopul
principal al acestei limitri este evitarea
unei eventuale deszvorri n situaii
atipice. Aceste situaii sunt dictate de
starea de funcionare, la un anumit
moment, a dispozitivului de manevrare,
dar i de felul acestuia.

The effective residual force of the drive


bar is limited, by the manufacturer, to the
maximum value of 75 daN. The main
target of this reserve is to avoid the
accidental unbolting in uncommon
situations. These situations are influenced
by the running order, at one moment, of
the operation device, as well as by its type.

S-a analizat un set de msurtori care se


refer la forele remanente din bara de
acionare. Pentru prelucrare datele au fost
colectate de la Societatea Comercial VAE
APCAROM S.A. Buzu. Colectarea
datelor s-a fcut pentru o perioad
continu de timp.

A series of measurements regarding the


residual force of the drive bar has been
analysed. The data to be processed have
been provided by the VAE APCAROM
S.A. Buzu Trading Company and
collected during a continuous period of
time.

Datele (msurtorile) colectate se refer


exclusiv la macazurile Mz 49-300-1/9-AfTmf-Daa (Macaz tip 49, raza 300m,
tangent 1/9, ace flexibile, fixtor tip
TEMPFLEX, dispozitiv ajuttor cu arc).

The data (measurements) obtained refer


exclusively to the Mz 49-300-1/9-Af-TmfDaa switches (Switch type 49, beam of
300m, tangent line 1/9, flexible points,
TEMPFLEX linker, auxiliary point
device).

Ele au fost aranjate, fiind grupate pe clase,


astfel nct s nu apar erori prea mari de
distribuie. Aranjarea datelor colectate s-a
finalizat cu ntocmirea histogramei
frecvenelor i poligonului frecvenelor
(fig. 3).

They were ordered and grouped by


classes, so that significant errors should
not occur during distribution. The process
of ordering the collected data was finished
by a frequency bar and a hystogram
(Fig. 3).

26

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

Chart 1. Diagram of driving and remnant forces in the driving bar, resulted from
a plant checking of a switch

Remarks:
a) In the ordinate the driving (daN) and the remnant (daN) forces are given, measured in the joint of the driving bar with the
traction bar,
b) the significance of the signs in the ordinate is: (+) stretching in the driving bar; (-) compression in the driving bar.

Fig.3. Histograma i poligonul frecvenelor pentru fora remanent


Frequency bar and histogram of the residual force

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

27

Din analiza statistic efectuat asupra


macazurilor Mz 49-300-1/9-Af-Tmf-Daa
referitor la forele remanente din bara de
acionare a fixtorului a rezultat c
pentru un nivel de ncredere de 99% limita
mediei aritmetice a populaiei i limita
abaterii standard sunt:
Mrimea
Proportion
Fora remanent
Residual force

The statistic analysis of the Mz 49-3001/9-Af-Tmf-Daa switchges concerning rhe


residual forces of the drive bar of the
linker showed that, for a degree of
reliability of 99%, the arithmetic mean
limit of the population and the standard
deviation limit are:

Limitele mediei aritmetice


Arithmetic mean limits

Limitele abaterii standard


Standard deviation limits

15,88daN < < 24,49daN

6,97daN < < 13,05daN

3. Concluzii

3. Conclusions

Se pot formula urmtoarele concluzii:

The following conclusions may be


formulated:
a). The residual forces of the drive bar are
the result of point underbending or
overbending; actually, the existence of
point underbending is the result of the
presence of the residual forces obtained
from the diagrams;
b). The conclusion that the residual forces
are the result of improper point bending
was drawn on the grounds of the
following observations:
- the linking clamp of a point soldered
to the stock rail cannot axially stress
the drive bar because its point is
outside the locking box and outside
its pocket in the drive bar;
- the linking clamp of a point totally
unsoldered from the stock rail can
axially stress the drive bar because its
point is inside the locking box and in
its pocket in the drive bar.

a). Forele remanente, din bara de


acionare, sunt rezultatul curbrilor
insuficiente sau excesive ale acelor; de
fapt existena curbrilor insuficiente ale
acelor rezult din prezena forelor
remanente obinute din diagrame;
b). Concluzia c forele remanente sunt
rezultatul curbrilor necorespunztoare
ale acelor s-a obinut pe baza
urmtoarelor observaii:
- clema de fixare a unui ac lipit de
contraac nu poate solicita axial bara
de acionare deoarece vrful ei este n
afara cutiei de nzvorre i n afara
lcaului ei din bara de acionare;
- clema de fixare a unui ac complet
deslipit de contraac poate solicita
axial bara de acionare deoarece
vrful ei este n cutia de nzvorre i
n lcaul ei din bara de acionare.
Deci, acul complet deslipit de contraac, n
tendina lui de a se aeza n poziia fr
eforturi unitare din ncovoiere poate solicita
bara de acionare la ntindere, sau la
compresiune, n funcie de semnul abaterii
curburii acului respectiv n raport cu acea
curbur care corespunde eforturilor unitare
de ncovoiere nule;

28

Therefore, the point, when completely


unsoldered from the stock rail, having the
tendency to fix without unitary transverse
stresses, may stress the drive bar at
tensioning, or at compression, according to
the sign of the bending deviation of the
respective point proportionally to the
bending correspondent to the zero value
unit transverse stress;

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

c). Mrimile forelor remanente sunt


dictate i de mrimea frecrii dintre ac
i alunectori. Forele remanente
maxime se obin atunci cnd nu exist
frecare ntre ac i alunectori;
d). Concluzia, privind curbrile finale
insuficiente ale acelor, rezult i din
faptul c analiznd nregistrrile
diagramelor se constat c fora
remanent pstreaz semnul forei de
acionare anterioare;
e). Valorile obinute, privitoare la limitele
mediei aritmetice i ale abaterii
standard, arat c: poate fi redus limita
pentru valoarea maxim a forei
remanente care este prevzut n
reglementrile n vigoare;
f). Obinerea
unei
curbri
finale
corespunztoare a acului flexibil, poate
fi realizat prin aplicarea unei noi
tehnologii de curbare final.

c). The proportions of the residual forces


are also influenced by the friction
proportion between the point and
sliders; the maximum residual forces
are obtained when there is no friction
between the point and sliders.
d). The conclusion regarding the final point
underbending is also the result of the
fact that, while analyzing the diagram
records, one can notice that the residual
force maintains the sign of the previous
drive force;
e). The resulting values regarding the
arithmetic mean and standard deviation
limits show that: the limit for the
maximum value of the residual force
mentioned by the regulations in force
may be reduced;
f). A final bending corresponding to the
flexible point may be achieved by
applying a new final bending
technology.

Considrations sur la force restante lors de la manoeuvre des aiguillages avec des aiguilles flexibles
Rsum
Larticle met en vidence des aspects concernant les forces restantes du mcanisme dactionnement, lorsque
pour la fixation des aiguilles lon utilise des brides de fixation des aiguillages.
Lon arrive la conclusion que les forces restantes sont le rsultat des courbements finals inadquats des
aiguilles. Lon prcise que la force restante du mcanisme dactionnement est limite une valeur maximale
afin dviter un ventuel dverrouillage des aiguilles lors des situations atypiques. Leffet du dverrouillage
des aiguilles peut mettre en danger la scurit de la circulation sur les voies ferres.

Bibliografie
References
[1].

*** Railway switch locks operated by electrodevices. SNCFR, 1995

[2].

*** Track tampers switches. STAS 4865/86

[3].

*** Track tampers flexible points. STR 533/91

[4].

***Clamp railway switch locks. STAS 8667/85

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

29

Asupra cinematicii micrii plane a


solidului rigid

On the kinetic of a rigid body planar


motion

Mihail Alexandrescu, Prof. Dr. Ing., Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti (Prof Dr. Eng., Technical University
of Civil Engineering Bucharest), Catedra de Mecanic, Statica i Dinamica Construciilor (Mechanics, Statics and
Dynamics Engineering Department)
Mina-Denisa Fono, asist. drd. ing., Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti (Teacher Assistant, doctoral trainee,
Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest), Catedra de Mecanic, Statica i Dinamica Construciilor (Mechanics,
Statics and Dynamics Engineering Department)
Emil Alexandrescu, Ing. absolvent Institutul de Construcii Bucureti (Eng., graduate of the Institute of Civil Engineering
Bucharest)

1. Obiectul studiului
n cele ce urmeaz vom prezenta ntr-o manier
original dou aspecte caracteristice ale
cinematicii solidului rigid care efectueaz o
micare plan cu gradul de mobilitate NGL = 1 .

1. Object of the study


As follows we shall present in an original
manner two characteristic aspects of the
kinematics of a rigid body having a planar
motion with the mobility degree NGL = 1 .

1.1 Primul aspect


Acesta se refer la exprimarea matematic a
distribuiilor de viteze i acceleraii n cazul dat,
n raport cu un reper fixed O1 x1 y1 z1 , folosind
ase repere mobile de calcul dup cum urmeaz:

1.1 The first aspect


That refers to the mathematical expression of
speed and acceleration distributions for the
given case, with reference to a fixed mark
O1 x1 y1 z1 , using six mobile calculation marks as:

Fig. 1. Sistemul de referin fixed, O1 x1 y1 z1 i sistemele de referin mobile:


a. Oxyz , solidar cu solidul rigid rigid (S.R.): O S.R., = &
b. Oxy z , semisolidar cu solidul rigid :O S.R., = 0
The fixeded mark O1 x1 y1 z1 and the mobile marks:
a. Oxyz , solid to the rigid body (S.R.): O S.R., = &

b. Oxy z , semi-solid to the rigid body: O S.R., = 0

Reperul mobil Oxyz, solidar cu solidul rigid


(fig. 1.a) a crui micare plan se caracterizeaz
30

The mobile one Oxyz, solid with the rigid body


(fig. 1.a) whose planar motion is characterized

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

prin twisterul O ( ,v1O ) , unde este viteza


unghiular instantanee a solidului rigid, iar v1O
este viteza sa de translaie instantanee
corespunztoare punctului O, ales ca origine a
reperului mobil; ambele viteze se raportez la
reperul fixed O1 x1 y1 z1 , denumit reper obiectiv.
De obicei, vectorul se exprim matematic n
raport cu reperul solidar Oxyz , care are calitatea
de reper de calcul, n timp ce vectorul v1O se
exprim matematic n raport cu reperul fixed
O1 x1 y1 z1 , care posed astfel calitatea dubl de
reper obiectiv i reper de calcul. n principiu
ns, pentru exprimarea matematic a
parametrilor cinematici se poate folosi orice
reper de calcul. Noiunea de twister atribuit
ansamblului de vectori fundamentali
este
definit n spiritul analogiei statico
cinematice.
Reperul mobil Ox y z , semisolidar cu solidul
rigid (fig. 1.b), a crui micare plan n raport
cu reperul fixed O1x1y1z1 se caracterizeaz prin
twisterul O ( = 0 , v1O ) . Reperul Ox y z este
semisolidar cu solidul rigid n sensul c punctul
O aparine solidului rigid, ns axele acestui
reper rmn de direcii fixede, fiind n micare
plan de translaie n raport cu reperul fixed
(v1O , a1O ) . Reperul Ox y z , obiectiv n esen,
poate fi considerat i ca reper de calcul
Reperul mobil Ixyz , solidar la rotaie cu solidul
rigid (fig. 2.a), a crui micare se caracterizeaz
prin twisterul I ( , v1 I = 0 ) .

Originea I a acestui reper este centrul instanta-neu


de rotaie (C.I.R.), deci I aparine solidului rigid n
fiecare clip. Aceast apartenen este diferit de
cea care vizeaz punctul O din figurile 1.a i 1.b,
deoarece O rmne tot timpul acelai, spre
deosebire de I care, dei aparine solidului rigid,
totui ocup poziii diferite n funcie de timp. Mai
exact, I reprezint o succesiune spaio temporal
de puncte materiale care aparin solidului rigid.
Vom arta la momentul potrivit ce consecine are
acest gen de apartenen a lui I la solidul rigid,

by twister O ( ,v1O ) , where is the


instantaneous angular velocity of the rigid body,
and v1O -its instantaneous translation velocity,
corresponding to point O, chosen as an origin of
the mobile mark; both velocities refer to the fixed
mark O1 x1 y1 z1 , called objective mark. Usually,
vector is mathematically expressed in
relationship to the solid mark Oxyz that,
consequently, is considered a calculation mark,
while vector v1O is mathematically expressed
with reference to the fixed mark O1 x1 y1 z1 , which
as a result has a double quality, as an objective
mark as well as a calculation mark. But, as a rule,
any calculation mark could be used for
mathematically
expressing the cinematic
parameters. The twister notion referring to
fundamental vectors assembly ( ,v10 ) is defined
under the static kinetic analogy.
The mobile mark Ox y z , semi-solid with the rigid
(fig. 1.b), whose planar motion is related to the
fixed mark O1x1y1z1 , is characterized by the
twister O ( = 0 , v1O ) . The mark Ox y z is
semi-solid to the rigid body, meaning that point O
belongs to the rigid body, but the axis of this mark
stays in fixed directions, being in a planar
translation with reference to the fixed
mark (v1O , a1O ) . The mark Ox y z , essentially
objective, can be regarded as a calculus mark too.
The mobile mark Ixyz , solid to the rotation of the
rigid body (fig. 2.a), whose movement is
characterized by the twister I ( , v1 I = 0 ) .
The origin I of this mark is the instantaneous
center of rotation (C.I.R), so I belongs to the rigid
body every instant. This belonging is different
from the one that refers to the point O from
figures 1.a and 1.b, because O remains all the
time the same, unlike the I that, even though
belongs to the rigid body, occupies different
positions in time. More precisely, I represents a
space time sequence of material points that
belongs to the rigid body. We will show later
which the consequences are for this kind of
belonging of I to the rigid body, in comparison

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

31

comparativ cu apartenena punctului O.

with the belonging of point O.

Reperul mobil Pxyz , unde P este polul


acceleraiilor, se caracterizeaz prin twisterul
P ( , v1P ) , unde v1P este viteza punctului P n
raport cu reperul fixed. Apartenena punctului P la
solidul rigid n fiecare clip este esenialmente
analoag cu apartenena lui I , astfel nct Pxyz
este i el un reper solidar la rotaie.(fig. 2.b).

The mobile mark Pxyz , where P is the


acceleration pole, is characterized by the
twister P ( , v1P ) , where v1P is the P velocity with
reference to the fixed mark. The belonging of point
P to the rigid body every instant is essentially
analogous with the belonging of I, so that Pxyz too
is a mark solid to the rotation. (fig. 2.b).

Fig. 2. Sistemul de referin fixed, O1 x1 y1 z1 i sistemele de referin mobile:


a. Ixyz, solidar la rotaie cu solidul rigid: I S.R., = & , v1I = 0 ;
b. Pxyz , solidar la rotaie cu solidul rigid :P S.R., & = &&, a1P = 0 .
The fixed mark O1x1y1z1 , and the mobile marks :
a. Ixyz, solid to rotation to the rigid body: I S.R., = & , v1I = 0 ;
b. Pxyz , solid to rotation to the rigid body P S.R., & = &&, a1P = 0 .

32

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

*
Reperul mobil I xyz (fig. 3.a) este caracterizat
*
de twisterul I * ( , v1 I ) , unde I* este punctul care

se suprapune n fiecare clip peste I, dar, spre


deosebire de acesta, nu aparine solidului rigid.
Caracterul semisolidar al acestui reper const n
faptul c el are aceeai vitez unghiular
instantanee, , cu solidul rigid (este solidar la
rotaie); la translaie constrngerea micrii
*
reperului mobil I xyz const n faptul c I* se
suprapune n fiecare clip peste I (fig. 3.a).
*
Reperul mobil I xy z este caracterizat de
*
twisterul I * ( = 0 , v1 I ) , fiind astfel nesolidar

cu solidul rigid (fig. 3.b).


Este important de reinut faptul c distribuiile
de viteze i acceleraii n raport cu reperul fixed
O1 x1 y1 z1 sunt independente de reperele mobile
alese, att de calcul, cat i obiective;
independena amintit vizeaz n egal msur
nsui reperul fixed ales. Pe de alt parte trebuie
subliniat faptul c n cazul cnd reperul mobil
este de calcul, alegerea sa este absolut arbitrar
n general, n timp ce, dac reperul mobil este
obiectiv, atunci alegerea sa este condiionat, iar
cele dou componente ale micrii absolute
depind de alegerea respectiv, chiar dac
micarea absoluta ramne independent de
aceast alegere.
1.2 Al doilea aspect

The

mobile

mark

I * xyz

(fig. 3.a) is
*
characterized by the twister I * ( , v1 I ) , where I*
is the point that overlaps I every moment but,
unlike the latter, it does not belong to the rigid
body. The semi-solid character of this mark is
defined by the fact that it has the same instant
angular velocity, , with the rigid body (it is
solid to rotation); on translation the constraint of
*
the movement of the mobile mark I xyz lies in
the fact that I* overlaps I every moment (fig.
3.a).
*
The mobile mark I xy z is characterized by the
*
twister I * ( = 0 , v1 I ) which, in this situation is

not solid to the rigid body (fig. 3.b).


It is important to remember that velocity and
acceleration distributions related to the fixed
mark O1x1y1z1 are independent from the chosen
mobile marks, in calculus as well as in
objectives; this independence also refers to the
chosen fixed mark. On the other hand we have
to remember that, in case the mobile mark is to
be calculated, its choice is, generally speaking,
absolutely arbitrary, while, if the mobile mark is
objective, then its choice is conditioned, and the
two components of the absolute movement
depend on the choice made, even though the
absolute movement remains independent from
this choice.
1.2 The second aspect

Acesta se refer la interpretarea distribuiilor de


viteze i acceleraii n spiritul compunerii
micrilor solidului rigid. n acest sens reperele
*
mobile Oxy z (fig. 1.b), I xyz (fig. 3.a) i
I * xyz (fig. 3.b) sunt privite ca repere obiective fa de care micarea solidului rigid
reprezint componenta relativ a micrii plane
n raport cu reperul fixed O1 x1 y1 z1 (micarea
absolut). n legatur cu acest al doilea aspect se
fac dou precizri:
nzestrarea reperelor mobile menionate cu
calitatea de a fi obiective, n sensul compunerii

That refers to the interpretation of velocity and


acceleration distribution for creating the
movements of the rigid body. In this manner the
*
mobile marks Oxy z (fig. 1.b), I xyz (fig. 3.a)
*
and I xyz (fig. 3.b) are regarded as objective
marks, with reference to which the motion of
the rigid body represents the relative component
of the planar motion related to the fixed mark
O1 x1 y1 z1 (absolute motion). In connection to
this second aspect two mentions must be made:
giving the mentioned mobile marks the quality
of being objective, as in creating the movements

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

33

micrilor solidului rigid, nu afecteaz micarea


absolut;
n cinematic, reperele mobile au n general
micri definite, independente de micarea
absolut a solidului rigid; n discuia de fa,
alegerea reperelor mobile este ns definit preferenial, n sensul c micrile lor sunt dependente de micarea solidului rigid. n conse*
cin, vectorii , v1O , v1 I i v1 I sunt aceiai
pentru micarea absolut i pentru componentele sale relativ i de transport.
Dup cum se tie exist dou modele de
reprezentare a micrii sistemelor de puncte
materiale:

of the rigid body, does not affect the absolute


movement;
generally, in kinematics the mobile marks have
defined movements, independent from the
absolute movement of the rigid body; in this
case the choice of the mobile marks is
preferentially defined, that is, their movements
depend on the movement of the rigid body.
*
Consequently, the vectors , v1O , v1 I and v1 I
are the same for the absolute motion and for its
relative and transport components.
As we know there are two models of
representation for the movement of the material
points systems:

a. modelul lagrangean, cu aplicabilitate curent


la sisteme rigide de puncte materiale;
b. modelul eulerian cu aplicabilitate curent la
sisteme nerigide de puncte materiale (fluide).
n expunerea de fa vom prezenta unele aspecte
ale distribuiei de viteze i acceleraii n
micarea plan a solidului rigid, n conformitate
cu modelul lagrangean; principalele rezultate
formulate n continuare vor constitui baza
teoretic a unui viitor studiu asupra unor aspecte
dinamice ale micrii plane a solidului rigid,
constnd n:
variantele de exprimare matematic a
teoremelor generale ale mecanicii clasice n
conformitate cu primul aspect formulat anterior;
interpretarea variantelor respective conform
celui de al doilea aspect, respectiv exprimarea
matematic a teoremelor generale n cazul
raportrii obiective a micrii solidului rigid la
repere neineriale.

a. the Lagrange model, currently applied to the


rigid systems of material points;
b. the Euler model, currently applied to nonrigid material points (fluid).
In this article we shall present some aspects of
the velocity and acceleration distribution for a
planar motion of a rigid body, according to the
Lagrange model; the main results formulated in
this material will make the theoretical basis for a
future study on certain dynamic aspects of a
rigid body's planar motion, such as:

2. Expresiile matematice ale distribuiilor de


viteze i acceleraii folosind reperele mobile
reprezentate pe figurile 1...3
2.1 Expresiile matematice ale distribuiilor de
viteze i acceleraii folosind reperul mobil Oxyz
(fig. 1.a), solidar cu solidul rigid
Urmrind figura 1.a, se poate scrie urmtoarea
relaie vectorial:

34

alternatives of mathematically expressing the


general theorems of the classic movements
according to the first aspect formulated above;
interpretation of such alternatives according to
the second aspect, that is, the mathematical
expression of general theorems in the case of an
objective reference of the rigid body movement
to the non inert marks.
2. The mathematical expression of velocity
and acceleration distribution using the
mobile marks represented on figures 1...3
2.1 The mathematical expressions of velocity
and acceleration distribution using the mobile
mark Oxyz (fig. 1.a) solid to the rigid body
Analysing figure 1.a, the following vectorial
relation can be written:

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

O1 Pi = O1Qi + Qi Pi O1 Pi = O1O + OQi + Qi Pi


(1)
where Pi is an arbitrary material point of the
unde Pi este un punct material arbitrar al
solidului rigid, a crui proiecie pe planul Oxy
rigid body, whose projection on the Oxy plane is
Qi . To simplify things, let us review a few
este Qi . n scopul simplificrii scrierii vom
reaminti n continuare cteva ipoteze de calcul:
calculus hypotheses:
Oxy
O
x
y
planele 1 1 1 i
se suprapun, astfel nct the planes O1 x1 y1 and Oxy overlap, so that we
vom avea:
have:
O1 Pi = O1 Pi ( x1i y1i , z1i ) ; O1Qi = O1Qi ( x1i y1i ,0 )
deoarece distribuiile de viteze i acceleraii because velocity and acceleration distribution
pentru toate punctele Pi ale cror proiecii pe for all Pi points whose projections on the plane
planul O1 x1 y1 se suprapun n Qi sunt identice, O1 x1 y1 overlap in Qi are identical, in some
n unele relaii vom folosi vectorii de poziie relations we shall use vectors of position O1Qi
O1Qi n locul vectorilor O1 Pi ;
instead of vectors O1 Pi ;
vom presupune de asemenea c centrul de mas
we also presume that the mass centre G, of the
G , al rigidului aparine planului O1 x1 y1 .
rigid body belongs to the plane O1 x1 y1 .
 Distribuia de viteze rezult derivnd relaia
 Velocities' distribution results as a time(1) n raport cu timpul:
derivative of the expression (1):

(2)
care este prima formul fundamental a
cinematicii solidului rigid (termenii tiai sunt
nuli). Se observ c n acest caz nu are sens s
vorbim despre existena unei componente de
transport i a uneia relative, deoarece reperul
mobil este solidar cu solidul rigid. Dac ns
punctele Pi i Qi nu aparin solidului rigid,
atunci formula (2) devine:

which is the first fundamental formula of the


kinematics of the rigid body (all crossed out
terms are nil). We notice that in this case there
is no point in talking about the existence of a
component for transport and of a relative one,
because the mobile mark is solid to the rigid
body. But if points Pi and Qi do not belong to
the rigid body, then equation (2) becomes:

iar reperul mobil Oxyz a devenit reper obiectiv;


n acest sens apar n relaia (3) componentele de
transport i relativ ale distribuiei de viteze pe
sistemul nerigid de puncte materiale Pi .

OPi
= (vi )tO + (vi )rO
(3)
t
and the mobile mark Oxyz becomes objective; in
this respect the distribution of the transport and
relative velocity components is shown in (3) on
the non-rigid material points system Pi .

Observaii:
n principiu reperul mobil Oxyz folosit la
scrierea relaiei (3) nu este restricionat, ns noi
l vom considera pe cel din figura 1.a avnd
micare plan.
Relaia (3) a fost inclus n aceast expunere cu

Notes:
As a principle, the mobile mark Oxyz used for
writing equation (3) is not restricted, but we
shall consider the one in figure 1.a as having a
planar motion.
Equation (3) was included in this material with

v1i = v1O + OPi +

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

35

scopul de a o aplica la expresia vitezei punctului


material I* (fig. 3.a,b) care nu aparine solidului
rigid.
 Distribuia de acceleraii conform relaiei (2)
este:
a1i = a1O + OQi

relaie denumit a doua formul fundamental a


cinematicii solidului rigid, particularizat aici
pentru micarea plan.
Expresia (4) se extinde la cazul cnd Pi nu
aparine solidului rigid, pstrnd derivatele.
2.2 Expresiile matematice ale distribuiilor de
viteze i acceleraii folosind reperul mobil
semisolidar Oxy z (fig. 1.b)

the purpose of being applied to the velocity


expression of the material point I* (fig. 3 a, b)
that does not belong to the rigid body.
 Acceleration distribution according to (2) is
as follows:
2

2 OQi
OQi
OQi +
+ 2
(4)
2
t
t
being called the second fundamental formula of
the rigid body kinematics, particularized here
for the planar motion.
The (4) extends for the case when Pi does not
belong to the rigid body, keeping the
derivatives.
2.2 Mathematical expressions of velocity' and
acceleration distribution using the semi-solid
mobile mark Oxy z (fig. 1.b)

Avem urmtoarele relaii:

We have the following relations:


O1 Pi = O1O + OQi + Qi Pi

OQi Qi Pi
OQi
+
= v1O +
= (vi)tO + (vi)rO
v1i = v1O + ' OQi +
(5)
t t
t

2 OQi
= (a'i )tO + (a'i )rO
a1i = a1O +
(6)
2
t
Din identificarea expresiilor (2) cu (5) i (4) cu By identifying expressions (2) with (5) and (4)
(6) rezult:
with (6) it results that:

2 OQi
OQi
= OQi 2 OQi

= OQi ,
(7)
2
t
t
Din punct de vedere teoretic relaiile (7) From a theoretical point of view the relations in
confirm un adevr uor de prevzut: (7) confirm an easily predictable truth: the
componenta relativ a micrii plane (absolute) relative component of the rigid body's absolute
a solidului rigid este o rotaie instantanee n planar motion is a instantaneous rotation
jurul axei Oz , caracterizat de vectorii i around the Oz axis, characterized by vectors
& = , ceea ce confer reperului mobil Oxy z and & = , which confers to the mobile
calitatea de reper obiectiv, pe care omologul su mark Ox y z the quality of an objective mark,
Oxyz nu o are.
one that Oxyz does not have.
n fine, mai trebuie subliniat c derivata total n
raport cu timpul a vectorului de poziie OQi nu
depinde de alegerea reperelor mobile de calcul,
n timp ce componentele sale relativ i de
transport depind de aceast alegere.
Pentru punctele materiale Pi care nu aparin
36

Finally, we must underline that the total


derivative related to time, of the vector for the
position OQi does not depend on the choice of
calculation mobile marks, while its relative and
transport components depend on this choice.
For material points Pi that do not belong to the

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

solidului rigid, relaiile (5) i (6) se modific n


mod corespunztor. Astfel relaia (5) devine:

n care:

rigid body, relations (5) and (6) are modified


accordingly. Thus , (5) becomes:

OPi
= (vi )'tO + (vi )'rO
v1i = v1O +
(5')

t
where:
'
(vi )tO = (vi )tO = v1O ; (vi )'rO (vi)rO

'
iar (vi )rO nu mai corespunde unei rotaii, spre
deosebire de (vi)rO . Relaia (6) devine:

but

(vi )'rO

does no longer correspond to a


rotation, unlike (vi)rO . Relation (6) becomes:

2 OP
i
= (ai )' + (ai )'
a1i = a1O +
(6')
tO
rO
t 2

n care:

where:

(ai )'rO = (ai)tO = a1O ; (ai )'rO (ai)rO


2.3 Expresiile matematice ale distribuiilor de
viteze i acceleraii folosind reperul mobil Ixyz
(figura.2.a), semisolidar cu solidul rigid

2.3 The expressions of velocity and


acceleration distribution using the mobile
mark Ixyz (figure 2.a), semi-solid to the rigid

According to figure 2.a the following relations


Conform figurii 2.a se pot scrie urmtoarele
could be written:
relaii:
O1 Pi = O1 I + IQi + Qi Pi

IQ i
v1i = O1 P i = v1 I + IQ i +
t


Qi Pi
+ Qi Pi +
t

= IQ i

(8)

a1i = O1 P i = a1I + IQi 2 IQi

(9)
Asupra relaiilor (8) i (9) se fac urmtoarele
The following must be noted with reference to
remarci:
relations (8) and (9):
v
viteza 1 I a centrului instantaneu de rotaie este the speed of the instantaneous rotation center,
nul prin definiie i poate fi calculat conform v1 I , is nil by definition, and it could be
relaiei (2) alegnd reperul Oxyz ca reper mobil calculated according to (2) choosing the mark
Oxyz as a mobile mark:
de calcul:
v1 I = v1O + OI = 0
(10)
relaie din care rezult poziia centrului
instantaneu de rotaie n fiecare clip;

This relation gives the position of the


instantaneous centre of rotation each instant;

derivatele ronde sunt nule pentru c punctele I,


Qi , i Pi aparin solidului rigid, iar produsul
vectorial Qi Pi este nul, deoarece cei doi
vectori sunt coliniari;
ar fi greit ca din relaia (10) s tragem

the ronda derivatives are nil because the points


I, Qi and Pi belong to the rigid body, and the
factorial product Qi Pi is nil, because the
two vectors are collinear;
it would be wrong, in relation (10), to conclude

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

37

concluzia c a1 I = 0 ; n realitate avem conform that a1 I = 0 ; in reality, according to (10), we


relaiei (10):
have:
a1 I = a1O + OI 2 OI 0
(11)
unde OI rezult din relaia (10);

where OI results from relation (10);

distribuia de viteze absolute pe solidul rigid n


micare plan, conform relaiei (8), este identic
cu cea corespunzatoare unei roatii n jurul
axei instantanee Iz a reperului mobil Ixyz dac
punctul Pi nu aparine solidului rigid, deci
implicit nici Qi , atunci relaia (8) devine:

the distribution of the rigid body's absolute


velocity, according with (8), is identical with
one corresponding to a rotation around the
instantaneous Iz axis of the mobile mark Ixyz
and if point Pi does not belong to the rigid
body, so neither does Qi ,then the relation (8)
becomes:
IPi
v1i = v1 I + IPi +
= (vi )tI + (vi )rI
(8')
t
unde derivata rond nu mai este nul n general, where the ronda derivative is no longer null in
iar nlocuirea vectorului IPi cu IQi nu mai este general, and replacing vector IPi with IQi is no
longer allowed;
permis;
- distribuia de acceleraii absolute pe solidul
rigid, exprimat prin relaia (11), nu mai
corespunde rotaiei n jurul axei
instantanee Iz.

- the distribution of absolute accelerations


on the rigid body, in (11) no longer
corresponds to the rotation around the
instantaneous axis Iz.

2.4 Expresiile matematice ale distribuiilor de


viteze i acceleraii folosind reperul mobil Pxyz
(figura 2.b) semisolidar cu solidul rigid

2.4 The expressions of velocity and


acceleration distribution using the mobile
mark Pxyz (figure 2.b), semi-solid to the rigid

Avem expresiile urmtoare:

We have the following expressions:

Q P
PQi
+ Qi Pi + i i = v1P + PQi
O1Pi = O1P + PQi + Qi Pi v1i = v1P + PQi +
t
t

a1i = a1P + PQi 2 PQi


For point I, relations (12) and (13) become:
Pentru punctul I, relaiile (12) i (13) devin:

(12)
(13)

v1 I = v1 P + PI = 0

(12')

a1 I = PI PI

(13')

Vectorii v1P i a1P din (12') i (13') se


calculeaz conform relaiilor (2) i (3) rezultnd:

Vectors v1P and a1 P from (12') and (13') are


calculated according to (2) and (3) resulting in:

OP
0
(14)
t
2 OP
OP
a1P = a1O + OP 2 OP +
+
=0
(15)
2
t
t
unde (15) reprezint relaia de definiie a polului where (15) represents the relation of definition
v1 P = v1O + OP +

38

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

acceleraiilor.

for the acceleration poles.

n legtur cu relaiile precedente se fac


urmtoarele observaii:

In connection with the above mentioned


relations we make the following remarks:

comparnd (10) i (11) cu (14) i (15) rezult un


fel de complementaritate viznd viteza i
acceleraia centrului instantaneu de rotaie i
polului acceleraiilor;
cele patru relaii menionate relev adevrul
cunoscut, c distribuiile de viteze i de
acceleraii pe solidul rigid n micarea plan
corespund unor rotaii instantanee n raport cu
axe (repere mobile) diferite: n jurul axei
n jurul axei
instantanee Iz i

P
z
instantanee
;
se pot calcula v1P conform relaiei (8) i a1 I
conform relaiei (13):

the comparison of (10) and (11) with (14) and


(15) results in the velocity and acceleration of
the instantaneous centre of rotation being
complementary to those of the acceleration
pole;
the four relations mentioned reveal that the
velocity and acceleration distribution on the
rigid body in a planar motion correspond to an
instantaneous rotations referring to the different
axis (mobile marks):
around the

around the
instantaneous Iz and

instantaneous Pz ;
v1P values could be calculated according to
relation (8), and a1 I according to (13):
v1 P = IP ; a1 I = PI 2 PI
In the case of a rotation with a fixed axis we
n cazul rotaiei cu ax fix avem IP, astfel
nct relaia (8) se identific cu (12) i (9) cu
have IP, so that (8) is identified with (12) and
(13), iar cele dou repere mobile devin fixe.
(9) with (13), and the two mobile marks become
immobile.
2.5 Expresiile matematice ale distribuiilor de
viteze i acceleraii folosind reperul mobil 2.5 The mathematic expressions of velocity and
*
I * xyz (fig. 3.a) semisolidar cu solidul rigid
acceleration using the mobile mark I xyz (fig.
3.a) semi-solid to the rigid body
Se pot scrie urmtoarele relaii:
The following relations could be written:

O1 Pi = O1 I * + I * Qi + Qi Pi v1i = v1*I + I * Qi +

I * Qi
Q P
+ Qi Pi + i i = vi*
t
t

( ) + (v )

I Qi
2 I Qi
= ai*
+ 2
a1i = a + I Qi I Qi +
2
t
t
*
1I

tI

*
i rI

(16)

( ) + (a ) + (a )
tI

*
i rI

*
i c

(17)

unde s-au evideniat:

where were emphasized:

vitezele relativ i de transport;


acceleraiile
relativ,
de
transport
i
complementar (Coriolis).
Dac punctul Pi nu aparine solidului rigid,
*
reperul mobil I xyz dobndete calitatea de
reper obiectiv, iar relaia (16) devine:

the relative and transport velocities;


the relative, transport and complementary
accelerations (Coriolis).
If Pi point does not belongs to the rigid body,
*
the mobile mark I xyz receives the quality of
an objective mark, and relation (16) becomes:

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

39

v1i = v1*I + I Pi +
*

Vectorii v1 I i a1 I se calculeaz conform


relaiilor (2) i (3), unde se ine seama c
derivatele ronde sunt nule, deoarece I* nu
aparine solidului rigid (prin contrast cu
situaia lui I):

(16')

*
*
The v1 I and a1 I vectors are computed
according to (2) and (3), where the ronda
derivatives are considered nil, because I* does
not belong to the rigid body (unlike I):

I Pi
*
*
= (vi )tI + (vi )rI
t

v1*I = v1O + OI +

OI
OI *
= v1 I +
t
t

(18)

OI
2 OI
a = a1O + OI OI +
= (ai* )t + (ai* )r + (ai* )c
+ 2
2
t
t
*
1I

n relaia (18) se remarc un aspect foarte


important:

deoarece paranteza este nul, conform


relaiei (10), rezult c vitezele absolut i
relativ ale centrului instantaneu de rotaie
calculate folosind reperul solidar ca reper
mobil sunt identice; dup cum se tie,
aceast obser-vaie constituie fundamentul
teoretic al celor dou proprieti ale bazei
i rostogolitoarei.
2.6 Expresiile matematice ale distribuiilor de
viteze i acceleraii folosind reperul mobil
I*x'y'z' (fig. 3.b), nesolidar cu solidul rigid
Urmrind figura 3.b se pot scrie urmtoarele
relaii:

(19)

In relation (18) a very important aspect must be


noted:

Since the parenthesis is nil according to


the relation (10), it results that the
absolute and the relative velocity of the
instantaneous centre of rotation calculated
using the solid mark as a mobile mark are
identical; as we know, this observation is
the theoretical foundation of the two
properties of the basis and roller.
2.6 The expressions of velocity and
acceleration distribution using the mobile
mark I*x'y'z' (fig. 3b), not solid to the rigid
body
Following figure 3.b the following relations
could be described:

I Q
i = v* ' + v* '
O1Pi = O1I * + I * Qi + Qi P i v1i = v1*I + I Qi +
(20)
i tI
i rI
t

2 I Q
i = a* ' + a* '
a1i = a1*I +
(21)
i tI
i rI
t 2

Dac Pi nu aparine solidului rigid, atunci


If Pi does not belong to the rigid body, then the
relaiile (20) i (21) devin:
relations (20) and (21) become:

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

40

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

I
P
*
*
i
= (vi)tI + (vi)rI
v1i = v1*I +
t

2 I P
i = (a )* + (a )*
a1i = a1*I +
i tI
i rI
t 2

(20')

(21')

Sur la cinmatique du mouvement plan du solide rigide


Rsum
L'article prsente l'tude de la distribution des vitesses et des acclrations sur un solide rigide qui a un mouvement plan et
le degr de mobilit gal 1, aussi bien par rapport un repre fixede, O1 x1 y1 z1 , que par rapport six repres mobiles,
solidaires ou non solidaires du solide rigide.
Bibliografie
References
[1]

ALEXANDRESCU M., Mecanica teoretic, vol.II, Cinematica, Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii


Bucureti, 1997.

[2]

VLCOVICI V., BLAN T., VOINEA R., Mecanica teoretic, Editura Tehnic, Bucureti, 1968.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

41

Rezultate de ncredere ale ncercrilor


pentru
determinarea
rezistenei
termomecanice a epruvetelor din
aliajul al 6061

Reliable
Test
Results
for
Determining the Thermo-Mechanical
Stress of al 6061 Alloy Samples

Indira Andreescu, prof.univ.dr.ing. Facultatea de Utilaj Tehnologic, Universitatea Tehnica de Constructii Bucuresti
Professor Dr., Faculty of Machine Tools, Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest e-mail:
indira_utcb@yahoo.com

Din grupa aliajelor de aluminiu prefereniale


pentru fabricarea anumitor detalii de structuri de
aeronave au fost examinate sub raportul
rezistenei lor termomecanice, specimene de aliaj,
convenabil ca pre, Al 6061.Datele obinute fac
obiectul meniunilor care urmeaz.
n tabelul nr. 1 sunt centralizate valori de
caracterizare, n ceea ce privete rezistena
mecanic la temperatura camerei, aliajului
considerat corespunztor ncercrilor la traciune

From the group of aluminum alloys preferred


for the manufacturing of certain aircraft
structure items, alloy specimens type Al 6061
were examined from the point of view of their
thermo-mechanical strength ratio, because of
their convenient cost. The acquired data are
the object of the following notes.
Table no.1 centralizes the reference values
concerning the mechanical strength at 200C of
the considered alloy, corresponding to traction
testing.
Tabelul nr.1/ Table no.1

Proprieti mecanice ale aliajelor Al 6061


Mechanical properties of Al 6061 alloy
Bare
extrudate
tije i profile Bare, tije,
Tuburi
3)
Forma
Plci (Plates)
rotunjite 4)
Conducte
(Tubes)
(Shape)
(Rolled bars
(Pipes)
(Rolled
extruded
and rods)
bars, rods
and profiles)
Tratat
Tratat
Tratat
Tratat ter.si Tratat ter.si Tratat ter.si Tratat termic
Tratat termic i
mb- Ter- mb- Ter-mic mb- i mbtrnit2)
Termbtrnit 2)
Condiia
Tratat termic1)
1)
trnit2) mic1) trnit2) 1)
trnit2) (Heat tr. and
(Condition)
(Heat treatment)
(Heat treatment and mic
aging)
Heat
tr.)
Heat
tr.
Heat
tr.)
Heat
tr.
Heat
tr.)
Heat
tr.
aging)
and
and
and
aging)
aging)
aging)
Grosimea,(thickness
0,60,6- 1,2- 1,676,2
76,2
203
203
0,24-50,8
51-76,2 0,24-50,8 51-76,2
), mm
12,7 12,7 12,7 17,4
(c)
(c)
(d)
(d)
Rutr, daN/mm2
....
.... .... .... 29,5 30,2 .... .... 18,3 26,7 21,1 29,5 21,1 29,5 29,5 26,7
Rctr, daN/mm2
....
.... .... .... 25,3 26,7 .... .... 11,2 24,6 11,2 24,6 11,2 24,6 24,6 24,6
Rcc, daN/mm2
....
.... .... .... 24,6 26,0 .... ....
9,8
23,9
9,8
23,9
9,8
23,9 23,9 23,9
Ruf, daN/mm2
14,1 14,8 .... .... 19,0 19,7 .... .... 11,2 16,9 14,1 19,0 14,1 19,0 19,0 19,0
Rupc,
(e/D 1,5) 33,7 35,9 .... .... 47,1 48,5 .... .... 29,5 42,9 33,7 47,1 33,7 47,1 47,1 47,1
daN/mm2(e/D 2,0) 44,3 47,1 .... .... 61,9 63,3 .... .... 38,9 56,2 44,3 61,9 44,3 61,9 61,9 56,2
Rcpc,
(e/D 1,5) 15,5 17,6 .... .... 35,2 37,3 .... .... 15,5 34,4 15,5 34,4 15,5 34,4 34,4 34,4
daN/mm2 (e/D 2,0) 18,3 20,4 .... .... 40,8 42,9 .... .... 18,3 39,4 18,3 39,4 18,3 39,4 39,4 39,4
e
....
.... .... ....
....
.... .... ....
16
10
18
10
....
....
12
10
E = 7,0 103daN/mm2, Ec = 7,1 103daN/mm2, G = 2,7 103daN/mm2
1)
Tratat termic
- Thermally (heat) treated
2)
Tratat termic i mbtrnit
- Thermally (heat) treated and aged
3)
Bare extrudate tije i profile - Extruded bars, rods and profiles
4)
Bare, tije rotunjite
- Rolled bars, rods

42

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

n fig. 1 se prezint, Rutr = f(T,t), n paliere


cresctoare cu 50OC ntre 100OC i 350OC,
cu meninerea n fiecare palier a epruvetelor
un timp de, respectiv 30 min, 10 ore i 100
ore. [1]

Fig.1 shows Rutr = f(T,t), between 1000C


and 3500C for 500C increments, while
maintaining the samples on each level for 30
min., 10 hours and 100 hours respectively
[1].

Aa cum arat graficul considerat, pentru


cazul t = 30 min la T = 150OC rezistena
msurat, Rutr, mai valora numai 80,7%
din Rutr la 20OC, pe cnd la 300OC (i t =
30 min), Rutr mai reprezenta doar 26,7%
din Rutr la 20OC; n acest palier termic, de
300OC, cnd epruveta a fost meninut
timp de 10 ore, rezistena sa a sczut cu
nc 3,6 procente, pentru ca dup 100 ore
s se micoreze i mai mult, Rutr msurnd
numai 16,3% din Rutr la 20OC.

As shown in the relevant diagram, for t = 30


min. at T=1500C the measured strength, Rutr
represented only 80.7%, of Rutr at 200C,
while at 3000C (and t = 30 min), Rutr
represented only 26.7%, of Rutr at 200C; at
the 3000C temperature level, when the
sample was maintained for 10 hours, its
strength decreased by another 3.6
percentage, whereas after 100 hours it
decreased even more, Rutr measuring only
16.3% of Rutr at 200C.

Fig. 1 - Reprezentarea grafic a variaiei cu temperatura a rezistenei ultime la traciune


a epruvetelor din aliaj Al 6061 -T6
Graphical representation of the ultimate traction strength variation with temperature in the case of Al 6061
alloy samples
Left: Percentages of Rutr at 200C Middle: exposure 30 min
10 hours
100 hours
Right: time of maintaining the temperature level 30 min, 10 hours, 100 hours
Rutr (% of Rutr at 200C)

S-au
obinut
date
utile
caracterizrii/evalurii aliajului Al 6061
i la msurtori efectuate n cadrul unor
ncercri la temperatura camerei pentru

Useful data for Al 6061 alloy were also


obtained during 200C testing for plotting
the stress-strain diagrams; these data are
shown in Diagram no.2; note the

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

43

ridicarea
curbelor
tip
tensiunedeformaie; aceste date sunt oglindite de
graficul din fig. 2. Se observ apropierea
valorilor funciei = f() la ntindere i
compresiune.

similarity between traction (Tr) and


compression (C) = f() function
values.

4,8

.
(strain)

a) (plates)

b) (extrudes)

Fig. 2 - Curbe tip tensiune (ntindere-compresiune) - deformaie la temperatura camerei ridicate


la solicitarea mecanic a epruvetelor din aliaj Al 6061-T6 (plci i extrudate) [4]
Traction-compression stress-strain curves at 200C of the Al 6061 alloy samples under mechanical stress.
The stress is shown in daN/mm2; the strain is shown in 10-3 mm/mm [4]

Fig.3 nfieaz curbe tip tensiunemodul de elasticitate, la temperatura


camerei, pe epruvete din acelai aliaj Al
6061. Graficul arat c pentru solicitri
de valoarea 5 22 daN/mm2 curbele E =
f() i Ec = f() se suprapun, ambele
module de elasticitate avnd mrimea de
6100 daN/mm2; epruvetele tensionate
sub = 24,6 daN/mm2 au prezentat
module de elasticitate, mai mici, diferite,
i anume E = 3400 daN/mm2 i Ec =
4600 daN/mm2.

44

Fig.3 shows the stress-modulus of


elasticity curves at 200C on the same Al
6061 alloy samples. The diagram shows
that for 5 22 daN/mm2 loads, the E =
f() and Ec = f() curves overlap, both
modules of elasticity having a 6100
daN/mm2 value; the samples undergoing
= 24,6 daN/mm2 showed lower,
different modules of elasticity namely
E
=
3400
daN/mm2
and
2
Ec = 4600 daN/mm .

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

(Stress)
Fig. 3 - Curbe tip ntindere-compresiune - modul E la temperatura camerei,
ridicate la ncercri mecanice pe epruvete din aliaj Al 6061 -T6
Traction-compression stress-modulus of elasticity E curves at 200C of the Al 6061 alloy samples
under mechanical stress L direction; T direction Left: modulus of compressive tangential elasticity

S-au fcut ncercri termomecanice pentru


caracterizarea aliajului Al 6061 tot n
modaliti proprii ridicrii curbelor
tensiune (traciune, compresiune) deformaie, i pe epruvete nclzite,
respectiv la 100OC i 300OC, pe o durat
de meninere n fiecare palier termic,
respectiv de 30 min,
2 ore i 10 ore.
Curbele i valorile n puncte caracteristice
sunt oferite de graficele cu tabel nserat
din fig. 4 6. [4]

For the Al 6061 alloy characterization similar


thermo-mechanical experiments were made
for plotting the traction and compression
stress-strain curves, as well as on heated
samples, at 1000C and 3000C respectively, for
a maintained length of time on each thermal
level of 30 min, 2 hours and 10 hours
respectively. The curves and their values in
characteristic points are shown in the
diagrams with inserted table fig 4 6 [4].

strain

time of maintaining on the thermal level: 30 min;2 hours; 10 hours

Fig. 4 Curbe tip tensiune (traciune, compresiune) deformaie ridicate la ncercri


pe epruvete din aliaj Al 6061-T6 nclzite la 100OC i meninute n acest palier,
respectiv 30 min, 2 ore i 10 ore
Traction-compression stress-strain curves of the Al 6061 alloy samples heated at 1000C and maintained at this
level for 30 min, 2 hours and 10 hours Left: stress daN/mm2 ; Right: exposure
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

45

.
time of maintaining on the thermal level: 30 min;2 hours; 10 hours; 100 hours

strain

Fig. 5 - Curbe tip tensiune (traciune, compresiune) - deformaie ridicate la ncercri pe epruvete din aliaj Al
6061 -T6 nclzite la 200OC i meninute n acest palier, respectiv 30 min, 2 ore, 10 ore i 100 ore
Traction-compression stress-strain curves of the Al 6061 alloy samples heated at 2000C and maintained
at this level for 30 min, 2 hours and 10 hours and 100 hours respectively
Left: stress daN/mm2

.
strain

time of maintaining on the thermal level: 30 min;2 hours; 10 hours;


100 hours

Fig. 6 - Curbe tip tensiune (traciune, compresiune) - deformaie ridicate la ncercri pe epruvete din aliaj Al
6061 -T6 nclzite la 300OC i meninute n acest palier, respectiv 30 min, 2 ore, 10 ore i 100 ore
Traction-compression stress-strain curves of the Al 6061 alloy samples heated at 3000C and maintained
at this level for 30 min, 2 hours and 10 hours and 100 hours respectively
Left: stress daN/mm2

n cele trei situaii de stare termomecanic a


epruvetelor ncercate, respectiv la T = 100OC,
200OC i 300OC, sunt sesizabile diferenele
de efect deformativ n fiecare palier termic n
funcie de durata meninerii epruvetelor un
46

Significant differences of deformation can


be noted on each thermal level, function of
the shorter or longer time of samples being
maintained in the same state, for samples
at 1000C, 2000C and 3000C respectively, in

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

timp mai lung sau mai scurt. Astfel, din


tabelele nserate n fig. 4, 5, 6 se deduce c
efectul deformativ de 6.10-3 mm/mm cu
meninerea epruvetei n palierul termic timp
de 2 ore a impus tensionarea (compresiv),
respectiv de 30,4 daN/mm2 pentru palierul de
100OC, de doar 13,8 daN/mm2 pentru
epruvetele atingnd palierul termicc de
300OC.

the three relevant thermo mechanical


states. Thus, from the inserted tables in fig.
4, 5, 6 one may note that the 6.10-3
mm/mm distortion effect, resulting from
maintaining the sample for 2 hours at the
thermal
level,
determined
the
compressive stress of 30.4 daN/mm2 for
the 1000C level and of only 13.8 daN/mm2
for the samples reaching the 3000C
thermal level.

Concluzii
Datorit
bunei
sale
rezistene
termomecanice, aliajul Al 6061 este
susceptibil pentru utilizri prefereniale la
realizarea de structuri aerospaiale.

Conclusions
Because of its good thermo mechanical
strength, the Al 6061 alloy is reliable for
preferential use in the aircraft structures
manufacturing

Rsultats de confiance des expriments pour la dtermination de la rsistance thermomcanique des


essais sur les prouvettes en alliage Al 6061
Rsum
On prsente des rsultats suite aux mesures de la rsistance thermomcanique dalliage Al 6061, susceptible
dutilisation pour des structures des aronaves.

Bibliografie
References
[1].

PANTAZOPOL, D., ANDREESCU, I. Procedee de elaborare la temperaturi joase a materialelor


de uz aerospaial Low temperature manufacturing procedures for Flight Vehicle Structures),
EIII/2006: Investigaii pentru optimizarea proceselor de elaborare a materialelor de uz aeronautic
prin susceptibiliti termo-dinamice. Sinteza recomandrilor de aplicaii, Raport de cercetare,
contract INCAS/Societatea Academic Romn (SAR) ,,Synergie - MEC/ASR

[2].

ANDREESCU, I., MUIU, T.A. Concepte i evaluri privind metodologia caracterizrii aliajelor
Al-Ti (Concepts and assessments regarding the methodology used to define the characteristics of AlTi alloys), Proiect de cercetare/ Research project, EI/2002, Raport de activitate/Activity Report,
contract INCAS/Societatea Academic Romn (SAR) ,,Synergie - MEC/ASR

[3].

STERE, M., ANDREESCU, I., Studii i cercetri pentru noi tipuri de aliaje rezistente uoare Al-Li
i Al-Li-Ti (Studies and research for new types of light stress resitant Al-Li and Al-Li-Ti alloys),
Raport de cercetare, INCAS/ASR - SAR, Bucureti, 2003

[4]. *** MIL-HDBK-5 (Military Handbook), Metallic Materials and Elements for Flight Vehicle Structures, U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1988
[5]. *** Norme SUA- Aerospace Material Specifications, 2004
[6].

*** U.S. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Technical Note No. 668696 - 63-24 (INCREST,
1962/424)

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

47

Reducerea emisiilor
la motoarele
ecologice pentru camioane si utilaje de
constructii (II)

Emission Reduction in the Case of


Ecological Engines for Trucks and
Machine Tools (II)

Sarbu Lurentiu, prof.univ.dr.ing. Facultatea de Utilaj Tehnologic, Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti
Professor Dr., Faculty of Machine Tools, Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest
e-mail: laurentiusarbu_utcb@yahoo.com

1.Introducere
De la 1 ianuarie 2006, legislaia a obligat pe toi
productorii de motoare s dezvolte tehnologii care
s permit construirea de motoare capabile s
ndeplineasc noile norme de poluare care se aplic
motoarelor mai mari de 175CP, etapa III a, UE,
privind emisiile de noxe, norme care i vizeaz i pe
constructorii de motoare pentru utilaje[1].
2. O nou generaie de motoare Catepillar cu
Tehnologia ACERT[7].
Catepillar a lansat un program de cercetare prin
care s-a urmrit gsirea unor noi soluii tehnice
pentru a construi motoare conforme cu aceste
norme, (European Union Emission Standards),
situaia adoptat de ntreaga industrie fiind: EGR
(Exhaust Gas Recirculation), adic recircularea
gazelor de eapament. Ins EGR, adic
recircularea gazelor de eapament reduce
arderea prin diluarea amestecului la admisie n
motor (80% are curat, 20% gaze arse de
eapament), i prin urmare, puterea motorului
scade; apar solicitri suplimentare
datorit
temperaturii crescute de lucru; o uzur accentuat
a componentelor prin contaminarea cu elementele
coninute n gazele de evacuare ca funingine, acid
sulfuric, etc.
Avnd n vedere c, soluia
constructiv EGR conduce la scdere drastic a
performanelor i a fiabilitii motorului, iar 80 %
din componentele motorului sunt noi, Caterpillar
a cutat soluii tehnice prin care, odat cu
respectarea normelor de poluare, s poat fi
meninute sau crescute performanele i
fiabilitatea motoarelor.
In urma programului lansat s-a obinut o nou
tehnologie, adic motoare de o nou generaie
ACERT.
48

1. Introduction
Starting from January 1, 2006 the legislation
forced all engine manufacturers to develop
technologies allowing the production of engines
that comply with the new pollution norms,
applicable for engines bigger than 175hp in Stage
III, a of the EU, regarding noxes emissions; these
standards also apply to engine manufacturers for
machine tools[1].
2. A new generation of Caterpillar engines,
ACERT technology [7].
Caterpillar launched a research program aimed at
finding new technical solutions for building
engines that apply to these standards (European
Union Emission Standards), the solution that was
adopted by the whole industry being: EGR
(exhaust gas recirculation). But EGR reduces
burning through an attenuation of the admission
mixture in the engine, (80% fresh air, 20%
exhaust burning gases) which results in reduced
engine power; supplementary stresses appear
because of the rising working temperature, as
well as a more distinct wear of components
through contamination with elements in
evacuation gases such as ashes H2SO4.
Since the constructive solution EGR leads to a
drastic reduction of the performance and
reliability of the engine, and 80% of the engine
components are new, Caterpillar searched for
new technical solutions which, once the pollution
standards are applied, would help to maintain or
increase the performances and reliability of the
engines.
Following the launched program a new
technology was obtained, represented by the new
generation of ACERT engines.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

Tehnologia ACERT este soluia corect astzi


pentru comanda puterii motoarelor Caterpillar n
aplicaiile industriale de viitor. Motoarele Cat cu
Tehnologia ACERT deschid o nou er n
proiectarea
motoarelor
diesel.
Avantajele
tehnologiei arderii, folosite pentru optimizarea
performanelor, la aceste motoare revoluionare,
permit astzi, cea mai puternic reducere de emisii
impus de standarde. Avantajele tehnologiei
construciei blocurilor ACERT, se bazeaz pe
cteva invenii aplicate pentru ndeplinirea
standardului Tier 3 /Nivelul III a pentru
exploatare off-road :
Distribuia combustibilului. Unul din suporii
Tehnologiei ACERT este injecia multipl pentru
distribuia combustibilului. Procesul de injecie
multipl, la introducerea combustibilului n camera
de ardere, const dintr-un numr precis controlat de
micro-explozii.
Injectia combustibilului se face printr-o aranjare
precis a acestuia pe ciclul de combustie. Controlul
direct la motoarele Cat, se bazeaz pe: componenta
electronic ADEM-4, pe distribuia precis a
combustibilului introdus n procesul de ardere,
exact la timpul necesar. Aceast caracteristic a
injectoarelor folosite, permite controlul distribuiei
i a presiunii necesar pentru o ardere complet.
Injecia multipl este folosit la aplicaii industriale
n care se folosesc diferite mrimi de motoare.
Electronica. Creierul de comand a puterii
Tehnologiei ACERT, vine de la controlerele
electronice Cat ADEM-4. Ultima generaie de
electronic pentru Cat, ADEM-4, poate guverna
distribuia de combustibil i asigur desfurarea
altor procese din motor cu o precizie incredibil.
Aceasta, poate fi programat pentru optimizarea
performanelor la diferite motoare folosite n
aplicaii speciale. Cat ADEM-4 asigur i comanda
verigii de management a funcionrii mainii, care
cupleaz direct performanele mainii cu motorul.
Managementul aerului. Managementul avansat
pentru aer, joac i el un rol critic n reducerea
emisiilor. Standardul Tier3/Nivelul III a, pentru
motoare off-road, urmreste curgerea fluidului din
motor i transferul de caldur. Avantajul utilizrii
turbinei conduce la sporirea performanelor
pentru ntregul sistem de operare,

ACERT Technology is the right solution today


with the power to lead the industry into the future.
Cat engines with ACERT Technology open a new
era in the Diesel engine design. Using highlyadvanced combustion technologies to optimize
performance, these revolutionary engines meet
todays most rigorous emission reduction standards.
ACERT technology builds on decades of
Caterpillar experience in diesel engine design and
manufacturing. The advantages of ACERT
building blocks engine technologies based on
Tier 3/ Stage III a- standard for off-road Cat
engines include:
Fuel delivery. One of the key breakthroughs in
ACERT Technology is multiple-injection fuel
delivery.
The multiple-injection process introduces fuel into
the combustion chamber in a number of preciselycontrolled micro-bursts. Injecting fuel in this
way allows for a precise shaping of the combustion
cycle.
A Cat ADEM 4 control directs either Cat HEUI
injectors to deliver precise quantities of fuel at
exactly the right time during combustion. This
characteristic of Cat injectors allows the control and
pressure needed for complete combustion. For an
optimum performance, the multiple injection
process can be tailored for different applications
and engine sizes.
Electronics. The brain power for ACERT
Technology comes from Cat ADEM 4 electronic
controllers. The latest generation of electronic
engine control systems pioneered by Caterpillar in
the mid-1980s, the Cat ADEM 4 can govern fuel
delivery and other engine processes with incredible
precision. And it can be programmed to optimize
performance for different engines or specific
applications. Cat ADEM 4 provides the ability to
link machine performance directly with the engine.
Air management. Advanced air management also
plays a critical role in reducing emissions. Tier
3/Stage III, a, for off-road engines includes cross
flow heads and the waste-gated turbocharger. The
advantages of waste-gated turbos include higher
boost levels performance and response.
Crossflow heads improve breathing for optimized
combustion.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

49

obinut ca un bun rspuns la solicitarea


motorului. Transferul de caldur impune i el o
bun funcionare a sistemului de rcire i permite
optimizarea combustiei.
Limea domeniului de performan a puterii.
Toate motoarele care folosesc Tehnologia
ACERT, pot asigura un palier total de putere la
300 rot/min, care este valoarea maxim de lucru
cea mai joas a motorului. Abilitatea de operare
la o valoare mai mic dect cea maxim a puterii
motorului, este deosebit de important pentru
eficiena consumului, pentru o cldur sczut
degajat n
procesul de ardere, i pentru
reducerea noxelor.
Ridicarea calitii procesului de ardere. Cu
Tehnologia ACERT motorul este totdeauna rece,
curat, i foloseste aer proaspt, n comparaie cu
alte tehnologii de recirculare a gazelor arse.
Temperatura de combustie este controlat cu
precizie prin injecia multipl de combustibil.
Procesul folosit, ridic calitatea combustiei, i
difer fa de alte sisteme, deoarece menine
temperatura de ardere la valori joase. Rezultatul
este optimizarea calitii funcionrii motorului i
eficiena consumului de combustibil.
Prelungirea duratei de via a motorului. Viaa
motorului i uzura sa, nu sunt
afectate de procesul avansat de ardere care are loc
n cilindrii. ACERT o poate imbunti prin
soluiile folosite la reducerea emisiilor, utiliznd
componente suplimentare.
Seria C de motoare ofer o calitate mai bun
pentru: Tehnologia ACERT; modulul de control
electronic ADEM-4; injectoare de combustibil
HEUI ; reglarea componentelor trenului de
supape; curgerea fluidului i transferul cldurii la
cilindrii; o nou tehnologie de reducere a noxelor;
creterea raportului de compresie; creterea
vrfului de presiune in cilindru i/sau sporirea
cilindreei; performana, durabilitate asigurat, i
mbuntirea densitii de putere a motorului.
Ali productori, au mpins limitele tehnologice
de utilizare a motoarelor pentru a ndeplini
standardele Tier3/Nivelul II a. In schimb,
Tehnologia ACERT asigur astzi ndeplinirea
standardelor Tier 4 /Nivelul III b, i este gata, a fi
folosit n orice moment pentru
50

Wide Power Band Performance. All engines


with ACERT Technology provide full power
even at 300 rpm below the maximum engine
rating. This ability to operate efficiently at less
than the maximum rpm rating significantly
improves fuel efficiency, lowers best rejection
and reduces noise.
Enhanced
Combustion.
With
ACERT
Technology the engine takes in only cool, clean,
fresh air compared with other approaches that
recycle dirty exhaust gases. Combustion
temperatures are controlled by precise multiple
injections of fuel.
The ACERT process actually enhances
combustion rather than suppressing it (as in some
competitive systems) to keep combustion
temperatures down. As a result, enhanced engine
performance and fuel efficiency are optimized.
Long Reliable Engine Life. Engine life and wear
are not affected by the advanced combustion
process. ACERT wont cause premature
degradations of the combustion chamber as may
happen with other emissions reduction solutions.
And there are no bulky or untested add-on
components to worry about.
They take advantage of C-Series enhancements
[7]: ACERT Technology; ADEM 4 electronic
control; HEUI fuel injectors; updated valve train
components; cross-flow cylinder heads; new
noise
reduction
technologies;
increased
compression ratio; increased peak cylinder
pressure and/or increased displacement.
Caterpillar competitors are pushing their
technological limits to meet Tier 3/ Stage III a
standards. ACERT Technology meets todays
needs while also providing a clear line of sight to
comply with Tier4/ Stage III, b through a
building-block approach to emission solutions.
Caterpillar will use technologies already in use in
onhighway applications to meet the off-road
regulations in 2010.
The major difference facing EGR is that ACERT
does not recycle the exhaust gases.
This leads to major benefits: a high burning
efficiency, that is followed by reduced fuel
consumption and good engine response, in the

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

aplicaii industriale care necesit respectarea


reglementrilor off-road pn n anul 2010.
Deosebirea major fa de EGR, este c, ACERT
nu recircul gazele de eapament. Beneficiile sunt
majore: cea mai mare eficien a arderii, ceea ce
conduce la un consum redus de combustibil i la
un rspuns foarte bun al motorului; o temperatur
de lucru sczut; lipsa contaminrii suplimentare
adus de gazele de eapament; simplitate
constructiv; numrul de componente noi fiind de
5-15 % fa de motoarele anterioare ( v. fig.6).
In consecin, o fiabilitate deosebit, costuri
mici de exploatare, disponibilitate crescut
pentru producie, i o productivitate crescut a
utilajelor. Parcurgerea rapid a ciclurilor
tehnologice de exploatare pentru utilajele de
spat i transportat, cum ar fi: buldozere
ncrctoare, screpere sau dumpere, la care se
impun
regimuri dinamice succesive, foarte
intense, pentru motoare.
In aprilie 2006, erau peste 9000 de utilaje
Caterpillar echipate cu motoarele ACERT i
peste 320000 de camioane rutiere ce acumulau
zilnic 175 de milioane de kilometrii. Uzura
camilor de motor, la tehnologia ACERT
comparativ cu EGR, la acelai numar de ore de
funcionare (EGR : Marca X + 68%; Marca Y
+31% si Marca Z + 87%), este indicat prin
valori mult mai mici notate prin asterix n
graficele indicate in figurile 7 si 8. Nivelul de
funingine peste 1,25% din greutate ei, cauzeaz
uzuri inacceptabile n motor, dup cum se poate
vedea din figura 7, la fel ca i acumularea de fier
n motor n timp, indicat n figura 8.
O serie de noi utilaje , cum ar fi ncrctoarele
Cat 950H, 962H, 966H i 972H, care au
capacitatea cupei cuprins intre 3,5-4,8 mc, sunt
echipate cu motoare Cat C 7-C11 diesel, care
folosesc tehnologia ACERT. Ele au puterea
motorului de 200- 287 CP ( SAE J 1995), sunt
mai eficiente, adic ridic ncrcturi mai mari,
ntr-un timp mai rapid, au costuri de operare i
ntreinere mai reduse, i ceea ce este foarte
important, consum i cu 5% mai puin carburant.
Acest lucru, este cu att mai important, cu ct,
productorii sunt obligai s se adapteze noilor

absence of supplementary contamination brought


by exhaust gases; constructive simplicity, the
number of new components being of 5-15% as
compared to previous engines ( fig.6).
Consequently, ACERT has a special reliability,
low costs of exploitation, a raised reliability
production, and raised productivity of machines.
It quickly passes through the technological cycles
of exploitation for digging and transporting
machines such as: loader bulldozers, scrapers or
dumpers, where the dynamics regimes are
successive and very strong for the engines.

Fig. 6 [8]

In April 2006 there were well beyond 9000


Caterpillar machines equipped with ACERT
engines and well beyond 320,000 road trucks,
that accumulated about 175,000,000 km daily.
The usage of engine cylinder jackets, with
ACERT technology as compared with EGR, at
the same number of functioning hours (EGR: XMark+68%; Y-Mark+31% and Z-Mark +87%), is
recommended with much smaller values marked
with * in drawings 7 and 8.
The level of ash well beyond 1.25% of its own
weight causes unacceptable stresses in the engine,
as we can see from drawing 7, the same as with
the accumulation in time of iron inside the engine
marked in drawing 8.
A new series of machines such as Cat 950H,
962H, 966H, 972H loaders, that have the bucket
capacity between 3.5-4.8mc are equipped with
Cat C7- C11 Diesel engines that use ACERT
technologies. They have an installed engine
power of 200- 287 HP (SAE J 1995) and are
more efficient, that is they lift bigger loads in less
time. They have low operating and maintenance
costs and, most important, it uses 5% less gas.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

51

Fig.7.[7]

norme europene ale Etapei III,a, ceea ce va face


ca echipamentele altor productori, dect
Caterpillar, s consume mai mult carburant,
datorit tehnologiei folosite la fabricarea
motoarelor lor. Unul din principalii factori care
determin aceast reducere a consumului de
carburant, la noile utilaje, este combinaia
realizat de noul sistem hidraulic cu pompe cu
debit permanent variabil i de noul motor Cat
care utilizeaz tehnologia ACERT, care la rndul
su asigur reducerea emisiilor de noxe.
Motorul C 7 este guvernat de modulul electronic
de control ADEM A- 4. Injecia electronic a
combustibilului este asigurat prin buna explorare
a actuatorului hidraulic Caterpillar, care
controleaz electronic unitatea (HEUI) a
sistemului de injecie. Turboncarcatorul este
echipat cu o roat durabil din titan, care
combinat cu sistemul de rcire dup descrcare
aer-aer, asigur motorului o putere mare
consistent cu creterea altitudinii [8].
3. Motoare ecologice cu tehnologia EGR
folosite la utilaje de construcii [8].
Noile motore Isuzu corespund reglementrii
emisiilor de noxe Nivelul III,a. Designul avansat
al acestora vine n ntmpinarea scderii emisiilor
poluante impuse de Recomandrile privind
standardul de Noxe 2000/14/EC, Nivelul II
52

Fig.8.[7]

This is the more important as that the manufacturers


are forced to adapt to the new European standards of
the third step, that will determine the equipment of
other manufacturers than Caterpillar to use more
gas, because of the technology that is being used by
their engines manufacturing. One of the main
factors that determine this reduction of gas with the
new machines is the combination between the new
hydraulic pump system with a variable flow rate and
the new engine that uses ACERT technology which,
in his turn, ensures the reduction of noxes
emissions.
The C7 engine is governed by the ADEM A-4
electronic control module. The controller
continually adjusts the engine output based on
load demand, using a series of sensors located on
the machine and engine. A waste-gate
turbocharger, equipped with a titanium wheel for
improved durability, combined with air-to-air
after-cooling provides consistent high HP with
increased altitude capability [8].
3. Ecological Diesel Engines EGR for the
Construction Equipments [8].
The new OCH (OverHead Camshaft) 4-valve
diesel engine Isuzu is developed and built to
comply with the rigorous Emission Regulations
enforced in 2006 in the EU. This new engine
contributes to the environment protection.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

Dezvoltarea unui concept nou de motor OHC


(OverHead Camshaft) cu 4 supape pe cilindru, s-a
fcut cu respectarea normelor din UE pe 2006
pentru protecia mediului nconjurtor.
Sistemul de injecie este de tipul Common rail cu
control electronic. Sistemul
Common rail
foloseste o pomp de alimentare integrat la
rampa central de combustibil n blocul
motorului. Presiunea de injecie realizat pe
fiecare cilindru este foarte ridicat. Presiunea
mare de injecie permite optimizarea combustiei i
generarea unei puteri mari, care scade nivelul de
particule PM coninute n gazele de evacuare, i
reducerea consumului de combustibil. Schema de
principiu folosit la motoarele Isuzu, este
prezentat n figura 9.
Motorul (vezi figura 10), folosete sistemul de
rcire EGR, care asigur recircularea gazelor de
evacuare. Gazele de evacuare sunt parial mixate
cu aer la o temperatur de combustie joas, pentru
a reduce oxizii de azot NOx. Mai mult EGR,
folosete la recircularea gazelor de evacuare,
rcitorul intercooler care rceste gazele evacuate
prin creterea concentraiei de aer a gazelor,
pentru a permite o ardere complet, reducnd
nivelul de particule PM n gazele evacuate n
atmosfer.

The fuel injection system is of Common Rail


type. The electronic control common rail type
fuel injection system drives an integrated fuel
pump at an ultrahigh pressure to distribute fuel to
each injector per cylinder through a common
rail. This enables optimum combustion to
generate high horsepower, and reduces PM
(Particulate Matter) (Diesel plume) and fuel
consumption (fig.9).

Fig.9 Sistemul de injectie al combustibilului de tipul


Common rail [8].
Common rail type fuel injection system [8]

The engine uses the cooling EGR System


(Exhaust Gas Recirculation, fig.10): exhaust gas
is partially mixed with suction air to lower
combustion temperature for reducing NOx. The
EGR cooler also cools down the exhaust gas to
increase air concentration for complete
combustion, reducing PM (diesel plume).

Fig.10. Schema motorului EGR pentru utilaje Hitachi i CASE[8


Engine diagram EGR for Hitachi and CASE equipment [8]

Productivitate mai mare, consum de combustibil


mai mic. Combinarea sistemului hidrostatic folosit

More production, less fuel consumption. A


combination of the hydraulic system HIOS III

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

53

HIOS III (Human& Intelligent Operation System),


cu noul motor OHC (OverHead Camshaft), cu 4
supape pe cilindru, permite s se foloseasc,
ntodeauna eficient. presiunea hidraulic din
instalaie, la creterea vitezei de lucru la actuator (la
servomotorul de acionare), asigurnd astfel mrirea
productivitii mainii, i o eficien mai nalta n
utilizarea combustibilului.
O masin rapid. Un numr de factori fac aceast
main rapid. Unu, sincronizarea controlului vitezei
motorului (cu restricia de viteza la funcionarea fr
sarcina sau cu sarcina redus), pentru operaiile
obligatorii de reducere a zgomotului produs de
motor. Acest lucru se realizeaz cu ajutorul curburii
paletelor la ventilatorul de aer folosit pentru rcire.
Doi, ventilatorul lucreaz intermitent, astfel se reduce
rezistena aerului antrenat i respectiv prezena
noxelor care se gsesc n aerul vehiculat.
Trei, aceast proiectare avasat reduce nivelul de
noxe corespunztor
Reglementrii 2000/14/EC
Nivelul II i a directivelor UE din 2006.
Motorul ndeplinete Recomandrile Europene
pentru emisii de evacuare sczute Nivelul II, n
acord cu directiva 97/68/EC[10].]
Prenclzirea motorului este asigurat automat, i are
drept scop, operarea optim i imediat a sa, n aa fel
nct, temperatura folosit n procesul de ardere s
garanteze o durat lung de via pentru motor i
pentru componentele hidraulice.
Injecia pompei este direct, i controlat electronic
printr-un calculator special care ia n considerare
parametrii sarcinii de lucru ai sistemului hidraulic.
Fiind controlat electronic, reglarea pompei de
injecie, se face rapid i eficient, fa de sistemul de
lucru convenional, reducnd smokul i emisiile de
noxe ale motorului. In plus, asigur i o reducere
semnificativ a consumului de combustibil.
Veriga secundar, folosit pentru sistemul de
management electronic de control
al puterii
motorului, este asigurat de managementul pentru
toi parametrii hidraulici ai instalaiei, astfel nct, se
obine o nalt disponoibilitate pentru aciunea puterii
hidraulice n condiii de eficien i economicitate
pentru main.
Motorul termic se ntoarce la relanti, n mod automat
sau manual, cnd acest lucru este cerut de operator
(pe nivelul de control RH). Sistemul este valabil
pentru toate modele CX
54

(Human& Intelligent Operation System) and a


new OCH (OverHead Camshaft) 4-valve engine
allows the efficient use of hydraulic pressure to
increase the speed of actuators and boost
production with higher fuel efficiency.

A quicker machine. A number of features make


this machine quicker. First, an isochronous
control of the engine speed means a speed
restriction during no-load and light-duty
operation to suppress sound. A fan with curved
blades reduces air resistance and air flow noise.
Third, a time-tested muffler suppresses engine
noise significantly and reduces emissions. This
advanced low noise design complies with the
2000/14/EC, Stage II, Directive effective in the
European Union since 2006.
The engine meets European requirements for
low exhaust emission Tier II, in accordance
with Directive 97/68/EC [8].
Automatic engine pre-heating provides for
optimum and immediate operation as soon as the
working temperature is reached, a guarantee of
longer life for the engine and hydraulic
components.
The pump injection is direct, digitally controlled
by a speed calculator which takes the hydraulic
system load parameters into account. Regulation
is quicker and more efficient than on
conventional systems, reducing smoke and noise
emission and also significantly reducing fuel
consumption.
Linked to the electronic engine power
management system, a second electronic system
monitors all the hydraulic parameters so as to
obtain the highest possible available hydraulic
power, under optimum conditions of efficiency
and economy.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

4.Concluzii:
- Pentru a se conforma noilor norme,
numeroase echipamente ale altor productori se
bazeaz pe supapele EGR de reciclare a gazelor
de eapament care trimit gazele de eapament
napoi n motor pentru a fi arse. Aceast
tehnologie, reduce ns eficiena motorului
mrind ns i consumul de combustibil.
-Tehnologia ACERT controleaz cu exactitate
raportul de amestec aer/carburant, utiliznd exact
cantitatea necesar pentru ncrctura curent,
adic nicio pictur mai mult sau mai puin dect
este nevoie. Acest consum de precizie reduce nu
numai emisiile de gaze de eapament, dar i
consumul de combustibil, cu pn la 5%. Toate
camioanele articulate Caterpillar sunt echipate cu
tehnologia ACERT, ceEa ce face din Caterpillar
singurul productor care posed o linie complet
de camioane articulate pentru antier (dumpere)
dotate cu motoare Cat care respect normele
etapei III, a, a UE, privind emisiile de gaze de
eapament.

4. Conclusions:
- For confirmation of the new standards,
different types of equipment from other
manufacturers are based on EGR recycling
valves for the exhaust gases, sending the exhaust
gases back to the engine where they are burned.
But this technology reduces engine efficiency,
also increasing fuel consumption.
- ACERT technology accurately controls the
air/gas mixture, using the exact necessary
quantity for the current load, that is, not even a
drop more or less than necessary. This precise
consumption not only reduces the emissions of
exhaust gas, but also the gas consumption up to
5%. All articulated Caterpillar trucks are
equipped with ACERT technology that makes
Caterpillar the only producer who is in
possession of a complete line of articulated
trucks for building-sites (dumpers), all of them
having Cat engines that observe the European
Union standards of Stage III, a regarding the
emissions of exhaust gases.

La reduction des emissions pour les moteurs cologiques de grand pouvoir et pour les utilages de construction
Resum
On prsente les nouvelles tchnologies qui saddressent aux moteurs cologiques de grand pouvoir utiliss en
constructions, comme: EGR, EGR cu MAN PM-KAT, SCR, SCRT o bien ACERT. On prsente des projets, des
diagrammes, et on fait des apprciations sur les tchnologies de protection de lenvironment et sur loptimisation du
fonctionnement des moteurs.
Bibliografie:
References
[1].
Mihilescu,R., Borcescu, R., Stoian,A.- Mediul dicteaza! (Environment Dictates!), IAA Hanovra

2006, Revista Cargo Romania,Bucuresti, nr.10/2006, pag.18-29.


[2].
[3].
[4].
[5].

[6].

[7]

[8]

Mihilescu, R.- Motoare MAN, Tainele Euro 4 si 5 (The Secrets of Euro 4 and Euro 5).
Revista Cargo Romania& Bus , Bucuresti, nr.9/2005, pag.72-73.
Pavel, D.- Mai mult decat Euro 4, DAF trucks a ales: SCR (More than Euro 4, DAF has
chosen: SCR), Cargo Romania & Bus Review, Bucuresti, nr.5/2005, pag. 36-37.
Pavel,D.- Noi tehnologii pentru motoare Euro 4 si Euro 5 (New Technologies for Euro 4 and Euro 5
engines), Cargo Romania& Bus Review, Bucuresti, nr11/2004
Srbu,L. Noi generatii de motoare ecologice pentru camioane si utilaje de constructii(I+II) (New
Generations of Ecological Engines for Trucks and Machine Tools) , Tehnologie, Revista Unelte si
echipamente, Bucuresti, nr.77 si 78/2007, pag.66-73 si 54-66.
x x x - Emission Standards a Clear Explanation, Caterpillar, 2004, Painting in SUA, p. 11.
x x x - The Power to Lead CAT Industrial Engines with ACERT Technology, Caterpillar, 2004,
Printed in SUA, 10p.

x x x Prospects: Incarcatoare Caterpillar (Caterpillar Loaders), Eneria Cat, Excavatoare


hidraulice (Hydraulic Bucket Cranes) Hitachi ZAXIS series 3 and CASE , Series CX.
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

55

Consideratii
privind
facilitatilor
GIS
in
vulnerabilitatii acviferelor

folosirea
estimarea

Observations Regarding the GIS


Usesage of for Aquifer Vulnerability
Estimation

Daniel DOGEANU, Inginer S.C. APA CANAL 2000 SA PITESTI, daniel.dogeanu@gmail.com


Engineer S.C. APA CANAL 2000 SA PITESTI, daniel.dogeanu@gmail.com

Vulnerabilitatea reprezint gradul de pericol de


contaminare determinat de condiiile naturala si
independent de sursa de poluare (Olmen si
Razac, 1974)
Cuantificarea vulnerabilitii acviferelor este un
proces in care informaiilor relevante si care
influeneaz aceasta vulnerabilitate sunt definite
si li se atribuie o tabela de valori in funcie de
importanta si impact. Exista numeroase scheme
pentru a da diverilor factorii influenatori
diveri indeci de importanta. Metodele care
cuantifica
factorii
ce
influeneaz
vulnerabilitatea acviferelor se mpart in: metode
cu indeci, metode ce includ programe de
simulare, analize statistice.
1. METODELE CU INDECSI sunt metode
care se bazeaz pe asamblarea informaiilor
referitoare la cei mai importani factori ce
influeneaz comportarea acviferelor ( tipul
solului, geologia, alimentarea acviferului, etc)
prin atribuirea unor
scoruri si ponderi care apoi sunt indexate si
nsumate iar in ultima etapa reclasificate dup
clase de vulnerabilitate . Avantajul acestor
metode sunt: au algoritmi relativ simpli si pot
integra o mare cantitate de informaii in hari cu
clase de indeci. Aceste metode se preteaz
pentru zone ntinse la nivel naional si sunt
foarte potrivite pentru folosirea lor mpreuna cu
GIS ul.( Constantin Gogu and Alain Dassargues,
2001) [1]. Cele mai cunoscute modele sunt
urmatoarele :
EPIC (Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator;
(Doerfliger si altii. 1995)[3], Model de estimare
a impactului eroziunii solurilor asupra
productivitii terenurilor agricole) este un
56

Vulnerability represents the level of


contamination hazard determined by natural
conditions and irrespective of the pollution
source (Olmen and Razac, 1974)
Quantification of aquifer vulnerability is a
process in which the relevant information
that influence this vulnerability are defined
and are attributed to a table of values in terms
of importance and impact. There are
numerous diagrams to give to the various
influencing factors different importance
indexes. The methods that quantify the
factors that influence the aquifers
vulnerability are divided into: methods with
indexes, methods that include simulation
programs, statistical analysis.
1. METHODS WITH INDEXES are based
on collecting the information with reference to
the most important factors that influence the
aquifers status (type of soil, geology, aquifer
feeding, etc) by attributing of some scores and
percentages that are then indexed and
cumulated and in the last stage reclassified in
vulnerability classes. The advantages of these
methods are: have relatively simple logarithms
and can integrate a large amount of information
in maps with classes of indexes. These methods
are appropriate for extended zones at national
level and are suitable to be used together with
the GIS. (Constantin Gogu and Alain
Dassargues, 2001) [1]. The most common
models are the following:
EPIC
(Erosion
Productivity
Impact
Calculator; (Doerfliger and others. 1995),[3],
Model of estimating the impact of soils
erosion over the productivity of agriculture land)
is a specialized model for calculating the level of
affection the quality of agriculture lands by

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

model specializat pentru calculul afectrii bonitii


terenurilor agricole de diveri factori de stres.

GOD Denumit si index de vulnerabilitate


modelul GOD (Groundwater, Overall, Depth)
tine cont conform (Foster 1987)[4] de urmtorii
trei factori: Caracteristicile fizice ale acviferului
: cu nivel liber, sub presiune, saturat , nesaturat,
Gradul de consolidare a acviferului sau
caracteristicile litologice, adncimea apei in
acvifer.

various factors of stress.

GOD Denoted also vulnerability index, GOD


model (Groundwater, Overall, Depth) takes into
consideration, according to (Foster 1987)[4], the
following three factors: Aquifer physical
characteristics: with free level, under pressure,
saturated, unsaturated; Aquifer level of
consolidation or lithological characteristics,
water depth in the aquifer.

SEEPAGE (System for Early Evaluation of the


Pollution Potential of Agricultural Groundwater
Environments) (Carpenter, 1992) este folosit
pentru a evalua riscul de contaminare a apei
subterane prin surse mono punctuale si multipunctuale de poluare innd cont de factorii
hidrogeologici.

DRASTIC
DRASTIC model is the most known model for
evaluation of the aquifers vulnerability based,
according to (Aller and others. 1987) [5], on
hydro-geological factors. It was developed by the
Environment Federal Agency from USA together
with Hydro-geological National Agency being
used for evaluating the contamination of the
ground water on extended areas. It is an empirical
model that takes into consideration the following
hydro-geological factors (7 factors are presented
through notes from 1 to 5 and important from 1
to 10).
SINTACS (Civita, 1990; 1993; 1994; Civita &
De Maio, 1997)[2], was initially designed
similarly with DRASTIC (Aller and others.
(1987)[] but in the course of time changed,
and starting with 1990 a team of researchers
financed by a special fund for research have
created three versions more acestuia. The 4th
version maintains less similarities with the
DRASTIC model.
SEEPAGE (System for Early Evaluation of the
Pollution
Potential
of
Agricultural
Groundwater Environments) (Carpenter, 1992)
is used to estimate the contamination risk of
groundwater by mono-punctual and multipunctual polution sources, considering the
hydro-geologic factors.

PUMPS (Pickus and Hewitt (1992))[6] au


dezvoltat Pesticide User Management Planning
System (PUMPS).

PUMPS (Pickus and Hewitt (1992))[6]


developed Pesticide User Management
Planning System (PUMPS).

DRASTIC
Modelul DRASTIC este cel mai cunoscut model
de evaluare a vulnerabilitii acviferelor bazat
conform (Aller si altii. (1987)) [5] pe factori
hidrogeologici. A fost dezvoltat de Agenia
Federala de Mediu din SUA mpreuna cu
Asociaia Naionala Hidrogeologica fiind folosit
pentru evaluarea contaminrii apei subterane pe
zone ntinse. Este un model empiric care tine
cont de urmtorii factori hidrogeologici (sunt 7
factori care sunt caracterizai prin note de la 1 la
5 si importanta de la 1 la 10.
SINTACS (Civita, 1990; 1993; 1994; Civita &
De Maio, 1997)[2], a fost iniial proiectat
similar cu DRASTIC (Aller si altii. (1987)[...]
dar cu timpul sa difereniat, pentru ca ncepnd
cu 1990 un colectiv de cercettori finanat de un
fond special pentru cercetare au creat trei
versiuni din ce in ce mai imbunatatite ale

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

57

2.METODELE
CARE
INCLUD
PROGRAME DE SIMULARE sunt metode
care necesit o cantitate mare de date si mai ales
de o precizie mrita. Aceste modele simuleaz
curgerea prin acvifere si poteniala deplasare a
poluantului.

2.METHODS
THAT
INCLUDE
SIMULATION PROGRAMS need a large
amount of data and especially an increased
precision. These models simulate the flow
through aquifers and the possible movement of
the pollutant.

Modele orientate pregnant spre modelarea


procesului de transport de poluant sunt in
general dezvoltate in jurul migrrii pesticidelor.
Modelul GLEAMS (Groundwater Loading
Effects of Agricultural Management Systems)
(Leonard et al, 1987) [7] sa dovedit a fi o
unealta deosebit de utila pentru evaluarea
potenialului de poluare cu pesticide si
substanelor chimice provenii din agricultura.
Alte modele orientate spre calculul dinamicii
apelor subterane cat si micarea poluantior in
mediul subteran sunt

The models pregnantly orientated to the


modeling of the process of transporting the
pollutant are generally developed around the
pesticides migration. GLEAMS model
(Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural
Management Systems) (Leonard et al, 1987)[7]
proved to be a tool very useful in evaluating the
pollution potential with pesticides and chemical
substances from agriculture. Other models
oriented to the calculation of the groundwater
dynamics and also to the pollutants movement
in the underground medium are

RUSTIC (Risk of Unsaturated/Saturated


Transport and Transformation of Chemical
Concentration model) (Donigian, 1990) [8] si
PRZM (Pesticide Root Zone Model) (Carsel et
al., 1984 and 1985) [9].
Cele mai comune (populare) modele matematice
in general dezvoltate pe metoda calcului
numeric cu ajutorul diferentelor finite sunt :

MODFLOW,
VISUALMODFLOW
SAU
PMMODFLOW. Exista si aplicaii pretenioase
care combina doua metode de rezolvare
numerica a sistemelor de ecuaii difereniale :
prin elemente finite si diferene finite :
SUTRA Saturated Unsaturated TRAnsport,
SWMS_3D, FEMWATER, FEFLOW, GMS.

RUSTIC (Risk of Unsaturated/Saturated


Transport and Transformation of Chemical
Concentration model) (Donigian, 1990) [8] and
PRZM (Pesticide Root Zone Model) (Carsel et
al., 1984 and 1985) [9]. The most common
(popular) mathematical methods, generally
developed on the numeric calculation method
with the support of the finite differences are:
MODFLOW,
VISUALMODFLOW
or
PMMODFLOW. There are also pretentious
applications that combine two methods for
numeric resolution of the differential equations
system: by finite and differentiated finite
elements: SUTRA Saturated Unsaturated
Transport,
SWMS_3D,
FEMWATER,
FEFLOW, GMS.

3.METODELE STATISTICE sunt folosite


pentru a cuantifica riscul acviferului de a fi
poluat prin determinare statistica a legturii
dintre datele referitoare la contaminarea
observata , condiiile de mediu nregistrate in
bazele de date si folosirea terenului. Sunt
dezvoltate un numr relativ redus de metode
statistice pentru estimarea
vulnerabilitii
acviferelor pentru ca
aceste metode necesita o cantitate mare
(enorma) de date, date care se obtin greu (cu

3. STATISTICAL METHODS are used to


quantify the risk of polluting the aquifer by
statistical determination of the relation
between the data regarding the contamination
observed, the environment conditions
registered in data bases and the usage of land.
A reduced number of statistic methods for
estimating the aquifers vulnerability are
developed because these methods need a large
amount of data, data that are difficult to be
obtained (with costs, because of the land

58

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

cheltuieli, datorate inspeciilor de teren).


Modelul CALVUL (Troiano si al. 1999)[10]
dezvoltat in California-SUA de ctre
departamentul de Reglementare a Pesticidelor
(DPR)
este
utilizat
pentru
estimarea
vulnerabilitii acviferelor din zona la poluarea
cu pesticide. Modelul discretizeaz zona
observata in ptrate de 1Km2 , ptratele care
sunt gsite vulnerabile sunt propuse pentru
protecie.

inspections).
CALVUL model (Troiano and of 1999)[10]
developed in California-USA by the Pesticides
Regulation Department is used to estimate the
vulnerability of the aquifers from the zone at
the pollution with pesticides. The model
divides the observed zone in quadrates of
1Km2, the quadrates that are found vulnerable
are proposed for protection.

Proprietile fizico-chimice
(Chemical-physical proprieties)

Interconexiunile acviferului cu suprafaa


( Interconnection between aquifer and surface)
*

*
*
*
*

*
*

*
*

Ca ilustrare practica a utilizarii metodelor


expuse mai sus se prezinta 2 studii :Modelarea
transportului de poluani miscibili provenii
din Complexul petrochimic Svineti
Roznov si Studiu de caz privind estimarea
vulnerabilitatii acviferelor din proximitatea
municipiului Ploiesti.[11],[12],[13],[14]
Primul studiu de caz foloseste metodele care
includ programe de simulare, aici de simulare a
dinamicii miscarii apelor subterane. Ca model
de calcul sa folosit Visul Modflow si ca
program de vizualizare a rezultatelor Surfer.

*
*

*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*
*

Caracteristicile hidrogeologice ale acviferului


(Aquifer hydro geological features)

Permeabilitate (Permeability)

Conductivitatea hidraulica a acviferului


( Aquifer hydraulic conductivity)

Umiditatea efectiva (Effective humidity)

Schimbrile in nivelul piezometric


( Water head line)

Grosime, textura si mineralogie


( Thickness, texture and mineralogy)

Adncimea apei in acvifer


(Aquifer water height)

*
*

Caracteristicile hidrogeologice ale zonei saturate


( Hydro geological saturated zone features )

*
*
*

Scurgerea de suprafaa si densitatea reelei


( Surface overrun and network density)

Suprafaa topografica si panta terenului


(Topographical surface and slope)

Rata de precipitaii si compoziia chimica


(Precipitations and chemical composition )

Metodologia(Methodology)
CALVUL
GOD
DRASTIC
SINTAX
SEEPAGE
RUSTIC

Alimentarea acviferului ( Aquifer inputs)

The three methods presented above and some


of the most significant models are presented by
comparison in the table below.

Cele trei metode prezentate mai sus si unele din


modelele cele mai semnificative sunt prezentate
prin comparatie in tabelul de mai jos.

*
*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*

As a practical application of the methods presented


above we presented 2 studies: Modelling of the
transport for blendable pollutants issued from
Svineti Roznov Petrochemical Complex
and Study regarding the estimation of aquifers
vulnerability from around Ploiesti town.
.[11],[12],[13],[14]
The first case study uses the methods which
includes simulation programns, here the
groundwater movement simulation. As a
calculation model the Visual Modflow was used
for ground water dynamic movement and Surfer

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

59

Al doilea studiu foloseste facilitatile de analiza


si calcul a doua aplicatii GIS :Idrisi si ArcInfo,
find o aplicare in practica a metodelor cu indeci

for visualization.For the second case study we


used the GIS power to analyse with 2 GIS
software : Idrisi and ArcInfo. This study reprezents
a practical application of the indexis method.

4. Modelarea transportului de poluani


miscibili
provenii
din
Complexul
petrochimic Svineti - Roznov

4. Transport Modelling of blendable


pollutants from Svineti Roznov
Petrochemical Complex

Tema studiului este centrat pe analiza


dispersiei poluanilor specifici platformei
Svineti Roznov n pnza freatic, efectuat
n vederea evalurii riscului polurii cu produse
miscibile a freaticului din zon. Platforma
industriala Svineti Roznov este n prezent
divizat n urmtoarele uniti economice: S.C.
FIBREX S.A., S.C. AZOCHIM S.A. S.C.
MELANA S.A.,S.C. - I.C.E.F.S. S.A., S.C.
COMES S.A., S.C. RIFIL S.A.
Obiectivele urmrite prin studiu se grupeaz n
dou categorii principale: Evidenierea evoluiei
n timp i spaiu a concentraiilor poluanilor
generai de activitile desfurate n cadrul
paltformei i ajuni accidental n apa subteran;
Evidenierea contribuiei relative a fiecareia din
unitile componente ale platformei, la
amploarea fenomenului de poluare.
Studiul de dispersie a poluanilor evacuai de
platforma SVINETI n pnza freatic,
efectuat pe baza modelrii matematice a
necesitat parcurgerea urmtoarelor etape:

The topic of the study is centered on the


analysis of dispersing the pollutants specific
to Svineti Roznov platform in the
phreatic layer, carried out with the aim of
evaluating the risk of pollution with
blendable products of the phreatic layer from
the zone. Svineti Roznov industrial
platform at present is divided in the
following economic units: S.C. FIBREX
S.A., S.C. AZOCHIM S.A. S.C. MELANA
S.A.,S.C. - I.C.E.F.S. S.A., S.C. COMES
S.A., S.C. RIFIL S.A.
The objectives followed through this study
are grouped in two main categories:
emphasizing the evolution in time and space
of the concentrations from the pollutants
generated by the activities performed on the
platform and that accidentally reach the
groundwater; emphasizing the relative
contribution from each of the component unit
of the platform to the vastness of the
pollution phenomenon.
The dispersion study of the pollutants
discharged by the SVINETI platform in
the phreatic layer, realized on the basis of
mathematical modelling needed
the
following stages:
Determination of the modeling domain
The domain chosen for modelling is included
in a rectangle with the length of 6944 m and
the width 3069 m and has been divided in
quadrate sectors 3500 with the side of 70 m.
(Fig.1)

Stabilirea domeniului de calcul


Domeniul n care se extinde studiul este
determinat de condiiile specifice fiecrui
obiectiv, precum i de datele de baz existente.
Domeniul ales pentru modelare se ncadreaz
ntr-un dreptunghi avnd lungimea de 6944 m i
limea de 3069 m i a fost discretizat n 3500
ochiuri ptrate cu latura de 70 m (fig.1)

60

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

Fig.1 Domeniul de calcul/ modeling domain

Precizarea condiiilor de margine


Pentru cazul studiat, condiiile de margine sunt
date de nivelul cunoscut al apei n rul Bistria i
n zona de teras precum i de distribuia
spaial a hidroizohipselor.
Analiza datelor de intrare i precizarea
valorilor de calcul pentru diferii parametri
Programul
utilizat
permite
introducerea
caracteristicilor de permeabilitate pe diferite
zone din interiorul domeniului. innd cont
dedatele studiilor hidrogeologice, domeniul
studiat a fost mprit n 6 zone de permeabiliti
diferite, urmrind distribuia valorilor din
profilul geologic transversal.
Pentru cele 6 zone vectorizate au fost admise
valori pentru permeabiliti cuprinse ntre k = 20
m/zi i k = 90 m/zi
Sursele majore de poluare a apelor subterane din
domeniul studiat, concentrate n zona platformei
SVINETI, sunt puse n eviden pe baza
msurtorilor de calitate a apei subterane
efectuate n 10 puuri de referin. Studiul de
dispersie n apa subteran a fost efectuat pentru
amoniac. Calculele curgerii pnzei subterane au
fost efectuate n regim permanent. Liniile de
curent indic o curgere ctre ru i n lungul
rului, cu un gradient de 3.

Presentation of the marginal conditions


For the analyzed case, the marginal
conditions are given by the known level of
Bistrita river and the terrace zone as well as
by the spatial distribution of the hydroisohypses.
Analysis of the Input Data and
Presentation of the Calculation Values for
Different Parameters
The program used permits the introduction of
the permeability characteristics on different
zones from the domain. Taking into account
the data from the hydro-geological studies,
the analyzed domain has been divided in 6
different permeability zones, following the
distribution of the values from the transversal
geological profile.
For the 6 vectorized zones have been
admitted values for permeabilities situated
between k = 20 m/day and k = 90 m/day.
Theajor pollution sources of the ground
waters from the analyzed domain,
concentrated in the zone of SVINETI
platform, are marked out on the basis of
quality measurements of the affected
groundwater from 10 reference wells. The
study of dispersion in the groundwater was
realized for ammoniac. The calculations of
the ground layer flow have been realized
continuously. The current lines show a flow
to the river and along the river, with a

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

61

UHE2

0,1

2000.00

Melana

Rifil

278

274

Captarea
Cracau

UHE1

276

282

284

286

288

290

292

294

296

3000.00

280

gradient of 3.

Melana

Co

0,

Azo

Fibrex

0,

Roznov

1000.00
Savinesti
0,

Bistrita

1000.00

2000.00

3000.00

4000.00

5000.00

6000.00

Fig.2. Distribuia spaial a concentraiei de amoniac (NH4 ) provenit de la S.C. AZOCHIM i S.C. FIBREX (mg/l) dup
10 ani/ Spatial distribution of the ammoniac concentration (NH4+) from S.C. AZOCHIM and S.C. FIBREX (mg/l) after 10
years

Analiza transportului de poluani n apa


subteran a fost efectuat n regim nepermanent,
aceast opiune permind estimarea evoluiei
contaminanilor la diferite intervale de timp.
Estimarea evoluiei penelor de poluant a fost
realizat n aceast ipotez.

The analysis of the pollutant transport in the


groundwater has been realized continuously,
this option permitting the estimation of the
pollutants evolution at different intervals of
time.. The estimation of pollutant accidents
has been realized in this hypothesis.

5. Studiu de caz privind estimarea


vulnerabilitatii acviferelor din proximitatea
municipiului Ploiesti

5. Study Regarding the Estimation of


Aquifers Vulnerability from Ploiesti
Municipality Neighbourhood

Conceptul de baz n vulnerabilitatea acviferelor


este acela c unele zone sunt mai sensibile la
poluare dect altele. Metoda GIS a determinrii
vulnerabilitii acviferelor nparte zona de interes n
zone mai mici care au indici de vulnerabilitate
diferii..
DRASTIC. Acest metod a fost dezvoltat prin
USEPA de Aller et al (1987). Pentru calcul se
consider : Depth= adncimea apei subterane, Net
Recharge = cantitatea de infiltraii, Lithology of the
Aquifer= litologia acviferului (structura) ; Soil
texture = textura solului ; Topography (slope)
=pantele ; Lithology of vadose zone =litologia
zonei nesaturate ; Hydraulic Conductivity of
aquifer =conductivitatea hidraulic

The basic concept in aquifers vulnerability is


that some zones are more sensitive than
others. The GIS method of determining the
aquifer vulnerability divides the concerned
zone in smaller zones with different
vulnerability indexes.
DRASTIC. This method was developed
through USEPA by Aller et al (1987). For
calculation are considered: Depth of
groundwater, Net Recharge = infiltrations
quantity, Lithology of the Aquifer (structure);
Soil texture; Topography (slope); Lithology
of vadose zone; Hydraulic Conductivity of
aquifer.

62

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

Fig.3 Harta de vulnerabilitate a acviferului 2 clase, slab i puternic vulnerabil / Aquifer vulnerability map
(2 classes), less and very vulnerable

6. Concluzii Aceste studii reflecta posibilitatea


estimarii gradului de vulnerabilitate al
acviferelor folosind diferite metode,( cu indexi,
cu programe de simulare sau statistice),
metodele finnd in general complementare.
Pollutant transport modelling in groundwater

6. Conclusions These studies reflect the


possibility to give an estimation of the
aquifer vulnerability degree using different
methods (with indexes, with simulation
programs, statistical programs). The methods
are complementary one to each other.

Bibliografie
References
[1].

Constantin Gogu and Alain Dassargues Intrinsic vulnerability maps of a karstic aquifer as obtained by five
different assessment techniques: comparison and comments;; 7th Conference on limestone, Hydrology and
fissured media, 20th - 22nd September 2001 Besanon, France,

[2].

Civita M. (1993) - Ground Water Vulnerability Maps: A Review. Proc. IX Symp. Pesticide Chemistry "Mobility
and Degradation of Xenobiotics", Piacenza ,

[3].

DOERFLIGER, N. & ZWAHLEN, F. 1995. EPIK: a new method for outlining of protection areas in karstic
environment. International Symposium on Karst Waters and Environmental Impacts, Antalya, Turkey, 10-20
September 1995.

[4].

Foster, S.S.D. (1987) Fundamental concepts in aquifer vulnerability, pollution risk and protection strategy, in W.
van Duijvanbooden and H.G. van Waegeningh (eds.), Vulnerability of Soil and Groundwater to Pollution,
Proceedings and Information No. 38 of the International Conference held in the Netherlands, in 1987, TNO
Committee on Hydrological Research, Delft, The Netherlands.

[5].

Aller L, Bennet T., Lehr J.H., Petty R.J., Hackett G. (1987) - DRASTIC: A standardized system for evaluating
ground water pollution potential using hydrogeologic settings. NWWA/EPA Ser., EPA600/287035.

[6].

Pickus, J. and M. Hewitt. 1992. Resource at risk: Analyzing sensitivity of groundwater to pesticides. Geo Info
Systems 2(10):50-55.
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

63

[7].

Leonard, R.A-, W.G. Knisel, and D.A. StilL 1987. GLEAMS: Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural
Management Systems. Transactions of ASAE. 30(5):1403-1418

[8].

Donigian, A. S.. D. W. Meier, and P. P. Jowise. 1986. Stream transport and agricultural runoff of pesticides for
exposure assessment: a methodology. Environ. Prot. Agency Rep. EPA/600/3-86/01 Ia. March 1996, 760 p. Nat.
Tech. Inf. Serv., Springfield, VA.

[9].

Carsel, R.F., L.A. Mulkey, M.N. Lorber, and L.B. Baskin. 1985. The pesticide root zone model (PRZM): A
procedure for evaluating leeching threats to groundwater. Ecological Modeling 30:49-69.

[10].

Troiano, J., D. Weaver, J. Marade, F. Spurlock, M. Pepple, C. Nordmark, D. Bartkowiak. 2001. Summary of Well
Water Sampling in California to Detect Pesticide Residues Resulting from Nonpoint-Source Applications. J.
Environ. Qual. 30:448-459.

[11].

*** Waterloo Hydrogeologic Software Company June 1996- Visual Modflow Users guide .

[12].

*** DRASTIC User Manual, 1987, Robert S. Kerr Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency.

[13].

*** Studiu de dispersie a poluanilor specifici platformei industriale Svineti-Roznov n pnza freatic, U.T.C.B.
- contract 1999.

[14].

*** Studiu privind folosirea modelelor de aproximare a vulnerabilitatii acviferelor folosind facilitatile Sistemelor
Informatice Geografice, -MONDOPULS Grup SRL, 2003.

64

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

Unele aspecte privind etapele de


dezvoltare ale unei aplicaii de
cadastru general i carte funciar

Some Aspects on the Development


Stages of a General Cadastre and
Land Book Application

Ana-Cornelia Badea, ef lucrri univ. drd. ing., Facultatea de Geodezie, Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii
Bucureti (lecturer drd. eng., Faculty of Geodesy, Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest),
e-mail: badeacadastru@gmail.com

1. Introducere

1. Introduction

Informaia cadastral este constituit din


dou pri, cea grafic (planul cadastral), iar
cealalt format din atribute, stocate de
obicei ntr-o baz de date. Elementele
nregistrate n cartea funciar se refer la
proprietate i reprezint obiectul publicitii
imobiliare.
Studiul de fa ncearc s contribuie la
rezolvarea unor probleme din aceste dou
sisteme prin:
prezentarea modulelor unei aplicaii care
gestioneaz date din cadastru i dezvolt
partea de publicitate imobiliar;
conceperea unor propuneri pertinente
privind anumite probleme stringente din
sistem;
descrierea necesitii de a identifica
modaliti de numerotare i nregistrare a
obiectelor cadastrale spaiale ntr-un
sistem cadastral 3D, pe baza cercetrilor
i rezultatelor internaionale n aceast
problem;
identificarea i asimilarea mijloacelor i
metodelor de realizare a proiectrii,
modelrii i crerii unor module
funcionale ale sistemului, cu respectarea
normativelor i legilor n vigoare.

The cadastral information is composed of


two parts: the graphical part (cadastral map)
and the other one, which includes the
attributes, usually registered in a database.
The Land book recorded elements dwell on
property and represent the main object of the
real estate publicity.
This study tries to contribute to solve some
problems linked with the two systems,
through:
the module presentation of an application
which manages cadastral data and
develops the part of real estate publicity;
the conception of relevant proposals
about some pressing problems of the
system;
the description of the necessity to identify
new methods of numbering and recording
the spatial cadastral objects in a 3D
cadastral system, based on the
international researches and results;
the identification and assimilation of the
ways and methods for designing,
modeling and creating some functional
modules of the system, in respect of the
valid norms and laws.

2. Analiza SWOT
La iniierea oricrei activiti de cercetare este
binevenit realizarea unei analize SWOT,
adic de identificare a punctelor care sprijin
realizarea proiectului, precum i a celor care
constituie limitri i pot frna aplicarea
adecvat a ideilor. De aceea, n tabelul 1, am
selectat principalele observaii despre aceast
problem.

2. The SWOT Analysis


At the beginning of any research activity a
SWOT analysis is advisable. This is an
operation which identifies the strong and the
weak points of the project, the limitations in
the process of the idea application. In table 1
the main observations about this problem
were selected.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

65

ANALIZA MEDIULUI INTERN


INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS
Puncte tari
Strengths
Z Cartea funciar i cadastrul sunt
coordonate de aceeai agenie (ANCPI);
Z The Land Book and Cadastre are coordinated
by the same agency (ANCPI):
Z Interesul pentru domeniu i deschiderea
care exist, chiar la presiunile externe;
Z There is a real interest in this domain and a
very good beginning, like a result of external
Z Acordarea de ctre OGR a dreptului de
pressures;
semntur;
Z The granting by the OGR of the authorization
to sign the speciality documentations;
Z Asumarea responsabilitii profesionale
de ctre geodezi pentru realizarea
Z The surveyors are taking the proffesional
documentaiilor cadastrale;
responsability for producing the cadastral
documentations;
Z Realizri la nivelul OCPI judeene, n
Z The achievements at the OCPI county level,
cadrul unor proiecte pilot, precum i la
in pilot projects as well as at the mayoralty
nivelul primriilor;
level;
Z Existena unor legi, norme tehnice,
Z The existence of laws, technical norms,
instruciuni, regulamente i metodologii
instructions, rules and methodologies which
care privesc activitatea de cadastru (L
relate to the cadastral activity (L 7/1996, O
7/1996, O 633/2006, O 634/2006, etc.);
633/2006, O 634/2006, etc.);
Z The existence of spatial data from the
Z Existena datelor spaiale din sistemul
Specific Informational Systems of Real Estate
informaional specific domeniului
and Public Utilities in many towns and of the
imobiliar-edilitar n multe orae i a altor
CNGCFT data;
date la CNGCFT;
Puncte slabe
Z Accent pus pe nregistrrile sporadice, nu
Weaknesses
pe msurtori sistematice i unitare;
Z The authorities are focused on sporadical
registration, not on systematic and unitary
Z Nu sunt stabilite clar i n detaliu
measurements;
standarde pentru definirea i schimbul de
Z The standards for data exchange and
date;
definition are not clearly established;
Z Nu sunt stabilite tehnicile de modelare a
Z The modeling techniques are not established;
datelor;
Z A complete cadastral map does not exist;
Z Nu exist o hart cadastral complet;
Z The conversion of the Land Books,
Z Conversia n format digital a crilor
cartographical and textual elements into
funciare, a materialelor cartografice i
digital format are not according to the valid
textuale existente este departe de
requirements;
necesitile actuale;
Z The lack of metadata;
Z Inexistena metadatelor;
Z The lack of a standard library of
Z Inexistena unor biblioteci standard de
cartographical signs;
semne convenionale;
Z The competition between the groups of
Z Competiia ntre grupurile de interes
interest is stronger than cooperation;
diferite este mai important dect
Z
It is an inadequate cooperation between the
cooperarea;
public and private sectors and the academic
Z Cooperare insuficient ntre sectorul
community;
public, cel privat i comunitatea
academic;

66

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

ANALIZA MEDIULUI EXTERN


INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS
Oportuniti
Opportunities
Z Iniiativa dezvoltrii unui sistem
Z The initiative of the development of a
funcional de cadastru i carte funciar
functional cadastral and Land Book system
care s garanteze proprietatea i s ofere
which could guarantee property and offer a high
un grad ridicat de ncredere pentru
level of trust for the bussiness environment;
mediul de afaceri;
Z The development of the real estate market and
of the mortgage credit, bigger urban and rural
Z Dezvoltarea pieei imobiliare i a
investments, all these leading to economic
creditului ipotecar, investiii urbane i
growth;
rurale mai mari, toate conducnd la
Z The development of a spatial information
cretere economic;
strategy;
Z The cooperation with external partners and
Z Dezvoltarea unei strategii asupra
consultancy experts;
informaiei spaiale;
Z The on-line access to cadastral data and
Z Cooperarea cu parteneri strini i experi
information;
n consultan;
Z The establishment of the procedures, the
Z Accesul online la informaii i date
certification and monitorization of the tax
cadastrale;
system based on market system value;
Z Stabilirea procedurilor, certificarea i
Z The improvement of educational and research
monitorizarea sistemului de impozitare
level through good financing;
pe baza valorii de pia;
Z INSPIRE directive;
Z Cadastre 2014 initiative;
Z mbuntirea nivelului educaional i a
Z The promotion of techniques, procedures and
cercetrii prin finanri adecvate;
speciality methodologies according with those
of the European Union.
Z Directiva INSPIRE;
Z Iniiativa Cadastru 2014;
Z Promovarea tehnicilor, procedeelor i
metodologiilor
de
specialitate
compatibile cu cele ale Uniunii
Europene.
Ameninri
Threats
Z Schimbrile dese la nivel politic, cu
Z Frequent changes on political level, with
implicaii
asupra
structurilor
de
implications on managerial structures at the
conducere la nivel central i local, care
local and central level, which are not promoting
nu promoveaz strategii coerente, pe
coherent strategies based on certain terms;
termene bine stabilite;
Z The unsatisfactory interministerialrelationship ;
Z Short term difficulties: organizational shock,
Z Corelarea
interministerial
extended intervals of problem solving,
nesatisfctoare;
supplementary activities, blockage probability;
Z Dificulti pe termen scurt: oc
Z Long term problems: dependency on
organizaional, mrirea intervalelor de
infrastructure,
dependency
of
qualified
soluionare, activiti
suplimentare,
personnel.
posibilitatea apariiei unor blocaje;
Z Probleme pe termen lung: dependena de
infrastructur, dependena de personal
calificat.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

67

3. Stabilirea interfeelor

3. Creation of Interfaces

Controlul asupra elementelor aplicaiei SIT


CPI se realizeaz parial prin definirea unor
interfee de acces la date, specifice fiecrei
categorii de utilizatori. Aplicaia are o
pagin principal, cu acces ctre mai multe
module.
Modulul de administrare este
dedicat administratorului, conine
cataloage,
liste
standardizate,
nomenclatoare, informaii despre
autorizai,
despre
starea
autorizaiilor i despre angajaii
OCPI;
Modulul cereri este dedicat
introducerii
datelor
cererilor.
Referentul de serviciu are acces
complet la el. Modulul furnizeaz
rspunsuri la interogri despre starea
cererilor, etc.
Modulul arhiv este creat pentru
stocarea actelor din arhiv. Permite
crearea registrului de arhiv, a
obinerii rapoartelor despre circuitul
actelor;
Modulul introducere imobil este
destinat introducerii elementelor
referitoare la imobil. A fost realizat
legtura cu baza de date grafice
printr-un modul VBA, care permite
definirea interactiv a unor link-uri
i regsirea seleciilor, fiind util
inspectorilor de specialitate;
Modulul carte funciar creat
pentru
introducerea/
editarea/
regsirea datelor de carte funciar,
util asistenilor registratori i
registratorilor;
Modulul Help a fost realizat n
ideea de a oferi potenialilor
utilizatori explicaii referitoare la
elementele aplicaiei. Modulul a fost
dezvoltat cu o versiune Trial
AccHelp;

The control on the application of SIT CPI


elements is realised through the definition of
the interfaces for data access, specifically for
each users category. The application has a
main page, with access to several modules.
Administration module is assigned
to the administrator and contains
catalogues,
standardized
lists,
classified lists, information about
authorized persons, about licence
situation,
and
about
OCPIs
employees;
Question module is devoted data
question entry. The analyst on duty
has full access to it. This module
provides answers about the query
situation, etc.
Archive module is created for
filearchiving. It allows the archive
registry creation and acquisition of
reports ondocument circulation;
Property insertion module is
devoted to the insertion of the
elements about the real estate. The
link with the graphical database was
realised through a VBA module,
which
permits
the
interactive
definition of the links and retrieving
selections, being very useful for the
speciality inspectors;
Land book module created for
inserting/ editing/ retrieving of the
Land Register data, useful for the
assistent registrars and registrars;

68

Help module realised to offer to the


potential users some explanations
about the application elements. This
module was developped with a Trial
AccHelp version;

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

4. Stabilirea i proiectarea rapoartelor

4. Creating and Designing the Reports

Unul dintre scopurile majore ale oricrei


aplicaii este exploatarea ei, prin extragerea
informaiilor pentru diferite activiti. De
aceea, cu privire la SIT CPI, au fost
identificate rapoartele de baz, cele pentru
care a fost construit aplicaia i cele
auxiliare, care pot servi altor instituii ca
informaii n luarea deciziilor, ca de
exemplu obinerea statisticilor sub diferite
forme.

One of the main purposes of any application


is its exploitation, by extracting the
information for different activities. For this
reason, in SIT CPI were identified the main
reports those for which the application was
created, and the auxiliary reports, that can
serve for other institutions as information in
taking decisions; for example obtaining the
statistics in many forms.

Rapoartele de baz, cu specific intern,


obligatoriu prin norme, proiectate n
aplicaie, sunt urmtoarele:

Extrasul de carte funciar pentru


informare;
Extrasul de carte funciar pentru
autentificare;
Registrul general de intrare (RGI);
Mapa actelor dup identificatorul
din RGI;
Registrul cadastral de publicitate
imobiliar;
Indexul alfabetic al proprietarilor i
domiciliul acestora;
Registrul cadastral al proprietarilor;
Registrul cadastral al imobilelor;

Registrul cadastral al parcelelor;


Registrul de audiene;
Registrul de arhiv;
Alte rapoarte care trebuie avute n vedere
sunt rapoartele interne, de administrare, care
ajut la buna funcionalitate a sistemului. O
clasificare a acestora este vizibil n cadrul
interfeei Modulului de administrare
Rapoarte, astfel:
Rapoarte nomenclatoare;
Rapoarte liste standardizate;
Rapoarte liste interne;
Rapoarte cataloage reglementate
ANCPI.

The main reports, with internal specific


character, compulsory by normatives,
designed in the application, are the following:
The Land Register information
extract;
The Land Register extract for
authentication;
The general entry register (RGI);
The act paper case by RGI identifier;
The cadastral register of the real estate
publicity;
The alphabetic index of the owners
with their residence;
The cadastral register of the owners;
The cadastral register of the real
estates;
The cadastral register of the parcels;
The register of audience;
The archive register;
Another reports which should be considered
are the internal reports, for administration,
which contributeto the good functionality of
the system. A classification of these reports is
visible in the interface of the Administrative
module Reports:
Classified list reports;
Standardized list reports;
Internal list reports;
Catalogue reports settled up by
ANCPI

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

69

Fig. 1 Rezolvarea unor aspecte prin cod VBA


Solving some aspects through VBA code

Verificarea validitii
legturilor

Fig. 2 Legturile active existente n Geodatabase


The existent active links in Geodatabase
70

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

Fig. 3 Pagina principal a aplicaiei


The main page of the application

5. Posibiliti de dezvoltare ulterioar

5. Possibilities for FutureDevelopments

Ca posibiliti de cercetare ulterioar se


pot enumera:

As future research possibilities the ones


below can be enumerated:

1. crearea legturii cu sistemul privitor la


piaa imobiliar, care influeneaz mult
mediul de afaceri;
2. continuarea eforturilor care se fac pentru
dezvoltarea
NSDI
(Infrastructurii
Naionale de Date Spaiale). Aceste
eforturi vor fi utile la ncrcarea datelor
spaiale printr-un portal care va gestiona
date despre proprieti sprijinit de
iniiativa EULIS (Serviciul Informatic
European Teritorial);
3. nregistrarea metadatelor (datele despre
date), ca de exemplu sursa informaiei,
precizia msurtorii,
metoda de
msurare, etc., acestea fiind eseniale n
viitor n procesul de luare a deciziilor;
4. dezvoltarea in extenso a unor modele de
transformare i transfer de date spaiale
i non-spaiale ntre formatele utilizate

1. creation of the link to the system of the


real estate market, which is influencing
the business environment;
2. continuation efforts made for NSDI
(National Spatial Data Infrastructure)
development, for applying the INSPIRE
principles, in the framework of the
existing projects. These eforts will be
useful inloading the spatial data through a
portal with real estate data, supported by
the EULIS (EUropean Land Information
System) initiative;
3. recording the metadata (data about data),
such as the information source, the
measurement accuracy, the measurement
method, etc., all of these being essential
in the future in the decisional process;
4. in extenso development of some models
for spatial and non-spatial data

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

71

de diferite sisteme locale i un model


cadastral de baz, adaptat la cadrul din
Romnia;
5. realizarea unei legturi ntre baza de
date a Sistemului Integrat i cea a
Administraiei Finanelor Publice, n
ideea de a se furniza rapoarte anuale cu
numrul de lucrri i valoarea acestora,
pentru fiecare autorizat, n scopul
combaterii evaziunii fiscale.

transformation and changing between


local forms and the base cadastral model
adapted to the Romanian framework;
5. creating a link between the database of
the Integrated System and the Public
Finance Direction, to provide annual
reports with the number of contracts and
their value, for each authorized person, to
fight tax evasion.

Fig. 4 Generare raport Extras de carte funciar pentru informare


Report Generation - The Land Register informational extract

6. implementarea general a operaiei de


scanare a actelor primite pentru a putea
fi ulterior regsite i consultate, fiind
accesibile prin hyperlink;
7. includerea valorii de tranzacionare a
imobilului n cadrul datelor despre
imobil n ideea combaterii evaziunii
72

6. general implementation of the scanning


operations for easily
retrieving and
consulting all documents, through
hyperlink;
7. including the transaction value for the
property as compulsory data against tax
evasion and creating a real statistics of the

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

fiscale i crearea unor statistici reale


referitoare la piaa imobiliar;
8. stabilirea unei legturi cu baza de date
Autorizai a OGR, pentru a facilita
munca inspectorului de cadastru i a
evita redundana i inconsistena
datelor;
9. gsirea unei modaliti de folosire a
datelor
existente
n
sistemul
informaional al fondului imobiliar,
deoarece reprezint rezultatul multor
eforturi i confer o precizie bun;
10. dezvoltarea unui studiu de caz pentru
situaiile 3D din cadastrul general mai
amplu, prin care s se arate necesitatea
unui sistem de nregistrri 3D, bazat pe
reprezentri 3D.

real estate market;


8. establishing a link with OGR database
about the authorized persons to make the
cadastral inspectors work easier , and to
avoid data redundancy and inconsistency;
9. finding a way to use the existing data
from
the
real
estate
cadastral
informational
system
because
it
represents the results of many efforts and
it is accurate;
10. developing a more complex case study for
the 3D situations of the general cadastre
to emphasize the need for a 3D recording
system, based on 3D representations.

Fig. 5 Model 3D parcri subterane


3D model for underground parking

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

73

Quelques aspects lis aux tapes de dveloppement dune application de cadastre gnral et de livre foncire
Rsum
Dans cet article on met en vidence certains aspects lis aux tendances actuelles au niveau international et national
concernant un Systme Informatique Integrat du Territoire et la creation dune application dans cet theme, en soulignant
le recherches. On dcrit quelques aspects du cet application et on met en vidence aussi limportance des facteurs lgaux
et techniques ainsi que les possibilits dun tel systme complexe.
Bibliografie
References
[1]
Badea, A. C. Contribuii la realizarea unui sistem informatic pentru integrarea cadastrului general i a crii
funciare, Teza de doctorat, UTCB, Bucureti, 2008;
[2]
Badea, G. Contribuii privind utilizarea datelor cadastrale n sistemul informaional al teritoriului, Teza de
doctorat, UTCB, Bucureti, 2003;
[3]

Balter, A. Microsoft Office Access 2003, Editura Niculescu, Bucureti, 2007;

[4]
Benhamu, M., Shoshani, U., Goshen, E., Denekamp, S., Bar, R. - A Multi Layers 3D Cadastre In Israel: A
Research And Development Project Recommendations, From Pharaohs to Geoinformatics, FIG Working Week 2005 and
GSDI-8, Cairo, Egypt April 16-21, 2005;
[5]

Kaufmann, J. Cadastre 2014: From Theory to Practice, FIG Working Week, Seoul, Korea, May 6-11 2001;

[6]
Kaufmann, J. .a. Swiss Cadastre: Cadastre 2014 for Sustainability, FIG XXII International Congress,
Washington, D.C. USA, April 19-26 2002;
[7]

Kaufmann, J. ArcGIS Cadastre Data Model Vision, ESRI, 2004;

[8]
Oosterom, P.J.M. van, Ploeger, H.D., Stoter, J.E., Thompson, R., Australia, Lemmen, C.H.J. - Aspects of a 4D
Cadastre: A First Exploration, Shaping the Change XXIII FIG Congress, Munich, Germany, Oct. 8-13, 2006;
[9]
2005;

Sion, I.G. Instituii de drept i legislaie funciar-cadastral partea special, Ed. Matrix Rom, Bucureti,

[10]
Stoter, J., Oosterom, P. van - Cadastral Registration of Real Estate Objects in Three Dimension, URISA
Journal, Vol 15, no.2-4, pg. 47-56, 2005;
[11]

*** - Decretul-Lege nr.115/1938, publicat n M.Of.nr.95 din 27 aprilie 1938;

[12]

*** Legea 7/1996 a cadastrului i a publicitii imobiliare, 1996;

[13]
*** - OUG nr. 41 din 27 mai pentru modificarea i completarea Legii cadastrului i a publicitii
imobiliare nr. 7 / 1996, M. Of. 509 / 7 iunie 2004;
[14]
*** Ordin nr. 633 din 13 octombrie pentru aprobarea Regulamentului de organizare i funcionare a
birourilor de cadastru i publicitate imobiliar, M. Of. 1049 / 29 decembrie 2006;
[15]
*** Ordin nr. 634 din 13 octombrie pentru aprobarea Regulamentului privind coninutul i modul de
ntocmire a documentaiei cadastrale n vederea nscrierii n cartea funciar, M. Of. 1048 / 29 decembrie 2006;
[16]
*** Ordin nr. 128 din 22 ianuarie privind aprobarea tarifelor pentru activitile desfurate de ANCPI
unitile sale subordonate, M. Of. 68 / 29 ianuarie 2007;

[17]
*** Ordin al Directorului ANCPI, nr. 68/29.01.2007 pentru stabilirea termenelor de prestare a serviciilor
furnizate de Agenia Naional de Cadastru i Publicitate Imobiliar i unitile sale subordonate, 2007;
[18]

*** Legea privind organizarea i exercitarea profesiei de geodez nr. 16/2007, 2007;

[19]

*** Regulamentul de organizare i funcionare a OGR, 2007;

74

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

O nou soluie pentru limitarea


polurii apelor subterane

A New Technical Solution for


Limiting Groundwater
Contamination

Nicolae Ioan ALBOIU, ef lucrri drd. ing., Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti (Technical
University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest), Catedra de Hidraulic i Protecia Mediului (Hydraulics and
Environmental Protection Department), e-mail: nalboiu@hidraulica.utcb.ro
Ioan BICA, prof. dr. ing., Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti (Technical University of Civil
Engineering of Bucharest), Catedra de Hidraulic i Protecia Mediului (Hydraulics and Environmental
Protection Department)
Alexandru DIMACHE, conf. dr. ing., Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti (Technical University
of Civil Engineering of Bucharest), Catedra de Hidraulic i Protecia Mediului (Hydraulics and Environmental
Protection Department)
Iulian IANCU, asist. drd. ing., Universitatea Tehnic de Construcii Bucureti (Technical University of Civil
Engineering of Bucharest), Catedra de Hidraulic i Protecia Mediului (Hydraulics and Environmental
Protection Department)

1. Introducere

1. Introduction

Pn n prezent au fost concepute o serie


de tehnici de remediere a siturilor poluate,
printre acestea fiind elaborate i unele care
se adreseaz exclusiv depolurii curentului
de ap subteran afectat de prezena a
diveri contaminani fr a aciona ns
asupra matricei solide a acviferului.
Proiectarea unui sistem de remediere
eficient depinde de natura poluantului, de
dimensiunea zonei contaminate i de
caracteristicile amplasamentului.
Cu toate c rezultatele obinute din
cercetri de laborator, staii pilot i din
aplicarea la nivel de amplasament au fost
n multe cazuri favorabile se ncearc
permanent mbuntirea tehnicilor de
remediere existente, n vederea creterii
eficienei acestora odat cu diminuarea
costurilor. Astfel, n decursul ultimilor
dou decenii s-a nregistrat o evoluie i o
diversificare a soluiilor de depoluare
aplicabile.
Cercetrile experimentale sintetizate n
prezentul material studiaz viabilitatea
unei noi tehnici de depoluare in situ a
curentului de ap subteran poluat cu

Up to now some series of remediation


techniques of contaminated sites, have been
conceived, some of them referring
exclusively to the treatment of the
groundwater flow polluted with different
contaminants without the action on the solid
matrix of the aquifer. The design of an
efficient groundwater remediation system
depends on the nature and extent of the
contamination
and
the
aquifer
characteristics.
In spite of the favorable test data obtained
from the laboratory researches, from the
pilot stations and from the application of the
treatment techniques in situ concerning
groundwater remediation, it is a permanent
desire to improve the existing treatment
techniques for the growth of the efficiencies
and for reducing the costs of groundwater
remediation systems. Thus, in the last two
decades, an evolution and diversification of
groundwater treatment techniques have been
recorded.
The experimental researches presented in
this paper, study the efficiency of a new in
situ remediation technique forgroundwater,

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

75

hidrocarburi petroliere. Aceast situaie


poate aprea spre exemplu n cazul
deteriorrii conductelor de transport a
petrolului brut de la punctul de extracie la
platformele de prelucrare, sau al
rezervoarelor
de
nmagazinare
a
carburanilor.

contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

2. Descrierea soluiei

2. Solution Description

Lucrarea de fa se refer la un caz real de


poluare a apei subterane i de protecie al
unui curs de ap de suprafa. Prezentarea
schematic a situaie este descris cu
ajutorul figurii 1.

The paper treats a real case of groundwater


pollution, and surface water protection. The
scheme of this case is presented in figure 1.

This contamination may occur, for example,


in case of the deterioration of petroleum
transport pipes from the extraction points to
the oil refinery platforms or in case of the
deterioration of the fuel tanks.

Fig. 1 Schema studiului de caz


The scheme of the case study

Soluia propus const n realizarea unui


sistem de celule reactive, permeabile,
transversal pe direcia de curgere, n care
contaminantul va fi neutralizat exclusiv
prin procese biologice. Ca i n cazul
ecranelor impermeabile cu pori de tratare
i al barierelor reactive, sistemul are un
caracter pasiv.
Diferena dintre tehnicile menionate i
noul sistem propus o constituie natura
mediului de reacie. Dac n cazul celor
dou tehnici deja consacrate sunt utilizai
reactani chimici ce duc la consumuri de
substane i posibilitatea apariiei de
produi secundari, n cadrul acestei soluii
se va folosi ca mediu de reacie un
76

The proposed solution consists in installing,


across the direction of the groundwater flow
a system of permeable, reactive cells, where
the pollutant is neutralized exclusively by
biological processes. Similarly to physical
barriers with reactive gates and reactive
physical barriers, this system has a passive
treatment character.
The difference between these two
techniques and the new proposed solution is
given by the nature of the reactive medium.
If, in the case of the reactive physical
barriers, chemical reactants, that involve
consumption of substances and the
possibility of secondary product appearance,
are used, in the proposed solution as a

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

material permeabil, inert din punct de


vedere chimic dar care asigur un mediu
propice pentru dezvoltarea unor populaii
bacteriene cu capacitate de degradare a
hidrocarburilor petroliere (figura 2).

reactive medium will be used a permeable


material, chemically inert. It ensures a
favorable medium for the development of
the microorganism cultures with a high
capacity of degradation of the petroleum
hydrocarbons (figure 2).

Fig. 2 Soluia propus


Proposed solution

Din punct de vedere al aplicrii ei, soluia


cu celule reactive trebuie asociat cu
prezena unor perei impermeabili ce au
rolul de a dirija curentul n zona de reacie
(figura 3).

From the point of view of the


implementation, this technique with reactive
cells must be associated with the presence of
the impermeable walls having the role of
conducting the groundwater flow in the
reaction zone (figure 3).

Fig. 3 Planul soluiei de remediere propuse


Technical design of the proposed remediation solution

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

77

Pentru reinerea produsului petrolier liber, n


amonte de celula activ a fost prevzut un
ecran permeabil din material geotextil. Acesta
este amplasat ntre doi perei din beton
prevzui cu barbacane ce asigur accesul
apei subterane poluate n zona de reacie.
n interiorul celulelor este prevzut material
permeabil. Acesta va asigura un mediu
favorabil
pentru
dezvoltarea
microorganismelor cu rol de degradare a
poluantului.
Pentru a putea asigura o funcionare
continu a sistemului, celula activ este
realizat cu dou compartimente. Astfel, n
cazul n care se dorete efectuarea unor
operaii de ntreinere, curgerea apei n
zona respectiv s fie asigurat prin
funcionarea unuia din cele dou
compartimente ale celulei.
n interiorul fiecrui compartiment se va
prevedea un pu cu rol de alimentare cu
nutrieni, acceptori de electroni sau
microorganisme, pentru a stimula i
accelera procesul de biodegradare. n
perioada de operare acesta va putea fi
folosit i ca pu de monitorizare al celulei.

For the retention of the free petroleum


product upstream fromthe cells a permeable
panel made from geotextil material was
provided. The panel is placed between two
concrete walls with weepers which ensure
the access of the contaminated groundwater
into the reactive compartment.
Inside the reactive cells permeable material
is provided. That material will ensure a
favorable medium for the growth of the
microorganism cultures for the degradation
of contaminants.
To ensure a continuous function of the
system, the reactive cell is made with two
compartments. Thus, in case of maintenance
operations, the groundwater flow in that
area is ensured by the functioning of one
compartment of the system.
Inside each compartment, a well for the
supplying with the nutrients, electron
acceptors or microorganism will be
provided, in order to stimulate and
accelerate the process of biodegradation. In
the operation period this well will be used as
a monitoring well of the reactive cell.
3. Objectives

3. Obiective
Interesul demarrii unui studiu privind
aceast tehnic de depoluare, este justificat
de o serie de aspecte i ipoteze, prezentate
n continuare, viabilitatea acestora
trebuind confirmat experimental:
Realizarea unui nou sistem pasiv pentru
limitarea
extinderii
polurii,
ce
minimizeaz costurile de implementare,
ntreinere i exploatare, prin eliminarea
reactivilor chimici (n cazul ecranelor cu
pori de tratare i al barierelor reactive) sau
a instalaiilor aferente sistemelor de
bioremediere utilizate pn n prezent.
Evitarea introducerii n subteran a unor
substane de natur chimic ca mediu de
reacie.
Controlul mai bun al fenomenelor de
biodegradare ca urmarea a delimitrii
stricte a zonei de reacie.
78

This new technique of groundwater


remediation is justified by a series of aspects
and hypothesis, presented further on,
whosevalidity must be confirmed by
experimental studies:
Creation of a new passive system for the
limitation of the contaminant plume, which
minimizes the cost of the implementation,
maintenance and operation, by eliminating
chemicals reactive compounds (in the case
of physical barriers with reactive gates and
physical
reactive
barriers)
or
the
installations belonging to the bioremediation
systems used at present.
Avoiding the introduction of chemical
substances as a reactive medium in the
ground.
Better control of biodegradation phenomena
as a result of strictly delimitation of a
reactive zone.

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

Monitorizarea mai facil i exact a proceselor


de degradare n timpul i dup ncheierea
aciunii de remediere.

Better monitoring of
biodegradation
process in time and after the goals of
remediation have been achieved.

Posibilitatea interveniei rapide n cazul


constatrii unor inadvertene n timpul operrii
sistemului, ntre rezultatele estimate n faza
pre-implementare i cele din faza operrii.

Possibility of rapid intervention in case of


inadequate results between the preimplementation phase and the operating
phase.

Diminuarea posibilitii interaciunii dintre


populaia neavizat sau a personalului de
exploatare cu eventuali reactivi chimici sau cu
produi poluani, prin amplasarea subteran a
sistemului.

Diminishing the interaction of unwary


population or operation personnel with
chemical compounds or groundwater
contaminants, by underground emplacement
of the system.

Perturbarea minim a curgeri apei subterane n


comparaie cu regimul natural.
Protecia zonelor sensibile situate n avalul
zonei contaminate.

Insignificant
disturbance
of
natural
groundwater flow.
Good protection of sensitive areas
downstream fromthe contaminated zone.

4. Cercetri experimentale

4. Experimental Researches

Pentru determinarea parametrilor de


funcionare ai soluiei propuse, s-a realizat
n incinta Laboratorului de Hidraulic i
Protecia Mediului, din cadrul Universitii
Tehnice de Construcii Bucureti, un stand
menit s ofere condiiile necesare crerii
fenomenelor ce au loc n cadrul aplicrii
acesteia pentru depoluarea curentului
subteran contaminat cu iei (figura 4).

For the determination of the main


parameters of the proposed solution, inside
the Laboratory of Hydraulics and
Environmental Protection, from the
Technical University of Civil Engineering
of Bucharest, an experimental stand was
designed. The goal was to reproduce the
phenomenon that is involved in the
application of the proposed solution for the
remediation of a groundwater flow
contaminated with crude oil (figure 4).

Aa cum reiese i din prezentarea


schematizat (figura 4), standul este
alctuit
din
urmtoarele
elemente
principale: o cuv, un rezervor tampon
pentru alimentare i dou dispozitive
pentru meninerea constant a nivelului
apei n interiorul standului.

As it can be seen from the figure, the


experimental stand consists in the following
main elements: tank, buffer reservoir for
water supply and two devices for keeping a
constant level of the water inside the stand.

Dimensiunile geometrice ale cuvei sunt de


3 x 0,195 x 0,8 m. n vederea crerii
cadrului experimental necesar, aceasta a
fost compartimentat n ase zone
delimitate prin ecrane permeabile. Pentru
realizarea mediului destinat studierii
procesului de depoluare, n interiorul

The geometric dimensions of the tank are 3


x 0.195 x 0.8 m. To create the necessary
experimental frame, this was divided into
six compartments, delimited by permeable
screens. In order to ensure the environment
for studying the remediation process, inside
these compartments a layer of sand of 0.6 m

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

79

acestor compartimente s-a introdus un strat


de nisip cu o grosime de 0,6 m. Din punct
de vedere al compoziiei granulometrice
acesta este caracterizat ca nisip mare, cu
pietri foarte uniform.
Zonele situate la extremitatea cuvei sunt
destinate alimentrii cu ap nepoluat (A)
respectiv evacurii debitului vehiculat prin
stand (E) i au dimensiunile 0,56 x 0,195 x
0,8 m respectiv 0,52 x 0,195 x 0,8 m
(figura 4).
n aval, adiacent compartimentului de
alimentare, se gsete zona contaminat (S)
cu dimensiunile utile de 0,21 x 0,195 x 0,8 m.
Cele dou zone din aval, notate cu (C) n
figura 4, au dimensiunile utile 0,54 x 0,195 x
0,8 m respectiv 1,06 x 0,195 x 0,8 m i
reprezint zone iniial nepoluate care ulterior
demarrii experimentelor vor fi contaminate
ca urmare a transportului de poluant.
ntre aceste dou zone exist un
compartiment mobil, culisant pe direcie
vertical, destinat realizrii celulei de reacie
menit s reduc concentraia substanelor
poluante transportate de curentul de ap.

thick was inserted. From the granular point


of view, this layer is characterized as sizable
sand, with very homogeneous gravel.
The areas situated at the two ends (limits) of
the tank are intended for clean water supply
(A) namely to evacuate the flow from tank
(E). They have the following dimensions
0.56 x 0.195 x 0.8 m, and 0.52 x 0.195 x .,8
m respectively.
Downstream, adjacent of the supply
compartment, is the contaminated area (S),
with the dimensions of 0.21 x 0.195 x 0.8 m.
The two downstream areas, marked with (C)
in the figure mentioned before, have the
dimensions of 0.54 x 0.195 x 0.8 m and 1.06
x 0.195 x 0.8 m respectively and represent
non polluted areas initially, which later will
be contaminated as a result of pollutant
transport .

Dimensiunile interioare ale acestuia sunt de


0,05 x 0,18 x 0,8 m. Posibilitatea extragerii
compartimentului faciliteaz intervenia
asupra mediului reactiv, asigurnd totodat i
posibilitatea nlocuirii acestuia cu acelai tip
de material sau cu diverse alte materiale a
cror eficien n acest domeniu se dorete a
fi testat.

Between these two areas,there is a sliding


compartment, on a vertical direction,
designed to represent the reactive cell for
reducing the concentration of pollutant
substances, transported by the water flow.
Its interior dimensions are 0.05 x 0.18 x 0.8
m. The compartment was designed as to
ensure the following facilities: extracting the
contaminated environment, an easier
intervention over the reactive environment,
and at the same time the possibility of
replacing it with the same type of material
or other materials whose efficiency in this
domain must be tested.

De asemenea pentru realizarea aerrii n cazul


biodegradrii aerobe i/sau a aportului de
microorganisme i nutrieni celula are prevzut
un tub perforat cu diametrul de 2 cm.

For aerating in case of the aerobe


biodegradation and/or microorganism and
nutrients supply, the cell has a pierced tube,
with a 2 cm diameter.

80

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

1 Cuv
2

Rezervor
tampon
3 Preaplin
4

Dispozitiv
deversor
5 Grtare de
separare
6

Panou
piezometre
7

Dispozitiv
prelevare
8 Prize de
presiune

A Alimentare
C

Zona
contaminat
E Evacuare
G Golire stand
R Zona de reacie
S Sursa de
poluare

1 Tank
2 Buffer reservoir
3 Overflow
4 Weir box
5 Separation
screens
6 Standpipe panel
7 Sampling device
8 Pressure taps

A Supply
C Contaminated
area
E Outlet
G General tank
discharge
R Reaction area
S Contamination
source

9 Piezometers

9 Tuburi piezometrice
Fig. 4 Schema standului experimental
Experimental stand design

Pentru vizualizarea cotei piezometrice n


diverse seciuni ale standului acesta are
asociat un panou cu zece tuburi
piezometrice conectate la prize de
presiune. ase dintre aceste prize sunt
realizate din tuburi perforate cu o lungime
de 0,22 m iar patru cu o lungime de 0,6 m,
fiind folosite i pentru prelevarea probelor
de ap necesare efecturii analizelor
privind calitatea acesteia. Astfel n zona
(S) i la mijlocul primei zone (C) este

For the visualization of the piezometric head


in different sections of the stand, the latter
has a panel with 10 piezometric tubes,
connected at pressure intake ports. Six of
these ports, are made of pierced tubes, with
a length of 0.22 m and 4 of them with a
length 0.6 m, being used also for water
samples necessary for establishing the water
quality. Ports with double function are
located in the (S) area and in the middle of
the first (C) area; in the second (C) area, the

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

81

prevzut cte o priz cu dublu rol, iar n a


doua zon (C) dou prize, situate la
extremitile acesteia. Amplasarea celor zece
prize este efectuat n interiorul cuvei, la partea
inferioar a acesteia cu o distan interax de
0,2 m.
Alimentarea standului experimental se
realizeaz prin intermediul unui rezervor
tampon. Acesta este conectat la reeaua de
alimentare cu ap a laboratorului. Reglarea
debitului influent i efluent se fac cu ajutorul
unor robinete de reglaj. Pentru evitarea
suprancrcrii
i
implicit
deversrii
necontrolate a apei nmagazinate, n interiorul
rezervorului a fost prevzut un preaplin tip
deversor plnie care n condiiile date
funcioneaz nenecat. Diametrul plniei este
de 0,155 m. Pentru evitarea formrii vrtejului
specific n acest caz la deversare, acesta este
prevzut cu patru pile antivortex cu o
grosime la nivelul crestei plniei de 4,5 cm.
Din calculele efectuate a rezultat asigurarea
evacurii unui debit cu o valoare de 0,533 l/s
la o sarcin de 1 cm, valoare ce asigur
evitarea suprancrcrii rezervorului.
Dispozitivele pentru meninerea nivelului
constant au rolul de a realiza un regim
permanent de curgere a apei prin mediul
studiat, la o diferen de sarcin fix, stabilit
n funcie de gradientul hidraulic dorit. Acest
lucru se realizeaz ca urmare a posibilitii de
culisare a acestor dispozitive pe direcie
vertical. Astfel, prin poziionarea la diverse
cote a celor dou compartimente se va stabili
grosimea zonei saturate i diferena de sarcin
necesar.
Din punct de vedere constructiv cele dou
dispozitive sunt asemntore, fiind alctuite
dintr-o cuv paralelipipedic n componena
creia intr dou compartimente separate
printr-un perete deversor. Primul dintre acestea
este conectat cu zona de alimentare a standului
iar cel de al doilea cu cea de evacuare.
Compartimentul care recepioneaz debitul
deversat, evacueaz cantitatea de ap
excedentar, funcionnd ca preaplin.
Dimensiunile geometrice ale cuvelor sunt de
0,22 x 0,13 x 0,08 m avnd compartimentul de
82

other 2 ports being located at the


extremities. The 10 pressure intake ports are
located inside the tank, at the bottom of it,
with a 0.2 m distance between axes.
The water supply of the experimental stand
is realized through a buffer reservoir. The
influent and effluent flow adjustments are
done with adjustment valves. To avoid
overcharging and overflowing, inside the
buffer reservoir there is a morning-glory
spillway that has a clear flowing in initial
conditions. The funnel has a 0.155 m
diameter. To avoid the development of
vortex at the discharge, the spillway had 4
anti-vortex piers, with a 4.5 cm thickness at
the crest of the funnel. From the calculus a
flow of 0.533 l/s at a discharge of 1 cm
results, value which avoids the overcharging
of the reservoir.
The devices used to maintain a constant
level have the role to make a stationary
regime of water flow through the studied
environment, at a constant discharge
difference, to establish the function of the
desired hydraulic gradient. This is
achievable with the sliding possibility of the
devices, on vertical direction. The thickness
of the saturated area and the necessary
discharge difference can be established
through different positions of the 2
compartments.
From the constructive point of view, the 2
devices are similar, being made of
parallelepiped tank, with 2 compartments
separated through a wall weir. The first of
them is connected at the supply area of the
experimental stand, the second one is
connected at the discharge area. The
compartment, that receives the flow,
discharges the surplus of water, acting as an
excess.
The geometric dimensions of tanks are 0.22
x 0.13 x 0.08 m with 0.14 x 0.13 m the
supply compartment, 0.08 x 0.13 m the
discharge compartment, and 0.05 m height

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

alimentare de 0,14 x 0,13 m, cel de evacuare


0,08 x 0,13 m iar peretele deversor despritor
cu o nlime de 0,05 m. Pentru admisia i
evacuarea apei a fost prevzut cte un orificiu
cu diametrul de 20 respectiv 15 mm.

of the wall weir. For water supply and


discharge, 2 inlets with 20 and 15 mm, were
installed.

5. Cercetri experimentale

The experiments for establishing the


viability of the proposed remediation
solution and for defining the main
parameters of the process were conceived to
be in two stages. First stage represents a
preliminary stage of experiments and
implies establishing the characteristics of
transport phenomena which brings on the
reduction of pollutant concentration in the
experimental stand. The second stage
consists of introducing the studied
environment inside the (R) compartment,
the microorganism supply and the
monitoring of biodegradation phenomena,
so that in the end, it is able to establish the
conclusions about the efficiency and
viability of the solution.
At present, the research programs are in
progress, and only the first stage is
completed. The results of the experiments,
are presented below (P1..4 pressure intake
port).
The experimental results for the first stage
are presented in figure 5 as contaminant
distribution curves for the entire domain at
the initial time step and after 20 days (the
end of the first experimental stage).
Based on the experimental investigations for
the first stage, the attenuation of the
contaminant could be observed. After 20
days the concentration was diminished
96.72%. This decrease is a result of the
transport of contaminant from the source
compartment
(S)
downstream
the
experimental stand in association with the
dilution of the compound due to the constant
uncontaminated water recharge.

Experimentele demarate pentru stabilirea


viabilitii soluie de depoluare propuse au
fost concepute a se desfura n dou
etape. Prima reprezint faza premergtoare
experimentelor propriu-zise i presupune
stabilirea caracteristicilor fenomenelor de
transport ce atrag dup sine diminuarea
concentraiei poluantului n standul
experimental. A doua etap const n
introducerea mediului analizat n interiorul
compartimentului (R), alimentarea cu
microorganisme
i
monitorizarea
fenomenelor de biodegradare, pentru ca n
final s se poat trage concluziile dorite
asupra eficienei i viabilitii soluiei
studiate.
La ora actual cercetrile experimentale
sunt nc n desfurare, doar prima etap
fiind ncheiat. Rezultatele experimentale
obinute pn n prezent sunt prezentate n
continuare (P1..4 prize de presiune).
Rezultatele obinute n cazul primei etape
experimentale sunt prezentate n figura 5
sub forma unor curbe, ce exprim
distribuia poluantului pe ntreg domeniul,
la momentul iniial i dup 20 zile
(sfritul primei etape experimentale).
n urma rezultatelor obinute pe durata
celor 20 zile, se poate observa diminuarea
concentraiei poluantului cu 96,72%.
Aceast scdere se datoreaz transportului
de poluant din compartimentul sursei (S)
spre zona aval a standului experimental,
odat cu diluarea compusului ca urmare a
alimentrii permanente cu ap nepoluat.

5. Experiment Research

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

83

DISTRIBUIA POLUANTULUI
- Etapa I CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTION
- First stage 1.E+03

1.E+02
Distribuie
iniial (Initial
distribution)

C [mg/l] 1.E+01
Distribuie
final (Final
distribution)

1.E+00

1.E-01
0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2 2.1 2.2 2.3
L [m]

Fig. 5 Rezultate experimentale prima etap


Experimental results - first stage

Un alt scop al primei etape experimentale l-a


constituit determinarea condiiilor de mediu
existente n domeniul permeabil al standului
experimental i dac acestea sunt adecvate
pentru procesele biologice ce vor avea loc n
cea de a doua etap experimental. n acest
scop au fost analizai civa parametrii de
mediu (figura 6).

Another aim of the first experimental stage


was to determine if in the permeable domain
of the experimental stand are proper
environmental conditions for the biological
processes that will be developed in the
second stage. To this effect, certain
environmental parameters were analyzed
(figure 6).
CCO Cr
COD

pH
8

30

25

20

pH

Tinitial

Tfinal

C [m g/l]

15

Tinitial
Tfinal

10

2
1

0
P1

P2

P3

P4

P1

Punct de prelevare
Sam pling point

AZOT
NITRATE

30

P2
P3
Punct de prelevare
Sam pling point

P4

FOSFOR
PHOSPHORUS
0.14

25

0.12

20

0.1

C [m g/l] 15

Tinitial
Tfinal

10

C [m g/l]

0.08

Tinitial

0.06

Tfinal (<
0.02)

0.04

0.02

0
P1

P2

P3

P4

P1

Punct de prelevare
Sam pling point

P2
P3
Punct de prelevare
Sam pling point

P4

Fig. 6 Parametrii de mediu


Environmental parameters

Rezultatele obinute exprim o valoare a


indicatorului pH ce se ncadreaz n
intervalul optim pentru dezvoltarea
84

The results show a pH value placed in the


optimum interval for microorganisms
growth (6 8 units), also the initial

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008

microorganismelor (6 8 uniti), de
asemenea valorile consumului chimic de
oxigen (CCO) arat prezena n mediu a
carbonului i a surselor de energie necesare
dezvoltrii celulare. Pe baza analizelor
efectuate se poate observa de asemenea i
existena n mediu a nutrienilor necesari
(azot i fosfor). Valorile fosforului la sfritul
primei etape, exprim ns necesitatea
alimentrii mediului cu acest nutrient pe
durata celui de al doilea ciclu experimental.

chemical oxygen demand (COD) values


show the necessary carbon and energy
source to generate new cells. Nutrients
(nitrate and phosphorus) are also present in
the
environment.
The
phosphorus
concentrations at the end of the
experimental stage show the necessity of
recharging the medium with this nutrient
during the second experimental stage.
6. Conclusions

6. Concluzii
Soluia prezentat n lucrarea de fa
trateaz o situaie real de poluare a apei
subterane i anume exfiltraiile produse
dintr-o
conduct
subteran
pentru
transportul petrolului, situat n apropierea
curentului subteran natural. Aceasta are ca
rezultat contaminarea apei subterane i
implicit a apelor de suprafa situate n
aval. Soluia va asigura protecia cursului
de ap de suprafa situat n avalul
curentului subteran. Avnd n vedere
condiiile locale, care nu permit
implementarea unei alte soluii, celulele
bioreactive vor reprezenta o soluie viabil
pentru controlul curentului subteran
poluat. Rezultatele acestei cercetri vor
servi unei companii din Romnia ce are ca
obiect de activitate transportul produselor
petroliere. Cercetrile s-au desfurat n
cadrul programului naional de excelen
CEEX 2005 finanat de ctre Ministerul
Educaiei i Cercetrii.

The solution presented in this paper treats a


real case of groundwater pollution, namely
the leakages from a subsoil oil pipeline,
close to a natural surface flow. A result of
this leakage is the contamination of the
groundwater and the downstream areas. The
solution will ensure the protection of the
surface water down stream the groundwater
flow. Taking into account that the local
conditions do not allow to implement
another solution, the bioreactive cells will
represent a good solution to contain the
plume of the contaminant.
The results of this research will be applied
for a Romanian company that deals with the
pipeline transport of oil products. The
research is developed under the Romanian
National Program of Research Excellency
Research Program CEEX, 2005, financed
by the Ministry of Education and Research.

Zusammenfassung
Fr die Reinigung der verseuchten Grundwasserschichten wurden bisher verschiedene technische Lsungen
entworfen. Obwohl die erhaltenen Ergebnisse infolge der Durchfhrung der hergestellten Systeme haben die
Wirksamkeit dieser Lsungen nachgewiesen, man versucht unaufhrlich ihre Verbesserung.
Die anwesende Schrift prsentiert eine neue technische Lsung fr die Beschrnkung der Ausbreitung und
Reinigung des Grundwasserstroms verseucht mit Erdl. Die Existenzfhigkeit des neuen beschrnkenden
Systems wurde durch Experimentalstudien getestet. Dafr baute man innerhalb des Hydraulik und
Umweltschutz Labor der Technischen Universitt fr Bauwesen Bukarest, ein Forschungsanlage. Diese Anlage,
die Entwickelung der Experimente und die erhaltene Ergebnisse sind auch prsentiert in diesen Artikel.
Der Vorteil dieser technischen Lsung ist die Verminderung der Betriebkosten infolge der passiven Wesen des
Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr.3 2008

85

Systems. Ein anderer positiver Aspekt der Methode ist der biologische Charakter der Vorgnge durch die der
Verseuchungsstoffkonzentration vermindert wird. Dadurch beseitigt man die Mglichkeit chemische Stoffe in
unterirdischem Medium einfhren wie im Fall anderen vorhandenen Methoden.
Die beschriebenen Forschungen sind im Bezug mit einem konkreten Fall, sodass die erhaltenen Ergebnisse
werden einem rumnischen lkonzern dienen.
Die Forschung entwickelt sich innerhalb des nationalen Programm CEEX 2005 Finanziert von den Erziehung
und Forschung Ministerium.
Bibliografie
References
[1].

ALBOIU N.I. Sisteme i tehnici de depoluare a stratelor acvifere. Tez de doctorat UTCB 2008

[2].

BICA, I. Poluarea acviferelor. Tehnici de remediere. Editura H*G*A, Bucureti, 1998

[3].

FETTER, C, W. Contaminant Hydrogeology. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, 1993

[4].

US-EPA, Alternatives for groundwater cleanup. National Academy Press. Washington, D.C. 1994

[5].

***, The Evaluation and Remediation of past contaminated aquifers using non conventional
techniques. Research program CEEX 2005, Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest,
Ministry of Education and Research, Bucharest 2005 2008.

86

Buletinul tiinific al UTCB nr. 3 2008