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DistillationColumnTraySelection&Sizing1SeparationTechnologies

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Calculation

DistillationTray

ColumnDesign

LayoutDesign

DistillationColumnTraySelection&Sizing1
Introduction:

VACNET INC.

Oncetheprocessdesignstageends,theequipmentdesign
begins.Thisstageofdesignconvertsprocess
requirementsintoactualhardware.
Oneofthemostprominenthardwaresusedformass
transferistray.Traycolumnsarewidelyusedinvarious
typesofmasstransferoperations.Allthesimulation
results,whichpredictacertainnumberoftheoretical
stages,canbeconvertedtoactualtraysdependingupon
trayefficiencyforaparticularservice.

highvacuumsupply.com

Cryopump Service & Repair Rebuilt


Cryopumps Available

Inanyconventionaltrayvapourrisesthroughtheliquid
poolonthetraydeckandthendisengagesfromtheliquid
inthespaceabovethedeck.Liquidentersthetrayfroma
downcomeraboveandleavesviaadowncomerbelow.
ConventionalTrayhasthreefunctionalzones:
1. Activeareaformixingvapourandliquid:Thisisthezonewheremasstransferoccurs.
2. Vapourspaceabovetheactivearea:Thisisthezoneinwhichliquidisseparatedfromvapour.
3. Downcomerbetweentrays.Thiszonehastwofunctions,firstmovingliquidfromonecontactingtrayto
anotherandseconddisengagingvapourfromliquid.
Eachofthesezonestakesupverticalandhorizontalspaceinthetower.
SelectionGuideforTrayColumn:
Thefactorsdiscussedbelowinfluencethechoicebetweentrays&packings.Astheseareguidelinesfor
selectionoftraysorpackingsforaparticularservice,itisrecommendedtoanalyzeeachdesigncaseonitsown
meritforselection.
Sr.No.SystemFavouringTray
Column

SystemFavouringPackedColumn

1
Solidhandling

Vaccumsystem

2Highliquid
rate

Lowpressuredropapplication

composition
Feed and

temperature

RevampsThe pressure drop

reduction

translatedinto
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3
variable

capacity
canbe
energygainorseparation
improvement.

gain,

4Largediameter
columns

Smalldiametercolumns<900mm

5
Performancepredictioniseasy

Corrosivesystem

6
Less weight saving in cost
foundationsand
supports
7Interboilers,intercondensers,
cooling
colils,&sidedraw
8Highturndown
requirements

an

of
Foamingsystem

Low
liquid holdup for
polymerisationand
degradation.

reducing

Batch
Distillation

9
Chemicalreactions
Theindustry,basedonitsexperience,hasstandardisedthetypetobeusedincertainservices.Ifthisreferenceis
notavailabletheguidelineasperAppendix1aretobeused
TypesofTray
Theparticulartrayselectionanditsdesigncanmateriallyaffecttheperformanceofagivendistillation,
absorption,orstrippingsystem.Eachtrayshouldbedesignedsoastogiveasefficientacontactbetweenthe
vapourandliquidaspossible,withinreasonableeconomiclimits.
Valvetray:
Valvetraysareperforatedsheetmetaldecksonwhichround,liftablevalvesaremounted.Thevapourflows
throughvalveswhichareinstalledparalleltotheoutletweir.Valvetrayscombinehighcapacityandexcellent
efficiencywithawideoperatingrange.

Advantages:
Excellentliquid/vapourcontacting.
Highercapacity.
Higherflexibilitythansievetrays.
Canhandlehigherloadings.
Lowpressuredropthanbubblecap.

Sievetray:
Sievetraysareflatperforatedplateinwhichvapourrisesthroughsmallholesintrayfloor,&bubblesthrough
liquidinfairlyuniformmanner.Theyhavecomparablecapacityasvalvetrays.
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Advantages:
SimpleconstructionLowentrainment,
lowcostLowmaintenancecost
Lowfoulingtendency
Disadvantages:
Lessflexibletovaryingloadsthan
othertwotypes
Bubblecaptray:
Vapourrisesthroughrisersoruptakesintobubblecap,outthroughslotsasbubblesintosurroundingliquidon
tray.Itismainlyusedinspecialapplications.

Advantages:
Moderatecapacity
Mostflexible(high&lowvap.&liquidrates)
Canprovideexcellentturndown.
Disadvantages:
Highentrainment,Highfoulingtendency
Highcost,
Highpressuredrop
Dualflowtrays:
Adualflowtrayisasievetraywithnodowncomers.Thistrayoperateswithliquidcontinuouslyweeping
throughtheholes.Duetotheabsenceofdowncomers,dualflowtraygivesmoretrayareahenceagreater
capacitythananyofthecommontraytypes.Theyareidealforrevampwhereifsomeefficiencycanbe
sacrificedformorecapacity.Theyareleastexpensivetomakeandeasiesttoinstallandmaintain.

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DualFlowTrayBaffleTray
Baffletrays:
Forabaffletraycolumnthegasflowsupwardsthroughthebaffleopeningsandindoingsocontactstheliquid
showeringdownfromonebaffletothenext.Baffletraycolumnshavealmostsamefloodingcapacityascross
flowtrays.Typesofbafflesusedaredisc&donutandsegmentalbafflesforvariouscolumndiameters.
Dualflowandbaffletraysareusedforfoulingapplications,solid/slurryhandlingservices,corrosiveservices.
Proprietarytypesoftrays:
MDTraysLinde/UOP,
RippleTraysStone&WebsterEngg.Corp.
RectangularValve(BDH),
ValveGrid(MVG/SVG),
SHELLHIFI,ConSepTraysSulzerBallastTray,
Flexitray,BiFRAC,SUPERFRACandULTRAFRACTraysKochGlitschEngg.Co.,TunnelTraysMontz,
NyetraysNyeEnggCo,
ComparisonbetweenCommonConventionalTrays.
Sr. Factors
No.

SieveTray

ValveTray BubbleCapTray DualFlowTray

Capacity

High

High

Efficiency

High

High

Turndown

~50%

~2530%

Entrainment

Moderate

Moderate

PressureDrop Moderate

Moderate

Cost

~1.2times

Low

sievetrays
7

Maintenance

Low

Lowto

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ModeratelyHigh

VeryHigh

ModeratelyHigh

Least

10%

Least

High
High
~23timesofsieve

Lowtomoderate
LowtoModerate
Least

trays
RelativelyHigh

Low
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Moderate
8
9
10

11

Fouling
Tendency
Effectsof
Corrosion
Design
information

Main
Application

Low
Low
WellKnown

Lowto
Moderate
Lowto
moderate
Proprietary,
butreadily
available

Oftenused
Wherehigh
whenturndownturndownis
isnotcritical required

High:Tendsto
collect
Solids
High
WellKnown
Extremelylow
Liquid
flow&Where
leakagemustbe
minimized

ExtremelyLow
VeryLow
Someinformation
Available.Instability
canoccurinlarge
dia.(>8feet)
Capacityrevamps,
Highlyfoulingand
corrosiveservices

TrayParameters
a)No.ofpasses(Np):
Thenumbersofflowpathsofliquidontrayare1,2,3or4asperliquidcapacityrequirementofcolumn.Froma
capacityviewpoint,aliquidrategreaterthan6gpm/inchofweir(weirloading),istherateatwhichahigher
numberofflowpathsshouldbeconsidered.Themaximumallowableweirloadingis13gpm/inofweirlength.
Iftheweirloadingexceedsthisthetrayneedsredesignwithhighernumberofpasses.
b)TraySpacing(S):
Trayspacingisthedistancebetweentwotrays.Generallytrayspacingrangesfrom8to36inches(200mmto
900mm).Primefactorinsettingtrayspacingistheeconomictradeoffbetweencolumnheightandcolumn
diameter.Mostcolumnshave600mmtrayspacing.Cryogeniccolumnshavetrayspacingof200300mm.
c)OutletWeirs(hw):
Anoutletweirmaintainsadesiredliquidlevelonthetray.Astheliquidleavesthecontactingareaofthetray,it
flowsoverthetrayweirtoenterintothedowncomer.

d)DowncomerClearance(hcl):
Thisistheverticaldistancebetweenthetrayfloorandthebottomedgeofthedowncomerapron.The
Normalpracticeistouseadowncomerclearanceof1/2inchlessthantheoverflowweirheighttoprovidea
staticliquidseal
e)InletWeirs&RecessedSealPans:
Inletweirsandrecessedsealpansareprimarilyusedforachievingadowncomersealincaseswhereapotential
positivesealingproblemexistsandclearanceunderdowncomerislimited
f)Downcomers:
Passageofliquidfromthetoptraytothebottomoftrayoccursviadowncomers.Downcomersareconduits
havingcircular,segmental,orrectangularcrosssectionsthatconveyliquidfromuppertraytoalowertrayina
distillationcolumn.

g)Downcomerwidth(Chordheight,WDC):
Itismaximumhorizontaldistancebetweentowerwallandweir.
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h)Flowpathlength(FPL):
Flowpathlengthisthedistancebetweentheinletdowncomer&outletdowncomer.Theminimumlimitfor
flowpathlengthis400mminordertoprovidegoodcontactingbetweenvapourandliquid.Thisisalso
necessaryforthemechanicalreasonofprovidingtraymanway.

i)Traydeckthickness(t):
Traysnormallyusedincommercialserviceneedaminimummaterialthicknesstoprovidestructuralstrength
(personnelwalkonthemduringinstallation)andcorrosionallowance.Athicknessof10to12gauge(2.5to3.5
mm)iscustomaryforcarbonsteel,while12to14gauge(1.9to2.5mm)isusedforstainlesssteeltrays(in
generalnoC.A.forSS)

j)Holepitch(P):
Centretocentredistancebetweenholesiscalledpitch.Normalpracticeistouseaholepitchtoholediameter
ratiobetween2.2to3.8.

k)System(Derating)factors:
Deratingfactorsareoftencloselyrelatedtothefoamingtendencyofthesystem.Higherthefoamingtendency,
theloweristheDeratingfactor.Systemfactorsareusedinthreeoftheratingcorrelations(jetflood,down
comerbackupflood,downcomerchoke)toaccountforsystemeffectsonhydrauliccapacitylimits.Itincludes
bothfoamingeffectsandhighvapourdensity.

l)Bubbling(Active)Area(AB):
Bubblingareaisthecolumnarea,whichisactuallyavailableforvapourbubblingthroughliquid.Itcanbe
definedascolumnareaminusdowncomerareas,downcomerseal&largecalmingzones.
m)%HoleArea:
Thisistheratioofholeareatobubblingarea.Thedefaultpracticeistotargetaholeareaof8to10%of
bubblingareaforpressureservices.Theacceptablerangeforpercentageholeareais5%to15%.Howeverfor
somecriticalservices,wecango%holeareaupto1717.5%providedthatweepingisundercontrol.Hole
areasbelow5%arenotused.

n)Antijumpbaffles:
Antijumpbafflesplatessuspendedverticallyabovecentreoroffcentredowncomers,whichstopsliquid
jumpingfromonedeckontotheoppositedeck,flowpath
TrayHydraulicParameters
Followingarethesomeimportantoutputparametersoftrayhydraulics.

a)Flood:
JetFlood:
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Insprayregimeoperationfloodingisbroughtaboutbyexcessivevapourflow,causingexcessiveliquidtobe
entrainedinthevapourupthecolumn.Infrothandemulsionflowsregimesoperationexcessivefroth
entrainmentinthevapourupthecolumncausesjetflooding.
DowncomerBackupFlood:
Occurswhenthepressureavailableforagivenheightofliquidandfrothinthedowncomercannotovercome
thetotalpressuredropacrossthetrayThispressureimbalancecausesthefrothinthedowncomertostart
backingupuntilitreachesthetrayabove,causinganincreasedaccumulationofliquidonit.Itrequireshigh
liquidandvapourloads.
DowncomerChokeFlood:
Themechanismbywhichthistypeoffloodingoccursisonerelatedtofrictionalpressurelossesinthe
downcomerbecomingexcessive.Inaddition,thevapourcarriedintothedowncomermustseparatefromthe
liquidandthenflowcountercurrenttotheliquidenteringthedowncomer.Whenthecombinationofvapour
exitingandtheliquidenteringbecomesexcessive,thedowncomerentranceischokedcausingtheliquidto
backuponthetray.Itrequiresrelativelyhighliquidrates,surpassingavelocitylimitationonthedowncomer.
b)Weeping/Dumping
Thepressureexertedbythevapourisinsufficienttoholduptheliquidonthetray.Therefore,liquidstartsto
leakthroughperforations.
c)PressureDrop:
Pressuredropisanimportantconsiderationwhiledesigningatray.Itbecomesmorecriticalforthevacuum
systemsthanthehighpressuresystems.Thetraypressuredropisviewedasthesumofthepressuredrop
throughthevalvesorsievesandpressuredropthroughtheaeratedliquidonthetraydeck.
d)Turndownratio:
Turndownratiodefinestherangeofvapourloadbetweenwhichthecolumncanoperatewithoutsubstantially
affectingitsprimaryseparationobjective(i.e.fractionationefficiency)oroverwhichacceptabletray
performanceisachieved.Thetrayefficiencystaysatorabovethedesignvaluethroughouttheturndownrange.
TraySizing
Thesizingprocedureisaniterativecalculation.Apreliminarydesignisset,andthenrefinedbychecking
againsttheperformancecorrelationsuntilanadequatedesignisachieved.Thesizingcalculationsareperformed
atthepointwherecolumnloadingisexpectedtobehighestandlowestforeachsection,i.e.,
i)Thetoptray
ii)Aboveeveryfeed,productdrawoff,orpointofheatadditionorremoval.
iii)Beloweveryfeed,productdrawoff,orpointofheatadditionorremoval.
iv)Thebottomtray.
v)Atanypointinthecolumnwherethecalculatedvapourorliquidloadingpeaks
Thesizingisdoneatallaboveloadpointsandalsodetailedsizingischeckedatallaboveloadpoints.All
designparametersgiveninthedesignprocedurebelowarecalculatedatallaboveloadpointsatturndownand
turnuploadssothatthefeasibilityofdesignforvariedloadsistested.
a)Preliminarydeterminationoftowerarea:
Themethodsusedfordeterminingtowerdiameterare:
CFactorMethod
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NomographMethod
FRITraydesignhandbook
HoweverinthistechnicalguidelinewearedescribingmethodusingCFactorMethod.
CFactorMethod:
Thefollowingcalculationsaredoneatalltheloadingpointsmentionedaboveanddiametersarefound
separately.Ifthedifferenceincalculateddiameteratdifferentsectionsexceeds20percent,differentdiameters
forthesectionsarelikelytobeeconomical.Thesectionhavingdifferentdiametershouldbeatleast20ftin
lengthelsesamediametercanbemaintained.
i.TrayArea
Assumeappropriatevaluesforfollowingparameters(basedonsystemrequirements)forpreliminarydiameter
calculation.
dH=Holediameter,inches(toinch)S=Trayspacing,inches(1824)
hct=ClearLiquidheightatthetransitionfromthefrothtosprayregime,inofliquid.
Assumption:ThestartingvaluesforthesecanbedH=1/4,S=24,hct=2
CalculateCFactor(CSB)usingfollowingKisterandHaasCorrelation:

ii.FloodVelocityCalculation
Thisisthevelocityofupwardvapouratwhichliquiddropletsaresuspended.CalculateFloodVelocity(uN)
usingfollowingequation:

iii.NetAreaCalculation
Thenetarearepresentssmallestareaavailableforvapourflowintheintertrayspacing.CalculateNetArea
(AN)fromthefloodvelocityusingfollowingequation:Assumethecolumnistobedesignedfor80%offlood.

iv.DowncomerAreaCalculationCalculatedowncomerarea(AD)fromclearliquidvelocityindowncomer
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usingfollowingformula:
Where,
QL=LiquidFlowRate,ft3/s
VCL=ClearLiquidVelocityinDowncomer
ValueofVCLobtainedfromtablebelow.Noderatingfactorisrequiredforthiscalculation,asVCLvalueshave
takencareoffoaming
Table:RecommendedVCLvaluesfordifferentfoamingtendencies
VCLindowncomer,ft/s

Foaming
Tendency Example

18in

24in

30in

Spacing Spacing Spacing

Low

Lowpressure(<100psia)light
hydrocarbon,
stabilizers,airwatersimulators

Oilsystems,crudeoildistillation,
Medium absorbers,
med.pressure(100300psia)
hydrocarbon
High

Amine,glycerine,glycols,high
pressure
(>300psi)lighthydrocarbons

0.40.5 0.50.6

0.30.4 0.40.5

0.20.25 0.2
0.25

0.50.6

0.40.5

0.20.3

v.TowerDiameterCalculation
TotalTowerArea(AT)=AD+AN

b)Preliminarytraylayout:
APreliminarylayoutisneededaslayoutinfluencesthecolumnsize.

DowncomerLayout:
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Checkthe%ofDowncomerareawithrespecttotowerarea:

TheFractionalareashouldaround10%butavoidlessthan8%innormalcircumstances.NotethatADshouldin
nocircumstancebelessthat5%ofAT
NetArea(AN):
ThetotaltowercrosssectionareaATlesstheareaatthetopofthedowncomer(sometimerefertoasfreearea,
thetermfreearea.)
Thenetarearepresentsthesmallestareaavailableforvapourflowintheintertrayspacing.
AN=ATAD
Bubbling(Active)area(AB):
ThetotalcrosssectionareaATlesstheareaattheinlet&outletdowncomeriscalledasbubblingarea.
AB=ATADTADB
BelowfigureshowstheTypicalTrayLayout.

WeirLengthandDowncomerWidth:SinglePassTray:
ThecalculationofWeirLengthandDowncomerWidthinvolvesgeometricalrelationshipbetweendowncomer
area,downcomerwidth,anddowncomerlength.
FollowingFigureshowsdowncomergeometry:

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Calculatedowncomerwidthandweirlengthusingfollowingmethod

?=sin1(h/R)
w=2*RCOS(?)orw=2*(R2h2)0.5
?/2=?/2?
Sectorarea=ASECT=?R2*?/(2*?)
Areaoftriangle(ABC)=ATRI.=w*h/2
Where,
Lw=WeirLength=w*(1fractionalweirblockage)
wdc=DowncomerWidth=Rh
AD=Adc=DowncomerArea
Fractionalweirblockageisthefractionoftotalweirlengththatisavailableforliquidflowbyusingpicketand
fencetypeofweir.Blocked(Picketfence)weirsareusedforhandlinglowliquidloading.
Downcomerarea
AD=ASECTATRI

TwoPassTray:
Twopasstrayshavealternatingarrangementsofonecenterdowncomerandtwosidedowncomers.

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Thesidedowncomerareacanbecalculatedasthatforsinglepasstray.Itshouldbenotedthatsidedown
comersareonbothsides.
Centerdowncomercalculationscanbedoneasfollowsinsimilarmannerassidedowncomer:
?=sin1(h/R)
w=2*RCOS(?1)orw=2*(R2h2)0.5
?=2*(?/2?)
Sectorarea=ASECT=?R2*?/(2*?)
Areaofcenterdowncomer=Areaofcircle2*areaofsector+2*AreaofTriangleAreaofdowncomer=?*R2
2*ASECT+h1*w1
Incaseofmorethantwopasstrayswehavetodefineonemoreparameter,i.e.offcenterdowncomerlocation
fromcenterline.Thisneedstobedoneonacasebycasebasis.
LiquidFlowPathLength(FPL):
ForSinglePassTray:
FPL=(traydiameter)minus(sideDCwidthofthetray)minus(bottomwidthofDCoftrayabove)

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Where,

w1dc

=Downcomerwidth(Centredowncomer,Bottomof
Downcomer)

w2dc

=Downcomerwidth(Sidedowncomer,Topof
Downcomer)

w3dc

=Downcomerwidth(Centredowncomer,Topof
Downcomer)

w4dc

=Downcomerwidth(Sidedowncomer,Bottomof
Downcomer)

C)DetailedDesign
FloodingCheck:
ThefloodingcheckisperformedusingfollowingCorrelations:
1. KisterandHaascorrelation.
2. DowncomerchokeKochcorrelation
3. Fairscorrelation
4. Smithetal.correlation
1.JetFlood:KisterandHaascorrelation
Thiscorrelationpossessfollowingadvantage:
Itgivesacloseapproximationtotheeffectsofphysicalproperties,operatingvariable,andtraygeometry
onthefloodpoint.
Itdescribessprayregimeentrainment.
Itwasderivedfromamuchwiderdatabaseofcommercialandpilotscalecolumndata.
Itcanpredictsieveandvalvetrayentrainmentfloodingwithin15and20percentrespectively.
Thiscorrelationpossessfollowingrestriction:
Sr.no.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Factors
FloodingMechanism
TrayType
Pressure
GasVelocity
LiquidLoad
GasDensity
LiquidDensity
SurfaceTension
LiquidViscosity
TraySpacing
HoleDiameter
FractionalHoleArea
WeirHeight

Applicability
Entrainment(Jet)floodonly
SieveorValvetraysonly
1.5500psia
1.513ft/s
0.512gpm/inofoutletweir
0.0310lb/ft3
2075lb/ft3
580dyne/cm
0.052.0cP
1436in
1/81in
0.060.20
03in

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Stepstocalculate%FloodingusingKisterandHaascorrelation:
i.CalculateWeirLoad(QL):
LiquidLoaddescribesthefluxofliquidacrossthetray.

ii.ClearLiquidheightatthetransitionfromthefrothtospray((hct)

2.JetFlood:Fairscorrelation
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TheFaircorrelationhasbeenstandardoftheindustryforentrainmentfloodprediction.Fairscorrelationtends
tobeconservative,especiallyathighpressureandliquidrate.
Thiscorrelationpossessfollowingrestriction:
Sr.No

Factors

FloodingMechanism

TrayType

Holesize
Weirheight

Applicability
Entrainment(Jet)floodonly
SieveTray,ValveandBubblecapTray
Holein(sievetray)
<15%TraySpacing

Stepstocalculate%FloodusingFairscorrelation:
i.Calculateflowparameter

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3.DowncomerchokeKochcorrelation:
ThisisthemoreconservativecorrelationforcheckingDowncomerDesign.Stepstocalculate%Load
UtilizationusingKisterandHaascorrelation:

4.Hydraulicchecks
Hydrauliccheckinvolvescheckingfollowingparameters:
FlowRegime
Entrainment
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Downcomerresidencetime
PressureDrop
Downcomerbackup
ii.DeterminationofFlowRegime
FrothRegime
Thisisthemostcommonlyencounteredflowregimeinoperatingcolumns.Thefrothformedunderthisregime
isdescribedasonewherethesizeandshapeofbubblesisnonuniformandwithratherlargesizedistribution,as
wellastravellingatvaryingvelocities.Theliquidsurfaceiseitherwavyoritpresentsoscillations.Thisisa
liquidcontinuousflowregime.
SprayRegime
Thisregimesoccursatrelativelyhighvapourvelocities(i.e.largevapourflowrates)andlowliquidloads,
characteristicswhicharetypicalofvacuumsystems.Thevapourvelocityissolarge,thattheliquidphaseis
completelydisruptedandisnolongeracontinuousphaseontopofthetrayliquidisadispersedphasepresent
onlyintheformofdrops,andthereforethecontinuousphaseisthevapour.
EmulsionRegime
Thisflowregimeistypicallyencounteredinhighpressuresystemsandrelativelyhighliquidloads.The
shearingactionofthehighvelocityliquidtearsoffthevapourbubblesleavingtheorificesonthetray.Most
ofthegasisemulsifiedinsmallbubbleswithintheliquid,withthemixturebehavingasauniformtwophase
fluid,obeyingtheFrancisweirformula.Thisisaliquidcontinuousflowregime.
Thedeterminationofregimeontraygivenbelowisonlyforinformationandhasnouseinsizing.
ii.FrothEmulsionTransitionCheck
ThiscorrelationisapplicableforSievetraysonly.
Thevalueofactualflowparameteriscalculatedasbelow:

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Ifthevalueofactualflowparameterexceeds0.0208thentheregimeofoperationisemulsion.
iii.FrothSprayTransitionCheck:
PorterandJenkinscorrelationforthefrothtospraytransition.

Where,
Lwweirlengthininches,ABActiveareaft2
ppitchininches
hcclearliquidheight,inches
5.Entrainment:
Ifentrainmentisexcessive,columndiameterortrayspacingareusuallyincreased.Asrecommendedvalue,the
entrainmentfromthetrayshouldnotexceedabout0.10lbliquidentrainedperpoundofliquidflow.
MethodstodetermineEntrainment:
Fairsentrainmentcorrelation
Thismethodholdsgoodforfrothandemulsionregime.Howeveritislessaccurateforsprayregime.Foratrays
operatingatahighliquidtovapourratio,0.1lbofliquidentrainedperpoundofliquidisanexcessivequantity
ofentrainedliquid.

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KisterandHaasCorrelation
ThismethodisusedforSprayRegimeEsisentrainmentlbofliquid/lbofvapour.

May7th,2012inDesignDistillationSystem
LayoutDesign

ColumnTrays

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TowerTray

ColumnPacking
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Categories
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DISTILLATIONCOLUMNS(orTOWERS)
SIMPLECONTINUOUSDISTILLATIONPROCESS
DISTILLATIONCOLUMNCONTROL
FILTERS&STRAINERS
LOWTEMPERATURESEPARATION
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