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PHILOSOPHIC

SERIES"

McCOSH,
President

Author

PHILOSOPHY

CRITICAL

JAMES

op

Thought"

"Intuitions

(A

op

D.D., LL.D.,
Princeton

Mind,"

the

of

Treatise

on

NEW

CHARLES

VII

CRITICISM

THE

No.

Logic),

D.L.

College
"

Laws

of

"Emotions,"

YORK

SCRIBNER'S
1884

SONS

Discursive
"c.

PHILOSOPHIC

SERIES"

CRITICISM

No.

VII.

OF

THE

CRITICAL

PHILOSOPHY

BT

JAMES

MoCOSH,
President

Author

op

Thought"

"Intuitions

(A

of
of

Treatise

Princeton

Mind,"

the

on

NEW

CHARLES

D.D.,

Logic),

LL.D.,

D.L.

College
"

Laws

op

"Emotions,"

YORK

SCRIBNER'S
1884

SONS

Discursive
"c.

"""""""
"

"

"

?""! ."":

"

"

""

""

"

"*

"
"

*
"

"

"-"

1884,

COPYEIGHT,

SCKIBNER'S

CHARLES

BY

SONS.

TB0W8

PRINTtNQ

AND

BOOKWNDINQ
HEW

YORK.

COMPANY,

CONTENTS.

page

INTRODUCTORY.
Influence
Reaction

Middle

in

Now

Need

Locke

of

of

OBJECTIONS

TO

OBJECTIONS

TO

in

of

HIS

HIS

3-6
.

OF

THEORY

PHENOMENAL

6-12

METHOD,

CRITICAL

...

Kant,

Against

Reaction

Century,

that

Century,

Eighteenth

LEDGE,
KNOW12-18

ON

FORMS

"/

HIS

TO

OBJECTIONS

ING
IMPOS-

MIND

THE

19-25

OBJECTS,

ESTHETIC,

TRANSCENDENTAL

KANT'S

OF

DOCTRINE

26-31
....

26-27

Self-Consciousness,
Space

"^

and

27-31

Time,

ANALYTIC,

TRANSCENDENTAL

HIS

32-36

Categories,

His

DIALECTIC,

TRANSCENDENTAL

HIS

31-37
....

The

Ideas

Substance,

of

Pure

Paralogisms,

Interdependence,
God,

The

Reason,

Theistic

".
.

37-43
.

38
39

Antinomies,

40-42

Arguments,

42-43

691140

CONTENTS.

IV

The

43-46

REASON,

PRACTICAL

THE

Immortality

Imperative,

Categorical

43

God,

and

46-47

FACULTY,

JUDGING

THE

OF

KRITIK

....

COMPARISON

47-50

SCHOOL,

SCOTTISH

WITH

Should

View

What

be

Taken

by

British

and

American

50-52

Youth,

53-55

IDEALISM,

HIS

55

AGNOSTICISM,

HIS

Back

Taking

to

56-58

Kant,

What

is

Good

in

our

Higher

58-60

Philosophies,
.

NOTE.

BIOGRAPHICAL

there

is

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work,

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of

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the

thirteen,

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family

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the

branches

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showed

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manuel

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to

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clear
in

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in

1746

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and

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for

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and

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of

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account

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graphic
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the

in

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interest.

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over

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em-

was

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1755

mathematics

versity
uni-

the

entered

thrown

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evangelical

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a

ing
work-

fervent

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full

records

of

Sciences

University
and

old

stones
tomb-

on

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six

enough

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name

unfortunately

Department

felt

talent

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Kant;

for

to

always

and

taste

and

Arts

Logic, Ethics,

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a

sixteen

private family

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died

had
in

tutor

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resources,

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on

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and

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occurring

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saddler,

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the

noticed

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mother,

father,

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e.

toward

Prussia,

emigrant,

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at

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into

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show

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accessible.'

and

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parish church-yards,

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in

nmnerous

of

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in

probably

German

in

now

from

descent

Scotland, where

of

coast

are

border, April

Memel,

to

over

detailed

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at

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Philosophy,

Kant's

of

criticism

giving

of him

biographies
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early

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account

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in

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iv

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works

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losophy
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and

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of

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study.

acquainted with

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turn
to his thoughts.

of
gave

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1760-65

from

years

his favorite

philosophybecame

end

the

in

ant
import-

Syllogistic

Philosojphy

the

ment
Concejptionof Negati'de Quantities',Only Possible Arguf(yr demanstratiMg GocPs Excellence; Observations

am.d Morals.

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Laplace

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1770

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lecture

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mature

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of

search
laid

for

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on

1787,

and

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to

his

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avowed

1781,

aim

in

deliver

it he

his

system

ever

second

labored

book

has

and

thought.

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was

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metaphysics.

thinking minds,

influence

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troducto
in-

Princijplesof

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in

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on

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57, he published his great work,

of

powerful

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Reason^

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metaphysics,

philosophic system.

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construction

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and

henceforth

teaching of logicand

the

to

the

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hundred

professor,with

full

made

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himself

devoted

at

theory

quiry
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/ and

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this

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in

the

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into

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on

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larly
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prehensio
misap-

objections.

answer

published

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for

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jphysic of Ethics / and The Metaphysical Rudiments
Natu/ral
Philosophy ; in 1788, The KritiJc of the Practical
Reason^
old

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biographersall

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describe

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the

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erence
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dictates

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to

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always with

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to

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city.

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toward

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till

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philosophy

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guests.

commonly

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Till

quarters,"and

still shown

he

bedroom

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rose

liquor, and

ranged

walk,

this walk

who

beggars

little

lasted

metaphysics,

except

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tobacco.

remote

six, invited

to

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darkened

he

is three

brain.

laboriously,and

wrote

in that

out,

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simple

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one

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master

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scarcely understood

carefullyelaborated.

he

age,

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in
his
had
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the

died

OF

ORITIOISM

CRITICAL

THE

PHILOSOPHY^':

U: r.

Locke

the

was

is the

Kant

Locke's

in

published
The

for

of

the

schoolmen

till the

of

the

sixteenth

Locke

century.

his

1 had

Critical

1883.
his

phraseology,

which

me

These

1881.
will

now

subjected
clear

that

favor

of

to

to, at

the

and
and

his

of

end

they

of

their

an

agnosticism

have

Dr.

done

philosophy,
which

now

in

about

allowed
Balfour

show

opposing
following
they

to

do

the
not

the

to

express

mean

filled

to

of

they
the

do

times,

support.

air

Dr.

will

It is
in

wick
Sidgdoubts

with

the

was

Kant

defending
so

in
Kant

this.

that

to

seems

Locke

against

in

right

that

of

hope

to

centenary

as

the

acuteness

spirit

Kant

beginning

rebellion

Unless

error.

such

criticism,

brand

I refer

have

his

at

cism
Criti-

beginning

and

indication

an

start

much

all

A
my

possession.

are

having

as

title,

influence

and

century

servation
ob-

avoided

Mind,

that

prior

his

searching

last

be
Mr.

claim

Sidgwick's
a

is

I may

by

fresh

stolen

in

the

use

to

of

has

articles

order

hold

teenth
seven-

1878, entitled

Sidgwick

should

climax

of

Stirling

friend

in

Nov.

acute

acquired

undergo

diflBculties,will

as

he

the

papers

realism.

that

which

have

Dr.

very

simply

reached

have

to

it

of

property

own

his

title to

quite willing

am

Prof.

the

abstract

His

carefully

Review

Princeton

the

of

the

in

prevailed

the

ence,
sagacity,his independ-

and

Philosophy.

same

employment

my
to

the

giving

in

article

an

of the
by

very

the

of

and

in

their

kept

of his age.

want

shrewdness

spirit,his
and

still

the

met

wearied

had

century,

which

discussions

metaphysical

rejoicing

men,

which

this.

immediately.

becoming

were

tury
cen-

ing,"
Understand-

notice

Younger

it.

logical forms
close

Human

on

into

came

physical science,

of

advance

Essay

1690,

ripe

was

age

An

"

work,

great

of

metaphysician

influential

most

last

of

metaphysician

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tendency
be

toward

hack

and

CRITICISM

teclmical
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generation.
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notice

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called

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out

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minds

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began

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sceptic;
fundamental

truth

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firm

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over

United

^Reid

"

had

States ; and

hold

of

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France, Britain, and

be

to

seen

of

fundamental

Kant

two

in

fixed forever.

grand ideals,where

has

revelled

ever

philosophy of
have

out

come

ideahsm
and

in

of
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Hamilton
well

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like

as

has taken

well

the

dark

by

there
as

and
relativity

applied by

sins will find

nescience

us

out.

in

over

(1781) laying

passing

us

into

over

like

power,
has

iato

up

Schiller

of

and

estab-

of

woven

theories

Spencer.
Providence

region
in

the

These

Locke.

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are

Goethe,

mistakes

were

that

in

shadow

Herbert

and

France,

which
principles,

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and
our

Kant

of

(1764) reaching

over

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But

tish
Scot-

penetratinginto
latterly

poetry, led

since.

idealism

defenders

great

then

and

and

He

these

in the

Germany

and

America,

mental

sights
over-

againstthe

reaction

Scandinavia, Greece, Italy,and Spain. Kant's


Locke's,has been on the whole for good. He
Hshed

and

proceed

to

culminated

country,

land,

own

serious

claimed

Scotland

in

own

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of

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eighteenthcentury thoughtful

the need

see

by (not valued

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the

our

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principles;and

of

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were

systems which

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him

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as

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to

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the

half

second

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exerted

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if

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sensationalism

in the

"

Berkeley, and

of

influence

in

deHcate

rising

facts,even

and

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to the

internal

great Teacher

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as

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fatal

view

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men

character.

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external;

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healthy

PHILOSOPHY.

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phrases,recommended

JS^ewton

and

luinseK

THE

OF

eclipsein the
by Hegel,
elaborated
Our

errors

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as

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LOCKE

mistakes

lative
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to

againstKant's

is the

of

when
psychologists

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worthy

of

ghmpse

of

the

study, and

prevailing

nescient
this
the

to

I wish

great

'

I may

mention
I ventured

1878,
be
who

replied
am

criticism

not
use

in

an

article

to

carry

and
he

has

Philosophy.
a

the

controversy

and

valuable

of

for

in this

in

it

in

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age
dispar-

to

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on

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view

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and

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of
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ally
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foundly,
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hope

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is

note.

which

volumes

his

which

to

I may

but

paper,

to

Mahaffy,

in last

to

ary,
Janu-

meant

was

in Prof.

referred

of

for

Review

July, 1878,

for

and

of ordination

Kant.

Mahaffy

Dublin,

nearly

Kant's

necessary

mean

champion

fully

us

meet

not

in ancient

fragmentary

give

thus

having

membef

not

of

1878,

Dr.

made.

University

The

Kant

Princeton

Review

same

as

fore-

Leibnitz, Keid

in the

able

an

ics,
metaphys-

expel

we

logicalpower

November,

for

written

complete,

may

I do

criticism

short

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remarks

the

in

the

on

article

great

things.

and

His

Ma-

the

can

being

Aristotle

and

materiahstic
Prof.

we

it is

of

and
that

forth

called

wrote

Forms

us

an
a

on

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challenge.

that

Locke, both

in

This

philosophers is

that

of

times.

that

is false.

vouchsafed

metaphysician.

in modem

Hamilton

and

Descartes, Locke

and

Bacon

as

view

of

the

was

the

Plato

as

of

of

German

the

the

agnostics till

understood

level

high

same

of

between

and

enemies

believe

rid

it to be

the

be

meddlers, coming

candid

Kant.

on

alone

knowledge,

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of

and

rebellion

Darwinists,

alone

of

the

of

last

back

deadly

him

doctrine

theory

century

fall

science."

true

rather

or

agnostics and

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to

of

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positivism,and
declared

have

and

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ad

peculiar tenets, with

all the

as

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apostlesof

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them.

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despoticauthority;

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Locke,
Immanuel

seems

in

Kant.

this

last

age

to

have

gone

over

to

Locke's

great

rival,

CRITICISM

division

and

this in the

accomplished
there

that

sensations

than

service
of

the

He

the

mind

profound laws,

experience and
in

proper

and

way

in

priori

is

given by

These

Preface).'
careful

no

Kant

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of them

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definiteness

only
what
island

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more,

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Library,

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stated

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when

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subject,as

and

water,"
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which

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ment
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structed
con-

introduced

say,

use

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in the

when

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previously

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latter
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to

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we

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metaphysics by drawing

which
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judgments,

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successful.

into

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ciples
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this science

nature, and

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of

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dogmatists,but

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forms, which

proposes

reason,

pure

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the

metaphysics) is nothing

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independent

is d

of what

like

landed

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Locke,

by showing

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effected

of

method

experimental

scepticism.

in

did

philosophy by resistingthe undermining process


who
sequences
proposed to carry out to its legitimatecon-

to

Hume,

in

He

sensations.

transformed

and

ing
show-

deeper principlesin the mind

and

other

are

encyclopedists.
(sofar)by

right manner

fluence
in-

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under

the

and

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sensationalism

France

flood in

Condillac, of Yoltaire,

of
He

like

in

coming

the

Thomas,

schoolmen.

good by counteractingthe

did immeasurable
was

Saint

greatest of the

the

or

PHILOSOPHY.

that of

surpassed by

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Angelical Doctor,
which

CRITICAL

THE

OF

"

an

involving

island in the

Translation

in

OF

KANT.

I may

have

EXCELLENCES

Farther

Mediterranean."

mind

is in the

should

truth, and
construct

laid

Practical
has

should

freedom

high

of

his

phrase,
to

These

which

the
of

amount

would

youth

have

place from

that which

the

be

most
science.
con-

for his defence

only

the chief

the Kantian

he has
be

and
and

expounded
somewhat

he has allotted to

of

ophy
philos-

high ideal,intellectual

place (it may

Categorical

office of the

him

in

grand principleswhich

must

for ethics

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to

are

find

"

me

gratefulto

the will.

before

sets

The

defended

the

and

all who

by

designate the

to

also be

excellences

which
moral.

Aristotle

foundation

always appeared

employed

We

the

immovable

and

Reason, and

expressiveever
the

His

which

considerable

such

are

cause.

relations

carefullyweighed

be

deep

Imperative,"

of

the

bracing
em-

logic.

has

the

in

contains

and
logicians,

scholastic

effect has

largelyfrom

is taken

discover

can

ence
exist-

that there

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subject,and

categoriesof

the

in

rightin

possibiHtyand

the circumstance

on

that every

priori,as

classification

He

is in the

than

judgments

he is

say

capacityof pronouncing judgments

more

the

of

problem

metaphysics depends

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mind

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that

maintaining

something to

I think

; but

syntheticjudgments

these

about

on

ent
differ-

them)

in

every

system of high philosophy.


But, while
of

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correct

he

truth,it

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system,
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observer
as

whole,

dexterityand
buttresses

whether

doubted

to

to

nature

skill in

and

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me

"

forming

He

his

weak,

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given

He

was

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be

the

more

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shown
in

His

mind.
one

artificial one,

system,

and

has

systematizerthan

to

^but

intellect.

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he

principles.

actuallypasses

seems

the

powerfully promoting

logicalthinker

powerful
where

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fundamental

of what

is, according

by
by

thus
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may

of

account

careful

has

"

structed
con-

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supporting

defending

it

it

against

lias

attacks.

He

imposing

bulwarks

attack

certainlyraised

PHILOSOPHY.

massive

in

castles,which

stone

height; and I beUeve


have
a
philosophyof

their

from

shall

when

we

kind,

based

facts

the

on

structure, with

but, in tliese times, people

than

in earthworks

CRITICAL

THE

OF

CRITICISM

of

the time

to

is at hand

lowlier

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mental

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trust

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observed.
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proceed
only
by

on

broad

who

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criticisms

what

he

"

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by

means

we

which

and

My

meaning.

to

directed

philosophy

his

of

to

am

apply

not

object to

priori

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and

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have

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fundamental

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trine.
doc-

controverted

any

againstdeeper
on

ning
run-

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discuss

as

reason,

But

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points I

these

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as

represents

schematismus

some

inquire

to

first edition

the

he

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the

all his

by

mean

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inconsistencybetween

an

and

of

On

objectionsare

essential parts of
his

does

not

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by

fitted than

criticism

my

is

"

I think

intimate

I may

far better

others

to

"

the

priori imagination^

views

do

both

seen

is admitted

edition

understand

to

are

second

all the exercises

through
what

I look

him.

oppose

to

not

am

writings.

who

what

on

philosophy, as

those

and

maintain, there

to

Kant's

his

interpreters.

some

the Preface

of

undertake

to

am

of

all advanced

are

as

features

approve

disciplesand
whether,

disputed points in

any

the

to

which

and

more

agreed

as

positionsof

Kant.

I.

It

OBJECT

seems

trained, he
Descartes

TO

that
was

and

in

the

HIS

CRITICAL

school

of

METHOD.

Wolff,

in which

he

to favor the Dogmatic method


led, first,

Leibnitz.

But

the

inquiring spiritof

was

of
the

CRITICAL

THE

OF

CRITICISM

the facts

singolarand concrete, like


But

senses.

what

we

regarded

be

our

laws

or

them

called

mental

truths

of
It

not.

them

is the

of

them

d -priori,

their mode
and

act

of

their laws.

at in

of

the

what

indeed

system

done

prior to

regarded

metaphysics

His

at

rule

insi3ec-

determine

they

because

is to determine

found

has
as

mental

or

ir

look

nature, their

them

servatio
ob-

our

to

physical,
meta-

philosophical,

systematizedarrangement

or

they

them

operate, or

he

nouncing
pro-

that

observe

exact

so

as

immediately, and

act

watch

designates

they claim.

can

be

may

Kant

specialbusiness

has

mental
funda-

first truths

I hold

we

them

He

pursuing

are

metaphysician

their

his

he

principlesconstitutes
Kant

whether

operation.

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principle.

act

make

not

they act, and

as

They

to

are

represents them

authoritywhich

does

In

directlyand

determine

the

action,and

tion

business

which

them

names

intuitions.

they

working, to

their
of

called

be

may

laws

nature.

called

other

by

syntheticjudgments
hence

generalizeupon

principleswhich

and
priori principles,

perceive objects and

and

discover

Aristotle

necessary.

have
as

of

laws

find

we

and

them

the

as

the methods

others

in this way

observe, and

we

the external

perceivedby

to abstract

proceed

may

PHILOSOPHY.

of

such

philosophy.

altogetherright in saying that the end aimed


pendium
commetaphysics is to furnish an
inventory or
of d priori principles. But he proceeded to attain
was

"

"

"

"

this end

Surely
Kant

what

that
to

give

in

define

by

"

proceed

must

Pure

the

complete
of

way

limits

of

of

and
itself,

metaphysics

"

its

Kant's

rules

has

ity,
peculiar-

this

and
faculties,

own

the

to

even

of

possiblemodes
to

2d

or

proceed ?

criticism

objectsof thought

thus

(Pref

of Criticism.

acknowledged

on

various

enumeration
to

the method

speculativereason

choosing the

problems
system

wrong

principlesdoes
"

answers,

able

criticism
On

tests.

in

it is
to

posing
pro-

stretch out

the

entire

Edition).

But

must

there

in that

not

it

whether

out

imply

TO

OBJECT

of

succession

than
"

of

its

keep

to

Professor

him

rather

accept without

or

the

dogmas

of

speak

choose

criticism,if you
facts,in the case

of

facts

making

of

another,

the

parts.

truths

are

of

law

assertions

and

all

aim

at

aim

Our

of

in

the

of

what

mere

and

their

contingent

or

our

intuitive

are
generalizations

perceptions
in the

applied
by

to

ternal
in-

ity
separatingthe complexthis in order

and

elements,

are

and

which

are

only

true

is to

keep

to

true

of

some

discover

for this purpose

empirical
and

joins
en-

analysis,or

known

concomitants,

metaphysical principlesare
of

be

made

as

metaphysics

intuitivelyknown,
from

Whewell

this

But

of these

one

of the whole

distinguishthem
from

science

each

necessary

logiciansgenerally

and

they present themselves,

as

the

mental

con
Ba-

"

the

with

facts."

his

method.

call it so, must

to

It must

observation.

discover

of

are

stood
under-

been

analysis,"and

"

we

people,

always

Whately

decomposition

the

it has

induction

necessityof

the

have

forms

agrees with

in the inductive

exclusions."

rejectionsand

his

as

truth

common

of whom

one

reply that
begin

us

the

valuable

whether

of the

saws

no

is criticism

have

would

from

founded,

amazement

the
"

there

that

asks with

speculators

this I

go

takes

Kant

secured

thus

them.

overtop

to

well

so

had

professing to

"

are

have

we

realities.

criticism

of

To

neighbor.

of

Kant

wisely

say

has

from

Mahaffy

to

"

of

time

systematic consistency; only, these

much

helped

this criticism

not

predecessors,or

criticising
principles,and
and

must

to find

reason

higher principlesad infinitum

logic,which

common

of

philosophies,each

I should

Fortimately

And

the

from

METHOD.

prior criticism

from

critical

down

deeper

CEITICAL

this ?

do

can

it is that

Certain

forms

be

case

previous one

HIS

in

truths.

we

to
us

only
of
what
must

particular
All

fessed
pro-

attempted generalizations
But

judgments.

first instance

apt

to

be

these

crude, by

10

of

reason

Even

mixing

in

apt

criticism

stages of

There

which

they

and

are,

to

metaphysician

formulate

objects

"; whereas

simply

without

them

the

criticism
is

and

Edition) of

2d

to

to

ture
tor-

or

apprehend

only to

speaks (Pref

priori principlesby

office of the

proper

what

not

are

specialpains

at

to

apply them

are

category

still less to twist

be

of

need

one

the

purifying

ples
princiwhich

we

be

must

should
to

Kant

bear.

they

We

single aim

in

put

examination

them,

accurately,and

them

express

mutilated

is therefore

are

our

mutilate

or

Our

them.

in

the facts.

above

override

to

and

imperfect

But

builders.

put ourselves
not

philosophy metaphysicians

distinguishthings that differ,but

to

by system

the

things"with primitive intuitions.

down

lay

to

PHILOSOPHY.

together in experience,or

mixed

"

otlier

up

support their theories.

to

on

CRITICAL

THE

advanced

more

are

OF

CEITICISM

to

discover

addition

or

diminution.
It is not

to

be

that

understood

these first principles,


gives them
it

gives them
them

give

their

By

observation

the

extent

Truth

is

we

its

metaphysics

of

The

have

makes

their

their

experience,and

They

are

independent

independent
can

see

the

of

my

eye.

or

induction,
system of

give

not

them

their

but

vation
obser-

authority in themselves,

are

they
of

to

Kant

us.

independent
must

experience
Still,it

is

as

is

of

call

not

the

in

that

only by

find

vation
Still,obser-

no.

else than

does

exist.

authority.

careful

very

nothing

title known

that

they

they exist,and

it

induction

assertingthat metaphysics
of

does not

jurisdictionand

without
be

because

that

them, of

still less that

of them

notice

observe

we

to

sure

arbitrarydogmas.
They

their

of

being, and

them

discover

place,and

are

Our

notice

can

truth, whether

has

title.

We

limits

and

their

authority.

existcTice.

observation

our

constantly
teaching

experience.
mountain

my

eye

is
that I

mountain.

metaphysical philosophy

can

be

constructed

only by

OBJECT

the

of

induction
marks

the

give

the

and

seK-evidence
their

evidence

is the

investigation
beneath

be

the

show
not

primary,

their

It

each
the

countenance

things

or

other

all

these

last resort

first

things.

strongest evidence

it is
and
and

it

can

As

that

this
the

if

more

it be

be

conceive

of

able

to

yield
of

in

they
them

intuitions

have.

seek

to

to

not

the
in

resent

also

anything
it

as

tilated
mu-

the

the

est
strong-

it has

in

that

It is the

be

to

looking

it is

When

do

ilton,
Ham-

circumstance

first,so

felt

in

But

men.

of

not

apt

that

simply

itself to have.

will be

fly

thus

and

dig

to

Kant, Hegel,

the

can

be

be

nothing

these
on

it does

an

to

contradictions,

is the

offered, it will

pressed, it

is

nature

mind

Such

may

shown

be

there

rest

mined,
deter-

are

reflected, evidence

or

by

of the

and
always satisfied,
if

to

are

principles are

directly on
which

we

we

other,

are

out

we

nated
co-ordi-

attempt

an

convictions, but

propositions drawn
first and

is

each

which

and

fruit-bearing;the

process

also

; that

of

intuitive

our

can

come
be-

tained
is,enter-

building rests,

alleged antinomies

Spencer,

or

It

secondary

tain
con-

they

trusted.

very

the

confirm

trustworthiness.

contradict

not

but

be

to

are

which

intuitions

our

but

conviction,

that

"

then, if

may

Still,by such

of

discovered

fear, be

on

so,

tertiarycorroboration.

mainly negative.

air.

that

not, I

ground

Being

after,having

they

held

things,and

on

universal

is their

whether

Leibnitz

necessity

can

ry
prima-

maintained

themselves.

is, have

till

can

the

above

Kant

"We

Their

necessity,as

principles,we

inquire

must

intuitions.

immediately

which

not

intuitive

result

these

intuitions.

our

secondary test, and

but

After,

look

that

all men,

by

of

is not

within

necessary,
which

of

11

METHOD.

universality,as

they

CRITICAL

operations
tests

and

necessity

HIS

character

essential

and
nor

TO

more

this
;

superfluity,
insult.

12

CEITICI"M

CBITICAL

THE

OF

PHILOSOPHY,

11.
OBJECT

PHENOMENAL

KANTS

TO

of

perceptions

human

the

kinds, which

two

distinct

The

difference

Human

of

his Treatise

opens

OF

KNOWLEDGE.

PBIMITIVE

Hume

THEORY

J^ature

mind

resolve

I call

impressions

All

"

the

themselves

into

ideas."

and

of
such

the

he

has

mental

I should

and

aim

wished
he

assume,

had

make

As

as

safe

are

starts

objectsto

Hume's

us

ideas

our

real

our

speculationsto

At

first and

is his

operations,

this
of

existence

the

entering into
and

nature

us

Hume

deny.

can

without

so

Let

one

senses,

their

together.

possible.

as

Erssheinungen, of

; of

is,impressions. This

no

confine

the

assume

words

very

what

difficulties."

all

from

Let

Under

great sceptic. In doing

assumptions

we

disquisitionsconcerning
we

the

few

as

long

of

appearances

resolutions.

convictions,all massed

meet

virtuallysays,
"

said,

to

was

to

includes

sensations,perceptions,

as

suppose

liness
live-

greater

impressions he

states

judgment, reasoning,moral
he

the

in

imagination (often as livelyas sensation),

memory,

Kant's

consists

Under

impressions.

heterogeneous

emotions,

these

between

Kant

point

appearances

Eindriicke

perhaps

his

"

"

that

greatest

mistake.

Kant,

it appears

as

first positions.The
The

a
signifies

softer

bodies

mark

body,
"

mind

is vague,

word

in
a

As
as

applied

not

every

harder

Taken

impressing,the

one

self

by

wax.

it indicates

say of

does

and

made

say

should

to me,

to

our

thinking, and

met

begin

with

Hume's

to

very

impressions.

objectionable.

way

body,

say

It

seal,upon

it implies
literally,

other

body

have

two

phorically,
impressed ; applied meta-

impress

and

mind

pressed.
im-

perceptionsby consciousness,
our

purely

mental

acts, as

our

is

there

nothing

nothing

should

have

them.

In

doing

able

is

impression,if
An

fashioned

horse

the

the

it

expel

to

means

of

thing,means

we

understand

the
the

counteract

or

any
if

appearance,

him

defence,

deceit

the

Kant

he concedes

his walls of

by

for

operationhas

impression.

an

down

he has broken

so

and
never
enemy,
he works.
evil which
An

of

nature

meaning

no

primary positions.But

these

admitted

and

of the

met

have

can

impressing,and

without

whatever

and

it has

good,

of moral

idea

13

THEOEY.

PHENOMENAL

HIS

TO

OBJECT

pressed.
thing im-

it, means

to imply a being to whom


thing appearing,and it seems
An
impression without a thing impressed is
appears.
is
from
abstraction
a
thing impressed. An appearance

imply

imply

physics

phenomenon

referred

be

to

that

man's

means

that

of

know

Kant

says

what

are

our

both

and
resort
sort
true

of
but

in

and

our

be

our
our

the

that

but self

as

It

thingssaj

bodies

beyond

and

impen-

conception

as

of matter"

disputesdifficult to settle
what
our
acquired sense"

bodily

frame

of

or

it with

acquired imply original


perceptions,
first instance

reveals

thinkinsj or

not

in

and

and

the

last

exercisingsome

still more
is,if possible,

self-consciousness

sense.

things. By

know

we

contemplate objectsas extended,


of energy.

inner

an

correctly,"Extension

original and

perceptions,whether
objects affectingit ;

and

bodies

our

sensation

are

seK-consciousness.

or

outer

an

etrabihtytogether constitute
(Trans.,p. 379). There may
as

knowledge

of these

both

by

we
sense-perception

and

of

reflection

sense-perception,and
Kant
speaks everywhere

them;

In

allowed, since the days of Locke,

or

JS'ow,I hold

all

so

thing,a realitypresented,

originalinlets

two

taken,

are

appearing.

as

an

law.

commonly

It has been

known

thing

an

all abstractions

concrete

appearances

to

thing appearing. As
thing from which they

from

abstraction

it

emphatically

mere

feeling:.

appearance,

14

CRITICISM

wliat,it

But
I

answer,

have

the

this
we

as
first,

hold

the

I have

impressed

as

It is self-evident

proof ;
be

not

there

we

have

believe

is

body resistingmy
and

young

Let

us

now

to

him,

by Kant,
the

turn

to

we

know

is," the undetermined


is called

an

rainbow,

"not

only

but

their

circular

even

which

they fall, is

modifications

or

intuition,while

merely

of

"

and

Time

themselves
and
the

of

can
sensuous

the

space,

exist

is,farther,

It

held

by

thus

can

last.
cording
Ac-

Kant.

tion
his defini-

; and

empirical intuition

an

of the

Speaking

rain-drops mere

phenomena,

dispositionsof
object

(Trans.,p. 38).
objects,but
with

out

internal

form, nay, the space itself through


but
both
nothing in itself,
are
mere

all

things. They
not

diate
me-

exist,or

not

given by

transcendental

material

need

the two

are

trils
nos-

necessary

civilized.

which

tively,
posi-

the

being

as

phenomenon."

are

the

utterlyunknown

and

thing

intuition.

not

It

appearance

fundamental

"

do

energy.

object of
or

appearance

We

that I do

account

mere

of

tests

exceptions,and

no

old, savage

the tests used

stand

otherwise

to

of

half.
be-

thing appearing

It is also

made
no

in my

things,say

very

immediate.

the

appeal

secondly,and

the

stand

reasoning.

as

universal, as admitting
all men,

can

perceive the

self

affected,or

as

hold

we

impression,of

those

also

decide

But

that

Whatever

must

To

impression,

appeal to, I

appearance.

positionI

the

that

the

of

of the

of the existence

evidence

of the

this ?

hominem,

phenomenon.

the tribunal

same

I have

I have

as

can

the

that

sure

am

ad

have

we

as

slipperytheories

these

to ; and

of it

of

proof

argumentum

an

proof

PHILOSOPHY.

the

asked, is

be

may

same

CRITICAL

THE

presentation,of

of the
who

OF

of

This

of

are

and

intuition

nothing

consciousness),the determination

remains

for

time,

but

us

not

self.

and

therein,are

apart from
of

sensuous

is his account

space,

phenomena

our

not

in

representations,
the mind.

the mind
of which

(as
is

the

^N'ay,
object

represented

16

others

by

seen

be

well

as

contemplating
we

have

we

has

at either

on

The

that of which

as

kinds

two

and

of

than

the

meaning

having

all.

at

the in

the

same

to

what

that

but

both

firma^

as

Kant

only

and

is not

that

confess

this

by
it has

when
do

not

it be

the

more

of

know

about

care

know

no

dition.
ad-

an

thing, the
the

thing;

acquired

primary

my

it always
itself,

edge.
knowlof the

reminds

itself.

Kant,

he

^bya

it ;

expresses

do, but only by making additions

like

wished

Locke,

made

the
it

fugitiveform

more

"

to

have

by making

maintains

external

that

me

know

we

assume

if,indeed,

"

had

misleading character,

thing,I

addition

same

phenomena,

to

be

in getting a footingon
great difficulty

because
a

the

wish

tJie thing in

had

Locke

an

able to

that

nothing

denoted

be

to

be of

to

me

for

may

be

is meant

I have

that swallowed

I do beheve

the

way

As
whale

If

enough

is

things

the

not

^thingsas

"

profound meaning

as
itself,

this I may

and

to

have

thing,and

very

what

seems

to

It

are

with

assertingthat

been

I allow

phenomena.

seeming

discover

told that Kant

are

knowledge

I have

se.

We

speaks.

sensible

phrase, which

and

posit is,I admit,

I thus

understand

not

find

without

bridge

tive
rela-

and

may

relation

be like

to

me

we

"

do

in

which

tions
posi-

mind, and

and

thing in itself ^the Ding cm sich,as Kant


thing^6/* se, as Mahaffy translates it. I

the

as

body
A

these

by

end.

Kant

things jper

more

to

which

thing

of

real.

also

are

always appeared

to lean

the

instant

next

may

phenomenal

both

things,between

real

which

relations

from

body maybe

Holding

body.

knowledge

of

the seK

and

me,

square

delivered

are

theories
that

as

round

The

of eaeli other.

istingindependent

PHILOSOPHY.

CRITICAL

THE

OF

CEITICISM

that

very

mind

of ideas.

doubtful

terra

perceive only ideas,

perceive phenomena,

the internal

ist,
real-

He

opposes

impliesthe

argument,

as

which
ism,
ideal-

existence

of

it appears

to

OBJECT

unless

we

give

external.

He

is

sich.

But

me,

an

unknown

thing

if

contradiction

and

unknowable,

"

it.
And

without

Kant

gross

not

and

or

taste

form

itself.
Booh

caU

I may
to Kami

author

"

We

things

combined,

are

but

have

it.

Kant

of

in

is thus

the

it

trine
doc-

it

we

fer
in-

not

can

we

what

?"

know

we

in the

fact

and

with

begin

assume

well,have

let

has

premises,

it in the

there

simply by

by

Dr.

know

conclusion

of

always

aggregates of

two

it

The

from

our

and

the

in

jpriori

color,or

are

ing,
feelthe

under

in the

mind

in the

Text-

affections.

What

themselves
"All

both

that what
sensations

are
we

and

in

able,
unknow-

surely understands

placed."

factors

own

of

perceived

affections

and

thing

an

Reproduction

own

this Perception

and

is both

sensation

who
Stirling,

these

what

produces

IN'ow all these

to recollect
our

what

Perception,

thing,

without, but

only

only

"

in the mind.

quote

is

there

perception itseK
from

of

power

this is unknown

but

mind,

the

carefullynote

us

that

manipulated,

consists
We

knowledge

argues

caused

of space

ourselves

not

from

but

element
jposteriA)ri

land

builder

do

not

reason

But

is known

an

the

we

do

we

knew

the

In the

it is

paralogism.

He

itself without

mind.

If

we

Anschauung.

and

If

that the mind

holds

is.

"

it.

Kant

as

we

it,

supporter (both without

Spencer

reality.

be

not,

can

exist,but then

know

the

reach

never

of the
underlying so much
agnostics,
physicalspeculationof the present day.
these consequences
only by making the

can

if there

we

of

How

can

and

we

knowing the
thing,a Ding

or

with

end

not

can

Hamilton

of

is

we

does

that

suppose

begin with

mind

thing

Herbert

avoid

that

admits

The

and

nescience

can

he

we

philosophicand
We

that there

sure

17

THEOEY,

the power

internal

quite

meaning it),and
of

PHENOMENAL

it.

founder

the true

the

then

catch

never

can

HIS

TO

his
we

variously
our

edge
knowl-

subjective."

call

things

are

nothing really

18

CEITICISM

without."

This

look

we

on

us

in

and

without

of

know

in

of

all conscious.

It

have

artificial

very

perception a
certainlytakes
"

things and

between

only in

draw

to

issues

soHd

By

senses.

surface.

the first of these


know
error

cally
logi-

the eye

distinctions.

acquired

that

only by
may

we

know

process
We

in.

creep

originalperceptions
know
primarilyonly

our

are

we

the muscular

By

certain

originaland

our

approximately what

colored

sense

know

we

bodies

of taste,smell,and
impenetrable. By the senses
to know
seem
only our organism as affected.

or

feelingwe
These

know

we

maintaining the realityof things

we

It is

the various

as

to be

account

external

Whether

"

states

own

me

thing directly
; the others we
gathered experiencein which

now

by

are

is the distinction

perceptions.
the

unnatural

we

that

aware

There

to

seems

time.

agnosticism.

am

within

This

altogetherfrom

away

PHILOSOPHY.

of space and

even

very

of which

CEITICAL

time, it is only om*

or

(p.42).

altogethera

process

THE

is true

space

"

in either

and

OF

distinctions

unknown

were

have

followers,and

experiments wrought on
den and Franz, showing

been

only

the senses,
that

Kant

to

we

do

revealed
such
not

his immediate

and
to

the

by

us

those of Chisel-

as

know

distance

by

the eye.
It may
is not

much

so

Eeid

to the

as

attention

distinction

in the school

extension

and

The

Matter.

in all

potency, found

organic affections,such
sounds, tastes,implying an external cause.

the

felt

Secondary

as

an

in molecular
we

can

and
we

and

are

affection

of

the

motion.

should
know

immediately.

bodilyframe,

Carryingthese

maintain
matter

of Kant

paid as in the school of


between
often ill-expressed

Secondary Qualitiesof

and
such

noticed,also,that

be

and

that in
its

but

there

Locke

and

the

mary
Pri-

Primary are

bodies,whereas
as

colors,
heat,
Thus
it has

heat
a

is

cause

distinctions with

us,

originalsense-perceptions
primary qualitiesdirectly
our

THE

MIND

IMPOSING

19

FORMS.

III.
I

TO

OBJECT

is

supposed

void

are

itself with

the

in themselves

they

THINGS

PEARING.
AP-

The

language

so.

"Would

else.
fails to do

gravitation,as
applied to
the

These

content, and

of

the
The

external.

itself

mind

surely the

natural

of

mind

simply

in
he

also.

sense-perceptionwe
or

beyond

as

extended

we

know

These

it

as

would

and

self

exercises

are

are

statement

in the mind

that

that determines

the

external

reflect what

thus

we

sin^ar, but

we

can

be

cises
exer-

things. By

objects in
By

energy.

it should

at

But

the internal

intellectual

us, and

presented to

breakwater

that

external,and

fore
be-

termines
de-

scepticism.

suppositionis
primitive

passes

the internal

raise

and

external

determine

our

know

body
them

self -consciousness

thinking, imagining, hating, or


all

being

external

perceptions looking

resistingour
as

The

perceive

they

of

of

like manner,

the

be

oppositionthat

rational

are

In

powers

the

againstmaterialism

internal

the

are

either

perceives (not creates)the


added, the

correct

matter.

the internal

the mind

and

capable

The

makes
experientialist

external,and

the
in the

it must

maintains

Kant

and
itself,

mind

it

represent tlie law

to

ing
noth-

things.

internal,or

internal,makes
it.

know

to

that

maintains

determines

in

property of

originalendowments

Kant

correct

to

they

truth, but

express

he

and

appearances.

need

to

its molecules

and

matter

itseK, enabling us

the

it be

form, void

gravitationis

is that

is meant

Man

appearances,

applicableto objectsof possibleexperience,but

are

THE

previous ones."

scattered

give unity to

to

OF

ON

perceive not things,but

to

calls in forms
forms

FORMS

connects

error

DOCTRINE

IDEAL

IMPOSING

MIND

This

KANT'S

loving.

them
generalize

20

CKITICISM

OF

tliiis discover

and

the

THE

CRITICAL

laws

of

perceptions

our

these

and

metaphjsic, which
science,and

from

But
but

Kant

looking
moulds

We

have

Our

or

of

pearance
ap-

make

it,to

ciples
prin-

fundamental
a

what

truths.

perceptive,

mere

not

are

relations

of

true

in the mind

intuitions

phenomena

on

here

the

things and

imposing

would

principlesnot

power.
at

Kant

as

things,give us

to

these

gives to

formative

pohce,

error.

which, looking

positivedepartment

mere

impressions

not

important department

an

becomes

not

us

preserve

form

be it observed,

"

perceptions of things,and
"

PHILOSOPHY.

of

tions,
percep-

things,but

is not

in

the

nomena.
phe-

Our
one

from

ments,
primary knowledge thus consists of two eleposteriorifrom experience,the other djpriori

the stores

This

may

to

the

of the mind.
the

be

phrases a jprioriand
in

employed

all

effect

to

from

or

jposteriori,
arguing
givesthem
he

from

this

different

is

known,
is

sense

him.

are

that

ramified

These

But

in

is meant

by

them.

implying
prior
that

to

the

there

mind

in its

thing

jprioriwe

consequent

cause

from

or

the

as

by Kant,

and

from,

been

or

We

are

hnowledge

l^ov

are

we

them

in

not
or

to

to

priori

experience ;
It is in

all the

losophie
phi-

influenced
that

let

by

phrases, but

of

independent

from

consequent

signification.
By

employing

is

experience,

in the

not

By

that

to

universallyused

so

them.

discard
what

used

phrases are

going

gathered by experience.

the terms
have

philosophyof

meant

occasionallyuses

posteriori^what

effect to

somewhat

designateswhat

by

antecedent

Hume

antecedent.

to

In the

jpriori is

call attention

to

^posteriori,
so
constantly

philosophic works.

Aristotle,by proceeding
cause

which

appropriateplace at

us

we

can

by
not

understand

interpretthem

as

riotion^ in the mind


use

perceptionsgives to

them
the

as

implying

ity
object a qual-

known.

denote

which
principles

are

in the very

MIND

THE

the

with

start

to

phrase

serious

lead into

it has

it

the

use

only

intellectual

them

in

in the

which

there

their

have

be

an

and

have

half the

times

into

woven

of the
of

They

are

Aspect

the

that

we

is

rally
natu-

in

an

indeed

But

truths

human
the

been

by
modern

ingenuity.
majority

native

made

at the

PRrNCiPLES

opening

be

to

not

mind.

philosophy

Regulative

of Intuition

am

consists

spoken
of No.

V.

by
in

of

more

At

principle
In

charged

jecting
re-

with

simply sceptical

am

of them

cious
suspi-

am

constructed.

discover

in the

that has been


me,

then

science,and

school, I

by

in

science

is, a

the mind.
form

taneously
spon-

priori

sense

that

use

ducted
carefullyin-

operating

"

to

ciples,
prin-

can

ancient, mediaeval,and

speculations I

"With

man.

use

mind

webs, only considerablytwisted.

these

rejectinga priori

the

believe

Scottish

that have

metaphysics

these

it those

metaphysicians themselves,

with

gratefulwhen

am

structure.
super-

operationdetermined

fashioned

been

thinkingpeople, and
than

laws

principle,I reject,with

this

on

order
of

is its

huge

first

have

we

not

the

of

loftysystems

times, which

allow

There

mode

what

and

by

in

act

priori

in

may

entitled

are

it

I denote

priori science

nections
con-

universallyadopted, but

till

man.

posterioriinspection. Like
of the

by

or

not

I do

but

discovered

be

to

it

one

some

quiring
previously in-

mind,

priori principlesin

precisenature

Acting

as

I do

in

by

may

of the

composed
they

mind,

in

we

the

moral, which

beheve

constructed

mean

explain it.

and

But

that

vored
fa-

language

use

misunderstood, and

upon

constructingsystems

them.

science

rear

necessarily. But

and

be

place in

phrase
I

as

to

"

principle without

then

and

preciseplace ;
employ

'

school.

It may

favorite

whether

is liable to

error.

the Scottish

and

Butler

by

21

FORMS.

constitiition of tlie mind

and

nature

IMPOSING

the

ingenuity

body

of under

of

the

of this Series.

first

fold
Three-

22

CEITICISM

tlie

principlesin
This

be

may

THE

OF

PHILOSOPHY.

observed
mind, carefully
firm

as

CEITICAL

and

sure

as

and

expressed.

system of natural

any

science.
But

in

We

them.

by

there

that

is

that thete laws

in the

are

in

proceeds from
Here

'

term

which

that

experience,'which

denote

individual

an

leads

there

has

seldom

induction.

which

through

the

mind

ourselves

in

pain

experience of
and

deciding.

of

djpriori reason
it

themselves.
known

truth

draw

and
better

He

by

us

or

of
to

But

when

we

mean

is

in

ourselves

exercise

talk

of

'

inductive

is

an

individual

"

sensuous

is.

periences,
ex-

tive
induc-

an

or

that

sense

discovered
or

or

anything beyond
experience making

jpriori

jposteriori the
"

experience.'

matter
djposteriori

I have

matter
jposteriori

Transcendental

intuition

It is in this latter
truth

the

knowing

as

of

These

by experience
be

say

"

reveal

the

everything

sense,

had

furnished

in finding
difiiculty

In the Introduction

experience,"
"

etc."
softness,weight, impenetrability,

the

fect
ef-

It may

noticed.

experience

an

of

or

between

I confess

to

ambiguity

former

not

law.

distinction

belongs

an

gathered experience

that there

what

description

signifya gathered

may

experience.
do

admits

the

every

evident,

would

this

sense

is

discovered

senses.

In

an

phrase

the

what

is

w^e

the

truth

this

leading to

process
we

In

this

decide, that

been

it

experience or

experience or
passes

an

moral, and

and

Of

is

perience.
ex-

of them

exercise

any

to

prior to

simply denoting

as

us

mean

implying

as

mind

truths.

we

cause.

remark

may

in the

priorto

fundamental

mind

our

them

understood

mind

what

exercises,intellectual

guaranteeing great
law

be

to

regulating our

is the

notions

'knowledgeor
are

understand

us

understand

to

not

are

They
and

let

employing them,

Esthetic

he

"

he teUs

ness
color,hardIn the opening

gives us as belonging
sensation, impenetrability,
hardness,color,"etc. It
"

24

CEITICISM

Thus
the

time

the

of

mind,

we

have

ideal

an

giving

of

that most

commonly

But

of

deliver

regarded

reality,

unknown.

they

are

if

"

we

the

shall

Hegel,

structures, of
mountains

took

the other

seeks

full of

seen

that when
be

tor
fac-

basis in

senses,

be

or

inquiry

our

will

in these

We

sohd

carry

things to

as

already referred

I have

be

may

yond
be-

afraid

am

scepticism and
make

we

mere

what

appearances,

issues with

left to

nothing

them.

from

us

it

imposing

objects to

have

we

uted
contrib-

objective reality

agnosticism wliich

an

certainlylanded

are

element

no

earthly minds

conclusions

our

uncertainty."

raised

whether

the appearances

of these

and
Fichte,Schelling,

said that

Hume

materiahsm

both

such

as

and

one

remain

more

it to

at

forever

and

sure

While

drove

and

factor

not

are

cloudland.

we

agnosticism;

element

an

must

ideal

the

are

and

We

higher minds,

that

which

ideahsm

PHILOSOPHY.

for the entrance

opened

in.

which, however,

used

CEITICAL

empirical element, implying

an

see

THE

door

fact,come

in

by
and

have

we

same

have,

OF

the

to

distinction

between

lytic
ana-

that
syntheticjudgments, and to the circumstance
metaphysics consist in syntheticjudgments a priori, I
and

that

maintain

they
far

and
There
But
from

an

judgments

as

important

what

about
that

But

innumerable

of

primitive

Kant's

distinction

account

is

is not

But
valid

accurate.

synthetic judgments d priori.


?
They are not judgments apart
judgments about things; that two

is their nature

can

are

enclose

not

judgment

about

straightlines,we
they

treat

primitive judgments.

concerned, the

are

one.

things, they
it is

of

treat

to

fore
thingsbe-

undoubtedly

are

straightlines
but

they

first to

to look

have

things,and

compare

cognitionsbefore
so

have

metaphysics

can

enclose

not

other

lines.

perceive
a

is such

space

space.

From

and
The

are
same

what
sure

judgment,
we

and
is true

primitive synthetic judgments.

know
decide
of the

Such

THE

those

are

time,
inch

we

equals

to

has

coming

must

from

true

such

that

as

^^Itl

order

to

keep
his

prevent

idealism, he is forever
calls

in

have

philosophy, there
gravitation has

the
a

law

; that

cause

of

but

to

all

tion
gravitasay

all

of

objects

known

objects

that

effect has

every

applicable to

judgment

possible experience,

to

us

real.

as

I
of

am

The

Kant's

those

objects fall
the

Categories
including
Dialectic,

topics

which

mind

the

into

three

Forms

of

of

Phenomena,

wliich
is

classes

Space

and

his

I. In
Time.

detail, simply
is

meaning

supposed

to

examination

disputed.

superinduce

Esthetic,

that

subdivisions,
three
and

Ideas
God.

of

in

all

II., In Analytic,

twelve

; and

on

is,the

Quantity, Quality, Relation, Modality,

three
the

in

in

Reason"

Pure

of

the

principles in

these

apply

"Kritik

forms

senses,

to

now

avoiding

of

it is not

that

Kant's

objects of

to

would

we

sible
pos-

saying

is that

So

he

accurately

in

be

applied

causation

in

eases

statement

total

objectsof

to

there

things.

of

primitive judgment

maxims,

which

it is not

but

when

true

all material

of

be

Such

risinginto

other

would

only

The

and

us.

tlie forms

many

involved,

meaning

continuous

ethical

from

applied

as

so

propriety

possible experience?
is

in

is truth

What

expressed.

only
as

added

propositions to

deep

that

telling us

experience. Here,

forever

on

to

an

word.

our

philosophy

meaning

for

equals

known

as

all

and

axioms,

should

we

things

is

and

on

gone

; that

nearer

these

the

number

will go

perceive

it ;

of

other

time

in
nature

have

that

equals, and

and

space

which

being

we

to

each

be

mathematical

all

are

the

regard

nearer

without

lines

breaks

no

in

25

forms.

straight lines

two

without

straight

as

imposing

pronounce

that

as

mi:n"d

III.

the
each
In

Substance, Interdependence

26

CEITICAL

THE

OF

CEITICISM

-Esthetic.

Transcendental
In

treatingof
I

appearances,
of

account

known

to

be

He

the

of

his

create

the

could

give

could

to

This
his

with
inconsistently
If

know

we

because
He

tells

that

us

(Trans.,p. 90).

"

But

senses.

internal

he

made

to

word

the

"

possibleto
"

give
Mahaffy :
may

"

its

own

an

object."

The

internal
"

the

states

Our

and

passage

such

able.
unknowtify
tes-

it to exist

is sensuous"

us

the

of

in the

not
or

is
as

two

by

gives us

no

self-consciousness

it

these

external

phrase our
senses

ceive
per-

gives
as

spontaneously,but
mind

bad

impression,as

an

being

as

sense

internal

everything

testifyfarther,

not
subjectintuites itself,

it appears,

another

it

self-consciousness

Even

in which

consequently as

which

mind

is apt to leave

sensuous

Both

manner

also

know

fact,we

self-consciousness.

The

might

and

will

include

"

that

experience to

to

more.

argued

it is.

represent itself immediately and


to

and

in

"

all intuition

only phenomena.
nothing

time

be unknown

sense

of it

evidentlymeans
or

sense

he

of

means

thing is represented,quite

represent all intuition

to

world

external

impression,and has, in fact,left


seems

might give

far what

The

is

no

; that the

thing exists,these

so

there

principlesthere

and

time

make

to

senses

his

on

space

and

Kant's

tliis ball

something
know

we

the

of

left himself

theory,to

appeal be

an

that the external


that

create

space

extension
it has.

but

He

only

altogetherfrom

away

pupil Fichte, when

objects in

else which

this.

quondam

which

mind

us

resolutelythat

mind,

knows

mind

objections to

object

very

the

to

the

my

keeps

maintains

evidences

no

meeting

It

it is the

existing external
can

indicated

senses.

us.

that

doctrine

have

the

things which

the

PHILOSOPHY.

us

it would

ing
accord-

internallyaffected,

it is
as

which

"

(Trans.,p. 41).

translated
the mind

intuition
does

not

of

Mr.

by

intuites

the soul

present

to

as
us

TRANSCENDENTAL

the
to

ego

"

foreign bodies

us

He

does

The

not

of

"

all,"but

inclined
Kant's
and

leave

to

whole

his

Dr.

perception of

the

the

states

transient

simple I, a
/

We

am

shall

see

which

through
various

all

what

about

self,say,

feeling,we

external,or time
forms

imposed by

material, and

Httle foundation

the

of

time

of

senses

the

mental

truth

; but

in
and

rid

or

ich

the

"

an

All

denhe^
I

these

)"

think,"
are

natural
un-

sciousness,
thing, self-con-

present

state.

which
It

runs

self,and

the

willing.

or

of

many

appearances

such

get

rid

of

space

the
to

in

the form
is

of
some

statement

give

in all the

the

represents

There

phenomena.
it is made

he

being

this,but

color,odor,

as

These

; space

is involved

'

in

one

sense.

all

under
but

power

senses,

all

are

thought, I, I, I,

contiimous

the

or

are

is the

thinking

as

the mind

Certainlyspace

external

us

internal

all,utterlyperverse,

error.

It

put away

in the

bare

the

self in its

by

never

can

latter

brings

of

getting

is revealed

the

sense.

"

in

of

plaining
ex-

sense,

the former

thinking.

our

internal

that

argues

of

in

self-consciousness

that he

all

complicated

is,as

thinkvng {das

now

to

is

sense

act ; the

states,giving

our

of

most

empirical subject when

advance

we

the

states

Kant

to

inner

those

^that is,knows

"

At

intuition,

Reproduction,

contents

perverted accounts

perceives

internal

our

his

that

the

and

gives a unity

or

after

us

The

of

here

and

as

"

intellectual

as

ition
intu-

an

metaphysiciansare

Stirling,in

ego.

mere

that

is not

of self-consciousness

feeling; whereas

sentient

or

of

account

strictly
distinguished from

be

priori

intuition.

him.

Kantism, tells
to

does

phenomena."

as

to this internal

American

and

account

confused.

much

only

intuition

logicalsuppositionof thought."

British

higher

both

personalitythough

point,that is,at

this

external

our

know

we

to ascribe

seem

notion
at

our

than
distinctly

more

any

27

ESTHETIC.

is,

currency

exercises

this,properly interpreted,means

of

28

OF

CRITICISM

that

simply

know

we

is bound

time

matter

with

up

CRITICAL

THE

self-consciousness,but

or

that all events


that

follow

they

There

objectsand
other

are

be rid of in

not

can

superimposed

are

of the

nature

For

The

so

farther

that

having power,
might farther
minds

when

we

entitled

to

called

as

they

in the

in matter
Kant

are

to matter

and

or

discerned

represents space

it is

merely

not

and
am

as

priori

be in matter

or

time

as

of

sure

my

of
mind

the

But

events.
men

look
of

on
our

reality of
as

of

the

pendence
inde-

by
exist

to

are

as

of

as

much

Being, potency,

imposed

stances
sub-

on

little is extension

events

they

are

mind.

having

as

we

independent

existence,

an

subjectiveexistence,that is,in

existing independently
quite

Just

as

created

time.

forms

senses

cease

They

and

space

in making

I think

not

exist

6v

I beheve

the

they

to

necessarilyall

and

do

as

rb

having

are

added

and

we

mind

erred

sense

not.

or

duration
to

that

and

on.

is,they

substances.

contemplating objectsand

as

They

forms

us.

time

by

acted

objects,nor
them

and

right in giving

in

as

them.

to

simple a thing.

so

notice

are

added

we

permanence,
;

but

be

notice

posed
im-

in the very

matter

were

that

observe
to

cease

and

being

permanence,
we

space

both

represent them

whether

and

us,

as

known

are

forms

as

are

made

objectsdisclosed

acting and

as

and
our

about

they

contemplate thingsperceived.

know

all

know

we

as

not

extension

philosophy,though they

affirmations

many

events

old Eleatics

their

deep place in

that

true

stand
under-

to

that

of

spoken

sense,

It does

or

objects; they

on

we

simply

mind,

are

that

internal

in time.

things besides
thought,as we

example,

having being.
a

they

the

are

It is not

phenomena.

duration

we

of the

creations

properly represented when


on

this

remembered

are

are

of

exercise

by

It is true

extended.

as

the

PHILOSOPHT.

the

I affirm
them

as

that intuitively

existing,

noticing
space

and

objects in

mind

them.

time
space

dependent
in-

and

TEANSCENDENTAL

introduced

Kant
he

making

By

time.

could

farther

principle a step

same

of

ideahsm
in

to

come

merely

Fichte,
the

and

space

subjective,
philosophywhich

into his

have

only

be

landed

to

make

and

merely

the

mind

in

occurrences

to

in the

Then

time.

ideal existence

imaginary

or

ghostly existence,the

an

present day

We

nescience.

in

find

men

existence,but

no

creed

joined with

they
in the

meeting

extremes

pretentiousideahsm

objects

when

an

is

thorough

the

create

the

out

carry

perceive that

will be

adopt

We

expel.

never

time

and

space

ideal element

an

29

ESTHETIC.

deadly

agnosticism.
But
that

what

we

to

know

not

one

who

not

need

them

did

the

they

and
directly,

From

what

necessityof
of

know
The

that he

of

isosceles

mere

the

to

it

not

necessary

and

demonstrations

The

their

We

be.

do

perceive

we

Kantians

forms

imposes

the

trace

on

of mathematics

labor

just the

learn

he

He

he

could

saw

of

consequence
his

own

for English Readers^

also found
obtain

concepts
p.

he

what

12).

"

But

about

had

the

tion
evolu-

"Kant

appearances.

what

show

to

certaintyand

are

and

out

afiirmations

many

truths, which

construction.

according to

we

feelingit necessary

make

triangle from

priori knowledge

the

are,

can

them.

mind

could

all

we

events, and

the
in

properties
from

it,or

thinking about it,but rather from what he


had
mind
a priori^ and
figurein his own
by

axioms

upon

the

found
an

we

mathematical

what

able
conceivBut

to

they

satisfied without

explain by

can

them.

them

what

to

is,

answer

them

objectsand
know

we

The

questions.

we

proceed
they

what

are

farther

regarding them.
that

in

concrete

make

to

as

already know

not

are

is time

so

explanationsas

any

put any

what

explain them

in

that

sure

to

can

them

are

? and

is space

had

added

them

resented
rep-

that all the safe


it

merely

was

introduced

(Mahafi^y'sGrit.

surely this

into

Phil,

leaves

it

30

OF

CRITICISM

things

as

of

We

mathematics.
;

we

breadth

and

length

that

they

have

together equal
not

can

surfaces

to

the

three

The

by Apollonius,
planetary bodies

when

ellipticorbits.

On

questions regarding

other

AflSrmations

which

There

in the

inconsistent

rash

make

While
allow

have

we

We

things ?
this event
to

is ; but
or

tree

we

of space

know

ever

this

know

body

them

be

reahties

quite as

do

we

know

ever

of

distinct

is distinct from
or

always

other

"

an
^we

connected

much

and

we
as

and

space

each
and

put

the
time

Space
be able

many
not

can

them

is

thing
any-

because

but

we

other.
time

should

we

know

space,

them

and

as

other
know

we

the space

and

the event

separate things,
existence

time

not

with

something else,as

if

"

look

tell how

may

to

or

prove

there

body

and

are

regard to

know

as

swer.
an-

which

apart from

independent

animal

in

We

occupying

as

occurring in time, and

as

capable

somehow
were

do

moved

because

indefinite.

that this is somewhat

realities ; but

time

knowledge

the

we

in

contradict

strated
demon-

neither

can

their

applied to

may

thingsthemselves,

which

statements

cover
dis-

parallellines

of them

made

we

in

they

which

this not

contradictory,and

are

we

we

be assertions

may

be

made

which

altogethermeaningless, and
disprove.

so

the

triangleare

that

time

often

are

of

ties
reali-

and

as
ellipse,

to

hand,

and

space

do

that

showed

Kepler

allel
par-

as

lines

we

as

the

ready

were

the

surfaces

angles

properties of

simpler and

length of

; and

of

apodicticcertainty

right angles,and

two

meet.

the

far

so

whether

much

our

angles

properties involved

certain

that

the

lines and

the

solelyto
of

nature, and

very

have

perceive

look

to

agree

that

say

We

of

out

things ; whether,

accounting for

of

way

bring

right angles ; or

two

meet.

not

can

rational

more

equal to

be

trianglemust

thus

can

we

PHILOSOPHY.

we

veritable

concerned,

are

lines

of

asserted

be

can

what

whether

utterlyuncertain
minds

CRITICAL

THE

"

^as
as

if

^they

they were

32

CEITICISM

OF

THE

CRITICAL

III. Relation.

IV.

Inherence

Causality

and

Possibilityand Impossibility.
Existence

Dependence.
of

Reciprocity

Modality.

Subsistence.

and

PHILOSOPHY.

and

Agent

and

Non-existence.

Necessity and

Contingence.

Patient.

There

has

Germany

been

about

these

evidently taken

are

and
remarks

They
two

and

than

the

not

forms

discover.

can

and

not

logic,but

It

is the

who

which
also

we

the

gives a good
simply

'

Locke

away

between

realities.'

It

and

Moral

Relations

of

in

of

relations

Effect, Time,

(Essay

as

the

the

us

mind

psychological
This

was

ceived
per-

classification of the
between

ideas

things. Hume
discoveringrelations,and
not

or

ideas

that
being

that

the
which

Hume

mentions

all the time

relations

imply

carried

innumerable,

Place, Identity and


II. 28). Hume

which

them, endeavoring

way

of

given

relations

by showing
this

rather

treatises

have

relations.

of

power

impressions

was

speaks

Cause

enumeration

them

explain

to

mind

being, of

here

excellent

an

gave

other

thought.

of

province

discover

the

the

relations

capable of discerning,and

are

gives

the

the

discursive

should

them, however,

relations,making

of

The

philosophical.

ideas of

in

fessor,
pro-

make

to

metaphysical

appear

Kant

of

to

was

logic.

helped

are

of the laws

that

facultyof judgment

last

now

treat

me

by Locke,

Kant

formal

certainlyimply
These

do

logic which
to

have

in

of the four

mathematical, whereas

as

causation.

It appears

which

clear, consistent, and

more

logicaland

formal

them

upon

dynamical

are

of

Logic,

discussion

first two

in all treatises of

represented

are

force

from

Kant

ordinary logic

of

amount

categories. The

found

are

of

immense

an

and

out

no

his

mentions

Diversity, Proportion
Resemblance,

are

and

Identity,

Kant,

at this

Hume

met

the

sceptican

with

Equally

the

of

imposed

of

much

however,

have

him

allows

now

difficult to

judgment
The

still less

the

the

meaning

intuition

than

the pure

time

; for

through

mode

of

connection

which

alone

them

gives the

all"

(Trans., p. 184).

This

is not,

and

Time,
these

Keeping

and

Cause

to

Quantity, Degree,

lists

Parts,
and

it appears

as

before

me,

Resemblance,

Effect

given

sensuous

is

manifold

them.

on

of

all

but

forms

of

they

have

forms,

space

and

at least

the

given, while
the

natural

Cause

intuition

meaning

no

or

the true

and

Effect.

Identity, Comprehension

them

Time,

II. B.

intuition.

us,

Contrariety,

Space,

{Intuitiom,

which,

in

wanting,has

me,

I make

P.

been

complex

manifold, when

the

of

had

mere

possible for

object is

an

but

appeared.
dis-

logicalfaculty of uniting

manifold

only

there

reality has

nothing

the

only

consciousness

from

Apart

contain

much

very

this

on

the

of

judgments

imposed

the

"

question with

the appearances

pronounced

are

"

senses

forms

priori

categories

The

the

the

of

; the

appearances

realityhas

categoriesare

thought, which

priori in

is

forms

is, the

in

intuition, and

and

vanished.

always

The

mind.

unity.

implied in

is

forms.

on

this

the

intuitions

categoriesare

the

mind

the

their

Already

realityas

appearance

"Whole

these.

first gave

He

not.

; he

in

reahty implied

the

have

the

'Now,

Space

has

the

power

them

give

is the

In

at

entirelywith

it will be found

"

understanding?

goes

scepticism,should

senses

understanding

and

on,

what

and

imposed by

were

sense

forms

so

of

time

and

space

their seat

have

They

me,

the

by

entrance

plying
ideas im-

him.

expel

of

deal

he

But

point.

and

perceiving it,he

to

understanding, and

the

place in

mind

professed opponent

the

as

impressions

understanding

the

make

to

with

began

object perceived or

no
on

he

As

scepticism.

33

ANALYTIC.

TRANSCENDENTAL

Quantity,

III.).

Active

erty,
Prop-

34

CRITICISM

I hold

account.

the

be
we

the

both

and

when

that Yenus

say

may

the

intuitions

Demosthenes

the

Cicero,there

is

the

it will be

reahty

both

has

But

unreal.

speaking of

am

in the

greater
and

terms

comparative
things by

on

the

relation

But

without

at

as

we

have

may

category of

exhibit

What

appearance,

that which

process.

primitive judgments

or

constitute

an

the

mind, and

and

effect

have

we

here

the

between

I take.

hay taking

fire
?

We
was

with

form

important
should

be

like double

example,

an

elaborated

that

the

lucifer-match

According
given

as

view

affirm

partly d posterioriwith

partly d jpriori with


lucifer-match

cause

the difference

of that rick of
it.

tion,
inspec-

discursive

or

intuitive

of

bare

inventory.

the

and

of

discover

may

intuitivelyby

perceptions.These

our

Taking

The

they give us no
knowledge, the mind, by

this

and

included

in

has,the

understood.

things apprehended,

originalfurniture

Kant

and

it

previous knowledge

such

part of the

by

contrary, that

derivative,mediate,

any

well

the

them,

understood,

me

the

Yerstand

consciousness,and

having

between

as

and

senses

barely looking

let

intuition, der

presuppose

that the

They deny

of

power

maintain,

powers

things.

Thus

any

fallen.

has

Kant

into which

error

an

being properly explained

statement

new

intuite.

not

can

of

correct

to

necessary

school

whole

understanding

an

Minerva,

declare Demosthenes
a

Thus

propositions.

Here

to

than

when
realities,

of

are

things

imaginary.

propositionsare

Cicero, and

and

than

orator

the

if the

course,

beautiful

more

was

and

terms

Of

by

various

discovers

also be

may

then

things,and

powers

things.

relations

the

imaginary

comparative

or

between

of relations

kinds

internal,knows

and

understanding

PHILOSOPHY.

mind, first by its cognitivepower

that the

external

of sense,

CRITICAL

THE

OF

it.

to

We

appHed

Kant,

certain

cause

rick

or

color,and
have

also

character,d priori and d

TEAI^SCEiq^DENTAL

jposteriori.We
category, that

of

match

the

mental

real

the

be

to

beheve

rick

as

reality,and

the

by

about

them.

in the

cause.

is

But

let

It

ought

was

the

sought

for

thus

what

conclusion

is

understand

throughout,both

the

that

the

are

brought

they
by

are

one,

time

given

be
is

unity

of Kant

by

this.

identity

this

meant

an

"

simply

subject.What

this

on

the

that

unity

to

that

indicated

which

else.
is

always

I announced

at the

to

was

meaning
have

however

tempted,

treatingof
called

come

an

the

is admitted

what

there

are

not

do

several
mean

as

"

by

to

to which

disputed points,and,
to

discuss
a

them.

these.

priori

running through
unity

cism
criti-

all as to the

great work

categorieshe brings an

imparting

that the

that in my

of this paper

the part of his

apperception

and

respect of what

expressed.

opening

At

no

respect of that relation,

in

one

proceed only on

of Kant.
now

be

or

notions

or

be understood

It should

merely

in

us

of

one

relation,say by resemblance

is,by what

should

it is told

unity unless

is

Little

intuitions

by saying that

us

whatever

or

oneness

we

is

the

of

perceptions compared.

should

or

them.

function

relation,say of space, of quantity,of causation.


information

that it is fit

Fichte,Schelling,and Hegel

the doctrine

drive

should

is

which

to

considering

on

decide

realities

the

to

signifythat

to

and

we

had

discoveringa

the relations between

unity

have

and

cause,

have

reality,both

a
we

rick

We

give

to

not

to

the

what

first the

have

as

this

contrast

information

lucif er-match,

understand

us

match

constantly tellingus

is
categories

in

We

the

originalobjectsand

Kant

we

the

look
intuitively

the

be

then

at

the lucifer-

declare

give

me

account.

and

c^ priori

an

conflagration.Is

true

looking

propertiesof

the

Let

senses

On

change, we
to

the

of

means

effect,and
of

cause

be

by

two

and

cause

process

to

known

the

the

unite

35

ANALYTIC.

all

There

'

In

I think

our

'

ments
judg-

is truth

36

CEITICISM

here, but
is

it is not

CRITICAL

PHILOSOPHY.

accuratelyunfolded.
this

thinking,and

as

THE

seK-consciousness

By

OF

know

we

correct

statement

self in its present state,


say

knowledge

others, the

states,and, among

The

of self

of

acts

the

with

on

goes

all

our

in

understanding

judgment.
He

calls in

djprioriuse

an

tismus.

Both

It is true

that if

of

must

it,we

to

unity.

the

to

represent

regard

it

as

how

show

such

of

the

close of

confirm

We

it.

follow

These

Empirical Thought.

the understanding

I do

sense.

the mind

system, and
think

them,

it
as

have

of

is

in

no

now

the

the
which

that

to

and

first it is

to

those

who

supposed

correspond to

they exist,but

then

do

need
once

number
to

seem

or

way

Postulates

of

parts of

his

adopt

not

the

omit

one

them.

discussion

other,the

of
troversy
con-

of Kant.

give

us

is

them
that

division

His

Noumena.

between

plicable
ap-

at

theory and

essential

not

helping,in

prepared

relation

do not

way

the ideahsm

into Phenomena
of

value

are

Intuition,Anticipations

expedient,therefore,to

about
He

no

is to

not

can

lays down

his

are

phantasy

things.

from

Axioms

have

in

senses

of the

Perception, Analogies of Experience, The

of

of
that

of

the

the schematism

Analytic,Kant

the

principleswhich

of

djprioriforms,

are

I hold

the relations

thingsand

At

office of

empiricalintuitions

calls

djprioriimagination

an

the manifold

the

intermediary,as

an

know

brings in

which
categories,

think

to

put these phantasms in

can

The

system.

Aristotle

imaginary objectsto

or

have

we

what

or

the
to

and

schemor

in his

gaps

important function

an

them.

of

judge

to

mind

judgment

represent absent

to

the
Kant

of forms.

all sorts

absent

image,

an

it,and

imagination and

bridge over

to

object be

an

have

of

phantasm

meant

are

of

they are

Of

objects

each

and

unsatisfactory. Of

know

realities.

all

of

account

very

we

of

only

appearances

the second

unknown

and

we

know

unknowa-

TRANSCENDENTAL

ble.

I^othing but agnosticism can

issue

How

much

such

from
reasonable
and

the

regard

to

far

so

doctrine.

known,

phenomenon

in

as

fact

was

played
the

describe

to

the

in

conclusion
He
but

he

At

this

down
The

He

laboriouslybuilding

is

Sir W.

to

end,

guilty of
house

the

Judgment,
it

to

may

others,has

intuition

and

of

seem

confounds

the manifold

to

our

As

who

one

what

fabric ;
hands.

own

He

is described

Samson, who,
also

pulled it

perceptions,so

judgments.
Idea.

The
All

reason

form
human

critics think

our

of space

and

or

which

the

the first of
of

the axioms

deduces

so

phers
deeper philoso"

as

that,

Reason

reasoning

other

and

not

to the

on

gone

studied

of

such

"

the

of the senses,

has

and

nothing if

Eeasoning beyond

his

most

truths

the forms

has

he

All

Yernunft.

die

was

rises to

now

distinguished,reason

premises.

an

his

sion.
illu-

in

mighty

suicide.

Konigsberg

at

with

perceives certain

him

at the

arrives

dialectical

upon

reaUty

himself.

to

by

the

as

with

it down

intellectual

Hamilton

the

just in deceit,but

not

pluck

immediately,whereas

the

phrase

reason.

of

been

profoundly, he

from

the

exercises

has

der Yer stand

which

used

the

all

JS'otion and

have

diction
contra-

estimate

logical. Beginning

as

of

distinguishedfrom

as

these

down

law

Kant

professorof Logic

strange

probable

sion,
discus-

the

Aristotle

Eleatic,

by

dialectics of

point he

upon

the

the

truth

established

The

proceeds

pulling

thing appearing

by Zeno,

that

now

by
in

logic of

apodictic.
be found

to

introduced

important part.

an

and

ligence.
implying intel-

and
division,definition,

which

in

natural

more

as

tically
prac-

Dialectic.

by Socrates, who

followed

and

method

logicallyand

noumenon

Transcendental
Dialectic

37

DIALECTIC.

time

clid
Eu-

conclusion

give unity

categoriesgive unity

reasoning gives a unity


gives this unity

cognition begins

to

is called

with

intui-

38

CRITICISM

OF

from

tion,proceeds
ideas.

This

Locke,

the

nearly

two

such

latter of

Kant
which

generalnotion

his

of

sense

is

reasoning,I
take

certainlynot

hold

that

the three

the division
use

of it

it is

of Kant

by

him

have

we

Forms

how

to

thing

it God.
wish

he

had

the

Keason.

of

me

the

and

fact.

As

I look

and

But

to

But

same.

by Kant,

on

soning,
rea-

I reckon

Disjunctive.

Ideas.

Binding

how

derivation
very

of

the

of

Ideas

forms

as

the

given by

are

God.

Phenomena,

God

from

constrained.

give

But
may

called it

by

seem
some

it is

Disjunctive Rear

'No

doubt

scarcelyreverent

pious, but
other

logicalprocess

tive
Disjunca

to

it is not

The

name.

is not

the

Reasoning.

proceeds by Division,imphes

divided.

this

Pure

of

true

Reasoning.

of

Ideas

This

is the issue of

be

Conditional,

Reasoning, which
the

seen)

ical,
Categor-

"

may

one

founded

discover

his
particular,

soning seems

always

Interdependence

to

Reasoning, or

in

the form

artificial in the extreme.

as

The

Suljstance,

of

spoken

as

Categorical,

It is hard

This

true

forms

The

In

rose.

Categories.

but

the

tasm,
phan-

or

denote

enough phrase,as

Conditional,Disjunctive.

on

popular

the class

as

derstanding
un-

particular

image

to

own

in

and

it

and

the

in

Reason, according to Kant, takes three forms

it does

in

mind,

of

it embraces

now

apprehension,

gives unity (a vague

the

to

object

the

it in

the

Descartes

by

it the

the individual

and

employs

; and

it

to

thingsas

rose,

used

terms

before

or

makes

mental

different
a

whom

vaguest

with

ends

philosophy by Plato, who

attached

it thinks

every

say of

the

into

meaning

when
use

of

one

Ttapddeiy/xain

it the

different

is

PHILOSOPHY.

conceptions,and

to

Introduced

metaphysics.
had

CRITICAL

thence
Idea

word

signifiesby

THE

the

unity
nate
desigso

God

livingand

; I

who
the

40

CEITICISM

OF

follow

elusion

does

onlj

appearance

an

of

self,or
the

not

that

opinion

also of

the

by

not

and

created

not

them

by

our

maintains

that
that

He

resolves

to

imagine

these

we

the

we

seK-con-

by

resistingour

mind

and

body

contradictions
we

hold

that the

the

mutilated

as

mind

This
some

cases

world
and

has

is limited

to

have,

so^ar

intuition

world.
it docs

this

upon

Our
not

duration.

I have

as

as

to certain

can

in

The

reason

does

declare

whether

remark,
no

and

that

merely

declare

that

world

has

first,that

is

or

to

both
to

as

the
We

whatever.

world,
space

no

limits

no

regard

intuition
in the

things

the

the

in

our

thingsthemselves,

world

time, and

discover,

that

Antinomy.

space.

to

meet

to

them.

is in
Now

proven,

tradictory
con-

Those

things.

are

in the

not

about

beginning
as

not

are

be

to

showing

by

not

are

we

things have

do

nomies,
anti-

or

prove
of

alleged contradictions

convictions

that'

can

knows
we

First
The

and

he

implying things.

as

necessarilyso

statements, and

native

our

Ideas

affirm

is

head

contradictions

by showing

can

phenomena

cases

the

on

this

^Under

"

in

landed

propositionsin

other

own

an

assume

as

Phenomena.

look

contradictions.

counter

time

of

having Objective Existence,


contemplating them, and this makes

are

that what

who

us

or

should

and

both

know

existence

known

extended

as

and

of

is,if

in

in

"We

decided

very

the

prove

made

as

have

we

substances.

Interdependence

of

I have

reasoning.

We

having Being, Potency,

to

try

body

senses.

paralogism ;

thing.

cogitans

ego

sciousness, and
energy

not

mediate

body, by

PHILOSOPHY.

have

we

should

of

CRITICAL

"

and

we

existence

THE

or,

and
is not

it may
time

beginning
in space,

infinite

but

Infinite.
"world"
have

be,
are

in

we

merely

out

of

the

infinite, but
in extent

and

TRANSCENDENTAL

Second

sists of

simple parts,

exists

must

of

Our

simple

by

Kant

simple

know

one

or

made

are

extend,

may

consist

can

and

parts,

exist in the

to whether

as

of

up

thing

there

world

can

simple

any

substance.

certain

; but

or

made

not

are

the

up

question

started

things composite

; these

not

can

we

is the

what

are

settle

not

find

parts

or

things

can

We

other.

or

way

simple

not

Experience

substances.

composite

of

all that

nothing

says

in

No

simple parts.

reason

of

Antinomy.

con-

and

he

either

composed

we

substance

composite

Every

41

DIALECTIC.

far the

how

say

of the furthest

nature

compositi
de-

elements

reached.

Third

Causality, according
is not

of nature,

operating
for
a

the

world

phenomena

causality of

of

Not-A."
and

other

is the

will

stated

so

involve

the

by

two

world
laws

the

to

is

in

is free";

of

be

of

of

it is

causation

sort

kind

of

But

to

ject.
ob-

show
is

not

voluntary acts,"

in

these

of

victions
con-

our

impossible

even

that

some

is that, "A

which

ence
exist-

is the

different

contradictory.

show

can

one

no

prevalence
every

contradiction,
sort

some

One

contradiction

no

of

law

to

as

of facts

sets

universal

differ, however,

be

"There

"the

sanction

may

may

do

they

in the

nature,

does

; the

in themselves
that

according

free-

as

have

must

reason

which

These

thing

everything

but

happens

phe-

to account

;
we

freedom

causation,

dom,

such

no

freedom.

I think

Here

the

is

There

laws

only causality

the

originate

to

of the

nomena

the

to

Antinomy.

propositions

two

contradictory.

are

Antinomy.

Fourth
There

exists

connection
the

Our

is led

by

derived

it,as

it,an

reason

must

either

world,

the

or

part

or

in

An

absolutely

as

does

not

absolutely nee-

or

to say

seems

exist.

When

intuition

to

reason

little

trace

No

substance.

by

the

exist, either in
of

out

being

necessary

the

it, as

world
of

cause

the

world.

being.

essary

and

with
of

cause

in

or

that

time

God

is

up

these

and

must

space

found, by
effects

easy

an

in

nature

contradictory proposition

have

process,
to
can

existed,

ever

Him
be

the
as

mind
the

un-

established

experience.

patient investigation

of

our

actual

intuitions

will

show

42

that

CEITICISM

all these

make

urged

between

the

real

but

it

surely

that

and

fact and

The

the

be

not

can

it may

law

of causation

Theistic

the

not

The
we

of

of

design,is

to

other

it has

had

cause,

of

discover
a

humors,
entitled

world

look
It is

it is free

between

this

fold
three-

the idea of the


of

Cause.

and

of

he

real

Divine

bare

existence

I hold

the bare

argue

that the

that

third,

rays

cause

subjectivevalue.

the world

in

of

are

us

to

see,

to
coats

then

designer,whom

But

real,and

them

among

light,muscles,

enable
in

implies the principle

regards afi applying only

adjustment
to

nerves
a

for

perfection. In

the

it

because

things

an

say

the

prepared,from
But

us

the argument from


Teleological,
Kant
not accan
knowledge
properly stated.

the

wonderful

clothe

piece of clay,to

having merely

that

to argue

the existence

it prepares

to

us

perfect

perfect being.

perfect impHes

not

am

exist,with

to

effect,which

good end,
cones

live.

real

the

if

and

hold
so

real

to

the
not

in the

well-known

infers from

validity,simply
and

cause

we

and

we

contradiction

of

obliged

are

in the

has

enables

sand, or

Divine

conclusive

appearances,

when

no

freedom

phenomenal

we

nomenal
phe-

ency
inconsist-

will is free

the existence

grounds

handful

its

of

the

Kant's

the

second, which

have

and

frequentlycalled

more

is

He

"

argue

may

on

thingthat

it must

there

be

in which

that

first is,that from

evidence

the

existence

the

corresponding being, though

receivingthe
Being shown
.regardto

show

that the idea of the

sm-e

of

that

tures
struc-

the CosmologOntological,
for
Physico-Theological.I have no partiality

in the mind
am

the

appearances

Aeghments.

the first two.

of

of

may

laws

of

ingenious

properly explained.

classification of them

ical,and

there

as

Hegelians

theories.

in favor

causality and

not

and

the

their

free ; while

that

proven

in

of

be

world

but

that

see

shows,

satisfactoryto

more

it

all this

Kantians

support

to

us

reign

in this

the

argument

regarded

that

free

to

powerful

be

But

not

much

which

PHILOSOPHY.

constitutions

it enables

to

are

merely

as

of

our

universal

world.

world,
upon

the

both

as

that

theory
for

CEITICAL

by metaphysicians

It is often

in

not

are

fashioned

will

THE

contradictions,

much,

so

OF

we

duce
proand
are

the idea

PEACTICAL

THE

the

of

perfect

the

in

48

EEASON.

mind

constrains

clothe

to

us

with

infinity.
The

objectiontaken

say of

wonderful

end,

we

ever

said that

not

can

moral

with

no

infinite

the

signer,
de-

in the

mind

it is from

as

clothe

we

an

man

is

design proves

infinity,just

our

him

with

healthiest

modern

has

times

ethical.

stood

up

There

from

which

what

to

good

is

perceived,

superimposed forms,
form

of

not

affirmative

the

The

law

ethical

supreme

according

to

that

that

man

he

is

future

laid

law
rule

it sanctions

which

down

and

immortality,

and

God

our

all

to

God

there

by

reason

to

seems

at

me

and

of

modification

thus

the
rality.
mo-

of the

and

is

Act

intelligences.This
is

as

lary,
corol-

judgment day

guarantee the whole.

are

the

most

one

Lord,

by

takes

reason

view

save

phenomenon

responsible,and

responsible,that

life,and

moral

This

is

by

applicable to

is free

in to

obligatorycharacter

and

pendent
inde-

an

legitimate

comes

as

into

designation,bringing

time

impHes

here

or

speculativereason

power

CategoricalImperative, which

admirable
same

the

directly.

but

be

thinks,

and

are,

finds

He

scepticism.
the

he

may,

est
strong-

in ancient

resolutelyfor

more

things

is the

'No writer

but the moral


illusions,

lead to

philosophy which

is the

morality.
disputes as

Keason.

Pkactical

part of the Kantian

and

and

effect,

perfection.

The

us

of

finite

I believe

cause.

the

that

things to accomphsh

admits, that

Kant

as

The

may

of

idea

the

him

nature,

moral

All

can.

we

that from

this,is

infinite

an

argue

clothe

we

all

combination

it is from

and

that

to

rality,
Mo-

indissolublybound

together.
I confess

should

like to have

expressed in language

not

this whole

connected

gument
ar-

involving any peculiarly

44

CEITICISM

Kantian

would

Practical

done

be

of God.

and

is

Kant's

Kritik

in the

needed

the

in

do

high metaphysical philosophy.

to

at

me

if the

that the

speculativereason

Reason,

Reason
clear

would

that

his

illusory
principles

of any

moral

kind.

has

Kant,

in, and

which

look
should

have

he

has furnished

moral

had

for

Kant

which

Kant

admitted,

led to

indeed
illusions,

that

we

know

bring

such

us

in

fact
to

to

there

and

firm

we

ciples
prin-

of the speculative
sions
illu-

Reason, according

it at

perceives

once

evidence

he

should

intuitions

of

intelhgence

foundation

have

he

done

for truth

go

has

substantiallyestablished

can

not

be

no

assailed, except

unfortunately

argued, that

the

as

then
and

those

brought

farther.

into the

For

the

in the

certainty.
led

his
on

furnished.

speculativereason

contradictions,on

truth

procedure is, that

caught

the

guarantee reality. Had

himself

things,and
back

as

morality.

positions. They

grounds

certain

as

Kant

that

hke

on

things and

at

we

beheve

that

truth

that

the

on

positive truth, without

intuition

morahty.

proceed

region

the Practical

of

power

appealed to,

so,

Surely

I think

good.

called

estabhsh

would

the

into

in

out

undermine

convinced

am

ethics,if carried

reason,

to

do

may

if carried

must

we

ceive
de-

may

reason

and

phenomenal

of the Pure

very

clature
nomen-

publicationof

the moral
illusions,

into

the

to

after the

early date

an

defending morality.
of

existence

present day, when

principlesin expounding intelligenceand

same

to

and

of

of

the Practical

seems

law

defence

abstractions

the Kritik

of

the moral

the

sensitivelyaverse

I believe

of

and

explanation

an

of

is

great work, that

same.

It

by

particular,
great

sentiment

by leading us
the

In

psychological account

eminently

argued

was

PHILOSOPHY.

principles.

between

This

common

It

CRITICAL

by

E-eason, *and

precise nexus

the

THE

phraseology and

good
the

OF

supposition

moral

The

reason

risk in all

slough may

if the

be

speculative

THE

reason

the

practicalreason

the wisdom

admire
order

shut

to

only

I do not
infidels in

men

they feel

as

"

for thinking

we

truth ?

first make

who

into truth

have

reason

gives us

of those

them

45

EEASON.

what
gender illusions,

may
that

PEACTICAL

the blankness

of

nihiUsm.
It

in

was

leads

into

There

intellect

Rousseau

the age

faith
and

belief

deny

mistakes

dictates of

all in

reason,

as

heresy

into

schism

in the

done

caught

and

"

can

not

that

tions
contradic-

the antinomies

does

in the

not

lead

not
to

all

to

certain

ning
Begin-

sure.

indefinitely
by

tion
induc-

properly

and

weakening

strengthensit.

Kantians

which

cally
logi-

discovering

speculative reason

we

have

in this

and

keep

one

another

to

styleof sentiment,

part
truth.
so

common

of

that

making

of

is not

case

criticism

clear

fallen

that

allow

with

method,

means,

leads to error,
with

In

conducts

these

to

devour

both

in

us

established,and

inductive

the

body

it

blood,

discovering the

lands

conflictingwith

our

which

in

intellect

The

subordinate

mind.

nature

had

in

reason

and

ill-defined

an

statements, and

own

The

confirms
in

the

illusion.

even

our

from

far

so

merely

have

or

by thought.

the

on

Jacobi

moment,

reason

properly guided

Proceeding

our

error

truth, clear,well

employed,

allowing that

which

vast

ever

it adds
realities,

and

but

the

reason

nature.

our

if

with

moral

the

that

are

truth, but
of

hound

those

by

with

Kant)

It is of

defend

would

leads into

or

back

appeal

the

sentiment.

or

we

amount

pursuing

to uphold
practically,

truth,if
good.

with

after

reason

to

shown

following,who,

The

that

religiousmen

less slu-ewdness

favorite

showing

understanding, having tasted


to attack and
infuriated,and went
on

more

and

the

was

pieces

to

became

after

scepticism,fell

to

feehng.

or

torn

the

leads

(who

far

was

philosophers in
the

Hume,

allowed
contradictions,

faith.

to

that

mockery

the

church,
organ

or

of

hope

we

an

age

46

CRITICISM

with

THE

of

amount

vast

from

which

we

The

reason.

correspond

nature

our

It does

more

^itmakes

"

testimony

the facts in nature

proceeding

and

which

I represent
from

argument
nature

love.

prove

God

to

But
with

having
reveals

this

as

rectitude,so

perfect,which

the

we

the

infinity. Our

that

has, and

The
Kant

Keitik

He

manner.

the

had

kind
Eeason

of

He

Judgment.
and

It is

the

now

Its

no

God

do

Kant

is made

nature

clothe

to

of

which

the

not

his

and

argument

idea

on

said that

ever

made

Judging

valid.
in-

God

the
infinite,

fondly

dwelt

clothe him

with

was

Faculty.

(TJrtheilskraf
t) in
shown

and

brings

in

office is to

in to fill up

moral

discovered

of

one

the

its Creator.

Understanding,

brought

effect,

binding

have

we

of

previously spoken

ordinary logicalsense,

by Categories.

to

this power

brings in

therein,

harmoniously constructed

the

of

ing
collat-

our

and

Leibnitz,to

is thus

instrument, raisinga hymn

yield its

and

cause

us

has

moral

our

call in

nature

other.

every

Then

above

the theistic

mind

of

part

every

collocations

finite works

by Anselm, Descartes,and

on

law

I repeat,

call in

we

speculative

understanding

existence.

circumstance

thereby

practical

the mind

law

was

objectivevalue, furnishes

an

God's

be infinite.

insist that

The

inherent

that

the

makes

faculty of

cism,
scepti-

to

which

conspire with

observing the

own

of

above

intelligencewhich

admit

But

did.

school

the

and

author.

design for

clothes

with

as

in, and

comes

us, and

they

its

on

given

to

and

led

reason

doctrine

often

manner,

the illusion of the

every

its Divine

to

by faith,and

Kant's

I have

account

weakly

so

saved

are

in to counteract

coming

reason

in

PHILOSOPHY.

that
aJSectation,

greatly strengthened by

of

CRITICAL

ago, wliicli lamented

two

or

OP

as

if

gap,

that
an

very

ward
awk-

Judgment

it is

in

regulated

entirely different

mediate

they
not

the

between

had
in the

had

rel.
quar-

mind, but

48

Both

met

him

reason,

the

and
to

reason

CRITICAL

in great
by calling

have

which

appealto

THE

us

PHILOSOPHY.

mental

guarantee truth,which

reveal and
and

OF

CRITICISM

can

foundations

deep

which

called

Reid

other

under

of

sense

all

and

laws, native
The

mind.
and

fundamental

observed
carefully

one

sought to

their existence

unfold

by

broad
have

Scotch

But

Both

also differ.
sense,

The

is,the

other,as

pointed to

one

other,to forms in the


these by consciousness,
; the other determined

professesto give an
these

note

ventory
in-

ments
agree-

and, I

have

of

add,

may

far agree, while


considerable
of
amount

people do

so

humor

the

; but

greaterclearness of thinking,and the Germans

are
foreigners,

between

them

Scotland
not

and

roars

an

ocean

Method

the Inductive

has

German

Method, which
examined.

has

as

I have

created
never

It maintains

in the

far distant from

very

there

Germany,

proceed to specifythe
philosophies.
First,they differ in their Method.
stormy.

The

; the

men

should

students

German

and

idealism.
of

All

that

"

of the truth in both.


confirmatory

as

they

their nature

and
criticism,

of them.

The

; the

Both

presents this

one

common

aside,

in the first degree,

reason

to
intelhgencecommon
principlesnecessary and universal.

set

the universe.

as

of

powers

be

never

The

reason.

pure
the name

which
principles,

and

of attractive

opinion
other.

is often
very

differences of the two

The

endeavored
carried

out

Scotch
to

follows

explainit.

the

Critical

explainedand
clearly
thingsare not to be accepted

been
that

which

each

Scotch

very

they appear ; they are to be searched and sifted. Pure


criticise itself. But every
reason, accordingto Kant, can
it prowhich
on
criticism ought to have some
principles
ceeds.
of Logic,fortunately
adopted the
Kant, a professor
ducted
inshow had been carefully
I can
forms of Logic which
truth.
and hence has reached much
by Aristotle,
as

COMPARED

Others

have

The

have

"

the

the universal

with

principle, say

"

become

Out

is,"

young

the clearer

ground occupied by

the

contain

quite as

to

shows

and
them

be

to

with

starts

inner

senses,

that

by

truth

by

reason.

Our

our

knowledge

phenomenal.
his

rise

to

premises
except
and

saw

in

us.

Having

by

of

We

; it declares

school,

facts to be

explained

and

he

said, or

and

"We

that

least

at

guard

understanding,

sense,

their

and

bodies

reach

actions,

operations,is

their

realities

human
This

unknowable

all know

tunately
unfor-

was

he

never

Having only phenomena

could

known,

The

apjyearances.

only phenomena,

else.

fess
pro-

them,

assumes

in

palpable paralogism, which

and

doubt

of

of

minds

our

phenomena.

not

German

us,

forms

"

assumed

anything

unknown
no

by

of

never

may

external,

grants, phenomena, and

knowledge

acknowledged.

world

in the

Hume

even

it

by Hume,
Let

and

them

assume

phrase),but

Kant.

forms

he

to

losophy
phi-

made

It does

outer.

meaning

the

what

mental

it has

other, the

subtilelyintroduced

and

could

to

not

"

accepted by
the

the

back

Scottish

facts,internal

The

self-evident.

thought, accept,

quences,
conse-

loftyspeculationsas

reasoning :

it is entitled

phenomena

was

The

such

and

mediate

(as physicistsunderstand

phrase

forest,and

inductions

with

starts

these

prove

its

to

truth.

one

the

by

favorite

tity,
intuition,or iden-

Kant."

form

to

soberer

much

the

Secondly,
revealed

the

but

Germans,

able

been

lowed
fol-

cisms,
of criti-

own

it out

this

of

cry among

has not

have

inextricablyentangled,that

so

men

reached

series

his

or

ego^

and, carrying

absolute,

it has

been

with

speculator setting out

each

have

philosophiesthat

Germany

in

49

PHILOSOPHY.

principles,and

conclusions.

that of Kant

or

other

adopted

different

very

SCOTTISH

WITH

but

beings
doctrine
of

which

his conclusions
he

himself

are

phenomena

has

culminated
plying
Spencer, im-

Herbert
never

in

can

Locke, though himseK

be

known
a

most

50

CRITICISM

idealism

of

which

theory
We

understood

properly

without

other

Reid

supposes

that

the

that

all

in

to the

Kant

its

truth
Fichte
forms
Our

present time,

they
or

year

or

Leipsic.

to

and
to

and

no

They

clothed

with

the

middle

ages.

are

"

read

some,

in the

said

and

all of

the

table

as

cording
Ac-

mind.
mind

adds

perceive appearance

we

time

our

under

this

superimposed
reach

them

higher

subjective.
these

by making

two

influential

same

When

and

and

have

with

armor

They
hstened

"

go

an

a
on

labyrinth
in the

as

and

papers

to with

admit,
to

Berlin

of

showy

paths opened

imposing nomenclature,

formidable
write

this

taking longing

are

university

into

to

at

circumstances

German

they get

return
an

speaking

philosophy

them,

rule

to

to

French

English and

Germany.

There

and

which

Kant

to

discovering

them

say

the whole

names

binding forms,
them.

and

school, the

reason,

very

no

towards
a

go

are,

our

things.

having

looks

whereas

perceiving

of space

pure

thinking youth

countries

ances
appear-

they

not

perceiving

German

consistencyto

create

not

that

judge by categories,and
of

ideas

gave

appearances

consciousness

"

the forms
and

mind,

by

nomenal
phe-

supposes

things ;

forms.

own

as

presented

are

the

and

things by

the

his

things. According

to

perceived by

under

by

but

them,

surface

add

real

on

they

things

us

they

one

school,our

once

aspect in which

to

to

Scottish
at

is

colored

differ in that the

two

reveal

look

senses

that

things appearing, and

are

powers

and

Kant, though

logicallyin agnosticism.

showing

by

logically

principlein

terminated

this

led

things.

Thirdly, the
perceptive

In like manner,

laid down

has

all

meet

PHILOSOPHY.

principleswhicli

Berkeley.

agnostic,has

certainlyno

the

CRITICAL

THE

laid down
realist,

determined
to the

OF

the

however, doubting whether

the

panoply

deliver

of

lectures

profoundest

ence
rever-

all these distinctions

VIEW

are

as

correct

are

as

sound

time

they

as

immeasurable
I

they

as

encourage

of

out

children

of

wandered

the

let them

it all to

which

alone

look

and

expounding,
have

passed a

there

have

year

passed along

cross-examination, such

of
form

and

matter,

and

ideal,phenomenon
should

one

done, while
But

temper,

can

and

they

themselves

bear

their

I make

occasion,

one

while

they

foundation.

their

holding

are

agnostics,whether
schools,will

other

resent

of
my

may

the

the

the

sieve."

have

to

word

and

object,
and

that

any

wonder

ground

milking
am

I have

heights.

losing my

that of

than

as

elevated

philosophicalor

attempt
not

is

er
speak-

posteriori,real
low

retort

been

and
university,

such

on

master

fact,

America,

and

superciliousnesswithout
no

"that

such

are

us

examine

to

subject

will

on

of

allowing

as

noumenon,

satisfied to stay

be

let

I have

which

in

without

and

all

may

and

views

German

phrases

priori

land

speculatorswill

Britain
a

the

on

We

their while

lectures

easily,and

so

of

sober

at

listeningto

been

manna

rest.

from

two

or

they

fire,in

and

consciousness

it worth

Metaphysical youths

them.

The

as

speculation,but

the

help

to

get into

to

large body
on

think

not

the

and

securityand

contempt

cloud

living rivers.
of

clew

their independen

wandering.

are

pillarof

German

that

aware

of

all the while

for

Germany

the wilderness

rock,

standard

give us

with

down

who

the

can

quite

am

the

from

good

bring
I

in the

phy.
philoso-

maintain

better

get

may

German

to

go

in

speculations

students

the

they

fields and

green

get incalculable

the

good

vast

got

these

meanwhile

be

may

to

61

IT.

All

study of

students

they longed

rest, with

of

the

issuing from

; but

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imposing.

wonders

saw

TAKEN

labyrinth when

Israel

waters

ground

subtle,whether

are

But

the

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my

They
them

BE

from

good

study.

to

TO

the

sure

Kant

on

he-goat
that

the

physiological

give knowledge
influence
myself

so

to

firm

stop

52

the

CRITICISM

crowd

thrown

whicli

down

the

see

OF

by

the

right road

to

later ; and

or

good

correlative

which

is darkness

ends

may

be

phrases which
lurk.

what

mind

contemplating

This

distinction

is created

the

language
this

latter

subject.

explained.
of

an

Kant

meant

regards

in

our

in

that

is

realistic
sense

used

of

mind

prior

to

truth

obtained

experience.
that

been

not

philosophy. By Form,
something imposed by

By d

Priori

imply

mere

pearance
ap-

is conscious

be

is

which

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meant

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ideas

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inductive

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things which

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mind

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d

ject
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intelligence. But

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in

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fact to be

mind

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apprehended,

human

is

(not
such

expe
in the

signified
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vidual)
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ical
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expediently abandoned

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denote

to

object,nor

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claim

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means

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or

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gathered
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the mind
an

to

phrases are

two

thing appearing. By

experience. By
by

man
Ger-

subject adds

employed

imply

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regulativeprincipleswhich

phrases

often

not

noumena.

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correlative.

abstraction.

thing

; but

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in science

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rience

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of

readilyin

errors

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that

as

philosophy we

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gate

thing existing;by
the
Subject signifies

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it.

unknowable

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philosophy it

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opened

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contemplated by

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menon

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German

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not

in

Phenomenon

In

on

mind.

subject does

sense

sooner

nihilism.

which

phrase Object is
it be

to return

by explaining here

imply

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thing,whether

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am

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be

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Real

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have

and

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to

come

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exultingly;

cavalcade

satisfied if

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PHILOSOPHY.

so

advancing

metaphysics, but
exposing

on

path

present broad
Some

CRITICAL

moving

who

for those

ready

is

THE

metaphysics
on

things; by

in

is denoted

Matter

the

things, commonly
the

If

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be

meant

as

obeying

law

IDEALISM

through

senses,

give
to

Secondly, it
forms

be

the

things
used

It appears

first in

manifold

the

in the

imposed

to be

not

them

on

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the

by

itself.

stone

things,but

things. Thirdly, the

on

and

perceived by

unity is

time

and

through

runs

to

relations

Categoriesof

understanding. Fourthly, substance,interdependence of


himself

God

halo

mere

It has
the

shown

been

doctrine

of

again

historyof philosophy as
was

from

Hegel
and

time,

who

was

and

Schelling.

Kant

all the

and

pupil

Kant, who

out

that

side

one

Schelling

halves

It

time.

in

one

of

his

of

took

up

"

doctrine

of

theory, he

to

that

actual

the

other

world.
and

But

the

the

the

create

and

that
apparentlypantheistic,

the

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swayed by

the
him

and

the

two
struction
con-

(for

beautiful

many

so

of

rejoiced

many

subjective mind

system of Schellingwas

his

egoistictheory

identity.
out

out

things in

side, making

those

space

the annoyance

Fichte's

absolute
and

create

things ; Fichte,

on

world,

example. Principal Shairp)pointed


between

Fichte, and

mind

to
^greatly

"

disciple

the

sciences,Fichte

time, following

one

felt

was

the

made

to

in the

traced

Schelling from

at

also

be

can

imposed

Kant

his

disowned

and

space

of

beauty

imagination.

in the natural

forms

the mind

made
principles,

which

as

Kant,

from

evolved

well

again how, according

and

development,

and

cause

the

thingsby

without

ideas

as

Fifthly,Final

around

cast

regarded

are

objectiveexistence.

real

left

language

the

space

supposes

objectsare

things,and

are

and

to

should

tendency.

stone, whereas

superinduced

between
the

unity

is imposed.

phrases as commonly

Kant.

philosophy of

the

say

ideal

an

Form

retained, by Form

be

these

thought

in

mind

the

All

have

the

things act. Matter

which

by

which

on

to

are

law.

the

metaphysics

in

unknown,

terms

63

IDEALISM.

HIS

respondences
cor-

actual

ary,
evidentlyvision-

demand

was

made

to

54

have

it shown

reason

; and

At
to

CRITICISM

than

more

the

master

the

was

of

system

but
I

told

was

from
this

that
possibility
that
but

me

But

denied.

Henry

Y.

might

have

to

His

been

carried

each

Scarcely

on

with

favorite
that

maxims,

may

do

that

true,
whole

this

to

undermine

am

idealism.

fabric
aware

of

ported
re-

now

that

many

that

are

left

the

system.
the

to

artificial.

end

tifies
he iden-

the Divine

nature,

in

fit to

sees

things external
him

ahke,

to

believe

incomplete
me

and
be

to

It has

Kantian

be

may

of

number

Being

same,

me

in

his

his dialectic method

Not

and

system

him.
misinterpreting

To

to

seem

story about

understand

adhere

Being

has been

I beheve

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in the

profess

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Thinking
be

if this

speculativeintellect

others.

or

the

whole

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true.

which

now

they
he

of

the

and

understands

unnatural, and

neighbor with

ahsurdum
paper

time

one

me."

correspondence

; but

as

and

Being

as

no

his

themselves

by

him,

man

been

measure

far

that what

expect

have

distinctions

them

of

is reckoned

at

was

"no

of his followers

'No two

any

It

be, that

divisions

as

system throughout
and

might

beyond

charges

I have

of

it may

so

it

be

he

am

controversy by the

understand

said

threefold

internal.

and

not

true

prosecute it,but
or

does

the threefold

with
be

said, that

failed,and

understand

true.

hard

Shakespeare's pictures of
English kings, that if not true they

true
to

me

be

toiled

occasions

as

"

the

prosecuting

it is

few

not

had

the

and

constant

might

he

as

is not

Hegel
seems

and

I have

very

I did

might

Hegel

one,

in

ground

life I have

my

great thinker

instantlythat

restrained

was

On

it.

criticise the

to

has

Hegel.

But

Hegel.

willing to acknowledge
ventured

of

work

period of

one

PHILOSOPHY.

prevailingideahsm

that the
this

CRITICAL

THE

OF

been

ished
finhis

identical,

are

that

dictories
contra-

reductio
my

principleson

ad

aim

in

which

reared.
revel

all minds

with

may

intense
be

pleasure

elevated

by

in

cer-

66

CRITICISM

OF

and
positivists

pressed by

forms

ideas

"

Back

German

"

is the

America.

region where

ethereal

held
his
be

say,

take

his

his

abandon
have

as

"

of

the

when

the

this

build

For

roots

; let

Kant

it into

the

systems of
of

weary

of
in the

held

If

them.
the

The

German

past ;

of

land
Engthe

on

ing
becom-

into

up

an

where

have

been

back

to

or

the

up.

of

has

criticism

our

done

"

sion
succes-

its

ecessor.
pred-

trees

of

new

or

have

had

we

"

the statement

overlooked

shall

we

if

often

certain

ticular,
par-

its roots, but

How

him."

Or,

; let

us

At

their

principlesto

this for

do

us

In

years

tree,

with

let it not

trust.

new

followingout
Kant,

to

and

man,

devouring

tree

"

Here

introduce

system."
is

reaction

philosophy.
tendency

we

have

world
rather

now

us

against the building

The

universities,and

and

wiser

of and

English language,to give

in the

was

this is not

the

remain,

to

the present there

new

the

younger

are

swamp

exercise

in the

down

cut

principlewhich

it and

of

go

laying hold

logicalconsequences
is

for the last hundred

had

may

who

philosophictreatise opening
point Kant has not followed

new

on

speculation is

positions on

kind, will spring

same

into

who

we

think,

systems, each

allow

those

critical method.

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the

in standing
difficulty

down

fundamental

have

we

they

carrying them

have

Kant,"

to

But

should,

we

recent

them

than

principles.
to

we

Back

truth

more

of

lethal.

and
"

Yes, 1

where
it is

they

breathing,or dragging
air is malarial

that

whether

to

the

healthy symptom

It shows
to

as

of

day

speculativeyouths

is

it.

utter

as

materialists

fallingback

our

the

cry

anxious

leadingthem

cry in

by

The

part of those who


somewhat

the

even

their adversaries

school,re-echoed

and

PHILOSOPHY.

Kant.

of

Kant

to

CRITICAL

agnostics,and

day, when
and

THE

in the

has

is,in the
books

histories of the

thereby

been

become

tures
lec-

written

opinions

gainers,as

at-

BACK

lias been

tention

called

to

higher philosophiesfrom
in ancient

times,

; and

times

the

at

in which

Yes,

"

Back

with

Keid

back

to

back
Aristotle,

they

in France

Germany,
Here

guide

draw

Back

'

should

be

and

healthily till

grow

all

let

means

do

we

have

the

same

in it and
I have
the

German

them
had
a

to
a

with

us

the

rather

been

transplant

philosophy

poetry of its

of

own,

its

our

Scottish

schools

of

to

of

America

this

into

country,

when

like

they
to

as

come

laws

our

Let

process.

is

all that

take

By

it

good

it is its method.
to

not

But

getting

painting

Depend

Hegel.

or

let us

America.

now

spending

climate.

philosophy.

It is

and

suit it to the

men

young

into

entire

in

good

is

he looked

nature.'

themselves

philosophy

mixture.

thinkers

emigrants

these

with
where-

transplanted

philosophy

philosophy

what

own.

to

may

into

accommodate

its

advising
the

be

change

mental

in

ica.
Amer-

and

his views

which

Kant

ever
wher-

Pome,

to what

our

taught

magnet

American

not

; but

Scottish

philosophy

of

cero,
to Ci-

them

the dross

him

to

Abe-

criticism

the

us

by

young

will

and

subject

nothing else, and

the way

have

Britain

steel from

German

emigrants

Let

customs.

it is

and

and

with

expounding

in

is

the

language

our

Great

beyond

our

there

welcome

us

German

learn

to

and
be

the

find

these

Greece

to, and

philosophy

German

it,the

upon

back

strength

and

time

their whole

travagant
ex-

Back

Thomas

All

give

may

genuine

to

an

Aurelius,back

induction

looked

sorry

of

Leibnitz, back

to

giftsand accept

Italy,in

"

back

to Marcus

tested,to the facts

be

in later

both

Saint

to

ancient

of

but

have

to

are

ours

the

Kant,"

to

should

to, or

and

selection

out

Locke

stop there.

to Plato.

in

method

in the

us

to
"

the

and

our

Aristotle

empiricism, which

Locke,

the best

covet

offered:

are

and

errors

not

Bacon, back

Augustine, back

us

do

to

to

truth ; let

Plato

appearing again by

but

lard,back

much

in all

exposed.

Hamilton, back
to

the

low

ever

Kant,"

to

Descartes, back

to

of

been

of

Descartes
to

found

to be

time

time

from

have

they

truth

of

and

kept

be

may

the
the

same

dogmatism
hoped

KANT.

that

and

67

TO

its

seek
as

own

literature
;

I wish

little do

It is time
a

transplant

to

that

of

America
its own,

let it also

have

58

CKITICISM

the

time

present

encourage

of

mind

on

the

and

up

of

the

the

But

found

so

and

ponder

the

us,

It

nature

and

have

of European

its

whom

but
with
It

coming

it

take

and
no

school.
under

or

owe

much.

here

they

the

method

combine

them

let it in
As

by

fact, in

becometh

the

sovereign,

one

of

institution,with
accomplish this, let
lost their

coolness

it not

from

the

by earthly ingredients, but


which
and

is

as

fresh

Aristotle,

as

it

to Locke

be

ever

and

Scotch,

it

the

contented

at

to
as

to Kant

the

So

and

school.
man,
Ger-

the

of

Americans.

the
an

independent
form

monarchical

central

and

Hamilton.

the

unity.

publican
re-

To
have

polluted

become

as

be

which

streams

us

it be

let

of

fountain,
to

countries,

let it rather

the

open

whether

truths

pursued

once

Reid,

with

course

and

and

independent

of Europeans,

be

systems,

states

they

American

not

their

of

not,

or

own.

high

take,

may

European

long

was,

their

profession,

separate

go

of

brought

various

Scoto-German-

and

name

be

will

practical invention

the

the

to be

from

notice

acknowledge

descendants

come

has

which

and

they

flective
re-

done

us

been

with

seek, indeed,

the

country,

like

Let

error

not

character

since

have

account

believe

It may

thus

us

take

must

great questions

clear

evidentlythe

take

is

Germans

the

and

the

have

the mind

they

have

They

chology
psy-

philosophy

people, whether
are

no,

philosophy.

our

might

But

The

thought.

they

on

It should

own.

they acknowledge
to

from

apply

those

because

give

Let

combined.

of

life of

Kant

to

separate them

been

philosophy

it be

inquiries

they do, they

which

truths

grand

how

inquiring youths.

to

discovery

dependence

also

may

in

is

of

the

the

courses

their

show

if

their influence,

new

hope

this

at

others,

connect

discussed

been

let

study

spiritand

attractive

but

before

may

else

philosophy of

the

out

They

is

regain

hold

and

whatever
the

have

been

some

day.

thought began.
this, that

out

education, and

of

art

into

enter

which

strike

thereby

and

trained.

be

to

to

They

body,

science
to

are

to

research.

the

French,

enthusiasm,

raise

to

the

have

will

they

with

German

If

powerful.

most

Enghsh,

Scottish,the

fitted to

PHILOSOPHY.

existing philosophiesthe

the

Of

CRITICAL

THE

OF

itself,

mind

it was

to

Plato

TRUTH

THE

with

in

formed

and

types which

efficient

and

the

We

specialends.
the

what

perfect;

the

idea

but

as

sure

from

other.

their

in

We

that

prior

school

show

how

Kant

determine
that

us

to

nature

are

us

the

and

We

to

but
us

should

related

to

by

for

Descartes,

act

drawing
Leibnitz

we

we

let

us

much

induction

the

it may

damental
fun-

and

them

may

his ideas ; but

when

mind

the Scottish

require
We

each

all the

sense

experience.

each

importance

gratefulto

should

of

maintain

common

did

with

principlesin
be

travagant
ex-

argue

may

and

on

show

rightto
as

; but

and
forms, his categories,

not

and

see

attaching as

belief ; but

their nature

they do

enable

of

these
his

in

using principlesof

laws

order

from

men

Let

shows

experience.
for

claim

it.

did;

observation

all

to

Locke

as

to show

of the idea of the infinite

made

in

err

with

material

as

things actingindependently

being

not

can

experience

while

in

not

for

Anselm

as

keep

to

as

and

hold

these,and

to work

should

we

is, so

it consists

other, but

to

made

are

well

as

science,
laws

should

its

it is for careful observation

relation of

and

pre-estabHshed harmony

that

to

; but

be

inferences
a

world

there is the germ

that in the mind


and

and

nature

may

final

formal

our

force

and

matter

are

in

causes

find out

to

how

there

and

the

are

We

it in nature.

represent

that

Aristotle

what

Idea,

pervading

it is for inductive

ascertain

speculation,to

not

and

carefullyexamined

; and

exactly determined

forms

divine

God

of

image

idea be

let that

; but

all nature

indeed

grand,

59

PHILOSOPHIES.

after the

minds

our

is

there

that

Plato,

ALL

IN

be

to

allow
let

us

found

on
things,but simply
superinduce qualities

perceive

what

is in

things.

I believe

with

Schellingin intuition (Anschauung) ; but it is an intuition


looking to realities. We may be constrained to hold vrith
Hegel that there is an absolute ; and yet hold firmly that
and insist that the doctrine
our
knowledge is after all finite,
be so enunciated
that it does not lead to pantheism. We

60

CEITICISM

should

reject
the

from

the

the

attention

of

of

ings

the

around

shining
whole

us

in

the

there

rich

be

must

show

;
be

must

done
forth

as

more

cut

fully

they

and

carefully

higher

our

by

set

as

their

it

form

can

is

with
and

in

and

Hght

the

gratitude

poets

hand

diamonds,

beauty.

left

have

constitute

skilful

sufier-

beneath,

with

to

Herbert

with

while

receive

us

before

the

evil,

and

labors

believe

all

turn

caUing

by
of

above,

rejoice

out

Schopenhauer

good

the

unknown

vast

which

but

of

finding

existence

may

Let

gems

of

the

ology
physi-

operate.

done

to

We

darkness.

mind

mind

the

in

us

pessimism

worthy

that

aid

have

ideas

our

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men

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inheritance

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but

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of

but

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the

all

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end

an

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and

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PHILOSOPHY.

materialism

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in

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CRITICAL

sensationalism

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out

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OF

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ophy
philosand

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PHILOSOPHIC

SERIES.

CRITICAL

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instructive

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pamphlets

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much

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independent
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their
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Harper'' s Magazine.
cover

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Dr.

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sixty 12 mo.
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front

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philosophy

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and

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of

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outlines

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years

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elaborate

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of this little brochure


prepared in the compass
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of reaching it, in doing this he has placed in

heresies

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Dr.

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ripened

York

philosophy
of Diverse

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largely devoted,

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indicate

appear,

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thought

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has

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himself

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gain

which

subjects

on

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there

straight

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opinion."
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N.

Y.

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the

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principle

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also

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style

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author

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read.'

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eloquence.

become

who

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ad-

to

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doctrine

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to

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of
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'

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force.

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found

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persistence of
men

young

testing

philosophy,'will

this

fervid, often

also, this

men,

of

use

of causation

rect
cor-

series.

sober

Columbus

"

Gazette.

**

This

is the

from

comes

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that

first of

of

subjects

Dr.
even

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the
The

thought.

of Institutions
and
with

simple

to

of

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are

pamphlets

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additions.

valuable

some

reference

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to

make

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on

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some

ant
import-

need

hardly be said that whatever


McCosh's
characterized
is
remarkable
ness
by
vigor and clearpen
if the
be somewhat
be remembered
tone
dogmatic, it must
of one
of the
ablest
of Sco.ch
tone
dogmatic
living leaders
first of the series just referred
the
to
over
partly
ground
goes
and
There
has been
the Logic of the same
author.
much
densation
con-

special

controversal

series

promised

modern

to

of
as

the

interest

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an

The

has

work

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the
to
general reader,
text-book

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pared
pre-

it is

sufficiently
it is sufficiently
reference."
terian
Presby-

of

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Revieiv,
"

This

first issue

deals, in

masterly

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way,

the

very

but

popular

cidal
sui-

the criteria of first principles,


It sets forth
the axagnosticism.
ioms
of reasoning, and
also those
of individual
facts, and their laws, and thus
teaches
how
different
kinds
of truth.
to distinguish between
It is thorough
and
who
have
unsettled
clear, and will be very helpful to those
become
either
difficulties
of scholars, or
the
which
surround
most
alby the opposing theories
by
science
when
carried
the
limit
is
of
the
investigation
beyond
every
knowable.
The
distinction
here
and
pointed out between
probable
necessary
is of great importance.
truths
lies at the root
The
of this discrimination
want
of the whole
of agnosticism ; and, we
add, of the religious dogmatism
system
may
which
has
Church'
characterized
the later
The
theology of Rome."
of

error

"

man.

McCosh's

'*Dr.

Philosophic
His

thinking people.
No.

expressed.
attention,

will

sharply

Developement

worthy of it, both


it rejectsas false in

be

likelyto

defined

do

great

in these

service

among

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general
in
it recognizes as
the
what
true
of some
hasty inferences
apostles of
and

papers

will
from
the

doctrine."

*'Its
natural
abstract
Dr.

on

are

Series

it is
what

and

doctrine
that

and

Ill,

views

subject is so
style is so clear and direct, its presentation of the whole
who
of
and
habitually ignore discussions
forcible, that many
persons
interest
intellectual
into a new
be charmed
by giving
topics, would
work

McCosh's
is not

"This
of

the

careful

consideration."

controversial

facts,

and

laws

"

dissertation, but
of

intellectual

N.

Y.

and

Observer,

clear
moral

and

profound
being

as

ment
state-

they

bear

Dr.
question
spiritualknowledge, or the basis of faith.
directly on
and
of
abtruse
and
reasonings
McCosh
has the happy
stating profound
faculty
has
reader
intellectual
and
that
the
clearness
no
with
such
felicity
conclusions,
makes.""
he
and
the
his
points
thought
understanding
difficultyin following
N,
Y. Evangelist.
the

of

PROGRAMME

OF

PHILOSOPHIC

PART

In

part of the Series


discussed, including

day
ment,

the

and

This

N.B."

the

World.

our

of

Diverse

little volume

might

Criteria

I.

No,

of

Character

I.

principalphilosophic questions of the


Tests
of Truth, Causation, Develop-^

tlie

+,his
are

SERIES.

Kinds
used

be

Truth.

of

text-book

as

Colleges and

in

Schools.

Upper
No.
here

Efficient

Energy,

II.

made

to clear

the

up

Pinal

and

subject

Cause.

Causation

of

An

which

has

is

attempt

become

siderably
con-

confused.
III.

No.

to

that

religion, and
IV.

No.

of

character

is the

optimist nor

going

pessimist,but

of the
old truths
Some
of defence
taken
up, but

this

truth

radical

has

laid

No.

VI.

Agnosticism

Scottish

School.

it is best

but

No.
that

Kant

not

No.
his

so

stated

has

VIII.

ihere

Here

will

be

neither

has

set

not

so.

Ime

new

ever.

Critical

begin

Philosophy
examination

paper.

Price,

of
that

notice

of

Scepticism,
showing

truths,
with

hat

but

appearances

culminating in
of his
logical
physio-

as

careful

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experience

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Philosophy

mind

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notice

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systems

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truth,

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of

Huxley,

most

Spencer's

Herbert

Ethics.

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inquiry

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of

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knowledge,
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with

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It is necessary
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VII.

form,

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them

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V.

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It is
philosophy.

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same

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Berkeley.
he

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part

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to

PART

philosophers who

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opposed
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science

later

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by

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aside

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Providence

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do

to show

as

so

conclusions

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can

legitimate.

not

are

it

presented

is here

Development

do

What

Development,

utilitarianism.

Each,

*^"
CHARLES

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voL,

and

12mo,
subscriptions

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