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Rules of Passage Narration

Rules of Passage Narration

Rule 1: , Passage Speaker Audience
Rule 2: Direct Speech Reporting Verb
Indirect Direct Speech Sentence

Example: Dir: You look a little bit like my mother, Hassan said to the lady,
Especially in the dark by the fire.
Indir: Hassan told to the lady that she looked a little bit like his mother
especially in the dark by the fire.
Rule 3: Passage
a. Assertive Sentence

: added/further added/also said

b. Interrogative Sentence

c. Imperative Sentence

: again asked/further asked/also asked

: and Requested /and ordered to

d. Optative Sentence : and prayed/and wished that

e. Exclamatory Sentence : and exclaimed in joy that/ in grief
4. Direct Speech Reported Speech Yes Indirect
Speech Replied in the Affirmative that/ answered in the
positive that No Replied in the negative that

Dir: Sumon said to Razu, Are you going to your native village tomorrow?
No, I have changed my decision, said Razu.
Indir: Sumon asked Razu if he was going to his native village the next day.
Razu replied in negtive that he had changed his decision.
5. Direct Speech sir indirect Speech Sir
Respectfully Addressing as sir
Dir: Yes, sir he replied, I have completed my homework.
Indir: He replied respectfully in the affirmative that he had completed my
homework. Or

Addressing as sir he replied in the affirmative that he had completed my

home work.
6. Direct Speech Address
as Indirect Speech


Dir: Are you tired, friends? said the clever boy.

Indir: Addressing them as friends he (the boy) asked them if they were
Rule 7: Direct Speech- by Allah, by Jove, by God, by my life
swearing by Allah/Jove/God
Direct: By Allah, he replied, I will not leave this house.
Indirect: Swearing by Allah, he replied that he would not leave that house.
Rule 8: Inverted comma- , phrase clause
present participle
Direct: Are you brothers? asked the mistress of the house, turning to the
Indirect: Turning to the dervishes, the mistress of the house asked if they
were brothers.
Rules 9: Direct Narration- Asseritive Sentence-
Indirect Reporting verb- being surprised
Reporting verb ask/ asked Example
Direct: She said to me, you have remembered how she looked all these
Indirect: Being surprised, she asked me if I had remembered how she had
looked all these years.
Rule 10: Direct Speech- Thank You Indirect Reporting verb subject+ thanked+ Reporting verb- object Example
Direct: He said to me, Thank You.
Indirect: He thanked me.
Rule 11: Direct speech- Good bye Indirect
subject+ bade+ object+ good bye Example
Direct: He said, Good-bye, my friends.
Indirect: He bade his friends good bye.

Reporting verb-

12. Direct Speech Affirmative Sentence Sentence

Indirect Speech Reporting verb Being Surprised
Reporting verb ask/asked
Dir: My father said to me, You have remembered how he looked all these
Indir: Being surprised he (my father) asked me if I had remembered how he
had looked all those years.
13. Direct Speech Subject Indirect Speech
the speaker the listener
Dir: Did you help the boy? Yes, I helped him last night.
Indir: The speaker asked the person if he had helped the boy. The listener
replied in affirmative and said that he had helped him the previous night.