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6 (de) vizualizări6 paginiThis study compares two battery equivalent
circuits for state of charge (SOC) estimation in electric vehicles
(EVs), namely the RC circuit and Thevenin circuit. The state
space representations of each circuit are used to develop the
adaptive gain sliding mode observers (AGSMO)

Mar 27, 2016

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This study compares two battery equivalent
circuits for state of charge (SOC) estimation in electric vehicles
(EVs), namely the RC circuit and Thevenin circuit. The state
space representations of each circuit are used to develop the
adaptive gain sliding mode observers (AGSMO)

© All Rights Reserved

6 (de) vizualizări

This study compares two battery equivalent
circuits for state of charge (SOC) estimation in electric vehicles
(EVs), namely the RC circuit and Thevenin circuit. The state
space representations of each circuit are used to develop the
adaptive gain sliding mode observers (AGSMO)

© All Rights Reserved

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Sunteți pe pagina 1din 6

Narayani Koirala, Fengxian He and Weixiang Shen

Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology

Swinburne University of Technology

Hawthorn, Australia, VIC 3122,

wshen@swin.edu.au

[5, 6].

circuits for state of charge (SOC) estimation in electric vehicles

(EVs), namely the RC circuit and Thevenin circuit. The state

space representations of each circuit are used to develop the

adaptive gain sliding mode observers (AGSMO) for the SOC

estimations, which are compared with the true SOC. The results

show that the Thevenin circuit provides more accurate SOC

estimation than the RC circuit. A lithium-ion battery is chosen

for experimental verification under constant current discharge

and variable current discharge based on EV driving cycles.

battery, the most commonly used electric circuit models

contain additional capacitors and resistors. Several studies [59] have compared the discharge characteristics of various

models with the discharge characteristics of a Li-ion battery,

using constant current discharge as well as variable current

discharge, such as the Dynamic Stress Test (DST) and the

Federal Urban Dynamic Schedule (FUDS), to simulate more

realistic discharge conditions. The results of these tests have

shown that the Dual Polarization (DP) model is the most

accurate in modelling the terminal voltage of a Li-ion battery,

closely followed by Thevenin model. The DP model is the

Thevenin model with an additional parallel RC network to

separate the effect of the electrochemical and concentration

polarizations. Despite its improvement in accuracy, the DP

model does increase system complexity. Another commonly

used electric circuit is the RC model, which was implemented

by NREL for ADVISOR [4]. This model is more accurate to

track battery terminal voltage than the simple internal

resistance model, however its accuracy is less than that of

Thevenin model [6]. Although the RC model does present a

large modelling error, recent studies have shown that accurate

SOC tracking of the Li-ion battery has been achieved with the

sliding mode observer (SMO) and adaptive gain SMO

(AGSMO) techniques based on the RC model [10-18].

Particularly, the AGSMO technique involves the dynamic selfadjustment of the feedback gains, so they are only as large as

needed to counteract the model inaccuracies and uncertainties.

This method therefore minimises chattering and offers more

robust performance. In this paper, the AGSMO for SOC

estimation has been examined on both the Thevenin and the

RC models of the Li-ion battery.

model; RC model

I.

INTRODUCTION

important area of concern to help eliminate fuel emissions

produced from internal combustion engines and provide a more

secure means of energy. In EVs, the battery management

system (BMS) is crucial to efficient operation of the battery,

where battery state of charge (SOC) is one of the important

parameters. Battery SOC cannot be measured directly; it

depends on battery chemical composition and its working

environment. Thus, battery modelling is necessary for SOC

estimation. A number of battery models exist, which are often

categorized as electrochemical model, electric equivalent

circuit model and stochastic or analytical model [1].

Electrochemical models are highly accurate, as they aim to

model electrochemical reactions that take place inside a

battery; however this makes them extremely complex and

hence difficult and costly to use in EVs for real time SOC

estimation [1]. Electric circuit models however are less

complex and provide sufficient representation of an actual

battery, leading to their common use in SOC estimation for

EVs [1-3]. In this paper, the electric circuit models are adopted.

They use a combination of resistors and capacitors to mimic

the behavior of the battery during charging and discharging.

The simplest electric circuit model contains a capacitor and

resistor and is often referred to as the internal resistance model.

This model was implemented by the National Renewable

Energy Laboratory (NREL) for their Advanced Vehicle

Simulator (ADVISOR) in 1994 [4]. Despite its simplicity,

studies have shown that this model is inadequate for long term

use as it cannot represent dynamical characteristics of the

battery; in particular it does not model the electrochemical and

concentration polarizations of the battery that affect the rate of

c

978-1-4799-8389-6/15/$31.00 2015

IEEE

II.

BATTERY MODELLING

A. RC Battery Model

In the RC model, as shown in Fig. 1, Cn _ RC represents the

nominal capacitance and Voc _ RC ( SOCRC ) is the open circuit

than Cn _ RC and represents the immediate current delivery

associated with the battery i.e. the effects within the cell

surface. VCs _ RC represents the voltage across the surface

17

and terminal resistances, respectively. For discharging, the

conventional terminal current (I) is flowing out of the cell and

therefore taking to be negative. As Li-ion batteries have low

self-discharge, a resistance to model this is ignored. This model

does not consider hysteresis effects as only discharging

characteristics are of interest.

Fig. 2 Thevenin Battery Model

Based on the analysis in [18], the state space equations for the

Thevenin model are as follows:

Vt _ TH = a1_ TH Vt _ TH + a1_ THVoc _ TH ( SOCTH ) + b1_ TH I + d1_ TH

Fig. 1 RC Battery Model

(4)

<

VCs _ RC . Based on the analysis in [10], the state space equations

for the RC model are as follows:

Vt _ RC = a1_ RCVt _ RC + a2 _ RCVoc _ RC ( SOC RC ) + b1_ RC I + d1_ RC

(1)

(2)

(5)

(6)

,

a2_TH =1/ Ri _THCn_TH , b1_TH = n / Cn_TH +1/ Cp_TH + Ri _TH / Rp_THCp_TH

b2 _ TH = 1/ C p _ TH and the term d i _ TH (i = 1,2,3) represents the

inaccuracies. The observability matrix for this system has been

shown to be full rank [15].

III.

a1_ RC =

( Re _ RC + Rs _ RC )mRs _ RC ( Re _ RC + Rs _ RC )

1

Re _ RC Cn _ RC

Cs _ RC

( Re _ RC + Rs _ RC ) 2

a2 _ RC =

Re _ RC mRs _ RC

mRs _ RC 2

R

1

+ s _ RC

2

( Re _ RC + Rs _ RC ) Cs _ RC Cn _ RC Cn _ RC Re _ RC Cs _ RC

a3_ RC =

b1_ RC =

1

1

, a4 _ RC =

Cn _ RC ( Re _ RC + Rs _ RC )

Cs _ RC ( Re _ RC + Rs _ RC )

( Re _ RC

b2 _ RC =

( Re _ RC + Rs _ RC )( Re _ RC + Rt _ RC ) mRs _ RC Rt _ RC

Rs _ RC

1

(1 +

)

+ Rs _ RC ) 2

Cs _ RC

Cn _ RC

Re _ RC

Rs _ RC

Cn _ RC ( Re _ RC + Rs _ RC )

, b3_ RC =

Re _ RC

Cs _ RC ( Re _ RC + Rs _ RC )

the battery model compared to the actual battery. The

observability matrix for this system has been shown to provide

full rank [19], indicating the output Vt _ RC can be used to

determine the state variables by observation over finite time.

B. Thevenin Battery Model

model uncertainties by using self-adjusting feedback gains to

minimize the error between the model terminal voltage and

actual terminal voltage of the battery. Once the errors between

the systems are compensated, the estimated SOC of the Li-ion

battery can be obtained.

A. RC Model AGSMO

Using the previously defined state-space equations for the

RC circuit (equations (1)-(3)), an equivalent control based

AGSMO can estimate the SOC as follows [18, 20]:

<

V t _ RC = a1_ RCVt _ RC + a2 _ RCVoc _ RC ( SOCRC ) + b1_ RC I + K 1_ RC sign(eVt _ RC ) (7)

<

(8)

n RC = a

SOC

3 _ RCVCs _ RC a3 _ RCVoc _ RC ( SOC RC ) + b2 _ RC I + K 2 _ RC sign ( eSoc _ RC )

<

the corresponding variable and sign represents the signum

function that has the following property:

represents the nominal capacitance and the OCV (open circuit

voltage) is the voltage across this capacitor, which is used to

estimate the SOC. C p _ TH and R p _ TH model the electrochemical

The gains K 1_ RC , K 2 _ RC and K 3 _ RC adjust according to the

following adaption laws [20]:

input ohmic resistance is modelled by Ri _ TH [18]. Again, the

18

1_ RC

= k 1 _ R C e V t _ R C , K

3 _ RC

= k 3 _ R C eV c s _ R C

2 _ RC

= k 2 _ RC e Soc _ R C

(10)

where

represent the speed at which the gains are changing and the

sliding errors eVt _ RC , eVoc _ RC , eVcs _ RC are given by:

eVt _ RC =Vt _ RC Vt _ RC

voltage at 2.5V. Repeat charge/discharge process until a stable

capacity is reached, which is taken as the battery capacity at 1C

discharge rate for subsequent tests and calculations. This was

found to be 1.98Ah.

(11)

<

n RC = [V

oc _ RC ( SOCRC ) Voc _ RC ( SOCRC )]/ m = eVoc _ RC / m

(12)

(13)

converge to zero, a Lyapunov function candidate is chosen

[18,20], which leads to the conditions that satisfy the

Lyapunov stability theorem and ensure the convergence:

K1_ RC > a2 _ RC meSoc _ RC + d1_ RC , K 2 _ RC > a3_ RC eVcs _ RC + d 2 _ RC (14)

K3_ RC > a4 _ RC meSoc _ RC + d3 _ RC

expressed as follows:

Using the battery tester, Fig. 3, a pulse discharge profile is

used to determine the OCV versus SOC curve. This pulse

discharge profile, as shown in Fig. 4, consists of a discharge

current of 1C for six minutes, followed by a rest period for one

hour. This repeats ten times, with each discharge pulse

resulting in a 10% decrease in the SOC of the battery [18]. At

the end of each one hour rest period, the battery is assumed to

reach equilibrium and hence the voltage is taken to be the

OCV. This value, in conjunction with the corresponding SOC

value, is used to establish the OCV versus SOC curve, as

shown in Fig. 5. Between each 10% SOC value, linearisation is

assumed.

<

(15)

<

K 3_ RC sign( K 2 _ RC sign(

K 1_ RC sign(eVt _ RC )

ma2 _ RC

(16)

) / a3_ RC )

<

K1_ RCsign(eVt _ RC )

n RC = a V

SOC

ma2_ RC

(17)

Fig. 3 Battery tester

The same AGSMO design is carried out for the Thevenin

model. The following equations are the AGSMO equations for

the SOC estimation, the details of which can be seen in [18]:

<

V t _ TH = a1_ THVt _TH + a1_THVoc _TH ( SOCTH ) + b1_TH I + K1_TH sign(eVt _TH )

(18)

SOC

2_TH t _TH

2_TH oc_TH

TH

2_TH p_TH

2_TH

(19)

na

1_TH

<

<

K1_TH sign(eVt _TH )

V p_TH = a1_THVp_TH +b2_TH I + K3_TH sign(K2_TH sign(

)/ a2_TH ) (20)

na1_TH

IV.

EXPERIMENT

A.

The battery chosen for the experiment is a Sony

US18650VTC4 Li-ion cell with nominal voltage of 3.6V and

typical capacity of 2.1Ah at 0.2C discharge rate. The setup for

this experiment is shown in Fig. 3. The Prodigit 3311F

electronic load is used to discharge the battery and the

Sorensen DLM60-50E power supply used for charging the

battery.

using constant current constant voltage (CC/CV) with CC = 1C

(~2Ah) and CV=4.2V with cut-off at 0.1A (5% charge current

C. Parameter Extraction

This section details the methods used to obtain the

unknown parameters of the RC circuit and Thevenin circuit,

respectively. For the RC Model, the nominal capacitance

Cn _ RC is taken to be the ampere-second capacity of the battery,

much smaller than the nominal capacitance Cn _ RC , hence the

time constant associated with it is much smaller. A highfrequency pulse discharge test is therefore used to determine

this resistor value [11]. This test applies a discharge current of

19

To allow enough data points, the sampling rate for this test is

0.01s. This test is carried out at each 10% decrease in battery

SOC to obtain ten sets of data. Fig. 6 shows a typical terminal

voltage response from a high-frequency pulse discharge test

and the voltages required to determine the parameters [11].

constants for the AGSMO are determined. They are:

a1_ RC = 0.7214, a2 _ RC = 7214, a3_ RC = 0.0011, a4 _ RC = 0.7220,

TABLE I.

RMSES

Rt_RC ()

Re_RC = Rs_RC ()

Cs_RC (F)

RMSEs

0.02179775

Ri_TH ()

0.065393251

Rp_TH ()

10.5907

Cp_TH (F)

0.0986

RMSE

0.088174224

0.022607861

1398.088921

0.0742

4.5

Estimated RC circuit terminal voltage

Battery terminal voltage

Voltage [V]

3.5

2.5

500

1000

1500

2000

Time [s]

2500

3000

3500

from the pulse discharge test seen in Fig. 4 [18]. The value of

the nominal capacitance, Cn _ TH , is determined through the same

Fig. 6 Voltage response of a high-frequency discharge test

the main contribution to the initial rise in voltage after the

current is removed [14], hence Ri _ TH = (V3 V2 ) / I discharge and the

voltage, as seen from V2 to V3, hence R = (V3 V2 ) / I disch arg e . The

value

assumption [10,11]: Rt _ RC = R / 4, Re _ RC = Rs _ RC = 3R / 4 . The

terminal voltage

the time at which the voltage reached 63.2% of its final value,

hence C p _ TH is calculated by C p _ TH = p / R p _ TH . This

V ( t ) = V3 + (V1 V3 ) 1 e t / RC

V p _ TH

is

taken

as V p _ TH = V4 V3

thus

TH

(21)

with the starting voltage (V3), the final voltage (V1) and time

interval ( t ), the time constant RC can be approximated as

pulses, to determine 10 sets of the parameters. Again, one set

of data is shown in Table I, which will be used in subsequent

calculations.

estimated terminal voltage from the RC circuit model, using

the parameters in Table I. Table I also shows the root mean

square error (RMSE) of the estimated terminal voltage under

the constant current discharge (CCD) at 1C. From the

4.5

Estimated Thevenin circuit terminal voltage

Battery terminal voltage

4

Voltage [V]

capacitor, the surface capacitance is calculated as follows

Cs _ RC = RC / ( Re _ RC + Rs _ RC ) . This procedure is repeated for

each battery terminal voltage response, obtained from the ten

discharge pulses, hence ten sets of parameters can be obtained.

Table I shows one set of parameters, which are used in

subsequent calculations.

20

of

3.5

2.5

500

1000

1500

2000

Time [s]

2500

3000

3500

Fig. 8 Actual and estimated Thevinin circuit terminal voltages with 1C CCD

1000

1500

2000

Time [s]

2500

3000

3500

500

1000

1500

2000

Time [s]

2500

3000

3500

SOC

SOC Error

0.1

0

-0.2

4.5

Battery terminal voltage

4

3.5

3

2.5

2

500

2000

Time [s]

2500

3000

3500

True SOC (Ah)

0.5

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

2000

2500

3000

3500

Time [s]

0.2

0.1

0

-0.1

-0.2

0

500

1000

1500

Time [s]

4.5

AGSMO with Thevenin estimated terminal voltage

Battery terminal voltage

4

3.5

3

2.5

2

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

Time [s]

Fig. 11 and Fig. 12 show the estimated SOC for each

circuit when the initial SOCs are varied under CCD at 1C.

1.2

AGSMO with RC

AGSMO with RC

AGSMO with RC

AGSMO with RC

True SOC (Ah)

0.8

SOC

SOC

SOC

SOC

and initial SOC

and initial SOC

and initial SOC

=1

= 0.7

= 0.4

=0

AGSMO with Thevenin SOC and initial SOC =

AGSMO with Thevenin SOC and initial SOC =

AGSMO with Thevenin SOC and initial SOC =

True SOC (Ah)

1

0.7

0.4

0

SOC

SOC

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.6

0.4

0.2

circuit. The SOC estimation error is minimised to less than

2.5%, an increase in error towards the end of the discharge is

due to the large error between the actual battery terminal

voltage and the estimated terminal voltage as shown in Fig. 8.

1500

Fig. 9 shows the SOC estimation under the RC circuit. The

SOC estimation has obvious difference from the true SOC.

However, its error can still be maintained at about 3% below

the true SOC. This is likely due to the large error in terminal

voltage caused by the circuit parameters as shown in Fig. 7.

1000

Voltage [V]

the accuracy of the SOC estimation techniques and gain further

insight into the behaviors of the two battery circuit models, the

following two tests are carried out: 1. CCD at 1C to assess

accuracy of SOC estimation for AGSMO with RC circuit and

Thevenin circuit. 2. Variable discharge current profile based on

USA Urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS) to asses

SOC estimation accuracy. In each test, the sensitivity of the

SOC estimations to initial SOC value is also studied.

500

-0.1

K 3_ RC = 0.003 ; k1_ RC = 0.0013, k 2 _ RC = 0.000001, k3_ RC = 0.000001 .

0.2

Voltage [V]

Having designed the AGSMO and determined the OCV vs

SOC relationship as well as the unknown parameters for both

circuits, the SOC estimation techniques are implemented. For

SOC estimation with the AGSMO to be possible, the initial

feedback gains K i , i = 1, 2, 3 are required to be set large enough

to satisfy the conditions as detailed in section VI. They are then

tuned to ensure the highest accuracy of the SOC estimation by

reducing undesirable chattering. The switching gains

ki , i = 1, 2,3 are chosen to ensure correct adaption speed such

that the sliding surface of each state is adhered to. The data

from a CCD test at 1C and the corresponding terminal voltage

response are used to tune these parameters with the initial SOC

set to 70%. The following values are the gains used in the

system to ensure stability and the SOC estimation accuracy:

k1_ TH = 0.001

K 1_ TH = 0.015 , K 2 _ TH = 0.0075 , K 3_ TH = 0.002

True SOC (Ah)

0.5

SOC

SOC Error

terminal voltage for the Thevinin model, using the parameters

in Table I. From the parameters obtained, the approximate

values of the unknown constants for the AGSMO are

determined:

0.2

500

1000

1500

2000

Time [s]

2500

3000

circuit

3500

500

1000

1500

2000

Time [s]

2500

3000

3500

Thevenin circuit

account for the error in Thevenin model and RC model to

obtain an accurate SOC estimation except for the end of

discharge period, which is roughly around 20% SOC.

SOC faster with the RC circuit than with the Thevenin circuit,

however the accuracy of the SOC estimation is better with the

Thevenin circuit than with the RC circuit. These results

indicate the importance of proper selection of the initial

adaptive gain and accurate identification of circuit parameters.

AGSMO provides a more accurate SOC estimation. Thevenin

model is also simple to model in state space form and easy to

obtain the parameters; its circuit structure allows for clear and

logical parameter determination.

To simulate more realistic EV driving conditions, the

current profile based on UDDS (see Fig. 13) is used to examine

the accuracy of the SOC estimation techniques. The results are

21

(RMSE) of the SOC for the Thevenin circuit is 0.0489 while

the RMSE of the SOC for the RC circuit is 0.0742. The

Thevenin circuit once again provides a smaller RMSE for SOC

estimation.

different ambient temperatures and battery aging.

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[2]

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-0.1

-0.2

[9]

0

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[10]

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CONCLUSIONS

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