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Total quality management

Part -A
Q1what do you understand by Total Quality Management, what are the require
ments to implement TQM approach in an organization.
Ans Total quality management (TQM) is the organization-wide effort to install and make permanent a climate
in which it continuously improves its ability to deliver high-quality products and services to customers. While there
is no widely agreed-upon approach, TQM efforts typically draw heavily on the previously-developed tools and
techniques of quality control. As a business phenomenon, TQM enjoyed widespread attention during the late
1980s and early 1990s before being overshadowed by ISO 9000, Lean manufacturing, and Six Sigma
Total quality management can be summarized as a management system for a customer-focused organization that
involves all employees in continual improvement. It uses strategy, data, and effective communications to integrate the
quality discipline into the culture and activities of the organization.

Customer-focused. The customer ultimately determines the level of quality. No matter what an organization
does to foster quality improvementtraining employees, integrating quality into the design process,
upgrading computers or software, or buying new measuring toolsthe customer determines whether the
efforts were worthwhile.

Total employee involvement. All employees participate in working toward common goals. Total employee
commitment can only be obtained after fear has been driven from the workplace, when empowerment has
occurred, and management has provided the proper environment. High-performance work systems integrate
continuous improvement efforts with normal business operations. Self-managed work teams are one form of
empowerment.

Process-centered. A fundamental part of TQM is a focus on process thinking. A process is a series of steps
that take inputs from suppliers (internal or external) and transforms them into outputs that are delivered to
customers (again, either internal or external). The steps required to carry out the process are defined, and
performance measures are continuously monitored in order to detect unexpected variation.

Integrated system. Although an organization may consist of many different functional specialties often
organized into vertically structured departments, it is the horizontal processes interconnecting these
functions that are the focus of TQM.
o

Micro-processes add up to larger processes, and all processes aggregate into the business
processes required for defining and implementing strategy. Everyone must understand the vision,
mission, and guiding principles as well as the quality policies, objectives, and critical processes
of the organization. Business performance must be monitored and communicated continuously.

An integrated business system may be modeled after the Baldrige National Quality
Program criteria and/or incorporate the ISO 9000 standards. Every organization has a unique
work culture, and it is virtually impossible to achieve excellence in its products and services
unless a good quality culture has been fostered. Thus, an integrated system connects business
improvement elements in an attempt to continually improve and exceed the expectations of
customers, employees, and other stakeholders.

Strategic and systematic approach. A critical part of the management of quality is the strategic and
systematic approach to achieving an organizations vision, mission, and goals. This process, called strategic
planning or strategic management, includes the formulation of a strategic plan that integrates quality as a
core component.

Continual improvement. A major thrust of TQM is continual process improvement. Continual improvement
drives an organization to be both analytical and creative in finding ways to become more competitive and
more effective at meeting stakeholder expectations.

Fact-based decision making. In order to know how well an organization is performing, data on
performance measures are necessary. TQM requires that an organization continually collect and analyze
data in order to improve decision making accuracy, achieve consensus, and allow prediction based on past
history.

.
Q4 . What is Benchmarking, what are the steps you will follow to implement Be
nchmarking in an organization.
Ans Benchmarking is simply the comparison of one organization's practices and performance against
those of others. It seeks to identify standards, or "best practices," to apply in measuring and improving
performance

Four types of benchmarking

There are four basic types of bench-marking:


Internal-The process of comparing one particular operation
within your organization with another. Success in this area is a
matter of "the left hand knowing what the right hand is doing."
Internal benchmarking is by far the easiest, both to research and
to implement. Productivity improvement achieved in this type is
usually about 10 percent.
Competitive-The process of comparing an operation with that of
your direct competitors. For obvious reasons, this is the most
difficult type of benchmarking to carry out successfully, and legal
considerations must always be kept in mind. Productivity
improvement achieved in this type is usually about 20 percent.
Functional-The process of comparing an operation with that of
similar ones within the broad range of your industry (e.g., copper
mining techniques compared with coal mining techniques).
Functional benchmarking is relatively easy to research and
implement. Productivity improvement achieved in this type may
be 35 percent or better.
Generic-The process of comparing operations from unrelated
industries (i.e., ones often used by a wide variety of industries).
An example would be a film library using the warehousing
techniques of another industry to store more efficiently its
catalogue of old movies. The advantage of this type is that the
problems of competition do not apply, increasing the access to
information and reducing the possibility of legal problems.
Productivity improvement achieved in this type may be 35
percent or better.

Q5 . Explain the role and importance of employees in implementing TQM in an

organization, what measure organization should take to deliver a certain level


ofsatisfaction to them?
Ans is no widespread agreement as to what TQM is and what actions it requires of organizations,

[7][8]

however a

review of the original United States Navy effort gives a rough understanding of what is involved in TQM.
The key concepts in the TQM effort undertaken by the Navy in the 1980s include:[9]

"Quality is defined by customers' requirements."

"Top management has direct responsibility for quality improvement."

"Increased quality comes from systematic analysis and improvement of work processes."

"Quality improvement is a continuous effort and conducted throughout the organization."

The Navy used the following tools and techniques:

The PDCA cycle to drive issues to resolution


Ad hoc cross-functional teams (similar to quality circles) responsible for addressing immediate process
issues

Standing cross-functional teams responsible for the improvement of processes over the long term

Active management participation through steering committees

Use of the Seven Basic Tools of Quality to analyze quality-related issues

Notable definitions

Q6 . You are working as a general manager of an organization, explain the vario


us steps you have to take for getting your organization certified for ISO
9000:2000 or ISO 9000:2008 ?
Ans The ISO 9000 phenomenon, for that seems to be the only way to describe
it, has been around since 1987. In
the US, it started slowly, initially regarded as another one of those European
things to create trade barriers.
Once the truth was recognized, which happened about 1992, some major US
companies started implementing
the standards, and then began reaping the rewards of implementing ISO 9001 or
ISO 9002.
The pace of its acceptance quickened.
Today there can be few serious professionals in the quality world who do not
recognize that ISO 9000-based
management systems have a great deal to offer.
The one real regret that I have in viewing the current scene is that there is so
much division and small-minded

"not invented here" thinking among the very professionals who should be
seizing and using every tool they can
which will help their organizations improve. The quality profession if it is
worthy of such a term frequently
shows itself to be small-minded, insecure, inefficient and out of touch with the
commercial world in which we all
have to live and breathe and have our being.
No wonder that back in 1971 Phil Crosby told us, "the quality profession will
never be allowed to work on
tomorrow until we have proved that we can help with today." In far too many
companies that proof is yet to be
demonstrated.
The President of the US Registrar Accreditation Board, George Lofgren,
speaking for an article in
Quality Progress,
January 1996, said, "people like to over simplify things; they look for the silver
bullet in quality. They ask what is
the one thing I need to do? One of the biggest frustrations is that there is no one
thing. Quality encompasses a
very broad spectrum. It is a process of which ISO 9000 is just one
part."Introduction to ISO 9001:2008
All graphics
2009
The Victoria Group, Inc.
This is the ultimate truth.
There is no "one thing." Baldrige has its place; total quality in any one of its
many guises has a role. Contrary
to Dr. Deming, I would argue that management by objectives has a part to play.
So does investor confidence,
environmental, health and safety policy, social awareness, customer satisfaction,
employee motivation, benefits
and remuneration and all the thousand other aspects of running a business today.
The art of running a quality organization is a broad spectrum, complex business
where all of us should use
every tool we can lay our hands on to improve the way we operate on a daily
basis. Rather as the journey of a
thousand miles begins with one step, so the journey to the company of
tomorrow comes with a recognition that
what we are doing today isn't good enough ever. ISO 9000 can help take
your organization forward. If the
management commit to its disciplines, if the employees all cooperate, if the
process of creating the system is
fed out into the entire company and staff are truly empowered by the activity

Q7 . what do you understand by the term work system,do you think


improvementof work system will eventually lead to implementation of TQM
justify your answer.
Ans Exactly what does quality mean in the context of advocacy, community
development, health, or human service organizations or initiatives?
A quality program:

Responds as effectively as possible to the needs it was designed to


meet

Is totally consistent with the mission and philosophy of the organization


or group carrying it out

Is sensitive to the needs and culture of the target population

Is a model of ethical behavior

But why is quality important for a grass roots organization?

Quality makes a group more effective at meeting the needs it's


concerned with

Quality adds strength and credibility to your organization or initiative

Ethically, you're bound to provide the absolute best quality of service


or advocacy you can

Quality is always more economical in the long run

Developing a "culture of quality" can have a number of positive effects


on your organization itself
o If staff members and volunteers know that they and the
organization are doing the best job possible, it builds their
morale and makes them proud of themselves and the
organization
o Striving for quality helps to develop organizational and individual
competence, thus continually improving the organization
o A quality program continually increases its performance level
and improves its service delivery, which gives your organization
credibility and ultimately benefits your target audience

WHAT ARE THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TQM?


(Much of the following discussion is based on material contained in
Introduction to Total Quality: Quality Management for Production, Processing,
and Services, 2nd Edition. Full source citation can be found under Resources.)
There are some basic assumptions that underlie the idea of TQM. In this
section, we'll look at how they might relate to your organization or initiative.

K E Y E L E M E N T S O F T O TA L Q U A L I T Y

Customer Focus: Everything an organization does should have the


needs of the customer as its starting point. In your work, the
"customer" is the target population or the community that will benefit
from what you are offering or doing. What are the needs to which you
are responding? How can you meet those needs effectively,
appropriately, and with respect for the people you're intending to
serve?

Obsession with Quality: Quality has to be something that's considered


from the very beginning and built into everything a business or
organization does. Planning carefully, monitoring your work, and
constant reevaluation and adjustment are all extremely important. You
don't ensure quality by catching mistakes before they reach the
customer; you ensure it by setting up a system in which you don't
make the mistakes to begin with. Everyone in the organization must
understand and adopt this point of view if the organization is truly
going to have quality performance.

Continual Improvement of Systems: The work of an organization must


be viewed as a process that is never finished. Any program can always
be improved, and must be changed as the needs of the community or
the target population change.

Unity of Purpose: In order for quality to be achieved, everyone in an


organization or business has to work together toward common goals.
That means mutual support throughout the organization, not turf
battles, not jealousy, not unnecessary competition. All interactions
among people in the organization should be mutually helpful and
aimed at achieving the best possible performance of the organization
as a whole.

Teamwork: Working in teams, rather than individually, people make


better connections with their colleagues and the organization, and

create better results. Teamwork removes performance pressure from


the individual and usually coaxes better performance from everyone.

Employee Involvement: If everyone in an organization is to be


committed to quality performance, then all staff members should have
the ability to contribute to its achievement. That means that people
must have enough control over their own jobs to do them effectively,
and that everyone's opinions and ideas must be respected and taken
seriously.

Education and Training: Achieving quality requires constant learning


for everyone in an organization, and that learning needs to be part of
the organizational culture.

Q8 . With one example each, explain the seven basic tools of quality manageme
nt?
Ans The Seven Basic Tools of Quality is a designation given to a fixed set of graphical techniques identified
as being most helpful in troubleshooting issues related to quality.[1] They are called basicbecause they are
suitable for people with little formal training in statistics and because they can be used to solve the vast majority
of quality-related issues.[2]
The seven tools are:[3][4][5]

Cause-and-effect diagram (also known as the "fishbone" or Ishikawa diagram)

Check sheet

Control chart

Histogram

Pareto chart

Scatter diagram

Stratification (alternately, flow chart or run chart)

The designation arose in postwar Japan, inspired by the seven famous weapons of Benkei.[6] It was possibly
introduced by Kaoru Ishikawa who in turn was influenced by a series of lectures W. Edwards Deming had given
to Japanese engineers and scientists in 1950.[7] At that time, companies that had set about training their
workforces in statistical quality control found that the complexity of the subject intimidated the vast majority of
their workers and scaled back training to focus primarily on simpler methods which suffice for most quality-related
issues.[8]
The Seven Basic Tools stand in contrast to more advanced statistical methods such as survey
sampling, acceptance sampling, statistical hypothesis testing, design of experiments, multivariate analysis, and
various methods developed in the field of operations research

Assignment C
01.) The inspection of the project through the implementation
phase is critical
to ensure that quality standards are being met. The use of
vendors is most often
required to obtain critical materials, components, or subassemblies. To
determine a vendors capabilities to produce to the specifications,
a shop
survey or audit of the vendor may be required. The areas for the
audit should
include .
A. facilities and shop space
B. experience and capability with similar work
C. quality assurance an control procedures
D. organization and quality of work in process
E. all of the above
Q2) The quality program may include the requirement for
witnessed inspections
of critical items for the project. When a subcontractor or vendor is
to conduct
a destructive test, the project manager must ensure the test is
validated
(witnessed) by a qualified member of his team. The purchase
order or contract
should contain a statement that requires the subcontractor or
vendor performing
the test to.
A. give a 30-day notice of when the test will be conducted and to
provide a
certificate of
completion within seven days following thetest
B. notify the project manager, in writing, of the date and
time for witnessing
the test
C. retain the residue of the item destroyed for a period of one

year following
completion of the
project
D. have present at the test at least three independent sources
(individuals) who
are qualified in
destructive testing procedures
E. report the results of the testing to an independent laboratory
for
confirmation and validation
of the procedures
Q3). The majority of advertisers appeal the public on the basis of
which of the
following?
A. Quality of product
B. Quality of staff
C. Inferiority of product
D. Inferiority of service
Q4). Which of the following was developed by Motorola to improve
its processes
by minimizing defects?
A.ISO 9000
B. Six sigma
C.QS 9000
D.TQM
Q5). The Father of statistical quality control is:
A. F. W. Taylor
B. Joseph M. Juran
C. Philip Crosby
D. Walter Shewhart
Q6). The process of evaluating overall project performance on a
regular basis to
provide confidence that the project will satisfy the relevant quality
standards
is called:
1. Quality Assurance
2. Quality Control
3. Quality Planning

4. Quality Review
Q7). The process of monitoring specific project results to
determine if they
comply with relevant quality standards is called:
A. Quality Assurance
B. Quality Control
C. Quality Planning
D. Quality Review
Q8). The practice of ceasing mass inspections and ending awards
based on price
is credited to:
A. Edward Deming
B. Philip Crosby
C. Juran
D. Pareto
Q9). Cost of quality includes:
A. Cost of all work to build a product or service that conforms to
the
requirements
B. Training programs
C. Cost of all work resulting from nonconformance to the
requirements
D. a and b
E. all of the above
Q10). The concept of zero inventory is called:
A. Six sigma
B. Continuous improvement
C. Just in Time
D. Zero defects
Qll). The zero defects concept
A. is a performance standard for management
B. is a motivational technique that promotes doing it
right the first time
C. is used by management to communicate to all employees that
everyone should do
things right the first time
D. A and C
E. B and C

Q12). Financial compensation is the primary motivational tool for


which of the
following management theories or programs?
A. Zero Defects program
B. Theory X management
C. Theory Y management
D. Quality Control Circles
E. A and C
Q13). Just-in-time (JIT) is the concept of reducing inventories to:
A. 25% of former stock
B. Less than half of former stock
C. 75% of peak stock
D. zero stock
E. 15% of the cost of the product for a planned stock
Q14).The primary responsibility for establishing design and test
specifications
should rest with
A. senior management
B. procurement or purchasing
C. engineering
D. manufacturing
E. quality control
Q15).The ISO 9000 series is:
A. a set of instructions for preparing control charts
B. a set of guidelines for quality
C. a set of forms and procedures to ensure quality
D. an international standard that describes a recommended
quality system
Q16). Which of the following models reflect horizontal processes
beginning with
suppliers and ending with customers?
A. Organism model
B.Mechanistic model
C.Cultural model
D.Total Quality model
Q17.) Which of the following is concerned about quality for
achievement of TQM?
A. The Managing Director

B. The Operative
C. The Quality Manager
D. Everyone in the organization
Q18.) Whose concepts are referred to as statistical quality control
(SQC)?
A. Shewharts
B. Demings
C. Jurans
D. Crosbys
Q19) In which of the following operations great deal of variations
can occur?
A. Manufacturing
B. Distribution
C. Purchasing
D. Selling
Q20) Which of the following results in low costs?
A. High productivity and high capacity utilization
B. Low productivity and low capacity utilization
C. Low productivity and high capacity utilization
D. High productivity and low capacity utilization
Q21) which of the following statements is TRUE for ISO 9000?
A. Describes the principles of a quality management system and
defines the
terminology
B. Describes the requirements relative to a quality
management system either for internal use or
for contractual or certification purposes
C. Intended for internal use and not for contractual purposes,
focuses
particularly on continually
improving performance
D. Contains the guidelines for auditing quality management
and/or environmental
management
systems
Q22) Identify the example of prevention costs.
A. Quality planning
B. Re-inspection

C. Product recalls
D. Customer returns
Q23 ) How can the quality be computed?
A. Quality = Expectation/Performance
B. Quality = Performance/Expectation
C. Quality = Performance+Expectation
D. Quality = Performance-Expectation
Q24.) Which of the following focuses on results, not process, and
encourages
short-term behavior?
A. Typical American MBO system
B. Typical Japanese MBO system
C. Typical Chinese MBO system
D. Uncommon Chinese MBO system
Q25.) Which of the following is viewed as a Consistent Pair?
A. ISO 9000 and ISO 9004
B. ISO 1987 and ISO 1992
C. ISO 1992 and ISO 1997
D. ISO 9001 and ISO 9004
Q26.) How many maturity levels are there in the Capability
Maturity Model?
A. Four
B. Five
C. Six
D. Seven
Q27.) Which of the following is a unit for measuring process
performance
according to traditional view of quality?
A. Effective parts per thousand produced
B. Defective parts per thousand produced
C. Effective parts per hundred produced
D. Defective parts per hundred produced
Q28.)What are the ISO (International Organization for
Standardization) series
standards for industries such as automobiles?
A. ISO 9000
B. ISO 14000
C. QS 9000

D. AS 9000
Q29.) What is the objective of a TQM system?
A. Continuous improvement
B. Continual improvement
C. Business improvement
D. Process improvement
Q30.) Under which perspective of the balance scorecard, would
you classify the
operating cost management measurement?
A. The customer perspective
B. The business process perspective
C. The financial perspective
D. The learning & growth perspective
Q31.) Which of the following is the purpose of ISO 9001?
A. To define the minimum Quality Management System
requirements needed to
achieve customer satisfaction by meeting specified product
requirements
B. To determine metals and metalloids in airborne
particulate matter by
inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry
C. To ensure that the IT service management processes are
aligned both with the
needs of the business and with international best practice
D. To evaluate ultimate aerobic biodegradability of organic
compounds in aqueous
medium by determination of oxygen demand in a closed
respirometer
Q32.) Quality is one part of the three major parameters of a
project. When the
quality in a project exceeds the specifications that is called.
A. excellence
B. superior quality
C. deviation plus quality
D. gold plating
E. silver plating
Q33.) Zero Defects is an element of the quality management
philosophy that is a

for all workers to be achieved .


A. slogan; whenever possible
B. slogan; most of the time
C. standard; at all times
D. standard; whenever possible
E. standard; during critical operations
Q34.) Self-inspection by the individual performing the work is
used to achieve
quality in a product. The advantages of self-inspection include .
A. immediate feedback to permit adjustments to the process
B. early identification of errors prior to further integration
C. minimization of end product repairs and material waste
D. reduction in the number of end product inspections and tests
E. all of the above
Q35.Poor quality in a design project is likely to directly affect
costs.
A. manufacturing / building
B. advertising
C. overhead
D. post-completion support
E. A and D
Q36.The of a product or service mostly affects its reliability and
maintenance
characteristics.
A. design
B. concept
C. fabrication
D. performance
E. cost
Q37. You are sampling items from a batch and plotting the results
on a control
chart. How will an increase in the number of items sample affect
the value of
the standard deviation used to set the control limit?
A. increase it
B. decrease it
C. no effect on it
D. first increase it, then decrease it

E. first decrease it, then increase it


Q38. Financial compensation is the primary motivational tool for
which of the
following management theories or programs?
A. Zero Defects program
B. Theory X management
C. Theory Y management
D. Quality Control Circles
E. A and C
Q39. 80% of the problems are found in 20% of the work is a
concept of:
A. Edward Deming
B. Philip Crosby
C. Juran
D. Pareto
Q40. The concept of making a giant leap forward followed by a
period of maturity
is:
A. Innovation
B. Continuous improvement
C. Just in time
D. Paradigm