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RECAPITULARE

1. Simple Past Tense (timpul trecut simplu) descrie 0 actiune, petrecuta in trecut:

They visited us last month. - Ei ne-au vizitat luna. trecuta.

He wrecked his car yesterday. - EI ~i-a distrus ieri ma~ina.

2. Pronumele personal la nominativ ~i la acuzativ:

Nominativ: Acuzativ:

I me
you you
he him
she her
it it
we us
you you
they them

3. Folosirea pronumelui relativ "that" in propozitia subordonata atributiva restrictiva:

People that like to work - Oamenii carora Ie place sa lucreze,


are always busy. sunt intotdeauna ocupati.
"
LECTIA
, 25 PARTEA "INTAl

La inceput yom invata substantive noi, legate de viata la tara:

barley > [ba:Tli] - orz

seed > [si :d] - samanta

agriculture > [Egrika It~aT] - agricultura

pasture > [pa:st~i\1 - pa~une

farmhand > [fa:TmhEnd] - muncitor agricol

plough > [pIau] - plug

furrow > [farou] - brazda

tractor > [trEkE1T] - tractor

com > [ko:Tn] - cereale,grane,grau,porumb

grain > [grein] - graunte, bob

bam > [ba:Tn] - hambar, ~opron, ~ura

cow > [kau] - vaca

Repetati acelea~i cuvinte ~i in alta ordine ~i fiti atenti la traducerea lor in


limba romana:

furrow > [farou] - brazda

cow > [bu] - vaca

seed > [si:d] - samanta ~


gram > [grcin] - graunte, bob

bam > [ba:Tn] - hambar, ~opron, ~ura

barley > [ba:Tli] - orz

com > [ko:Tn] - cereale, grane, gra~ porumb

plough > [pIau] - plug

farmhand > [fa:TmhEnd] - muncitor agricol

agriculture > [ Egrikalt~aT] - agricultura

pasture > [ pa:st~,i1 - pa~une

tractor > [trEktil T] - tractor

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Ulmariti cum se folosesc cuvintele noi in propozitii. Cititi propozitiile cu voce tare ~i fiti atenti la
pronuntie:

This farmer grows barley. >1 fYI>, fa.'llla' grauz ba.'li] - Acest fermier cultiva orz.

Where will we buy seeds from? >r"clrlld "I. bal sl.dz from] - De unde vom cumpara seminte?

Agriculture is important >r Egi ika Itsa' iz lInpo :'tant - Agricultura este importanta
in this country. 111 D/is bntri] in aceasta tara.

What are pastures used for? >["ot a:' pa:st~a'z iu:zd fo:'] - La ce se folosesc pa~unile?

The farmhands are >[D'a fa:'mhEndz a:' - Muncitorii agricoli ara.


ploughing. plauin ie, ]

This plough will be repaired. >rD/is piau "il bi' ripea'dl - Acest plug va fi reparat.

A plough makes furrows >r a piau I1lclks farouz - Plugul face brazde in pamant.
in the soil. in D/a soill

The farmers have paid for >rD/a t~l:'ma'z hE\' pCld fo.' - Fermierii au platit impreuna
this tractor together. D/is trEkta' tageD'a'l acest tractor.

What kinds of com >r"<lt kall1dz a\' ko:'n - Ce fel de cereale cuno~ti?
do you know? du Ill: nau]

Many grains are eaten by >r meni grcltlz a:' Un b<ll - Multe graunte sunt mancate
the birds. D/a ba:'dz] de pasari.

We have a very large bam. >r"i: hE\ <l \ eri la"dJ ba:fn] - Avem un hambar foarte mare.

How many cows has that >rhau meni kaLlZ hEz DIEt - Cite vaci are acest felmier?
farmer got? fa:'l1la f got]

Acum introduceti cuvintele corespunzatoare in urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:

Vrem sa cumparam un plug modern. - We want to by a modern :::plough.

Acest porumb este de pe acel ogor. - This :::t:orn is from that field.

Brazdele trebuie sa fie suficient de largi. - The :::fuITOWS must be wide enough.

Orzul este scump anul acesta? - Is )barky expensive this year?

Grauntele sunt macinate pentru faina. - The >6ra111s are ground into flour.

Acest muncitor agricol lucreaza de mult aici? - Has this )fannhand worked here
for a long time?

Ca~tiga mult oamenii in agricultura? - Do people earn much in :::agriculture?

Vacile sunt pe pa~une. - The :::t:ows are in the pasture.

Acest tractor este adesea defect. - This :::tractor is often out of order.

Semintele se pun in brazde. - The :::sceds are thrown into the >furrows

In septembrie hambarul nostru este plin. - In September our :::ham is full.

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lata acum un exercitiu de control. Traduceti urmatoarele cuvinte in limba engleza:

plug > plough

vaca > cow

brazda > flllTOW

orz > barley

tractor > tractor

muncitor agricol > flnnhand

cereale > corn

graunte, bob > gram

pa~une > pasture

samanta > seed

hambar > barn

agricultura > agncultun;

In foeul verbuflli auxiliar must - trebuie, a fi obligat - care exprimii 0 obliga{ie, 0 neeesitate, In
anumite eazuri se fofose~te eonstrlletia to have to.

Sa urmarim propozitiile:

She has to drink less coffee. > r ~l. hEz tu drll1(l'lk les kufl] - Ea trebuie sa bea mai putina cafea.

Do you have to work today? > rdu Ill. hEv tu"a:'k tade/] - Trebuie sa lucrezi azi?

I won't have to go there > ral "aunt hEv tu gau D'ea f - Nu va trebui sa merg acolo
tomorrow. tamurou] maine.

Nu uitati verbul auxiliar must poate fi folosit doar la timpul prezent. La


timpul trecut ~i viitor in locul lui se folose~te constructia to have to.

Urmeaza un scurt exercitiu cu verbul to have to. Traduceti propozi!iile in limba engleza:

leri a trebuit sa repar robinetul. > 1 had to repair the tap yesterday.

Cand va trebui sa termini lucrul? > When wlll you have to fi11lsh work?

Nu trebuie sa macinam grilu azi. > We don"t have to grind wheat today.

Ea trebuie sa duccl vacile pc camp. > She has to take the cows to the pasture.

Ce va trebui sa scriu maine? > What Will I have to \\ lIte tomorrow'?

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lata alte cuvinte noi. Cititi-Ie cu voce tare ~i memora!i intelesul lor in limba romana:

agricultural > r Et,'rikalt~nrn I] - agricol

fertile > rfa:'tnil] - fertil, rodnic

regularly > [n:giula'li] - (in mod) regulat/obi~nuit

healthy > [helT'i] - sanatos

except >riksept] - cu excep!ia, in afara de

possible > rposibl] - posibil

interesting > rintrastin lgl ] - interesant

Acum vom exersa cuvintele noi intr-un dialog. Cititi propozitiile cu atentie:

A: Do you like living in an agricultural region?


B: Yes, I do. I think it is healthier to live in the country than in the city.
A: But is the life here interesting?
B: Yes, it is. There are many interesting things to do. We have everything here
except cinemas.
A: But isn't the work too hard?
B: No, it isn't. I only have to fertilize the soil regularly because it is not fertile
enough.
A: Is it possible to grow all kinds of crops here?
B: Certainly. I grow wheat, rye and barley.

lar acum sa urmarim fiecare propozi!ie separat. Fi!i atenti la pronun!ie:

Do you like living in an > rdu iu: lnik livlI1(g) in nn - I!i place sa traie~ti intr-o regiune
agricultural region? Egrikalt~arnl ri:djan] agricola?

Yes. I do. > [ics ni du:] - Da.

I think it is healthier to live > rni T'il/g1k it iz helT'ia' tu liv - Cred ca este mai sanatos sa traie~ti
in the country than in the city. in O/a kantri O/En in Ola siti] la tara decat la or~.

But is the life here interesting? > [bat iz Ola latfhia' - Dar este interesanta viala aici?
intrastin(el]

Yes, it is. > [ics It iz] - Da.

There are many interesting > [O/ca' a:' lneni intrnstll1(gl - Sunt multe lucruri interesante
things to do. T'in(g,z tu du:] de Iacut.

We have everything here > [IIi: hEv C\TIT'in lel hia' - Avem de toate aici, cu excePlia
except cinemas. iksept ~inall1az] cinematografului.

But isn't the work too hard? > [hat iznt IYa lI a:'k tu: hn:'d] - Dar nu este prea grea munca?

No, it isn't. > [n<l\l it iznt] -Nu.

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I only have to fertilize > [ai aunh hEy tu ra.'tJla/z - Trebuie doar sa fertilizez pamantul
the soil regularly because D/a soil rcgllda'Jj bikoz in mod regulat pentru ca nu este
it is not fertile enough. It IZ not ra·rtaillllaf] destuI de fertil.

Is it possible to grow all > [iz it poslbl tu grau 0.1 - Este posibil sa cultivi aici toate
kinds of crops here? kamuz <IV bops hia r ] felurile de cereale?

Certainly. > [sa:'tanlil - Desigur.

I grow wheat, rye and barley. > raJ grau "jot raJ End ba:rli] - Eu cultiv grau, secara ~i orz.

Completati propozitiile in limba engleza eu cuvintele corespunzatoare:

Aceste vaci nu sunt sanatoase. - These cows are not >healthy.

Mergem in mod regulat la meciul de fotbal. - We >rcgularly go to a football match.

Este posibil sa vinzi aceste bilete? - Is it > possible to sell these tickets?

Putem veni toti cu exceptia lui Mark. - We can all come, >exccptMark.

Satul nostru se afla intr-o vale fertila. - Our village lies in a > terti Ie valley.

Cltesc intotdeauna ~tirile agricole in ziar. - I always read the >agncultural news
in the newspaper.

"These cows are not healthy."

Ati retinut cuvintele noi? lata un exercitiu de verificare. Traduceti in limba engleza:

cu exceptia, in afara de > except

ferti 1, rodnic > fClidc

posibil > possIble

agricol > agricultural

sanatos > healthy

in mod regulat/obi~nuit > regularly

interesant

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Urmariti cu atentie urmatoarele propozitii

""1 like coffee" said John. - "Imi place cafeaua" a spus John.

John said he liked coffee. - John a spus ca ii place cafeaua.

"She is cooking dinner" said Peter, - "Ea pregate~te cina" a spus Peter.

Peter said she was cooking dinner. - Peter a spus ca ea pregate~te cina.

Ati observat deosebirile dintre timpurile verbelor folosite?

In ambele cazuri avem de-a face cu vorbirea illdirecfii, care se folose.!}te de obicei atunci ciind
paraji-aziim spusele cuiva.

in cazul vorhirii indirecte, structura propozi!iei este urll1iitoarea: dacii verhul propozi!iei principale
(de exemplu John said, Peter said) este la timpul trecut (Simple Past, Past Continuous, Past Perfect),
atunci timpul verbului din propozi!ia secundara. se schimhii conform regulii de concordanta a
timpurilor, care este urmiitoarea:

Simple Present Simple Past

Present Continuous Past Continuous

lata cateva exemple:

He told me he grew all kinds of corn. - EI mi-a spus ca el cultiva toate soiurile
de grane.

Propozi!ia para!i-azatii a fost "1 grow all kinds of corn."

She said she was always late for work. - Ea a spus ca intarzie intotdeauna de la lucru.

1 heard they were coming. - Am auzit ca au venit.

in propozipa principalii, verhul se ajlii cel mai des la timpul trecut simplu (Simple Past).

In exercitiul urmator, introduceti forma corespunzatoare a verbului in propozitiile in limba engleza:

El mi-a spus ca este obosit. - He told me he >was tired.

Jane a spus ea scrie 0 scrisoare. - Jane said she >was writing a letter.

Mama mi-a spus ca nu are bani. - Mother said she >had no money.

Cine a spus ca nu Ie place sa lucreze? - Who said they >didn' t I ike working?

rar acum sa invatam un grup de verbe noi:

to sow >rtusoul - a semana, a insamanta

to store > [tusto:'l - a tine, a depozita

to harvest > [tu ha:"'istl - a recolta, a secera


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to graze > [tu grCIZ] - a pa~te, a duce la paseut

to milk > [tu mtlk] - a mulge

to fail > [tu feil] - a nu reu~i (la, in), a cadea

Verbul to sow este neregulat. Retineti formele lui:

forma I forma a II-a forma a III-a

sow > [sou] sowed > [soud] sown > [soun]

lata verbele noi in propozitii. Cititi eu voce tare ~i fHi atenti la pronuntie:

Have you sown the wheat yet? > [hEv Ill. saun D/a !li:t Ict] - Ai semanat deja graul?

They stored the crop in > [D/ cl sto:'d D/a krop in - Au depozitat graul in
their barns. DL c? ba:'nz] hambarele lor.

We have harvested all > [!Ii: hEv ha.'vistid 0.1 - Am recoltat tot graul nostru.
our com. aua' ko.'n]

The cows grazed in the > [D'a kauz grclZd In D/a - Vacile au pascut pe pa~une
pastures every summer. pa:st~a'z evl'l sama'] in fiecare vara.

You haven't milked > [IU: hEvnt milkt DE a - Nu ai muls inca vacile.
the cows yet. kauz ICt]

The crop failed that year. > [D/a klUp fctld D7Et iia'l - Recolta a Yost slaba anul acela.

Iar acum urmeaza un exercitiu cu verbele noi. Introduceti formele corespunzatoare ale verbelor in
urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:

Ai recoltat multa secara anul acesta? - Have you >harvcstcd much rye this year?

Au muls vacile foarte regulat. - They >milkcd the cows very regularly.

El nu a reu~it sa se intoarca la tirnp. - He has >failcd to return in time.

Noi am sernanat orzul ieri. - We >sowed the barley yesterday.

L-ai depozitat in harnbar? - Have you >storcd it in a bam?

Vacile au pascut intotdeauna - The cows always >grazcd


in apropierea riiului. near the river.

Ca exercitiu, traduceti noile cuvinte in lirnba engleza:

a pa~te > to gtazc

a secera > to harvcst

a rnulge > to mtlk

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a nu reu~i > to fail

a semana, a insamanta >to sow

a tine, a depozita > to store

In incheiere sa ne reintoarcem la timpul Prezentul Continuu.

Cu ajutoru! timpu!ui prezent continull se exprimii ~i atitudinea criticii (neriibdare, supiirare) fn


!egiiturii Cll 0 activitate sau un eveniment. Comp!ementu! de timp utilizat fn acest caz este always Cll
sensu! de (in)totdeauna, ve~nic, mereu:

He is always forbidding me watching TV! - EI imi interzice intotdeauna sa rna uit


la televizor!

She is always smoking cigarettes! - Ea fumeaza mereu!

Traduceti in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii:

Ei rna refuza intotdeauna! > They are always refusing me!

EI cite~te mereu ziarele! > He is always reading newspapers!

Ei vorbesc mereu despre cai! > They are always talking about horses!

Tatal meu bea intotdeauna doar cafea! > :'vly father is always drinking only coffee!

9
LECTIA
, 25 - PARTEA A DOUA

tn partea a doua sa ne mai imbogatim vocabularul legat de viata la tara,


lata cuvintele noi:

country lane > [kantri kin] - drum de tara


hedge > [hcdj] - gard viu
crow > [krau] - cioara
scarecrow > [skea'krau] - sperietoare (de ciori)
cattle > [kEtl] - vite, bovine
cattle farming > [kEtl fa:'min(gJ] - crescatorie de vite
arable farming > [Eri\bl fa:'min igl ] - cultivarea plantelor
mixed farming > [mikst fa:'min igl ] - cultivare mixta; ferma
mixta
rat > [rEt] - ~obolan

rodent > [raudcnt] - rozatoare


dairy > [deari] - laptarie, fabrica de
prelucrare a laptelui
dairy produce > [deill'i prodiu:s] - produse lactate

Exersati acelea~i cuvinte, dar in alta ordine ~i incercati sa va insu~iti


pronuntia ~i sensullor in limba romana:

arable farming > [Erilhl fa:'min igl ] - cultivarea plantelor


dairy > [de,lri] - Iaptarie, fabrica de
prelucrare a laptelui
crow > [ krim] - cioara
country lane > [kantri kin] - drum de tara
rodent > [raudcnt] - rozatoare
dairy produce > [deilri prodiu:s] - produse lactate
rat > [rEt] - ~obolan

hedge > [hcdj] - gard viu


cattle > [kEtl] - vite, bovine

mixed farming > [mikst fa:'min igJ ] - cultivare mixta; ferma


mixHi
scarecrow > [skea'krilu] - sperietoare (de ciori)
cattle farming > [kEtl fa:'min(CI] - crescatorie de vite

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Acum exersa~i cuvintele noi in propozitii:

A country lane is a road > [a kantn kin iz a raud - Drumul de ~ara trece
through fields. T'ru: fi.ldz1 printre ogoare.

There are hedges there. - Acolo sunt garduri vii.

There are many crows in > I D"ca r a: r meni krallz in - Sunt multe ciori pe camp.
the fields. Dla fi'ldzl

What is a scarecrow for? > [lint iz a skea'krall f,):r1 - La ce serve~te 0 sperietoare?

The cattle are grazing. - Vitele pasco

Is there much cattle farming > [iz IYca r maT~ kEtl - Sunt multe crescatorii de vite
in Romania? fa:'min1t'1 in ru.mellli~ll in Romania?

Arable farming is more > [Erabl fa:'min(g) iz mo: r - Cultivarea plantelor este
important. impu:'tant1 mai importanta.

We are in mixed farming. > ["i: a:' III mikst fa:'mlll(gJ1 - Noi cultivam de toate.

A rat is bigger than a mouse. > [a rEt iz biga' D"En a malls1 - Un ~obolan este mai mare decat
un ~oarece.

Do rodents eat com? > I du Hllldents I·t ko:'n J - Rozatoarele mananca cereale?

We take the milk to > ["i: teik D'a milk tll D7 a - Ducem laptele in mod
the dairy regularly. dean rcgiularl i1 regulat la Hiptarie.

Butter and cheese are dairy > [hata r End t~i:z a:' deari - Untul ~i branza sunt
produce. prodlll:S 1 produse lactate.

Substantivul cattle este un substantiv colectiv, de aceea verbul aflat


langa el se afla intotdeauna la plural.

Introduceti cuvintele corespunzatoare in urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:

Ce culoare are cioara? - What colour is a >crow?

In satul nostru se afla 0 lapUirie. - There is a >dalry in our village.

Se afla multe ferme mixte - There is a lot of>mixcd fanning


in aceasta regiune. in this region.

Iti plac produsele lactate? - Do you like >dairy produce?

Ne plimbam pe un drum de tara. - We were walking in a >collntry lane.

Lui nu-i place sa cultive plante. - He doesn't like >arahk farming.

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Gardurile vii nu sunt foarte Inalte. - The >hcdgc~ are not very high.

Nu are rost sa folosim 0 sperietoare (de ciori). - It's no use having a >scarccrow.

~tii ce sunt rozatoarele? - Do you know what >rodents are?

Ne-am vandut anul treeut vitele. - We sold our >cattlc last year.

Este imposibil sa cre~tem vite aici. - >Cattlc fanning is not possible here.

Am prins un ~obolan. - I have caught a >rat

{lr,()
~ .
"It's no use having a scarecrow".

V-ali Insu~it deja eu siguranpi cuvintele noi. Pentru verificare, traduceti urmatoarele cuvinte In
limba engleza:

rozatoare > rodent


cioara > crow

drum de tara > country Jane


laptarie > dairy

ferma mixta > mixed fannmg


~obolan > rat
vite > cattle
produse lactate > daIry produce
sperietoare (de ciori) > scarecrow
gard viu > hedge
cultivarea de plante > arabic farming
crescatorie de vite > c,lttlc farmlllg

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Acum vom inviita pronumele reflexiv. Formele sale sunt:

1 myself > rmaiseltl

you yourself > [io:rselfj

he himself > [himself]

she herself > [ha: rseltl

it itself > ritseltl

we ourselves >[auarselvzl

you yourselves >[ io:rselvzl

they themselves > [D'emselvz]

Urmariti folosirea acestor forme In propozitii:

He hurt himself. >[hi: ha:rt himselfl - S-a ranit (ellnsu~i).

They offered themselves for >rD/ el ot~l'd D/emselvz - S-au oferit (ei1n~i~i)
this job. fo: r D/is dJob 1 pentru aceasta munca.

1 can't see myself in this >[al ka:nt si: maiselfin - Nu rna pot vedea In
IDlrror. D/is mirarl aceasta oglinda.

Look at yourself! > [Iuk Et io:rseltl - Prive~te-te!

Traduceti propozitiile In limba engleza:

Mi-am cumparat 0 ma~ina. >T have bought a car for myself.

Ea ~i-a calcat 0 bluza. >She ironed a blouse for herself.

M-am ranit. >1 have hurt myself.

Aceasta nu-i va rani pe ei, ci pe tine Insuti! >This will not hurt them. but yourself'

Iatii-ne din nou la vorbirea indirectii ~i la concordanta timpurilor. Regulile de concordantii ale
timpurilor in cazul trecutului simplu ~i al prezentului perfect sunt:

Simple Past Past Perfect

Present Perfect Past Perfect

De exemplu:

Mary told me "1 was there three years ago". - John said he had never seen a scarecrow.

John said "1 have never seen a scarecrow". - Mary told me she had been there three
years before.

Retinep.: In vorbirea indirecta, tn locul adverbului ago se folose~te


adverbul before!

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Cu ajutorul celor invatate, folositi fonna corespunzatoare a verbelor in unnatoarele propozitii in
limba engleza:

Peter a spus ca nu a vazut acel film. - Peter said he > hadn't watc hed that film.

Am auzit ieri ca ei nu s-au intors inca. - I heard yesterday they >hadn't rctumedyet.

John a spus ca nu I-a cunoscut pe omul acela. - John said he > hadn't known that man.

Mary a citlt ca administratia acestei fabrici - Mary read that the management ofthis factory
nu a concediat muncitorii. > hadn't fired the labourers.

Sa mai invatam cateva cuvinte noi. Cititi-Ie eu voce tare ~i fiti atenti la pronuntia lor:

of course > ray ko:fs] - bineinteles, desigur, fire~te

along > [alon(gl] - de-a lungul, in lungul

hannful > rha:fmfal] - daunator, rau

wet > ["etl - ud, umed, ploios

dry > [drail - uscat

profitable > [protitabl] - profitabil, rentabil

Iar acum sa exersam cuvintele noi in propozitii. Incercati sa Ie traduceti:

Of course it is true. > [0\ ko:fsitiztrll.] - Bineinteles ca este adevarat.


There are hedges along > [D'e~lfa: f hedjlz alon(") - De-a lungul drumului sunt
the road. D/a raud] garduri vii.
Is smoking hannful? > [IZ smaukin(g) ha mfall
f - Fumatul este daunator?
Don't store com in a wet > rdaunt sto· f ko fn 111 a "et - Nu depozita graul intr-un loc
place. plels] umed!
This month has been > rD'lsmanT'hEzbi:n - Luna aeeasta a fost foarte
very dry. veri drai] uscata.
Is agriculture profitable? > [IZ Egrikalt~af profitabll - Agricultura este profitabila?

Introduceti cuvintele corespunzatoare in unnatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:

Strazile nu sunt inca uscate. - The streets are not> dry yet.
Ce cre~te bine de-a lungul drumurilor? - What grows well >alongthe roads?
Ce este mai rentabil, cultivarea plantelor sau - Which is more >profitablc, arable
cre~terea vitelor? fanning or cattle fanning?
Rozatoarele sunt foarte daunatoare. - Rodents are very > h,mn fu I.
Care este cea mai umeda luna a anului? - Which is the >wettest month of the year?
Bineinteles ca el poate conduce 0 ma~ina. - > Of COUI se he can drive a car.

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Verificati-va cuno~tinte1e. Traduceti urmatoarele cuvinte in limba engleza:

uscat > dry

bineinteles, desigur > of coursc

de-a lungul, in lungul > along

profitabil, avantajos > profitable

daunator > harmful

umed, ploios > wct

lata acum verbe noi:

to scare > [tu skca'] - a speria, a ingrozi, a inspaimanta

to shear > [tll ~la'l - a tunde

to plant > [tu pla:nt] - a planta, a sarli

to dry > [tu drilll - a usca

to yield > [tu li:ldl - a produce, a da, a rezulta, a ceda

to set > [t\1 sct] - a pune, a a~eza, a situa

to cover > [tu kava'] - a acoperi, a inveli

Doua dintre verbe sunt neregulate. Invatati formele lor:

formal forma a II-a forma a III-a

shear > [~i[l'l sheared > [~ia'dl shom > [~o:'n]

set > [sct] set > [sct] set > [sdj

lata verbele noi in propozitii. Nu uitati nici de exersarea pronuntiei:

Have I scared you? > [hE\' a; skca'd iu:l - Te-am speriat?


We sheared the sheep > lUi: ~ia'd IYa ~i:p - Noi am tuns oile in martie.
in March. in ma:'t~l

The com dried for many > [Dla ko:'n dr'lld to:' meni - Graul s-a uscat timp de mai multe
weeks. "i:ksl saptamani.
How much has the crop > [hau mat~ hEz D/a krop - Cat a fost recolta de grau?
yielded? li.ldid]

We asked him to do it, but > lUi: askt bim tu du: it hat - Noi I-am rugat sa faca asta,
he didn't want to yield. hi: didnt Uont tu iI: Id] dar el nu a cedat.
She set the flowers in water. > [~i: sct IYa tlaua'z in "u:ta'] - Ea a pus florile in apa.
The thunderstorm scared us. > [D/a T'an(b'~to:'m skca'd as I - Furtuna (cu trasnete) ne-a speriat.
Cover the breadl > [kava' 1Ya brcll1 - Acopera painea!

15
lar acum introduceti fonna corespunzatoare a verbului in unnatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:

Ei au tuns oile Intr-o zi insorita. - They >shcarcd the sheep on a sunny day.

Noi am pus ieri cartofii. - We >plantcd the potatoes yesterday.

Sperietoarea nu sperie pasarile. - The scarecrow doesn't >scarc the birds.

Cerealele s-au uscat bine. - The com >dricd well.

Trebuie sa pui asta langa fereastra. - You must >sct it next to the window.

El a uitat sa acopere mancarea. - He forgot about >covcnng the food.

Verificati-va cuno~tintele. Traduceti unnatoarele verbe in limba engleza:

asperia > to scarc


~
a planta, a sadi > to plant
a tunde > to shcar
a usca > to drv
a produce, a rezulta, a da > to yield
a pune, a a~eza > to sct
a acoperi, a inveli > to covcr

In vorbirea indirectii, verbul auxiliar will,folosit laformarea timpului viitor simplu (Simple Future)
are forma de trecut - would:

She said "1 will not go there". - She said she would not go there.
John said "1 will have dinner at seven". - John said he would have dinner at seven.

Traduceti unnatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:

Peter a spus ca va fi acolo. > Petcr SaId he would bc thcre

Mama a spus ca vom sadi ro~iile > :'v1othcr smd wc would plant tomatocs
In pamantul acela. in that field.

lata ultimu1 exercitiu al lectiei, in care vom recapitula intregul material. Traduceti urmatoarele
propozitii in limba engleza:

Maine va trebui sa semanam graul. > Tomol1"ow wc wil] havc to sow wheat.

Tata a spus ca este sanatos. > father said hc was hcalthy.


Ai muls deja toate vacile? > Havc you milked all the eows yct'?
Ea pastreaza intotdeauna ziarele vechi! > She is always storing old nc\\spapers!
El a spus ca rozatoarele au mancat toata > Hc said rodcnts had eatcn all thc rye.
secara.
Prive~te-te!l Uita-te la tine! > Look at yourself'

16
El a spus ea a vazut-o acum doua saptamani. > He said he had seen her two weeks before.

Maine vom seeera. > \Ve are haryesting tomOlTOw.

Unde vom depozita orzul? > Where will we store the barley?

Ei vorbesc mereu despre ma~inile lor rapide. > They arc always talking about their fast cars.

Graul nu poate fi arat Inca. > The com cannot be harvested yet.

Doar pamanturile fertile vor da 0 recolta mare. > Only the feliile fields will yield !TIuch.

Vitele pase pe pa~une. > The cattle graze in the pastures.

In hambarul nostru sunt ~obolani. > There are rats in our ham.

Rozatoarele mananca graunte de cereale. > Rodents cat grains of corn.

Imi place sa rna plimb de-a lungul > I like walking along the country lanes.
drumurilor de tara.

Este Taptarie In satul vostru? > Is there a dairy in your village?

Bineinteles ca am tuns deja oile. > Of eourse we have shorn the sheep already.

In Incheiere urmeaza exercitiul de pronuntie. Literele aflate in aceea~i coloana ~i notate cu caractere
accentuate desemneaza un sunet identic. Cititi cu voce tare cuvintele ~i fiti atenti la pronuntie:

r0:1 rEl raul raul raul

shorn rat plough farmer rodent

com cattle cow barley crow

worn cash now bam sow

forty fat brown car show

caught flat mouth father blow

17
RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI
, 25

25.1. Verbul auxiliar modal must - care exprima necesitatea, obligatia - poate fi inlocuit cu verbul
to have to. Verbul to have to nu este un verb auxiliar modal:

She has to drink less coffee. - Ea trebuie sa bea mai putina cafea.

Verbul auxiliar must are doar forma de prezent. La timpurile trecut ~i viitor in locul lui se
folose~te verbul to have to.

25.2. Vorbirea indirecUi

25.2.1. Vorbirea indirecta este folosita pentru a parafraza spusele cuiva.

25.2.2. Daca verbul propozitiei principale este La timpul trecut (Simple Past, Past
Continuous, Past Perfect) atunci verbul propozitiei secundare se schimba conform
regulii de concordanta a timpurilor, care este urmatoarea:

Simple Present ~ Simple Past

Present Continuous ~ Past Continuous

Simple Past ~ Past Perfect

Present Perfect ~ Past Perfect

will ~ would

Forma verbului la timpul Past Perfect ramane neschimbata.

John said he liked coffee. - John a spus ca ii place cafeaua.

Peter said she was cooking dinner. - Peter a spus ca ea a gate~te cina.

John said he had never seen - John a spus ca nu a vazut niciodata


a scarecrow. o sperietoare.

Mary told me she had been there - Mary mi-a spus ca a fost acolo in urma
three years before. cu trei ani.

25.2.3. In vorbirea indirecta in locul adverbului ago se folose~te adverbul before.

25.3. Timpul Prezent Continuu

Cu ajutorul timpului Present Continuous putem exprima ~i atitudinea critica (nerabdare,


nervozitate, suparare) in legatura eu 0 activitate sau un eveniment. Complementul de timp eel
mai des utilizat in acest caz este always, care aici are semnificatia de intotdeauna, mereu.

He is always forbidding me watching TV! - Imi interzice intotdeauna sa rna uit


la televizor!

18
25.4. Pronumele reflexiv

Formele sale sunt:

Pronumele personal Pronumele reflexiv

~ myself > [ma/self]

you ~ yourself > [w:'seltl

he ~ himself > [hnl1self]

she ~ herself > [ha:'seltl

it ~ itself > [itseltl

we ~ ourselves > [a lla rsel \'z]

you ~ yourselves > I io:rsel\'z]

they ~ themselves > r IYcmsel\'z]

He hurt himself. - El s-a ranit.

They offered themselves for this job. - Ei jn~i~i s-au oferit pentru aceasta munca.

19
TEMA PENTRU ACASA 25

A Traduce~i unnatoarele propozitii in limba romana:

I. She said they had harvested all the barley.

2. Why are you always storing these useless things?

3. Peter will have to milk all the cows in the pasture.

4. Will you buy yourself a new car now?

5. Who said my wife was ugly?

6. Mary said she had sown the seeds two hours before.

B. Traduee~i unnatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:

I. Ace~ti eopii groaznici ne sperie intotdeauna animalele!

2. £1 a spus ea nu i-a placut sa mearga pe jos pe aeest drum de tara.

3. Trebuie sa faeem 0 sperietoare de ciori.

4. John a spus ca cre~terea vitelor nu a fost rentabila in unna eu doi ani.

5. Iti voi spune ceva despre mine insumi.

6. Tata mi-a spus ca vom planta tlori in gradina.

c. Gasiti ~i eorectati gre~elile din propozitiile unnatoare:

I. John said he likes dairy produce.

2. Why are they always drive old cars?

3. They have just bought a new house for themselfs.

4. Next month I will must shear the sheep.

5. I think it is possible to fertile this soil.

20
LECTIA
, 26 PARTEA "INTAI
"

ineepem leetia ell un grup de substantive noi. Cititi-le eu voce tare ~i


retineti intelesul lor in Iimba romana:

frost > [frost] - ger, inghet

rainbow > [reinbou] - cureubeu

thunder > [T'andi{] - tunet

heat-wave > [hi:t lI c iv] - val de caldura

hailstone > [heilstaun] - grindina

distance > [distans] - distanta, departare

shelter > r~eltijr] - adapost, refugiu

ditch > rdit~] - ~ant, canal ..

twilight > rtllailait] - amurg, crepuscul

sunset > [sansct] - apus de soare

dawn > [do:n] - zori

lightning > [laitnin(!!)] - fulger

Acum repetati acelea~i cuvinte, dar in alta ordine:

hailstone > [heilstaun] - grindina

distance > [disUms] - distanta, departare

frost > [frost] - ger, inghet

lightning > rlaitnin(~I] - fulger

ditch > rdit~] - ~ant, canal

shelter > [~eltar] - adapost, refugiu

thunder > [T'anda1 - tunet

rainbow > [reinbou] - eureubeu

heat-wave > [hi:t lI eiv] - val de caldura

dawn >[do:n] - zori

sunset > [sansct] - apus de soare

twilight > [t'lail ait] - amurg, crepuscul

21
lata cum se folosesc cuvintele noi in propozitii. Repetati propozitiile cu voce tare ~i fiti atenti la
pronuntie:

There hasn't been frost yet. > [IYea' hEznt bm frost iet] - Nu a fost inca inghet.

The ditches are frozen. - ~anturile au inghetat.

How many colours has > [hau meni kala'z hEz - Cite culori are un curcubeu?
a rainbow? a rClIlbou]

Thunder scares many people. > [T'anda' skca'z meni pi:pl] - Tunetul sperie multi oameni.

We saw the village in > lUi: so: D'ii vilidJ in - Noi am vazut satul in departare.
the distance. DLa distans]

They found no shelter. > [D/ei hlUnd nau ~elta'l - Nu au gasit adapost.

He continued ploughing > [hi. kantinlU:d plauII1(g) - £1 a continuat sa are in amurg.


in the twilight. III D/a t"arlalt]

Can we work after sunset? > [kEn "I' "a 'k a. fta' sanset] - Putem sa lucram dupa asfintit?

The heat-wave started > [D/a hI. t "el\' sta:'tid - Valul de caldura a inceput
in June. 111 dJu 'n] in iunie.

The hailstones were very big. > [DL a hedstaunz "a '\ en bIg] - Grindina a fost foarte mare.

Farmers start working > [farma'z sta:'t "a"kIl1(~1 - Fermierii incep sa lucreze
at dawn. Etdo:n] in zori.

Did you see the lightning? - Ai vazut fulgerul?

In continuare sa exersam cuvintele noi. Introduceti cuvintele corespunzatoare in urmatoarele


propozitii in limba engleza:

A fost putin inghet iama aceea. - There was little> tj'ost that winter.

Tunetul a speriat copiii. - The >thunder scared the children.

Unele apusuri de soare sunt minunate. - Some >sunscts are beautiful.

Noi am gasit un adapost pe timpul furtunii. - We found a >shelter during the thunder-storm.

Imi plac zorile. - I like the >dawn.

Ce animale traiesc in canale? - What animals live in the >ditches?

Noi nu am vazut fulgerul. - We didn't see the >lightning.

Valurile de caldura nu sunt dese. - >Heat-wa\'cs don't often happen.

Curcubeul apare adesea dupa ploile torentiale. - There is often a >rainbow after a shower.

Ce distanta este intre cele doua sate? - What is the >distancc between
the two villages?

Nu ne-am inHilnit cu nimeni in amurg. - We met nobody in the >twtlight.

22
Desigm ati retinut deja corespondentul romanesc al urmatoarelor cuvinte in limba engleza:

val de caldura > Ilcat-wave


apus de soare, asfintit > sunset
zon > dawn
cmcubeu > r2inbow
inghet > fi'ost
tunet > thunder
grindina > hailstone
amurg > twilight
fulger > lightning
distanta > distance
~ant, canal > ditch
adapost > shelter

Pronumele de tipul myself, themselves pierd caracterul reflexiv, dadi le folosim pentru accentuarea
altor suhstantive sau adverhe, devenind pronume de intarire. De exemplu:

I myself have given it to you. - Eu insumi ti I-am dat.


You have done it yomself. - Tu insuti ai facut-o.
We shall plough the fields ourselves. - Noi in~ine ne vom ara pamantmile.
He has heard it from the doctor himself. - EI a auzit asta chiar de la doctor.

Dupa cum ati putut ohserva, In aceste cazuri prol1l11nele poate sa stea la mJjlocul sau la sfar,~itul
propozi{iei, lara a-~'i pierde caractentl de Intarire:

You yomself have done it. sail: You have done it yomself.

"Have you done it yourself?"

23
lata un grup de cuvinte noi:

mild > [matldl - bland, blajin, moderat

raw - crud, nefiert, aspru

piercing - patrunzator, ascutit

cool > [ku·ll - racoros

gloomy > [glu:JnJ] - intunecos, sumbru

unsettled > [ansctald] - variabil, schimbator

endless > [cndlis] - nesIar~it, interminabil, lara SIar~it

lar acum cititi acest scurt text referitor la starea vremii:

It is a gloomy day today. A piercing wind is blowing and there is raw frost. ~
Yesterday the wind was cool but it was mild. The weather is always unsettled
in this region and it often rains. Sometimes the rain is endless.

Sa urmarim fiecare propozitie separat. Fiti atenti la traducerea lor:

It is a gloomy day today. > [It 17 a glu.mi de! tadc!] - Azi vremea este intunecata.

A piercing wind is blowing > [a plarsin,gl "lnd i7 blau\I1(gj - Sufla un vant patrunzator
and there is raw frost. End Olear 17 roo frost] ~i este un frig aspru.

Yesterday the wind was cool > [Icstarc.lu O/a l1\11d 11 07 - leri vantul a fost racoros,
but it was mild. ku 1 bat it 11 07 matld] dar vremea a fost blanda.

The weather is always > [O/a lI eo/ a r iz o.lllei7 - Vremea este mereu
unsettled in this region ansetald in O/is ri:djan schimbatoare in aceasta
and it often rains. End it ufn relllz] regiune ~i ploua des.

Sometimes the rain is endless. > [samtallnz 0 / 5 relll iz end lis] - Uneori ploua rara sIar~it.

Pentru a exersa cuvintele noi, completati urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:

In luna martie vremea a fost mai blanda - March was >mtlder than May.
decat in luna maio

Este un om sumbru. - He is a >gloomy man.

Nu-mi place acest frig patrunzator. - I don't like this >picrcmg cold.

In aceasta tara vremea este - In this country the weather


de obicei schimbatoare. is usually >unsettlcd.

Noi a trebuit sa lucram in vantul acela aspru. - We had to work in the >raw wind.

Lucram mai bine atunci cand este racoare. - We can work better when it is >cool.

Pentru unii oameni 0 saptamana - To some people a week


poate fi interminabila. can be >endlcss.

24
Ati retinut deja cuvintele noi? Traduceti-le in limba engleza:

crud, aspru > raw

nesIar~it > endless

schimbator > unsettled

racoros > cool

intunecat, sumbru > gloomy

moderat >mild

patrunzator, ascutit > piercing

lata un exemplu de folosire a timpului trecut simplu (Simple Past):

Forma de trenlt a verbului sefoloseite pentru a exprima ipotezele. dorill{ele, In propozi{iile secundare
cerute de unniitoarele cuvinte ii expresii:

it is time >[itiztaim] - este timpul

I wish >[ai"i~l - a~ dori ... , a~ vrea (sa fie ...)

if > [itl - daca, presupunand ca...


if only > [ifaunli] - cat de bine ar fi, a~ dori mult
(aceasta expresie de multe ori nu
se traduce in limba roman a)

suppose > rsapauz] - sa presupunem

fancy > [fEnsi] - a-~i imagina, a-~i inchipui

Imagme > [imEdjin] - a-~i imagina, a-~i Inchipui

it would be better if > rit "ud hi: beta' itl - ar fi mai bine daea...

lata aceste expresii In propozitii:

It is time you went home. - Este timpul sa pleei acasa.


I wish I were rich. - A~ dori sa fiu bogat.
It would be better if we didn't leave early. -Ar fi mai bine daea nu am pleca devreme.
If only there wcre cnough timc! - Cat de bine ar fi sa avem timp suficient!
Suppose he came today. - Sa presupunem ea ar vcni astazi.
Imaginc you had a lot of money. - Imagineaza-ti ea ai avca 0 multime dc bani.
Fancy if the man you saw were yom father! - Inchipuic~te-ti ca omul pc care l-ai vazut ar fi
tatal tau!

In accste propozitii secundarc se folosc~te doar 0 singura forma a verbului


to be, forma de trceut were.

25
Acum sa exersam folosirea timpului trecut simplu. Completati urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:

A~ vrea sa ~tiu ce sa fac. - I wish I >knew what to do.

Este timpul sa-ti scrie 0 scrisoare. - It is time he :::wrote a letter to you.

lnchipuie~te-ti ca aceasta casa ar fi a mea. - Fancy ifthis house :::were mine.

De-ar conduce mai repede! - If only he >drove faster!

Sa presupunem ca ne oprim aici. - Suppose we >stopped here.

Imagineaza-ti ca John ar fi un bun conducator auto. - Imagine if John >were a good driver.

Ar fi mai bine daca ei nu ~i-aI' lua caine. - It would be better if they >didn't buy a dog.

Speram ca ati reu~it sa rezolvati exercitiul anterior. Sa invatam cateva verbe noi:

to shiver > [tu ~iva'] - a tremura, a diirdiii (de frig)

to rumble >[turambl] - a bubui

to seem >[tLlsi:ml - a parea, a da impresia

to die > [tu d'll] - amuri

to damage > [tLl dEmidJl - a dcteriora, a strica, a distruge

to suffer > [tu ,.,afa'] - a suferi

Forma de gerunziu - gerund - a verbului to die este dying.

Acum urmariti folosirea verbelor 111 propozitii. Cititi-Ie cu voce tare:

We shivered with cold. - Noi am tremurat de frig.

The thunder was rumbling > rD/a T'anda' "0Z ramblill(gl - Tunetul a bubuit
in the distance. in D1a distans] In departare.

The ploughing seemed endless. > [Ola plautn lg ) si:md endlis] - Parea ca nu se mai termina
aratul.

Who died? > [hu: da/d] - Cine a murit?

The hailstones have damaged > r lYa hetlstoullZ hEy - Grindina a distrus recolta.
the crop. delmdjd IYa krop]

The cattle are suffering > [D/a kEti a:' safa'lI1(c) - Vitele sufera de caldura.
from heat. from hi:t]

26
Iar acum e n'indul dumneavoastra. Completati propozitiile in limba engleza cu formele corespunzatoare
ale verbelor:

Cine ne-a stricat ma~ina noaptea trecuta? - Who >damaged our car last night?
Pana acum parea a fi nefolositor. - It has >seem~duseless so far.

Noi am tremurat in frigul patrunzator. - We >shlvcrl"d in the piercing cold.


Ei au suferit prea multa vreme deja. - They have> suffered too long already.
Ea a murit intr-un accident. - She >dicdin an accident.

Desigur dupa acest exercitiu ~titi deja pe de rost verbele noi. Traduceti cuvintele in limba engleza:

a parea, ada impresia > to seem


a suferi > to suffer
a tremura, a diirdiii > to shiver
amurl > to die
a deteriora, a strica > to damage
a bubui > to rumble

Iar acum ne yom ocupa din nou de pronumele re1ativ.

$tim deja cii pronumele that poate introduce propozi!ia secundarii relativii restrictivii. In cazul
propozi!iilor secundare restrictive, In loclll pronumelui which se folose~te In mod obligatoriu acest
prolll/me. In mlilte cazuri Insii, pronllmele that poate fi omis, ca de exemplu In lIrmiitoarele cazllri:

I. DlIpii superlativ:

It is the best film (that) I have ever seen. - Este eel mai bun film pe care I-am vazut.
He bought the cheapest bicycle (that) - El a cumparat cea mai ieftina bicicleta
they showed him. pe care i-au aratat-o.
These are the highest wages (that) - Acestea sunt ce1e mai ridicate salarii
they pay. pe care Ie pIatesc.
This is the fastest plane (that) I have ever seen. - Acesta este cel mai rapid avion pe care
I-am V3zut vreodata.

2. Dupii lIrmiitoarele cuvinte el1gleze,~ti:

everything anything something nothing


few little much

DlIpii all:
Everything (that) you see is his. - Tot ceea ce vezi, este allui.
This is something (that) I don't understand. - Acesta este ceva ce nu inteleg.
Is there anything (that) I have forgotten? - Este ceva ce am uitat?
There is little (that) I can do for you. - Este putin ceea ce pot face pentru tine.
All (that) we have bought is in the kitchen. - Tot ceea ce am cumparat este in bucatarie.
27
3. Dupa adjectivele any $i only:
Is there any information (that) you can give me? - Este vreo informatie pe care mi-o poti da?
This is the only news (that) I have heard. - Este singura ~tire pe care am auzit-o.

Pentru a exersa cele Invatate anterior, tradueeti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:

Este raul eel mai lat pe care I-am vazut vreodata. > This IS the widest nver (that) I have ever seen.
Nu au nimic care ar merita acei bani. > They have nothing that IS worth the money.
Este ceva ce ar trebui sa ~tiu? > Is there anything (that) I must know?
Ai vreo carte pe care a~ putea sa 0 iau? > Have you any books (that) J can take'?

In ultimul exercitiu de traducere allectiei ne yom referi la temele tratate anterior. Traduceti propozitiile
In limba engleza:

Ellnsu~i vrea sa 0 faca. > He \\ants to do it himself


Voi face tot ce este neeesar. > I will do everythl1lg that IS necessary.
Este timpul sa lucrezi mai din greu. > It IS tnne you wOlked a little harder.
Vreau sa seman orz. > I want to sow barley.
Singurullueru (care a fost) deteriorat > The only thl1lg that was damaged
a fost bieicleta mea. was my bicycle.
De n-ar fi vremea aHit de sumbra! > If only the weather welTn't so gloomy!
Ei in~i~i au vazut grindina! > They ha\ e seen hailstones themselves!
A fost eel mai lung val de ealdura pc care > ThiS was the longest heat-wave (that)
I-am avut vreodata. we have e\'er had.
Va fi racoare la noapte. > It will be cool tonight.
A~ vrea sa nu tremur atat! > T wish T dIdn't sh1\'er so'
A~ vrea ca vremea sa nu fie sehimbatoare. > I wIsh the weather were not unsettled.
Nu a fost mult ce am putut vedea In amurg. > There was not much that we could sec
111 the twilight.

lata exercitiuI de pronuntie. Literele scrise accentuat aflate In aceea~i coloana, desemneaza un sunet
identic:

ra1
heat suffer shiver
seem rumble rain ditch
seed cut lane milk
feed but grain fish

28
LECTIA
, 26 - PARTEA A DOVA

Exersa!i accentul ~i intonatia in urmatorul dialog. Cititi propozi!iile cu voce tare ~i fiti atenti la
pronuntia cuvintelor ~i a silabelor scrise accentuat:

John: Barbara, I just read in the newspaper that to people who live in the country and earn their
money in agriculture, the weather is much more important than to those who live in a town
or city.
Barbara: That's right, favourable weather is necessary for a good crop.
John: But sometimes it is too dry and at other times it is too wet.
Barbara: There has to be enough sun, too.
John: Yes, but if it is too dry for too long, the crop will not grow fast enough.
Barbara: But we know that farmers are not easily satisfied.

Mary: Peter, did you listen to what Barbara and John have just said?
Peter: Yes, I did. The weather is something to talk about every day and everywhere.
Mary: When people meet, they like to talk about the weather.
Peter: They are glad when they can sit in the sun for example.

Barbara: Sometimes the weather can give us beautiful things.


Tom: A lightning can be very impressive, but it also scares some people.
Barbara: Is there anybody who doesn't enjoy looking at a rainbow? And what about a beautiful
sunset?
Tom: Even a thunderstorm or a shower can be beautiful.
Barbara: The best thing is to be satisfied with the weather, for there is nothing that we can change
about it.

In incheiere urmeaza un exercitiu de traducere in care am sintetizat cele invatate pana acum. Traduceti
propozitiile in limba englcza:

Nu poate fi adevarat ee spui. > What you say cannot be true.

Maine pleeam la Madrid. > \"lYe are leaving for Madrid tomOITOw.

Ei in~i~i au plantat aee~ti eartofi. > They planted these potatoes themselves.

El vorbc~te mereu despre m~ina lui rapida. > He is always talking about his fast car.

Aeesta este eeva ce nu am vazut niciodata > This is something that I have never seen
pana acum. before.

Cine cite~te cfu1;i, va inva!a multo > Who reads books will \cam much.

El ma duce acasa cu ma~ina diseara. > He is driving me home tonight.

De s-ar schimba vremea! > If only the weather changed!

Ei s-au oferit (singuri) sa reeolteze secara. > They offered themselves to harvest the rye.

Cand vrci sa tunzi oile? > Whcn do yOll want to shear the sheep')

Am vazut eu insumi asta. > I have seen it myself.

29
Este singurul grfm pe care I-au depozitat > TIm; IS the only eOIll that has been stored
deja. already.

Este cea mai bHinda vreme pe care noi > This IS the mildest weather that we have
am avut-o de mult timp. had for a long tllne.

Rozatoarele mananca multe eereale. > Rodents cat a lot of corn.

Oamenii de la tara sunt eei mai sanato~i? > Arc eountly people the healthiest ones')

Animalele eele mai da~atoare pe care > The most hannful animals that we know
Ie cunoa~tem sunt ~obolanii. arc rats.

Cre~terea vitelor este Inca rentabila? > is cattle farming still profitable?

Vitele sufera de frigul aspru. > The cattle arc suffcrIng from the raw cold.

Aceasta pa~une este prea umeda. > This pasture is too wet.

Este eeva ee a fost deteriorat de grindma? > ]s there anything that has been damaged ~
by hailstones')

De ee sunt garduri vii de-a lungul > Why arc there hedges along the country lane?
drumurilor de tara?

Multi oameni batdini au murit In timpul > Many old people died during the heat-wave.
valului de ealdura.

Au fost tunse deja oile? > Have the sheep been shorn yet?

Aeesta este eeva ee nu pare a fi posibil. > This is something that doesn't seem to
be pOSSIble.

Acest camp nu a dat nimic ee poate fi vandut. > This field has yielded nothlllg that
can be sold.

Noi am auzit bubuitul tunetului > We heard the thunder rumbhng


In departare. in the distance.

Ei au continuat sa recolteze In amurg. > They \\ ent on harvestll1g in the twilight

"This is something that I have never seen before."

30
RECAPITULAREA LECTIEI
, 26

26.1. Pronumele de tipul myself, themselves Ie putem folosi ~i pentru accentuarea altor substantive.
In aceste cazuri Ie numim pronume de intarire ~i accentul cade pe prima silaba a cuvantului.

r myself have given it to you. - Eu insumi ti-am dat asta.


In acest caz, pronumele sta la mijlocul sau la sIar~itul propozitiei, rara a-~i pierde caracterul de
intarire.
You yourself have done it.
You have done it yourself.

26.2. Forma de trecut a verbului se folose~te pentru a exprima ipoteze, dorinte, in ace Ie propozitii
secundare cerute de urmatoarele cuvinte $i expresii;

it is timc - este timpul


I wish - a$ dori ..., a~ vrea sa fie .
if - daca, presupunand ca .
if only - exprima 0 dorinta puternica de exemplu:
"de-ar fi ..." de multe ori nu se traduce in
Iimba romana.
suppose - presupunand
fancy - a-~i imagina, a-~i inchipui
imagine - a-~i imagina, a-~i inchipui
it would be better if - ar fi mai bine daca
Aceste propozitii secundare se refera intotdeauna la prezent sau viitor, de exemplu;
It is time you went home. - Este timpul sa pleci acasa.
r wish I were rich. - A~ vrea sa fiu bogat.
In accstc propozitii secundare se folose~te doar forma de trecut were a verbului to be.

26.3. Pronumele relativ that se poate omite in unnatoarelc situatii;


I. Dupa superlativ;
It is the best film (that) I have ever seen. - Este eel mai bun film pe care I-am vazut.
He bought the cheapest bicycle (that) - EI a cumparat cca mai ieftina-bicicl;ta
they showed him. pe care i-au aratat-o.

2. Dupa urmatoarele cuvinte engleze~ti:

everything anything something nothing


few little much
Dupa all.

3. Dupa adjectivele any ~i only:


Is there any information (that) - Estc vreo informatie pe care
you can give me? mi-o poti da?
31
TEMA PENTRU ACASA 26

A Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii In limba romana:

l. They built their house themselves.


2. If only my daughter were more beautiful!
3. It would be better if they didn't damage our fridge.
4. I have never seen anything more exciting.
5. They are the only people I like.
6. Can you tell me why they are digging ditches?

B. Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii In limba engleza:

I. De-ar fi copiii mei mai de~tepti!

2. Imagineaza-ti ca ai gasit un portmoneu cu bani.


3. Crezi ca ellnsu~i a deteriorat acest lucru?
4. Este tot ce pot face pentru tine.
5. Este timpul sa pleci la lucru!
6. Nu-mi place frigul patrunzator ~i vantul aspru.

C. Corectati gre~elile din urmatoarele propozitii:

I. I wish I am younger.
2. The thunder rumblled in the distance.
3. We will see the sunset ourselfs.
4. This gloomy weather is endles.
5. Their flower is dieing.

32
Lista verbelor neregulate din lectiile 25 ~i 26

forma I forma a II-a forma a III-a

set > r~ct] set > rset] set > rset]


shear > r~ia'] sheared> rsia'd] shorn > I~o:'nl

sow > r,ou] sowed > rsOlid] sown > rsoun ]

33
VOCABULARUL LECTIILOR
, 25 SI
, 26

agricultural > rEgrikalt~aral] - agricol

agriculture > rEgnkalt~ar] - agricultura

along > [alon(l"l - de-a lungul, in lungul

arable fanning > [Erabl fa,rmin(gl] - cultivarea plantelor

barley > [ba:rlil - orz

barn > [ba:rn] - hambar, ~ura, ~opron

cattle > [kEtl] - vite, bovine

cattle fanning > [kEtl fa:Imin(gl] - cre~terea vitelor

cool > r ku:1] - racoros

corn > rko:rnl - grane, cereale, grau, porumb

country lane > rkantri kin] - drum de tara

to cover > I tu kava I] - a acoperi, a inveli

cow > [kau] - vaca

crow > [haul - cioara

dairy > [Jeari] - Hiptarie, fabrica de prelucrare


a laptelui

dairy produce > [Jean prodlU:s] - produse lactate

to damage > [tu dEmidl] - a deteriora, a strica, a distruge

dawn > [Jo:n] - zori, aurora

to die > [tu dal] - a muri, a deceda

distance > [ Jistans] - distanta, departare

ditch > [dit:;;] - ~ant, canal

dry > [drail - uscat

to dry > [tu dral] - a usca

endless > rendlis] - nesrar~it, interminabil

except > [Iksept] - cu exceptia, in afara de

tu fail > [tu tl:tll - a nu reu~i, a cadea

to fancy > [tu tEnsl] - a-~i imagina, a-~i inchipui

farmhand > [fa:rmhEnd] - muncitor agricol

fertile > [fa:rtatl] - fertil, rodnic

frost > [n'ostl - ger, inghet

furrow > [faroul - brazda

34
gloomy > [glu:mi] - intunecos, sumbru

grain > [grem] - graunte, bob

to graze > [tu grciz] - a pa~te, a duce la pascut

hailstone > [hl'ilstaun] - grindina

harmful > [ha:'mfal] - daunator, rau

to harvest > [tu ha:'vist] - a recolta, a strange, a secera

to have > [tu hEy tu] - a trebui

to healthy > [hl'IT'i] - sanatos

heat-wave > [Ili:t Uciv] - val de caldura

hedge > [hcdj] - gard viu

herself > [ha:'selfj - ea insa~i, chiar ea

himself > [himseltl - el insu~i, chiar el

if only > [ifaunli] - cat de mult ... , de-ar ...

to imagine > [tu imEdjin] - a-~i inchipui, a-~i imagina

interesting > [intrastin(g)] - interesant

itself > [itselfj - el 'insu~i

it is time > [it iz taim] - este timpul

it would be better if > [it "ud bl: beta' if] - ar fi mai bine daca

I wish > [ai "i~] - a~ dori, a~ vrea sa fie

lightning > [laitnin(~I] - fulger

mild > [maild] - bland, blajin, moderat

to milk > [tu milk] - a mulge

mixed fanning > [mikst fa:rmin(g)] - cultivare mixta

myself > [maiselfj - insumi, insami, chiar eu

of course > [av ko:rs] - bineinteles, desigur, fire~te

oneself > [" anse lfj - insu~i, insa~i

ourselves > [auarselvz] - in~ine

pasture > [pa'st<;;il'] - pa~une

piercing > [pia'sin(vl] - patrunzator, ascu!it

to plant > [tu pla:nt] - a planta, a sadi

plough > [piau] - plug

possible > [posibl] - posibil, cu putinta

35
profitable > [profitabl] - profitabil, rentabil

rainbow > [rel11b(lul - curcubeu

rat > [I Ell - ~obolan

raw > [ro:l - crud, nefiert, neprelucrat, aspru

regularly > [rcglUla'lll - in mod regulat/obi~nuit

rodent > [rIludentl - rozator

to rumble > [nu rambll - a bubui

to scare > [tu skea'l - a speria

scarecrow > [skea'kraul - sperietoare (de ciori)

to seem

seed
> [tu sun1

> [si ,dl


- a parea, a da impresia

- samanta
4 ..,
to set > [tu set] - a pune, a a~eza, a situa

to shear > [tu sia'] - a tunde

shelter > [~elta'l - adapost, refugiu

to shiver > [tu siva'l - a tremura, a dardai (de frig)

to sow > [tu soul - a semana, a insamanta

to store > [tu sto :'1 - a tine/a depozita

to suffer (from) > [tu safarl - a suferi de

sunset > [sansetl - apus de soare, asfintit

to suppose > [tu sa[Juuzl - a presupune, a-~i inchipui

themselves

thunder
> [D/emsel\'71

> [randa'l
- in~i~i,

- tunet
insele, chiar ei/ele
• ~

twilight > [tUail alt1 - amurg, crepuscul

tractor > [trEktarl - tractor

unsettled > [ansetaldl - variabil, schimbator

wet > ["etl - ud, umed, ploios, de ploaie

to yield > [tu li,lll] - I. a produce, a da, a rezulta;


2. a ceda

yourself > rIO 'self] - tu insuti sau insati, dumneavoastra


in~iva

yourselves > [10 'schzl - voi, sau dumneavoastra in~iva

36