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1. Describe the process of cleaning gaseous pollutants?

The cleaning techniques are applied to those cases where emissions of pollutants can not be
prevented and pollution control equipment is necessary to remove them from the main gas
stream. For gaseous pollutants, two alternative methods are available. The first method
comprises the wet absorption and dry adsorption methods, and the second method includes
methods depending on the chemical, alteration of the pollutant, usually through combustion or
catalytic incineration. The basic mechanism in all these is the diffusion of the particular gas
either to the surface of an absorbing liquid or adsorbing solid or catalyst, or to the reaction zone
of a chemical reaction. The size of the equipment is directly related to the volume being treated,
and equipment cost can be drastically reduced by decreasing the exhaust volume. The equipment
is more efficient for the handling of higher and concentration of pollutants.


Adsorption towers :
Adsorption towers use adsorbents to remove the impurities from the gas stream. The
impurities bind either physically or chemically to the adsorbing material. The impurities
can be recovered by regenerating the adsorbent. Adsorption towers can remove low
concentrations of impurities from the flue gas stream.
i) Construction and Operation: Adsorption towers consist of cylinders packed with the
adsorbent. The adsorbent is supported on a heavy screen since adsorption is
temperature dependent, the flue gas is temperature conditioned. Vapor monitors are
provided to detect for large concentrations in the effluent. Large concentrations of the
pollutant in the effluent indicate that the adsorbent needs to be regenerated.
ii) Advantages of Adsorption Towers: Very low concentrations of pollutants can be
removed. Energy consumption is low. Do not need much maintenance. Economically
valuable material can be recovered during regeneration.
Removal of one or more selected components from a gas mixture by absorption.
Absorption is a process in which a gaseous pollutant is dissolved in a liquid.
As the gas stream passes through the liquid, the liquid absorbs the gas (in the
same way sugar is absorbed in a glass of water when stirred).
Absorbers are often referred to as scrubbers, and there are various types of
absorption equipment.
The principal types of gas absorption equipment include spray towers, packed
columns, spray chambers, and venturi scrubbers.
In general, absorbers can achieve removal efficiencies greater than 95%.
Potential problem with absorption is the generation of wastewater, which converts
air pollution problem to water pollution problem.

2. Explain hazardous waste management?

A hazardous waste may be defined as any residue or combination of residues other than
radioactive waste which by reason of its chemical reactivity or toxic, explosive, corrosive or
other than characteristics causes substantial present or potential hazard to human health or
Environment, either alone or when in contract with other wastes and which therefore cannot be
handled, stored, transported, treated or disposed of without special precautions.
Hazardous Waste Management Strategy:
The government regulations and growing public awareness over the health and environmental
implications of hazardous wastes make it mandatory for industries to undertake the task of
effective waste management.
The important steps include the following:
1. Waste minimization
2. Detoxification and neutralization of liquid hazardous waste streams by physical, chemical or
biological treatment.
3. Destruction of combustible hazardous wastes in high temperature incinerators.
4. Stabilization/ solidification of sludge and ash from steps (2) and (3).
5. Disposal of treated residues in specially designed landfills.
1. Waste Minimization:
Waste minimization is an important management strategy which helps in resource conservation,
economic efficiency and environmental protection. The strategies include source reduction,
recycling and waste exchange.
In source reduction, the generation of hazardous waste with in a process is reduced or even
eliminated by using low and non- waste technologies which include clean and green

By recycling the waste, valuable materials , energy and other useful resources contained in the
hazardous waste can be recovered and subsequently reused as a raw material or in new products.
Most recycling takes place in the plant itself where unused process materials are returned to the
original manufacturing process such as when solvents are recovered and reused. Recycling of the
waste also result s in reducing the volume of the waste and / or the toxicity.
Waste minimization by exchanging the waste generated to another receiver is both cost effective
and environmentally beneficial. The waste can be used by the receiver as a raw material in a
manufacturing process, thus conserving precious raw materials.

2. Treatment Methods: The waste that remains after implementation of waste minimization
methods must be detoxified and neutralized for safe disposal. Various treatment methods are
available for treating hazardous wastes and processes based on physical, chemical, biological and
thermal routes have been utilized.
Physical Treatment:
The physical treatment methods include phase and component separations, and Solidification.
The hazardous waste is usually concentrated and requires further treatment as it is not detoxified.
Several separation processes are available but these are more appropriate for a particular
application than another.
1. Phase Separation: Filtration, Sedimentation, Centrifugation, Distillation, Evaporation,
2. Component separation: Ion Exchange, Liquid ion exchange Freeze crystallization, Reverse
Osmosis, Carbon adsorption, Electro dialysis, Air- Stripping, Steam Stripping, Ultra Filtration,
Solvent Extraction, Distillation.
Chemical Treatment:
Chemical detoxification methods are used both to facilitate the complete breakdown of
hazardous waste into non- toxic form, and more usually to reduce the hazard of a particular
waste prior to incineration and burial. A variety of chemical methods are used in the treatment of
hazardous wastes and these include neutralization, precipitation, oxidation and reduction.


This process is carried out when the waste contains excessive amount of acid or alkali. Since the
waste is considered hazardous if the ph values are less than 2 or greater than 12.5, it has to be
brought to neutral conditions (pH values of 6 to 8) by adding alkaline solutions (NaOH or
Ca(OH)2) to acidic waste, and acids like H2SO4 or hydrochloric acid to alkaline waste.
Chemical Oxidation:
This method is primarily used to destroy toxic cyanide molecule with oxidizing agents like
chlorine or ozone. Chemical oxidation can be applied to cyanide waste from plating baths.
Usually the oxidation reaction is carried out under alkaline conditions to avoid formation of toxic
hydrogen cyanide gas.

An example of the use of reduction reaction in the treatment of hazardous waste is the hexavalent
chromium used in plating solutions. Since hexavalent chromium cannot be participated readily, it
is first reduced to trivalent chromium before it can be participated. SO2 or sodium sulphite are
used as reducing agents in the reduction reaction.
Anode Electrolysis:
This process can be used for the destruction of cyanide in concentrated spent stripping and
plating solutions. The cyanide reacts with oxygen in solution in the presence of an electrical
potential at high temperatures (50 to 950C) to produce CO2 and N2.
Biological Treatment:
Many industrial wastes are treated by biological methods similar to those used for
sewage treatment.
Hazardous waste is occasionally amenable to such treatment even though the
toxic levels present in such wastes are often lethal to microorganisms.
The major modification to the activated sludge process has been to extend the
mean cell residence time from the conventional values of 4 to 15 days to much
longer period of 3 to 6 months.
The use of novel microorganisms to treat specific types of hazardous waste is a
new concept and most of the developmental work is at its initial stages and is
limited to research laboratories.

Better understanding of the metabolic pathways for the biodegradation of specific

compounds by different microorganisms is needed before large sale application is
Similarly information about appropriate types of microorganisms to be selected
and maintained in treatment systems is needed.
Some of the common microbes found in soil and the sewage sludge have been
successfully tested in the biodegradation of organic chemical like trichloroethane,
trichloroethylene, pentachlorophenol and DDT.
Sewage sludge and pseudomonas bacteria have been used against benzene, phenol
and cresol.
Tests have been conducted to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using
Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium.
Novel microbes like Rhodo pseudomonas were used with dimethylnitrosamine
and Cunninghamellaelegans was tried to gegradebenz(a)pyrene.
3. ThermalTreatment: Incineration
Hazardous waste incinerations must be able to achieve 99,99 percent
destruction and removal efficiency of the principal organic hazardous
components in the wate.
The primary products from combustion of organic waste arCO 2 , water
vapor and ash. However, other products can also be formed depending
on the type of waste material.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons like dichloroethane when incinerated with
excess air form CO2, H2O and HCl gas. The HCl must be removed from
the flue gas before CO2and H2O are allowed in to the atmosphere.
Similarly sulfur bearing wastes gives off SO 2 , CO2and H2O when
incinerated. The SO2 gas has to be treated if necessary. Incomplete
combustion of waste is a problem in many incinerators and the by
products of incomplete combustion are sometimes more harm ful than
the original compound.
Hence all incinerators used for hazardous wastes are designed to
ensure that combustion is as complete as practical and that the

emissions of products of incomplete combustion are as small as

Two types of incinerators are popular in treating hazardous wastes.
Liquid wastes are usually treated in liquid injection systems where the
waste is often introduced tangentially into the combustion chamber
where it is oxidized.
Rotary kilns including cement kilns are quite suitable and are more
versatile than liquid injection systems because these units can handle
both liquid and solid type wastes. A large interfacial area and good
mixing of the solid and gaseous reactants are achieved in these
furnaces due to the drum rotation since the solid waste is continuously
dropped down through the axially moving gas stream. Solid wastes are
usually fed by a conveyor system and the liquid type waste is
introduced through nozzles.
Fluidized beds and pyrolysis type units are also being used for the
treatment of hazardous wastes, but the applicability of these units is
less common compared to liquid injection and rotary type systems.
Solidification or fixation processes convert the waste into an insoluble, rockhard material. The solidification and stabilization technology is a cost








materials to reduce mobility of pollutants in the waste, and has gained

popularity in recent years following strict regulations on land disposal of
hazardous wastes.
Certain metals like nickel in hazardous waste cannot be destroyed or
detoxified by physical, chemical or thermal processes. The residues that are
left out are still potentially hazardous and these are usually solidified or
stabilized to reduce the leach ability when buried in land fill sites.
The additive materials commonly used for solidification are cement and lime.
These are mixed with the hazardous waste and water. It is then allowed to
cure to form a solid.
Thermoplastics and organic polymers like urea formaldehyde resin are also
used for certain inorganic type waste.

5. Disposal Methods:
Disposal is an important issue in the overall hazardous waste management. The options
for disposal include 1. Land disposal
2. Underground Disposal and
3. Deep well injection
The choice of disposal method should be based on evaluation of economics and potential
pollution risks. In developing countries like India, land disposal of hazardous waste is commonly
used. To prevent environmental pollution from landfills, it is essential that site characteristics
such as geology, hydrogeology, topography ofthe site, its viscinity to water bodies are taken into
consideration and environmental impact assessment is carried out before site selection.
Landfill system:
Landfill for hazardous waste disposal should be designed with liners to prevent any
migration of wastes out of the landfill to the adjacent subsurface soil or ground water or surface
water at anytime during the active life of the land fill. The liner should have high chemical
resistance, durability and low permeability. It should also be able to with stand the climatic
conditions, the stress of installations and the stress of daily operations. A base support system is
provided to the linear to prevent any failure due to settlement, compression or uplift. In addition,
the liner system should cover all surrounding surface which is likely to be in contact with the
waste or leachate.
The land fill is provided with a leachate collection and removal (LCR) system above and
between the liners. The depth of the collected leachate over the liner should not exceed 30 cm at
any time. The collected leachate is treated before being discharged to the sewer or surface water
as per the standards of the water (Prevention and Pollution control) Act, 1974 of the Government
Abandoned mines could be utilized for disposal of certain hazardous wastes. These
mines should meet specific geological and technical criteria such as waste compatibility
with mined material.
Salt mines have been used in Europe to dispose cyanide residues, residues containing
chlorinated hydrocarbons, mercury containing organic wastes and incinerator ash
without environmental consequences. Usually abandoned salt mines are preferred as
potential underground sites for disposal of hazardous wastes because salt deposits
prevent the interaction of wastes with other geological formations.

In India, unfortunately hazardous wastes are dumped along with other waste materials
without consideration of their impact on the environment. As a result, widespread land
and water pollution (both surface and ground) has taken place in several parts of the
country. There is great need for the generators of the hazardous wastes and
implementing agencies to take necessary steps for safe disposal of these wastes to
prevent environmental degradation.

3. Write short notes on solid waste collection system, what are the latest techniques to treat
the solid waste, and explain any two?
The major functions of solid waste management are:

1. Collection
2. Processing
3. Disposal
Hauled- container system (HCS) .Stationary container systems (SCS) are the major collection
systems for solid waste.
Hauled- container system (HCS):
It is the collection systems in which the containers used for the storage wastes are hauled to the
processing, transfer or disposal site, emptied and returned to the original point or to some other
location. There are two types of hauled container system:
tilt -frame container
Tilt-frame hauled container system has become widespread because of large volume that
can be hauled but trash trailer is better for the collection of especially heavy rubbish. The
application of both tilt -frame container and trash-trailer are similar, where, the collector is
responsible for driving the vehicles, loading full containers, and unloading empty
containers, and emptying the contents of the container at the disposal site.
Stationary Container System
The waste container remains in the vicinity of where the waste is generated. The
waste is unloaded into a bigger truck. A large container is an integral part of the

truck. When fully loaded from multiple waste containers, the truck travels to
and from the landfill as opposed to the waste container.
- Manually loaded. Small containers. Residential pickup.
- Mechanically loaded. Larger containers. Wheeled residential pickup and
commercial pickup
- Almost all contain internal compaction equipment
The major advantage is that the vehicle does not travel to the disposal area until
it is full yielding higher utilization rates.
The major disadvantages include:
- The system is not flexible in terms of picking up bulky goods.
- Wastes e.g. demolition, that make damage the relatively delicate mechanisms.
- Large volume generations may not have room for storing large containers

Methods of solid waste Disposal:

Land Filling
Disposal into sea

Land Filling:
Solid wastes are carried and dumped into the low land areas.
The refuge is filled up or dumped in layers of 1.5 meter or so and each layer is covered
by good earth of atleast 20cm thickness, so that refuge is not directly exposed.
The filled solid wastes will get stabilized by the decomposition of organic matter and
subsequent conversion into stable compounds.
The refuge gets stabilized within a period of 2 12 months and settles down by 20 40
% of its original heights
Simple and economical.
No costly plant and equipment required.

Skilled labor is not required

Separation of different kinds of solid wastes is not required.
No residue or byproduct; hence no further disposal.
Low lying areas can be reclaimed and put to better use.

Dis advantage:

Large land area requirements.

Continuous evolution of foul smell (CH4, CO2, H2S) near the site of disposal.
Use of insecticides is required.
Covering good earth required for top layer may sometimes be difficult to get.
Formation of leachate, which is a coloured liquid formed due to seepage of rain
water and contaminated to the ground water causes diseases like Cholera, Typhoid,
and Polio etc.

Incineration means burning of solid wastes in properly constructed hearth furnace.
This method is used when sustainable dumping land areas are not available and disposal
into sea is not possible.
The minimum temperature of incineration is of about 10000C.
The final products will be the ashes and clinkers
This method is sanitary, as all the pathogens and insects are destroyed.
No odour and dust nuisance.
Some revenue can be generated by raising steam power and selling the clinkers
Relatively highly initial cost.
Nuisance of smoke, odor and ash during the improper functioning of incinerators
4. Explain with neat flow sheet urea scrubbing for removal of nitrogen oxides?

5. Explain sources and characteristics of pollutants in the fertilizer industry?

Ammonia, Urea, Arsenic, Oil, Fluoride are major pollutants in the fertilizer industry.
Ammonia: Ammonia and urea plant are sources and the Tolerance Limit: - 1.2 mg/l, Toxicity to
fish and causes eutrophication re effects from ammonia.
Urea: urea plant is major sources and the Tolerance Limit: - 1.2 mg/l, eutrophication re effects
from ammonia.
Arsenic: Gas purification plant in Ammonia and urea plant are sources and the Tolerance Limit:
- 1mg/l, Causes black foot disease, accumulate poison to plants and crops effects from Arsenic
Oil: Gas compressor houses in Ammonia and urea plant are sources and the Tolerance Limit:10mg/l, forming oil layer at the surface of water effects from Oil .
Fluoride: Scrubber effluents in phosphoric acid and super phosphate manufacture are sources
and the Tolerance Limit:- 2 mg/l, dental and skeletal fluorosis effects from Fluoride.
6. Explain in detail about the treatment of the carbon particles resulted in ammonia plant?

The very fine carbon in water does not settle easily during primary treatment and can reduce
bacterial activity in the secondary treatment. When let in to the rivers or sea water, they
adversely affect the aquatic life. The very fine carbon particles are removed by the following
In this method the carbon slurry is mixed with mineral oil when the carbon particles go to
the oil surface which is separated by gravity.
Pillarization of the carbon and distillation of the oil helps recover carbon and oil.
The carbon obtained by this method always contains a small quantity of oil and can be
used as fuel.
7. Write a short note on the liquid effluent sources and characteristics from petroleum
Pollution due to Petroleum Refineries are encompasses three stages,
1. Crude oil production, 2. Transportation 3. Refining operations
During production, brines containing oil are discharged in to seas or rivers.
Oil spills during sea, rail and road during transport lead to the pollution of seas, rail
yards and road stations. Refinery operations where crude oil is actually processed are
responsible for maximum water pollution.
Here the crude oil is subjected to distillation, cracking, and hydro cracking operations
to give naphtha, kerosene, diesel oil, gasoline, fuel oil, lubricants and LPG, along
with asphalt, coke, greases and waxes.
A pipe still sends the gaseous products to fractionating column where light products
like kerosene, light fuel oil, and gasoline are recovered after processing

Refinery Process and Liquid waste

Refinery Process

Liquid Waste
Effluent with ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and phenols,

Sodium chloride, phenols, sulphide or

free hydrogen,
Vacuum distillation
Phenols and oil
Naptha hydro treating
Sour condensate
Catalytic hydrotreating
hydrogen sulfide, oil or phenols
Catalytic or thermal cracking
hydrogen sulfide, phenols, ammonia, cyanides
Hydro cracking
Catalytic Alkylation
Alkalis from washings and acids from drains
Solvent processes
Solvents like phenols, sulphides, copper acetate

Characteristics of Liquid Effluent

An average Indian refinery has the following untreated waste characteristics:
Free oil

= 2000 3000 mg/l

H S and sulphides = 10 220 mg/l

Suspended solids

= 12 13 mg/l
= 200 400 mg / l

5 day BOD at 200C = 100 300 mg/l


= 10 250 mg/l