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IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, VOL. 5, NO. 4, APRIL 1998

101

A Convolution and Product Theorem for the Fractional Fourier Transform

Ahmed I. Zayed

Abstract— The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT), which is a generalization of the Fourier transform, has many applications in several areas, including signal processing and optics. In two recent papers, Almeida and Mendlovic et al. derived fractional Fourier transforms of a product and of a convolution of two functions. Unfortunately, their convolution formulas do not gen- eralize very nicely the classical result for the Fourier transform, which states that the Fourier transform of the convolution of two functions is the product of their Fourier transforms. The purpose of this note is to introduce a new convolution structure for the FRFT that preserves the convolution theorem for the Fourier transform and is also easy to implement in the designing of filters.

Index Terms— Convolution and product theorems, fractional Fourier transform.

I. INTRODUCTION

T HE fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) has become the

focus of many research papers in the last four years

because of its recent applications in many fields, including optics and signal processing [2]–[6], [8], [9], [11], [12].

The FRFT with angle of a signal is defined as
The FRFT with angle
of a signal
is defined as

(1)

where we have the formulation shown on the bottom of the next page, with

IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, VOL. 5, NO. 4, APRIL 1998 101 A Convolution and Product Theorem

and

IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, VOL. 5, NO. 4, APRIL 1998 101 A Convolution and Product Theorem
Let be that subspace of the space of all integrable functions with the property that if
Let
be that subspace
of
the
space of
all integrable
functions with the property that
if
and
only if
the
Fourier transform
of
is also in
Let
and
be in
and denote their convolution by
, i.e.,
(2)
Then the fractional Fourier transform of , denoted by , is given by (3) See [1,
Then the fractional Fourier transform of
, denoted by
,
is given
by
(3)
See [1, Eq. (5)]. It should be noted that the space
is the same
IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, VOL. 5, NO. 4, APRIL 1998 101 A Convolution and Product Theorem
IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, VOL. 5, NO. 4, APRIL 1998 101 A Convolution and Product Theorem

as the space in Almeida’s notation, where is the Wiener algebra consisting of functions that are Fourier

transforms of functions in As for the FRFT of the product of two functions and i.e.,
transforms of functions in
As for the FRFT of the product
of two functions
and
i.e.,
we have (cf., [1, Eq. (2)])
(4)

Unlike the convolution theorem for the Fourier transform,

which states that the Fourier transform of the convolution of

two functions is the product of their Fourier transforms, the one for the FRFT does not seem as nice or as practical. The

Throughout this paper the constants, , and will reason, in our opinion, is that the convolution
Throughout this paper the constants,
, and
will
reason, in our opinion, is that the convolution operation defined
denote these values, and for simplicity we may write them as
, and
. The special cases where
, and
yield the
following FRFT of
, where
denotes the ordinary Fourier
by (2) is not the right sort of convolution for the FRFT. In the
general framework of convolution theory (see [13, Ch. 4]), it
is known that to every integral transformation , one can, at
least theoretically, associate with it a convolution operation,
transform of
. Therefore, from now on we shall confine our
,
such
that
attention to
for
.

Many properties of the FRFT are currently well known, including its product and convolution theorems, which have recently been derived by Almeida [1]. His main result reads

as follows.

Manuscript received November 30, 1997. The associate editor coordinating the review of this manuscript and approving it for publication was Prof. A. Tewfik. The author is with the Department of Mathematics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 USA (e-mail: zayed@pegasus.cc.ucf.edu). Publisher Item Identifier S 1070-9908(98)02847-8.

IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, VOL. 5, NO. 4, APRIL 1998 101 A Convolution and Product Theorem

(5)

For example, the convolution operation associated with the Hankel transform is too complicated to be stated here, but the interested reader can find the details in [13, Sect. 21.6]. In this letter, we propose a new convolution structure for the FRFT that is different from those introduced in [1] and [7]. Unlike those introduced in [1] and [7], ours preserves property (5) and is easier to implement, in particular, in filter design.

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1998 IEEE

102

IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, VOL. 5, NO. 4, APRIL 1998

102 IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, VOL. 5, NO. 4, APRIL 1998 Fig. 1. Convolution for the

Fig. 1.

Convolution for the FRFT.

II. CONVOLUTION THEOREM

Let us introduce the following definition.

By making the change of variable, , we obtain
By making the change of variable,
, we obtain
Definition 1: For any function , let us define the functions and by For any two
Definition 1: For
any
function
,
let
us
define
the
functions
and
by
For any two functions
and
and
, we define the
convolution operation
by
where
is the convolution operation for the Fourier transform
as defined by (2). Likewise, we define the operation
by
102 IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, VOL. 5, NO. 4, APRIL 1998 Fig. 1. Convolution for the

See Fig. 1 for a realization of the convolution operation Now we state and prove our convolution theorem.

Theorem 1: Let the FRFT of and

102 IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, VOL. 5, NO. 4, APRIL 1998 Fig. 1. Convolution for the

and

, respectively. Then

102 IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, VOL. 5, NO. 4, APRIL 1998 Fig. 1. Convolution for the
102 IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, VOL. 5, NO. 4, APRIL 1998 Fig. 1. Convolution for the

Moreover

and this completes the proof of (6). As for (7), we have from

Definition 1 .
Definition 1
.

denote

(6)

But from the definition of the FRFT, we obtain
But from the definition of the FRFT, we obtain
102 IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, VOL. 5, NO. 4, APRIL 1998 Fig. 1. Convolution for the

(7)

1,

Proof: From the definition of the FRFT and Definition we have
Proof: From the definition of the FRFT and Definition
we have

which, in view of the inversion formula for the FRFT, can be reduced to

which is the same as (7). Equation (6) is particularly useful in filter design. For
which is
the same as
(7).
Equation
(6)
is particularly useful in filter design.
For

example, if we are interested only in the frequency spectrum

of the FRFT in the region the filter impulse response, of a signal , we choose
of the FRFT in the region
the filter impulse response,
of a signal
, we choose
,
so
that
is constant over
, and zero or of rapid decay outside that region. Passing
the output of the filter through the chirp multiplier,
,
yields that part of the spectrum of
over
. This is

clearly easier to implement than the one suggested in [1].

102 IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, VOL. 5, NO. 4, APRIL 1998 Fig. 1. Convolution for the

if

if

if

if

102 IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, VOL. 5, NO. 4, APRIL 1998 Fig. 1. Convolution for the

ZAYED: FRACTIONAL FOURIER TRANSFORM

103

Equation (7), which is the dual of (6), does not seem to have an immediate application in signal processing, but products of similar nature have proved to be useful in optics; see [10].

REFERENCES

[1] L. B. Almeida, “Product and convolution theorems for the fractional Fourier transform,” IEEE Trans. Signal Processing Letters, vol. 4, pp. 15–17, 1997.

[2]

, “An introduction to the angular Fourier transform,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. Acoustics, Speech, Signal Processing , Minneapolis, MN. Apr. 1993.

[3]

, “The fractional Fourier transform and time-frequency repre- sentations,” IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 42, pp. 3084–3091,

1994.

[4]

T. Alieva, V. Lopez, F. Aguillo-Lopez, and L. B. Almeida, “The angular

fourier transform in optical propagation problems,” J. Mod. Opt., vol. 41, pp. 1037–1040, 1994. [5] A. W. Lohmann, “Image rotation, Wigner rotation and the fractional fourier transform,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 10, pp. 2181–2186, 1993.

[6] A. W. Lohmann and B. H. Soffer, “Relationships between the Radon—Wigner and fractional Fourier transforms,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 11, pp. 1798–1801, 1994. [7] D. Mendlovic, H. M. Ozaktas, and A. Lohmann, “Fractional correla- tion,” Appl. Opt., vol. 34, pp. 303–309, 1995. [8] D. Mendlovic and H. M. Ozaktas, “Fractional Fourier transformations and their optical implementation I,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 10, pp. 1875–1881, 1993. [9] X. Xia, “On bandlimited signals with fractional Fourier transform,” IEEE Signal Processing Lett., vol. 3, pp. 72–74, 1996.

[10]

H. M. Ozaktas, B. Barshan, D. Mendlovic, and L. Onural, “Convolution, filtering, and multiplexing in fractional Fourier domains and their relationship to chirp and wavelet transforms,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A,

vol. 11, pp. 547–559, 1994. [11] H. M. Ozaktas and D. Mendlovic, “Fractional Fourier optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 12, pp. 743–751, 1995.

[12]

, “Fourier transforms of fractional order and their optical inter- pretation,” Opt. Commun, vol. 101, pp. 163–169, 1993.

[13]

A.

I.

Zayed,

Function and Generalized Function Transformations.

Boca Raton, FL: CRC, 1996.