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IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, VOL. 5, NO. 4, APRIL 1998

101

# A Convolution and Product Theorem for the Fractional Fourier Transform

Ahmed I. Zayed

Abstract— The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT), which is a generalization of the Fourier transform, has many applications in several areas, including signal processing and optics. In two recent papers, Almeida and Mendlovic et al. derived fractional Fourier transforms of a product and of a convolution of two functions. Unfortunately, their convolution formulas do not gen- eralize very nicely the classical result for the Fourier transform, which states that the Fourier transform of the convolution of two functions is the product of their Fourier transforms. The purpose of this note is to introduce a new convolution structure for the FRFT that preserves the convolution theorem for the Fourier transform and is also easy to implement in the designing of ﬁlters.

Index Terms— Convolution and product theorems, fractional Fourier transform.

I. INTRODUCTION

T HE fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) has become the

focus of many research papers in the last four years

because of its recent applications in many ﬁelds, including optics and signal processing –, , , , . The FRFT with angle
of a signal
is deﬁned as

(1)

where we have the formulation shown on the bottom of the next page, with and  Let
be that subspace
of
the
space of
all integrable
functions with the property that
if
and
only if
the
Fourier transform
of
is also in
Let
and
be in
and denote their convolution by
, i.e.,
(2) Then the fractional Fourier transform of
, denoted by
,
is given
by
(3)
See [1, Eq. (5)]. It should be noted that the space
is the same  as the space in Almeida’s notation, where is the Wiener algebra consisting of functions that are Fourier transforms of functions in
As for the FRFT of the product
of two functions
and
i.e.,
we have (cf., [1, Eq. (2)])
(4)

Unlike the convolution theorem for the Fourier transform,

which states that the Fourier transform of the convolution of

two functions is the product of their Fourier transforms, the one for the FRFT does not seem as nice or as practical. The Throughout this paper the constants,
, and
will
reason, in our opinion, is that the convolution operation deﬁned
denote these values, and for simplicity we may write them as
, and
. The special cases where
, and
yield the
following FRFT of
, where
denotes the ordinary Fourier
by (2) is not the right sort of convolution for the FRFT. In the
general framework of convolution theory (see [13, Ch. 4]), it
is known that to every integral transformation , one can, at
least theoretically, associate with it a convolution operation,
transform of
. Therefore, from now on we shall conﬁne our
,
such
that
attention to
for
.

Many properties of the FRFT are currently well known, including its product and convolution theorems, which have recently been derived by Almeida . His main result reads

as follows.

Manuscript received November 30, 1997. The associate editor coordinating the review of this manuscript and approving it for publication was Prof. A. Tewﬁk. The author is with the Department of Mathematics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 USA (e-mail: zayed@pegasus.cc.ucf.edu). Publisher Item Identiﬁer S 1070-9908(98)02847-8. (5)

For example, the convolution operation associated with the Hankel transform is too complicated to be stated here, but the interested reader can ﬁnd the details in [13, Sect. 21.6]. In this letter, we propose a new convolution structure for the FRFT that is different from those introduced in  and . Unlike those introduced in  and , ours preserves property (5) and is easier to implement, in particular, in ﬁlter design.

1070–9908/98\$10.00

1998 IEEE

102

IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, VOL. 5, NO. 4, APRIL 1998 Fig. 1.

Convolution for the FRFT.

II. CONVOLUTION THEOREM

Let us introduce the following deﬁnition. By making the change of variable,
, we obtain Deﬁnition 1: For
any
function
,
let
us
deﬁne
the
functions
and
by
For any two functions
and
and
, we deﬁne the
convolution operation
by
where
is the convolution operation for the Fourier transform
as deﬁned by (2). Likewise, we deﬁne the operation
by See Fig. 1 for a realization of the convolution operation Now we state and prove our convolution theorem.

Theorem 1: Let the FRFT of and and

, respectively. Then  Moreover

and this completes the proof of (6). As for (7), we have from Deﬁnition 1
.

denote

(6) But from the deﬁnition of the FRFT, we obtain (7)

1, Proof: From the deﬁnition of the FRFT and Deﬁnition
we have

which, in view of the inversion formula for the FRFT, can be reduced to which is
the same as
(7).
Equation
(6)
is particularly useful in ﬁlter design.
For

example, if we are interested only in the frequency spectrum of the FRFT in the region
the ﬁlter impulse response,
of a signal
, we choose
,
so
that
is constant over
, and zero or of rapid decay outside that region. Passing
the output of the ﬁlter through the chirp multiplier,
,
yields that part of the spectrum of
over
. This is

clearly easier to implement than the one suggested in . if

if

if

if ZAYED: FRACTIONAL FOURIER TRANSFORM

103

Equation (7), which is the dual of (6), does not seem to have an immediate application in signal processing, but products of similar nature have proved to be useful in optics; see .

REFERENCES

 L. B. Almeida, “Product and convolution theorems for the fractional Fourier transform,” IEEE Trans. Signal Processing Letters, vol. 4, pp. 15–17, 1997.

  , “An introduction to the angular Fourier transform,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. Acoustics, Speech, Signal Processing , Minneapolis, MN. Apr. 1993.  , “The fractional Fourier transform and time-frequency repre- sentations,” IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 42, pp. 3084–3091, 1994.  T. Alieva, V. Lopez, F. Aguillo-Lopez, and L. B. Almeida, “The angular

fourier transform in optical propagation problems,” J. Mod. Opt., vol. 41, pp. 1037–1040, 1994.  A. W. Lohmann, “Image rotation, Wigner rotation and the fractional fourier transform,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 10, pp. 2181–2186, 1993.

 A. W. Lohmann and B. H. Soffer, “Relationships between the Radon—Wigner and fractional Fourier transforms,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 11, pp. 1798–1801, 1994.  D. Mendlovic, H. M. Ozaktas, and A. Lohmann, “Fractional correla- tion,” Appl. Opt., vol. 34, pp. 303–309, 1995.  D. Mendlovic and H. M. Ozaktas, “Fractional Fourier transformations and their optical implementation I,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 10, pp. 1875–1881, 1993.  X. Xia, “On bandlimited signals with fractional Fourier transform,” IEEE Signal Processing Lett., vol. 3, pp. 72–74, 1996.



H. M. Ozaktas, B. Barshan, D. Mendlovic, and L. Onural, “Convolution, ﬁltering, and multiplexing in fractional Fourier domains and their relationship to chirp and wavelet transforms,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A,

vol. 11, pp. 547–559, 1994.  H. M. Ozaktas and D. Mendlovic, “Fractional Fourier optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 12, pp. 743–751, 1995.

  , “Fourier transforms of fractional order and their optical inter- pretation,” Opt. Commun, vol. 101, pp. 163–169, 1993.  A. I. Zayed, Function and Generalized Function Transformations.

Boca Raton, FL: CRC, 1996.