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ROBERT BIRD & ASSOCIATES SDN. BHD.

CONSULTING ENGINEERS

REFERENCE SPECIFICATION FOR EARTHWORK

EARTHWORK

1.0

GENERAL

.1.

This section specifies cut and fill in all materials, compaction, forming platform, embankments and slopes, as is necessary for the entire completion of the work up to formation levels in accordance to the lines, grades and sections shown in the Drawings and providing a graded site as shown in the Drawings

.2.

This section also specifies temporary drainage, silt detention pond, truck tyre washing bay for the sediment and erosion control measure.

2.0

BY-LAW, CODES AND STANDARDS

2.1

The by-law, codes and standards listed below shall form part of this Specification:

(a)

The Street, Drainage and Building Act, 1974.

(b)

BS 6031- Code of Practice for Earthworks.

(c)

BS 5930- Code of Practice for Site Investigations

(d)

BS 1377- Method of Test for Soils for Civil Engineering Purposes.

3.0

EXISTING GROUND LEVELS & SURVEY

3.1

The surface lines and levels as shown in the Drawings are based on the recent surveys and other information. The contractor shall check and satisfy himself on the accuracy of the levels and other information in the Drawings. If any discrepancy is found in the Drawings, the Contractor shall notify the Engineer before commencement of the work.

3.2

All joint surveys of existing ground levels prior to the commencement of excavation and filling shall be submitted to the Engineer.

4.0

SUITABLE FILLING MATERIALS

4.1

The Contractor shall submit name of the independent soil laboratory that will carry out the soil testing for the Engineer’s approval.

4.2

Soil classification tests on each type of material, either imported or on site that the Contractor intends to use as fill materials shall be carried out in accordance with the method laid down in BS

1377.

4.3

Suitable filling materials shall meet the requirements of either of:

(a)

Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM D2487) types GM, GC, SW, SM, SC.

(b)

Soil having a plasticity index less than 15 and containing no more than 5% by weight of organic material

4.4

Materials are designated as unsuitable if it does not meet the requirements of suitable materials above.

5.0

EROSION AND DUST CONTROL

5.1

Immediate after site clearing and before commencement of earthworks, the Contractor shall construct permanent drain, temporary earth drain, silt detention pond, truck tyre washing bay as indicated in the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer.

5.2

The contractor shall make sure that the public road is always clean from the transportation of earth in and out from the site. He shall provide a permanent worker for cleaning the truck before exit from the site.

5.3

Any fine or penalty issued by Local Authority or Public Work Department (JKR) due to dirty or damage to the public road in carrying out the earthwork shall be borne by the Contractor.

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6.0

REMOVE OF TOPSOIL

6.1

Remove topsoil from the areas of cutting and filling and stockpiled for purposes such as soiling of slopes, platforms and open spaces.

6.2

For the purpose of measurement, the topsoil removed shall be calculated based on an average depth of 150mm.

7.0

CUTTING

7.1

Excavate areas designated on Drawings to elevations or depths shown.

7.2

Segregate excavated materials into suitable and unsuitable stockpiles for future use or disposal.

7.3

Segregate roots, stumps, and rocks larger than 150mm, refuse, and other deleterious materials from excavated material and dispose offsite in a legal manner.

7.4

Place stockpiled materials no greater than 1.2m in heights and do not obstruct proper drainage of area.

7.5

Any excess depth excavated below the required level specified shall be make good by backfilling with suitable material and compacted at the Contractor’s own cost.

8.0

ROCK EXCAVATION

8.1

Rock shall be defined as individual boulders exceeding 0.5 cubic metres in volume or masses of hard material that necessitate the use of blasting or approved pneumatic drilling tools for their removal.

8.2

If any rock blasting is required, the Contractor shall submit blasting plan that include:

(a)

Written description of materials used and location for blasting.

(b)

Provide specific storage location and handling information of explosive.

(c)

Written approval of authorities having jurisdiction.

(d)

Copies of licenses for individuals performing blasting.

8.3

If in the opinion of the Engineer blasting would be dangerous to persons or property or to any finished work or is being carried out in a reckless manner he may prohibit it and order the rock to be excavated by other means.

9.0

DEWATERING

9.1

Provide, maintain and operate temporary drains, ditches, pumps, drainage lines or other equipment to intercept, divert, or remove water from excavations.

9.2

Provide and maintain an adequate dewatering system capable of removing water that accumulates in excavation to a point 300mm below excavation or below lowest subgrade to maintain limits of Work in a dry condition.

9.3

Rework unstable or damaged work from failure to dewater properly at no additional cost.

10.0

FILLING & COMPACTION

10.1

Construct fill or embankment using only approved suitable material.

10.2

Compaction shall be undertaken by use of suitable compaction plant such as sheet-foot rollers, pneumatic-tyred or smooth-wheel rollers or vibrating rollers or vibrators approved by the Engineer.

10.3

Earth moving plant shall not be accepted as compaction equipment.

10.4

In fill construction, deposit and spread material in successive, uniform, approximately horizontal loose layers of not more than 300mm depth loose measurement for full width of required cross section. Roll and compact each layer of fill to specified density.

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10.5

All fill material used shall be compacted as soon as practical after deposition.

10.6

Maintain moisture content of soils within +5% of optimum moisture content specified before compaction.

(a)

Add water during periods of dry weather to provide sufficient moisture for compaction.

(b)

Suspend compaction work when materials containing excessive moisture.

10.7

Maintain final grade to 50mm of design level until final completion.

11.0

COMPACTION TESTS

11.1

Laboratory tests on each type of material proposed to be used shall be carried out to determine the optimum moisture content corresponding to the maximum dry density of the soil in accordance with the method laid down in BS 1377.

11.2

Contractor shall perform field compaction tests as outlined in BS 1377 in accordance with following minimum schedule:

(a)

One every layer of fill,

(b)

One every 1,000 cubic meter of fill, or

(c)

Area where compaction is in question to verify uniform quality of Work.

11.3

Compaction test reports shall include:

(a)

Date of test and date submitted.

(b)

Location of test.

(c)

Wet weight, moisture content, and dry weight of field sample.

(d)

Description of soil.

(e)

Maximum dry density and moisture content of laboratory sample which best matches field sample in color, texture, grain size, and maximum dry density.

(f)

Ratio of field dry density to maximum laboratory dry density expressed as a percent.

(g)

Comments concerning field density passing or failing specified compaction.

11.4

Compaction work shall be continued until a state of compaction is accepted when the result achieved the following criteria:

(a)

Fill to general area: 90% of maximum dry density.

(b)

Fill under building and road: 95% of maximum dry density.

11.5

The contractor shall notify Engineer immediately of any field compaction tests failing to meet specified minimum requirements.

11.6

Do not place additional fill on a lift with any portion failing the field compaction test.

12.0

TURFING

12.1

The slopes of cuttings and embankments, roadside tables, berms, benches, drainage channels and such other excavated and filled surfaces as shown in the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer shall be turfed.

12.2

The ground shall be trimmed and leveled before spreading of topsoil.

12.3

The contractor shall remove or stockpile for reuse in turfing work for suitable topsoil.

12.4

The thickness of the topsoil shall be 50mm.

12.5

The type of grass acceptable for transplanting are:

(a)

Carpet grass (axonopus affinis)

(b)

Savanna grass (axonopus compressus)

(c)

Buffalo grass (paspalum conjugatum)

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(d) Any other types approved by the Engineer.

12.6

The turf shall be from an approved source and shall be free from mimosa, lallang and any other objectionable plants.

12.7

The turf shall be firmly bedded in the freshly prepared top soil dressing and where necessary shall be pegged down with wooden or bamboo pegs. Immediately following transplanting the turf shall be thoroughly watered.

12.8

Spot turfing shall comprise turfs planted with spaces between turfs not exceeding 230mm.Unless otherwise specified, all flat areas shall be spot turfed.

12.9

Close turfing shall comprise turfs planted close together without gaps in between. All slopes and any other area specified in the Drawings shall be close turfed.

13.0

DISPOSAL OF SURPLUS SOIL

13.1

The contractor shall make all arrangements for the removal of surplus soil from site.

14.0

AS-BUILT DRAWINGS

14.1

Joint surveys of finished levels after the completion of excavation and filling shall be submitted as As-built Drawings.

14.2

Four copies of certified as-built drawings by licensed surveyor shall be submitted for Engineer’s approval.

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