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ENDOCRINOLOGY

Prepared By Jonel Lynn P. Medina, RMT

ENDOCRINE GLANDS, HORMONES, and their TARGET TISSUES


GLAND

HORMONE

TARGET
TISSUE

RESPONSE

HYPOSECRETION

HYPERSECRETION

PITUITARY
GLAND
ANTERIOR

Growth Hormone

most tissues

Hyposecretion during
childhood: Pituitary
dwarfism

Childhood: gigantism
Adulthood:
acromegaly

Thyroid-Stimulating
Hormone
(TSH)
Adrenocorticotropic
Hormone
(ACTH)

thyroid gland

increases gene expression, breakdown of lipids, and


release of fatty acids from cells; increases blood glucose
levels; Major effects are directed to the growth of
skeletal muscles and long bones of the body
increases thyroid hormone secretion
(thyroxine and triiodothyronine)

(adenohypophysis)

Melanocyte-Stimulating
Hormone (MSH)
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
or
Interstitial CellStimulating
Hormone (ICSH)
Follicle-stimulating
hormone
(FSH)
Prolactin

POSTERIOR
(neurohypophysis)

Antidiuretic hormone
(ADH)
Oxytocin

THYROID
GLAND

PARATHYROID
GLANDS

Thyroid hormones
(thyroxine/ T4,
triiodothyronine/ T3)
Calcitonin
Parathyroid Hormone

Adrenal cortex

melanocytes in
skin
ovary in females,
testis in males
Follicles in ovary
in females,
seminiferous
tubules in males
ovary and
mammary gland
in females,
testis in males
Kidney
uterus
mammary gland
most cells of the
body
Primarily bone
Bone, kidney

Stimulates adrenal cortex to release its hormones;


Increases secretion of glucocorticoid hormones,
such as cortisol; increases skin pigmentation at high
concentrations
increases melanin production in melanocytes to make
skin darker in color
Promotes ovulation and progesterone production in
ovary;
promotes testosterone synthesis and support for
sperm cell production in testis
Promotes follicle maturation and estrogen secretion
in ovary;
promotes sperm cell production in testis
Stimulates milk production and prolongs progesterone
secretion following ovulation and during pregnancy in
women;
increases sensitivity to LH in males
Causes kidney tubule cells to reabsorb water and
conserve body water;
Increases blood pressure by constricting blood vessels
Increases uterine contractions
increases milk letdown from mammary glands
Bodys metabolic hormones; increase metabolic rates,
essential for normal process
of growth and maturation
Decreases rate of bone breakdown; prevents large
increase in blood ca2+ levels following a meal; Causes
calcium to be deposited in long bones
Increases rate of bone breakdown by osteoclasts;
increases vitamin d synthesis, essential for maintenance
of normal blood calcium levels

Sterility: both male


and female
Sterility: both male
and female

Diabetes Insipidus

Children: Cretinism
(hyposecretion of
thyroxine)

Graves Disease

Tetany

Extreme bone
wasting and
fractures

ENDOCRINOLOGY

Prepared By Jonel Lynn P. Medina, RMT

ADRENAL
MEDULLA

Epinephrine mostly,
some norepinephrine

heart, blood
vessels, liver, fat
cells

ADRENAL
CORTEX

Mineralocorticoids
(aldosterone)

Kidneys; to lesser
degree, intestine
and sweat glands
most tissues
(e.g., liver, fat,
skeletal
muscle, immune
tissues)
most tissues

Glucocorticoids (cortisol)

Adrenal Androgens

PANCREAS

Glucagon

Especially liver,
skeletal muscle,
adipose tissue
Primarily liver

REPRODUCTIVE
ORGANS
TESTES

Testosterone

most tissues

OVARIES

Estrogens, Progesterone

most tissues

UTERUS,
OVARIES,
INFLAMED
TISSUES
THYMUS

Prostaglandins

most tissues

Thymosin

immune tissues

PINEAL GLAND

Melatonin

Among others,
hypothalamus

(Islets of the
Langerhans)

Insulin

increases cardiac output; increases blood flow to skeletal


muscles and heart; increases release of glucose and fatty
acids into blood; in general, prepares body for physical
activity
increase rate of sodium transport into body;
increase rate of potassium excretion; secondarily
favor water retention
increase fat and protein breakdown; increase glucose
synthesis from amino acids; increase blood nutrient
levels; inhibit inflammation and immune response
insignificant in males; increase female sexual drive,
growth of pubic and axillary hair
increases uptake and use of glucose and amino acids

Addisons disease
Generalized
hypoactivity of
adrenal cortex

Diabetes Mellitus

increases breakdown of glycogen and release of


glucose into the circulatory system

Promotes maturation of the male reproductive


organs; Aids in sperm cell production, maintenance of
functional reproductive organs, secondary sexual
characteristics, sexual behavior
Stimulates the maturation of the female
reproductive organs; Aid in uterine and mammary
gland development and function, external genitalia
structure, secondary sexual characteristics, sexual
behavior, menstrual cycle
mediate inflammatory responses; increase uterine
contractions and ovulation

Promotes immune system development and function;


Causes the maturation of T lymphocytes
inhibits secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone,
thereby inhibiting reproduction; Affects biological
rhythms and reproductive behavior

Sterility

Hyposecretion
hampers the ability
of a woman to
conceive and bear
children

Hypersecretion leads
to symptoms typical of
sympathetic nervous
system
Hyperaldosteronism,
Cushings Disease,
and/or
Masculinization